This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
— John Lennon (as a cartoon character) in the movie Yellow Submarine (1968)
AN UNHURRIED LOOK AT TIME MANAGEMENT
© 1995, 2011 by Grady McAllister. All Rights Reserved. By Grady McAllister Presented December 10, 1995 The University of Houston College of Technology This paper was written by Grady McAllister.It was completed as a research project for a class in Occupational Technology at the University of Houston. The ideas expressed do not represent the views of the University of Houston or the College of Technology. This material is a presentation of The Vasthead. "Get your attitude straight, 'Cos it's all in your mind And it's never too late to get a new design And if you wanna compete you gotta visualize Flash those teeth, come on open those eyes Think visual!" —The Kinks, from the album, Think Visual (1986). In today's competitive environment, there are all sorts of materials on how to be successful. Some are about visualizing your way to success. Some are about selling your way to success. Some are about the body language of success. Some are about arguing your way to success. Some are about networking your way to success. Some are about dressing for success. Some are about success in general. Any material that takes an overall approach to success has something to say about time management: It is only through time that any kind of success can be achieved. In his book The 100% Solution, Mark McCormack points to excessive time with a newspaper as a symbol for all wasted time: There are moments when all of us do the equivalent of scanning the newspaper rather than create some news of our own. This could be time spent as a couch potato in front of the television, when blessed silence would be more soothing or constructive. It could be a whole morning waiting for someone…Or minutes wasted standing in line… We should ask ourselves whether better planning would cut back on those hours that add up astonishingly. Remember, these moments are our "prime
time" that we can never recapture. And we have only ourselves to blame. Robert Ringer, author of Million Dollar Habits, says: I believe that the source of most people’s frustration is that there are only 24 hours in a day, and we can never really seem to find the time to work on the really important things, the things that take creativity. Ringer advocates the "self-discipline" to devote at least four hours a day to "quite, creative thought." He tells people in any career to "learn to do it religiously if you aspire to rise above mediocrity." And then, there are the time management trainers. Rather than just a slice of advice, they offer an entire system to help capture time.
THE BUSINESS OF BUSY-NESS: THE GHOST OF WORKPLACE PRESENT
When Alan Lakein published his classic book, How To Get Control Of Your Time and Your Life (1973), he claimed to operate "the only company in the country devoted exclusively to time management." Nothing like that is true today. Time management experts are superabundant. Recent time management authors Merrill and Donna Douglas have seen interest in their subject swell as time itself seems to shrink: Although time management has always been important, it is only in recent years that large numbers of people have devoted much attention to it. Forty years ago there were no books and only an occasional article. Even twenty years ago there were only two or three books and a handful of articles. Few companies were teaching time management in the 1970’s. Now there are hundreds of books and thousands of articles, and every major company teaches it. They suggest three reasons for the new interest: • Ever higher expectations on the job. "Very seldom do people report that this year their organization expects less of them than last year!" • A rising complexity in the work environment. Some of the elements are foreign competition, total quality management, self-directed work teams, and technology. • When the pace of change becomes greater than an individual’s ability to cope with it, problems develop. Most of these problems revolve around time issues. Because time management really means the control of events, it can be tied to many other professional development topics. These include communications, mission statements, team building, continuous learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. In his discussion of time management, Mark McCormack says that decision-making has become captive to today’s rapid pace: Slow decisions are usually better than fast ones. No decisions are better than wrong ones. The world prefers fast decisions to slow ones, wrong ones to none at all…In an accelerated age, where people put a premium on speed and hyper-efficiency…you have to fight like mad against the impulse to rush a decision…
