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uiowth & Bevelopment
Head circumference with age Remember 3, 9, and multiples oI 5:
Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55 cm

Weights of children with age Newborn 3 kg
6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos)
1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr)
3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs)
5 yrs 20 kg
7 yrs 25 kg
9 yrs 30 kg
11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereaIter)
13 yrs 45 kg
15 yrs 55 kg
17 yrs 65 kg

Pediatric milestones in development 1 year:
-single words
2 years:
-2 word sentences
-understands 2 step commands
3 years:
-3 word combos
-repeats 3 digits
-rides tricycle
4 years:
-draws square
-counts 4 objects

$hort stature: differential ABCDEFG:
Alone (neglected inIant)
Bone dysplasias (rickets, scoliosis, mucopolysaccharidoses)
Chromosomal (Turner's, Down's)
Delayed growth
Endocrine (low growth hormone, Cushing's, hypothyroid)
GI malabsorption (celiac, Crohn's)

Dentition: eruption times of permanent dentition "Mama Is In Pain, Papa
Can Make Medicine":
1st Molar: 6 years
1st Incisor: 7 years
2nd Incisor: 8 years
1st Premolar: 9 years
2nd Premolar: 10 years
Canine: 11 years
2nd Molar: 12 years
3rd Molar: 18-25 years

erez ref|ex LllclLlng Lhe LrLz reflex wlll make Lhe baby LL

Cerebra| pa|sy (C) most ||ke|y cause C Cerebral alsy
Chlld remaLure
1he premaLure braln ls more prone Lo all Lhe posslble lnsulLs

Milk protein: women vs. cows Woman: Whey (mostly)
Cow: Casein (mostly)

Breast feeding: benefits ABCDEFGH:
Allergic condition reduced
Best Iood Ior inIant
Close relationship with mother
Development oI IQ, jaws, mouth
Fitness: quick return to pre-pregnancy body shape
Guards against cancer: breast, ovary, uterus
Hemorrhage (postpartum) reduced

Vitamin toxicities: neonatal Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic)
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)

Infectious Bisease
#ubella: congenital signs "#ubber Ducky, I'm so blue!" (like the "Rubber
Ducky" song):
#ubber: #ubella
Ducky: Patent Ductus Arteriosus, VSD and pulmonary artery stenosis.
I'm: Eyes (cataracts, retinopathy, micropthalmia, glaucoma).
Blue: "Blueberry MuIIin" rash (extramedullary hematopoesis in skin purpura)
Also, deaIness, growth retardation, and some more.

Measles: complications "MEA$E$ COMP" (complications):
$ubacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Early death
$h!ts (diarrhoea)
Corneal ulcer
Otis media
Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Pneumonia and related (bronchiolitis-bronchitis-croup)

$eptic Arthritis: most common cause

$taphylococcus Aureus is the most common cause oI
$eptic Arthritis in the pediatric population.

Respiiatoiy System
Croup: symptoms 3 S's:
$ubglottic swelling
$eal-bark cough

Cough (chronic): differential When cough in nursery, rock the "C#ADE":
Cystic Iibrosis
#ings, slings, and airway things (tracheal rings)/ #espiratory inIections
Aspiration (swallowing dysIunction, TE Iistula, gastroesphageal reIlux)
Dyskinetic cilia
ung, airway, and vascular malIormations (tracheomalacia, vocal cord
Edema (heart Iailure)

uI System
Pyloric stenosis (congential): presentation Pyloric stenosis is 3 P's:
Palpable mass
Paristalsis visible
Projectile vomiting (2-4 weeks aIter birth)

Gastroschisis: usual location GasT#oscHIsis usually occurs on the
#IGHT side oI the umbilicus.
(Unscramble the letters).

Duodenal atresia vs. Pyloric stenosis: site of obstruction
Duodenal Atresia: Distal to Ampulla oI vater.
Pyloric stenosis: Proximal to it.

|||rub|n phototherapy llrDbln absorbs llghL maxlmally ln Lhe
De range

Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types Use your Iive Iingers:
1 Iinger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)
2 Iingers up: Dextroposition oI the Great Arteries (2 vessels transposed)
3 Iingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3Tri)
4 Iingers up: Tetralogy oI Fallot (4Tetra)
5 Iingers up: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (55 words)

Cyanotic congenital heart diseases 5 T's:
Truncus arteriosus
Transposition oI the great arteries
Tricuspid atresia
Tetrology oI Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types 5 T's:
Tetralogy oI Fallot
Transposition oI the great arteries
Truncus arteriosus
Tricuspid atresia, pulmonary aTresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

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Renal System
Hemolytic-Uremic $yndrome (HU$): components
"Remember to decrease the #ATE oI IV Iluids in these patients":
#enal Iailure
Anemia (microangiopathic, hemolytic)
Encephalopathy (TTP)

Haematuria: differential in children ABCDEFGHI1K:
Anatomy (cysts, etc)
Bladder (cystitis)
Cancer (Wilm's tumour)
Drug related (cyclophosphamide)
Exercise induced
Factitious (Munchausen by proxy)
Haematology (bleeding disorder, sickle cell)
InIection (UTI)
In 1ury (trauma)
Kidney stones (hypercalciuria)

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Cystic fibrosis: exacerbation of pulmonary infection CF PANC#EA$:
Cough (increase in intensity and Irequent spells)
Fever (usually low grade, unless severe bronchopneumonia is present)
Pulmonary Iunction deterioration
Appetite decrease
Nutrition, weight loss
CBC (leukocytosis with leIt shiIt)
#adiograph (increase overaeration, peribronchial thickening, mucus plugging)
Exam (rales or wheezing in previously clear areas, tachypnea, retractions)
Activity (decreased, impaired exercise intolerance, increased absenteeism)
$putum (becomes darker, thicker, and more abundant, Iorming plugs)

Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANC#EA$:
Chronic cough and wheezing
Failure to thrive
Pancreatic insuIIiciency (symptoms oI malabsorption like steatorrhea)
Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration
Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps
Clubbing oI Iingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes
#ectal prolapse
Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin
Absence or congenital atresia oI vas deIerens
$putum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)

WAG# syndrome: components WAG#:
Wilm's tumor
Gential abnormalities
Mental retardation

Williams syndrome: features WIIAM$:
Weight (low at birth, slow to gain)
Iris (stellate iris)

ong philtrum
arge mouth
Increased Ca
Aortic stenosis (and other stenoses)
Mental retardation
$welling around eyes (periorbital puIIiness)

#ussell $ilver syndrome: features ABCDEF:
Asymmetric limb (hemihypertrophy)
Bossing (Irontal)
Clinodactyly/ CaIe au lait spots
DwarI (short stature)
Excretion (GU malIormation)
Face (triangular Iace, micrognathia)

Vacterl syndrome: components VACTE#:
Vertebral anomalies
Anorectal malIormation
Cardiac anomaly
Tracheo-esophageal Iistula
Exomphalos (aka omphalocele)
#enal anomalies
imb anomalies

Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign AT:

$turge-Weber syndrome: hallmark features $turge-Weber:
1. $eizures
2. PortWine stain

Guthrie card: diseases identified with it GUTH#IE:
Urine |maple syrup urine disease|
THy#oid |hypothyroidism|
Inborn Errors oI metabolism |eg: PKU|

Guthrie card: diseases identified with it "Guthrie Cards Can Help Predict
Bad Metabolism":
Cystic Iibrosis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Biotidinase deIiciency
Maple syrup urine disease