Unfortunately, a lot of people can’t deal with that…And so they importune us for snap decisions. They make us supply the answers as quickly as they ask the questions. And that is a dangerous way to work. High technology is one of the reasons for this rush to decide: Word processors smother us with documents, seducing us into believing we are adequately informed. FAX machines make even the most trivial request seem urgent. Overnight deliveries force us to respond in kind: We make decisions overnight… McCormack believes that modern office technology may be "prodding us too quickly to make decisions that need far more thought." Sometimes people push up the pace just to appear busy. A. Roger Merrill, co-author of First Things First (1994), writes about an R&D division in which he was expected to teach time management. Before offering any training, Merrill did some analysis: As I was escorted from one office to another, I became increasingly intrigued to see the identical scene over and over again. In each office, a somewhat frazzled man or woman--one hand on the phone, another on the computer, desk literally piled with papers--would look and say, "just a minute! I’ll be right with you." After hurriedly completing some task or phone conversation, the person would sigh, take a quick look at the clock, and push papers aside long enough to tell me how incredibly busy they were and how there was literally more to do than could possibly be done. When walking between offices, they rushed down the halls. They increased their pace whenever they walked in front of someone else’s door. There was "a sense of gushing energy and panic everywhere." These people, Merrill decided, did not want time management. The wanted to look overwhelmed. Their business was busy-ness. Merrill returned to the manager of the division: I said, "These people love urgency. They’re out there trying to convince each other and themselves that they have more to do than anybody else. This is where they’re getting their security. Urgency dominates the culture. I suspect that the real problem is that nobody really knows what the priorities are." She sighed, "That’s right. There’s a big power struggle between the vicepresidents in terms of what R&D is supposed to do. Each one has a following. Frankly we’re at odds with each other. There’s not a clear set of signals. We don’t know how long it's going to last, but one of these days things are going to come unglued." The employees were keeping frantically busy in order to maintain their identity and security in the organization. They wanted to seem as if they were really needed. Shortly thereafter, the big shakeup came and many lost their jobs anyway. Merrill writes: Before their reorganization we could have taught traditional time
a spirit that feeds on itself: In due course. A generation ago. and changed. the rapid pace of the American economy is starting to bring back some jobs that had been farmed out to slower. this can translate into longer days for smaller prizes. the future seemed to offer something very different. Alvin Toffler portrays a future in which the value of time is far more critical than ever before. For many workers. the entire wealth creation cycle will be monitored as it happens…making each unit of time more valuable than the last…a positive feedback that accelerates the acceleration. Whether or not it is always productive. housing was plentiful and cheap. and happier than all of them together. in part. According to Toffler. A recurring time management topic of that era was what to do with the increasing abundance of leisure time that was sure to come. the velocity of capital flows. Robert Half International. It was widely hoped that this new time ownership would mean more time for intellectual growth and the betterment of society. the rate at which they are brought to market. In Power Shift (1990). . and finance will be radically different from even today’s most advanced methods. controlled. and above all the speed with which data. will not be merely evolutionary. Time becomes a ghost in the economic machine. more just and powerful than the Romans. Robert Half.management till we were blue in the face. when the economy was booming. and knowledge pulse through the economic system. wiser than the Confucian. the time needed to make decisions. but revolutionary." More than a matter of technology. information. It is a world in which entire nations are either "fast" or "slow": Their pace is determined be the speed of transactions. the breakneck pace will only increase in the years ahead. like a precious metal. home-based operations increase the speed with which decision can be implemented. cheap labor countries: "These shifts can be traced. because real-time work. and jobs were easily available…there was a growing emphasis on leisure time. saner than the French. The editors of Life proclaimed that the United States was on the edge of "golden age" in which an American would be: Freer and bolder than the Greeks. BACK TO THE CANCELED FUTURE: THE GHOST OF WORKPLACE PAST Time. to the rising importance of time in economics. founder of the personnel recruiting agency. more responsible than the Victorian. recalls that: Back in the 1950's. management. in turn. The consequences of this. It wasn't a negative thing. FUTURE SHOCK REVISITED: THE GHOST OF WORKPLACE TO COME David Ricardo (1772-1823) was one of the first economists to recognize that the time it takes to make an item is an important part of its value. The core problem was a lack of a shared vision. seems to become more scarce even as it increases in value. the speed with which new ideas are created in laboratories. it didn't represent a generation lazier than the previous one.
a 27-week work year. the world looked very different. Ralph Keys. whether male or female. According to Harvard economics professor Juliet B. and retirement at age 38. the right computer program. Workers find that it takes all of their energy to remain qualified for their jobs. For pragmatic personalities. Nancy Gibbs wrote in the April 24 issue: These are the days of the time famine. Americans have increased the time spent at work by almost 160 hours--or nearly one month--per year. Steven Covey calls this the "Magic Tool Approach" to time management. The same can not be said of American workers. expert testimony before a Senate subcommittee predicted that by 1985 we would be able to choose between a 22-hour workweek. We’re time warriors who keep huge appointment calendars…buy gadgets that promise to save us time. writes: From telegrams to faxes. one technological innovation after another has met our demands for a faster tempo. Labor-saving devices eased the drudgery of our lives but added to the expense. Schor. Schor says Americans work more hours than any other industrial country except Japan. Time that once seemed free and elastic has grown tight and elusive. BACK TO REALITY By 1989. "From the end of the 1960’s to the present. much less acquire new skills that might allow for a promotion. Meanwhile. One of the factors cutting into free time was the need for constant training and retraining: The pace of change and the explosion mean that professionals are swamped with too many facts to absorb. she says. the right planner. and in some professions 60 hour workweeks have become common. and moonlight. the drill press operator discovers that the drill comes with a computer attached to it. THE QUEST FOR THE PERFECT ORGANIZER PART ONE: TIME IN A SEVEN-RING BINDER In a quest to win back time. then speeded it up some more. In First Things First he writes:The Magic Tool Approach is based on the assumption that the right tool (the right calendar. is offset by the fact that Japan’s mostly male workers do nearly all of their work on the job and almost none in the home. So we become two-paycheck families. try to do everything just a bit faster and wonder why none of the above seems to ease time’s crushing pressure. The paucity of time (the reality) had reached a point where it rated a cover story in Time (the magazine). a Lou Harris survey reports that leisure time has shrunk nearly 40 per cent since 1973. many people turn to time management tools to plan and record events. author of Timelock (1991). In The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (1992). Even that difference. and how to do it.As late as 1967. give up such activities as reading as luxuries from the past. Echoing Schor’s finding. The average workweek has expanded from 40 to 47 hours. and so our measure of it’s worth has dramatically changed. work overtime. an organizer can seem like the perfect way to keep up with what to do. when to do it. the right handheld or laptop computer) will give us .
monthly. The best known organizers are the Day-Timer. you write only items scheduled for a specific time. Covey also points to some weaknesses in the "magic tool" approach. The basic assumption is that systems and structures can make us more effective. but it can never create it for us. The Steven Covey First Things First system adds weekly calendars to encourage weekly planning. The task list is a place to write all the other actions planned for the day. A great word processor doesn't make a great poet. More and more an organizer is a program for a personal computer or stand-alone digital device. and long-term planning. keeping track of things in our lives. Users can assign tabs to subjects that meet their specific needs. It is also a place holder for other tasks such as ordering office supplies or cleaning out the garage." A person becomes like the frustrated photographer who believes that a highly programmed camera is necessary for a good photograph: A great camera doesn't produce a great photographer. character. In the appointment section. creativity. According to Covey. and the Franklin Day Planner. agenda for meetings. This list includes actions that help achieve the goals." Another is that no tool or technology is a substitute for "vision. A good tool can enhance our ability to create quality of life. Classy-looking leather planners have even become something of a status symbol--an indicator that people are on the fast track and really have their act together. The printed organizers come in sizes ranging from pocket size to legal-page size. the typical organizer is a seven-ring binder with sheets that are half-letter size. keep goals in front of you. The daily calendar has separate places for tasks and appointments. organize tasks. • A way of organizing material according to the subject matter. and organize and quickly access information: The sheer number of both paper-based and electronic tools on the market suggests that this is a highly popular approach. There’s a sense of order that comes from having something in hand that suggests order. It can be written either as a single list or as a separate list for each month. Here are some elements that most organizers have in common: • A place for recording personal goals and goals with an organization.power to create quality in or lives. organize tasks. • Calendars for daily planning. Most planning tools include one-page monthly calendars and additional one-page calendars for future years. There’s a feeling of satisfaction in writing things down. Tools are a symbol of hope. hobbies. • An organizer may include tabbed divider sheets. A tool can help you keep track of priorities. checking things off. persons spoken to on a regular basis. mission statements. or competence. One is that it fails to consider the "extrinsic realities that govern the quality of life. There can also be sections to record expenses and telephone calls. judgment. and favorite quotations . However. and more easily access key information. Examples include: values and goals lists. ongoing projects. there is much merit in the idea of using the right tool for the job. These tools typically help us keep track of priorities. Neither will even a great organizer make a great life -. • A place for frequently used telephone numbers.although a new planner or organizer often carries such an implied promise. • A place to list all the tasks that need to be done. • Calendars for weekly. the Day-Runner.
humility. Some people keep a card catalogue that records all the dates when a subject appears. modesty and the Golden Rule… But shortly after World War I the basic view of success shifted from the Character Ethic to what we might call the Personality Ethic. almost all the literature in the first 150 years focused on what could be called the Character Ethic as the foundation of success --things like integrity. techniques and quick fixes… In stark contrast. courage. Yet. 5. or to fake interest in the hobbies of others to get out of them what they wanted. even deceptive. patience.-- . power strategies. Eat not to Dullness.e. Resolve to perform what you ought. probably more than any other people in the world.. Perform without fail what you resolve. 6. encouraging people to use techniques to get other people to like them. RESOLUTION. A simple retrieval system is to attach a paper clip or Post-It &trade. TIME CAPSULES FROM AMERICA'S PAST In working toward his doctorate." values that he worked to establish as permanent habits in his life: 1. In it. Drink not to Elevation.--Cut off all unnecessary Actions. justice." A BOOK OF VIRTUES One example of the early character-based advice is Benjamin Franklin's autobiography. Americans have always searched for methods to help assure success. FRUGALITY. Let all your Things have their Places. Franklin describes his thirteen "virtues. 3. Waste nothing. 4. fidelity. it is not the actual control of events. INDUSTRY." or to intimidate their way through life… The basic thrust of this literature was "quick-fix influence techniques. 2. communications skills. Avoid trifling Conversation. Let each Part of your Business have its Time. SILENCE. simplicity. A more comprehensive approach is to create a summary index: List each day of the month and write a key word for each item on that date. Speak not but what may benefit others or your self. Steven Covey conducted a systematic study of American success literature since 1776. to any page with important information. and the other was positive mental attitude (PMA). Be always employ'd in something useful.• A system for recording and retrieving information. and positive attitudes. This Personality Ethic appeared in two forms: One was human and public relations techniques. ORDER. In The Seven Habits of Highly Successful People (1989) Covey writes: I began to feel more and more that much of the success literature of the past 50 years was superficial. TEMPERANCE. Some of this was expressed in inspiring and sometimes valid maxims such as "Your attitude determines your altitude"… Other parts of the personality approach were clearly manipulative. temperance. Any tool is only a tool. Make no Expense but to do good to others or yourself: i. Another method is to look at the monthly calendars to get back to information on a daily page. or to use the "power look. It was filled with social image consciousness. Lose no Time. Most daily planning pages include space for recording data received on that day.
leaving my other Virtues to their ordinary Chance. 10. and so on till I should have gone thro' the thirteen. involving hundreds of revelers. Rarely use Venery but for Health or Offspring. Myrtle Wilson. Franklin admits that he had trouble actually following his schedule. he listed all thirteen virtues. but he put his main effort on one virtue at a time: I determined to give a Week's strict Attention to each of the Virtues successively. In a scene early in the novel. speak accordingly. MODERATION. This layout created boxes for each virtue under each day of the week. Never to Dulness. Franklin explains how he endeavored to make each virtue a reality: I judg'd it would be well not to distract my Attention by attempting the whole at once. only two appear for his funeral. or the Injury or your own or another's Peace or Reputation. arrives shortly before the burial. Gatz. Meanwhile. I’ve got to write down a list so I won’t forget all the things I’ve got to do. and a collar for the dog." he created a schedule for all of his regular activities. Although Gatsby had conducted lavish parties." American literature also offers example of people who try to plan their day--often with ironic results. JUSTICE. Gatsby is an ambitious entrepreneur who has quickly made a fortune as a bootlegger. Thus in the first Week my great Guard was to avoid every the least Offense against Temperance. Franklin produced a book that contained a page for each virtue. To help satisfy his desire for "Order. or at Accidents common or unavoidable. Tom has acquired a mistress. and. 9. Gatsby’s father. and often receive People of Business at their own Hours. Be not disturbed at Trifles. He buys a mansion on Long Island to be close to a former lover. then to proceed to another. 13. Think innocently and justly.7. 11. SINCERITY. Wrong none. Gatz is met by Nick . but to fix it on one of them at a time. Weakness. His reason is one that most people could relate to today: "tho' it might be practicable where a Man's Business was such as to leave him the Disposition of his Time" it became difficult when someone "must mix with the World. Myrtle lists her planned activities: I’m going to make a list of all the things I've got to get. Avoid Extremes.When Daisy accidentally kills Myrtle in a hit-and-run accident. if you speak. Forbear resenting Injuries so much as you think they deserve. Tolerate no Uncleanness in Body. Mr. At the top of each page was its name and its clarifying statement. only marking every Evening the Faults of the Day. We find two examples in F. CHASTITY. Along the left side of the page. he wrote the days of the week. Imitate Jesus and Socrates. CLEANLINESS. HUMILITY. 8. and a wreath with a black silk bow for mother’s grave that’ll last all summer. Cloaths or Habitation. The husband kills Gatsby before taking his own life. Along the top. TRANQUILLITY. by doing Injuries or omitting the Benefits that are your Duty. Use no hurtful Deceit. and one of those cute little ash trays where you touch a spring. He divided each page into rows and columns. She is a society woman who has since married a rich husband. Tom Buchanan. A massage and a wave. 12. He put a black dot in a box for each time he violated a virtue. Tom convinces her husband that Gatsby was the driver. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925). and when I should be Master of that. Daisy.
Hawthorne concludes:Canst . it is already two hours. Matthew Maule. In his narrative. Hawthorne describes how Colonel Pyncheon. The House of the Seven Gables (1851) Nathaniel Hawthorne contrasts a character’s written plan for a day with what actually occurs. having served 30 years for a murder he did not commit. Ah. Nearly 200 years later. sits in the very same chair in the very same house. visiting his doctor. The judge allots only 30 minute for his business with Clifford. tried and hanged for witchcraft. or elevate his hand. than if she had never needed any!"). It includes a daily schedule with an exact time for such activities as "practice elocution. hopes to blackmail him for information on a vast tract of land. Hawthorne chides the normally punctual judge for his sudden "sluggishness": Half an hour? Why. struck down by same mysterious ailment that has killed several of his ancestors. The judge. Should Clifford fail to provide the information. As the time of day progresses. he will not give himself the trouble to bend his head. Using a very simple time management tool. the author exhorts him again and again to rise up and attend to his schedule." He was reluctant to close the book. two hours pass and the judge continues to wait in the ancestral chair. The cousin has just emerged from prison. one of the colonel’s descendants. who played a role in Clifford’s confinement. reading each item aloud and then looking eagerly at me. a list on the back of one of his business cards. When the Colonel fails to appear. and attending a banquet at which he is to be hand-picked as the next governor. replacing a broken gravestone for his late wife ("better. the narrative details each action that the judge had planned. "It just shows you. and ambition. Clifford. Gatz shows Carraway a book which Gatsby had owned as a boy. poise and how to attain it. at least. The wizard aims these last words at the Colonel: "God will give him blood to drink!" The Colonel builds his mansion on Maule’s property and schedules a grand reception. so as to bring the faithful timekeeper within his range of vision." and "study needed inventions. don’t it? . Judge Jeffrey Pyncheon. judge. appears to have become a matter of no moment with the Judge! And has he forgotten all the other items of his memoranda?The judge is dead. The morning reveals a fly buzzing around the judge’s open eyes. the day fades into night and the night fades into the following day. the judge has planned many activities for the day." said the old man. has fled the house. . The judge is waiting to speak to his cousin Clifford. finding the body. I think he rather expected me to copy down the list for my own use. Mr. ." It also includes a list of goals ("resolves") such as "bath every other day" and "read one improving book or magazine per week. As the judge continues his silent vigil. a Puritan leader in colonial Salem.Caraway who serves as narrator in the novel. the judge will have him declared a lunatic and put him away for a second time. With macabre irony. Each item is sardonically described as if he was still capable of accomplishing it." Caraway describes the scene this way: "I just come across this book by accident. Yet. The list includes buying a new horse. Massachusetts. temperament. had erected the House of the Seven Gables. He always had some resolves like this or something. Time. During the climax of his novel. In a prologue to the story. all at once.Jimmy was bound to get ahead. He is like the original patriarch in appearance. and see. The Colonel acquired the land by having the original owner. his guests find him seated in his chair with blood on his beard--dead at the moment of his greatest triumph. leaving the judge as its only occupant. by your own undeviating chronometer! Glance down your eye at it.
Examples include: Commit to a more excellent way. The humanness of the people was casually traded for ploys to "get the job done. and many subsequent programs build upon ideas that Hobbs first developed. Yet little has been written about him on the web." Hobbs calls these statements "unifying principles.Hobbs defines congruity as "experiencing balance." They can form the basis for setting goals and making other decisions. HOBBS: THE PYRAMID PRINCIPLE Charles R. According to Hobbs: As you form ." Hobbs writes: The ideas they taught were not interrelated into a cohesive system. Hobbs helped popularize value-based time management training. Hobbs states: There is a reality that few people recognize. Be a leader. Hobbs decided. Hobbs sees his curriculum as the logical outgrowth of his "life career question": "How can a teacher bring about change in the lives of people through group instruction?" Hobbs decided that existing time management training was "mechanical and disconnected. Earn the good will of others. Hobbs received his doctorate from Teacher’s college at Columbia University. he left his position as Associate Director of the Teacher Development Program and spent the next eighteen months developing his Time Power system. the educator and philosopher: Dewey proposed that each experience builds on what has gone before and modifies the quality of what comes after. These are very general statements that represent the "highest priorities in life. An emphasis on values and principles has been the main contribution of recent time management systems. CHARLES R. Charles R. impulses. not priorities. and appropriateness with events in your life. Hobbs says you should determine what ideas make up your personal value system and write each of them as an action statement." Incongruity is "tinkering with tantalizing trivialities. It came to me that the planning of goals in light of one’s total experience calls for the same kind of continuity. Be honest. and congruity is not possible without clearly defined values that are brought under control in personal thought and performance. we give thee up! It would be hard to find a clearer example of how far real events can veer away from a written schedule. In 1974." You can achieve "self-unification" when there is congruity between your value system and actual performance. The key. Stories like these also show that it is hard to control events when someone has his values out of alignment with reality. that hadst so many busy projects yesterday! Art thou too weak that wast so powerful? Not brush away a fly! Nay." and the jobs that were being done …were too-often low yielding activities draped in the cloak of screaming urgency. was to tie together each individual’s personal values. Hobbs is the most influential time management trainer of recent decades. goals. harmony. then.thou not brush the fly away? Art thou too sluggish? Thou man. An individual can not effectively manage time without personal congruity. Grow intellectually. and daily planning into one continuous system. He wanted a system that would "help the student attain measurable increases in his personal productivity at work while maintaining a balanced personal life perspective." Hobbs says that Time Power causes "permanent change" in people because it builds the "continuity of experience" advocated by John Dewey. The following paragraphs will help to address that gap. Believe in people. Have personal integrity.
your chances of achieving it increase. goals.." By keeping their values. He advises against relying on the field of psychology.Hobbs says he is not trying to impose any particular value system. in Allentown. and items on a daily action list.a congruity between what you believe to be right and how you perform." From that point." Religious persons would go to the inspirational literature of their religions to help them form their unifying principles. you will experience the highest form of self-actualization. The use of the Day-Timer builds upon Hobbs’ "theory of accessibility." developed in his doctoral dissertation at Columbia University. Time Power also includes "productivity goals. The purpose of his program is to reach all persons no matter where they are "coming from. directly. such as Shakespeare and other classic literature. people will be more likely to perform in the ways they had intended. Available from Day-Timers. He also recommends biographies for generating ideas on unifying principles. You must limit yourself to only one Day-Timer: If you use more than one. • • • • • • Hobbs suggests that you place a list of productivity goals in the Day-Timer and re-write two or three of them on each daily action list. take 100% of the responsibility for seeing that communication is achieved. The system includes a series of questions to help select and prioritize the unifying principles. Their purpose is to help keep people focused on the need for time management and to help them succeed with the system. Pennsylvania. . they come in sizes ranging from pocket-size to full letter-size. Clean my desk every afternoon before leaving work. and unifying principles all go into a Day-Timer organizer. Hobbs recommends a 15-minute planning session every day to maintain continuity in the planning process. Hobbs says many secular sources. Here are some examples of productivity goals: Do the most vital task now. Hobbs calls this the "productivity pyramid. Long-range goals build upon the unifying principles." All other goals build on these "unifying principles. may also include the "highest truths. The daily plan." These are ongoing goals that emphasize time management itself. personal life goals. Regardless of the size selected. goals. When talking with someone. Daily goals include actions that help achieve the intermediate goals. and continually visible." Hobbs found his own best treatment of "humility" in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales . goals with an organization. The idea is to keep all of planning materials constantly available and to have a place to write incoming data. Limit TV programs to the vital few--if any." It is illustrated as a pyramid with the unifying principles at the base and daily actions at the top. Hobbs says you must carry the Day-Timer everywhere you go. The theory states: "If a goal is meaningfully. Intermediate goals build upon the long-range goals. since much of it is "theory" that has not yet "stood the test of time. and planning in the Day-Timer. The format he recommends has a two-page spread for each day of the month. Never seek a solution to a problem until it is clearly defined. Be sensitive to the vital priorities of others. Inc. • Never say in 100 words what can be better said in ten. you’ll be "flitting back and forth" between them trying to find information. planning goes to goals that are increasingly specific.
" and I answered." It’s not culturally okay to say." The seminar parallels many of Hobbs’ key points and uses many of the same anecdotes and illustrations. Salt Lake City time. Smith can often turn a phrase in a way likely to be remembered. A note on his daily task list tells him that he needs to call someone named "Bill. If I could get you to do that.HYRUM SMITH: INTIMIDATE THY NEIGHBOR Day-Timers now down-plays Time Power in favor of its new 4-D program. The note refers him to a page four months earlier. it’s culturally okay to say "I don’t have the time. an organizer comparable to the Day-Timer Two-Page-PerDay Reference Edition. Hyrum: You may recall we had a conversation on January 14 at 4:30 in the afternoon. They no longer offer Hobbs’ tapes to the public. your brain produces a chemical called endorphin that causes you to experience a euphoric high similar to the effect of taking morphine. "I value another event more than having dinner with you--so I’m not going!" On having an unclear job definition: It’s like speeding down the highway and running into a fog bank. Like Time Power. What time is it now in New York? Bill: Damn. Bill. I would really like to have dinner with you tonight but I just don’t have the time." He doesn't remember the man at all. he bases his program on a "productivity pyramid. "Sorry. On the need for daily planning: If there is anything that I could get you to do…it would be to spend ten to fifteen minutes each morning planning your day. The conversation goes like this: Hyrum: Good morning. The time is 5:30 A. Less academic than Hobbs. "Hyrum.M. However. Smith is now ready to speak intelligently with someone whom he did not ever remember just a few minutes earlier. you’d not only scare yourself. We spent . The company CEO Hyrum Smith has written two books and recorded several audio cassettes that capture his TimeQuest seminar. this is Hyrum Smith. What I am really saying is: "I value some other event more than having dinner with you. Here are a few of Smith’s observations: On "not having enough time ": I f you called me on the phone today and said. What do you do? You add it on and cross it off." I would be lying." Why don’t I just come out and say that? Well. That page tells him that the man is a prospect for his seminar and gives some details about their discussion. Hyrum Smith recalls a conversation that illustrates his retrieval system with the Franklin Day Planner: Early one morning. Franklin Quest offers the Day Planner. It feels terrific doesn't it?…Do you know why it feels terrific? …They’ve discovered that when you accomplish a task and cross it off. On the feeling created by a crossing a task off a list: Suppose you accomplish a task that was not on your "to do" list.. Smith is planning his day. you’d intimidate everybody on your block. I’d like you to have dinner with me tonight. the Franklin Quest Company in Salt Lake City offers a remarkably similar program.
" It is "the ability to carry out a worthy decision after the emotion of making that decision has passed. The vanished hour. Smith adds just enough philosophy to put all in a meaningful context. he answers even more succinctly: "The answer is: You don’t lose it. you may as well jump from a tall building. the company offers "satellite" filler pages. the key to their success is the time spent on the productivity pyramid:Building this pyramid is the single toughest thing you have ever done. no longer thine. Like Hobbs. key personal information. because it’s all over. he gives his personal definition of "character. goals. "We have a whole division of people who do nothing but respond to these letters. Behind its unreturning line. One hour alone is in thine hands. Despite the light-hearted tone of the program. he promises "a major reduction in stress. The now on which the shadow stands. and daily task list in this tool.twelve minutes on the phone." For people who won’t carry the Franklin Day Planner everywhere. At that time. what happens if I lose it?" I just tell them. In his book. The only way to get rid of the pain is to bring in line what you do with what you value." You reduce stress." According to Smith. "Listen. These are pocket-sized sheets that can be added later to the main organizer book. The Day Planner comes with divider sheets. Smith says." He asks the participants to give the program a "serious shot" for 21 days. The Ten Natural Laws of Successful Time and Management (1994). they will report how they are doing with their organizer and with their productivity pyramid. finances. In darkness and beyond thine power. there will be pain. if this thing’s so important." Of course. And since you will put everything that relates to your values. you need it with you almost always. he says. he writes: If you don’t have it with you. Smith gives the participants an assignment. Smith concludes with a poem by an unknown author. If they will. reference materials. Do you remember that conversation? Bill: Damn. "Hyrum. There are also six numbered tabs for tracking specific people and projects. they must schedule a letter that they will write to him 21 days later. you’ll end up writing things on scraps of paper and becoming disorganized. and long-term planning. I’m just kidding…In his seminar recording. Divides the future from the past. Printed tabs create sections for addresses and telephone numbers. as you gain a greater sense of control. if you lose this thing. Using the Day Planner. It is almost scary. I have people ask me all the time. . values and goals. At least 100 years old." He personally sees many of the letters and finds it "wonderful to see what has happened in people’s lives in that short 21 day period. Smith tells people to carry their organizer everywhere. the words appear on a sundial at Wellesley College: The shadow by my finger cast. Toward the end of the seminar. There will be a temptation as surely as you sit there not to build the pyramid…If there is a gap between what you value and what you’re doing. Before it lies the unknown hour.
there are few motivational speakers who see themselves in such sinister terms. lies in the message that is being subsidized by management: that individual workers are responsible for their own destinies." Fortune magazine summed up Covey’s critics: The problem. COVEY: THE PRINCIPLE OF PRINCIPLES During the aftermath of the Democratic Party election defeats of 1994. As the recent FAA training scandals have shown. On the PBS television program. They start to repeat the same stories and oft-heard quotations. For a big corporation that is mowing down whole suitefuls of middle managers." It is not just cynical reporters who question the self-improvement movement. They generate a limited range of intellectual challenges. Steven R. McLaughlin juxtaposed the Covey shot with one of Anthony Robins walking on hot coals. To further the derision. In Covey’s case.More bluntly. "The question is whether people are doing the right thing to satisfy it. While still in his twenties. and its title is still a running joke among some people. Covey--Robins--it was all the same thing to the McLaughlin commentators. this can be a handy way to get employees to start thinking that if they are laid off. How To Win Friends and Influence People (1936). economist Jeremy Rifkin says: "You’re setting up the psychological conditions for people to accept just-in-time employment. Heifetz sees a "kind of maladaptive response" in his popularity. They tend to disagree often and very loudly. Nonetheless. the push to reform people can turn into indoctrination and even brainwashing. "There’s something real about the yearning" that his work brings out. The McLaughlin Group . they say. was derided in its time. Covey visited President Bill Clinton at Camp David. even when viewed in their most favorable light. and that the way to achieve security and serenity is through continual self-improvement. host John McLaughlin showed a video clip of the meeting and asked his panelists to comment. it continues to sell forty years after the author’s death. Robins achieved fame as the motivational "boy wonder" for his Unlimited Power book and tapes. Carnegie is also a standard for comparing new self-help authors. Yet some motivational wares outlast all expectations. However. . It was all so much "snake oil. on the subject of Covey’s visit their opinion was unanimous: The fact that Clinton would turn to a motivational "guru" was a sign of desperation. critics say. Harvard Professor Ronald A. Sometimes organizations force-feed ideas that may or may not be popular. The session with Covey had lowered the president’s stock for the week. Yet. The participants are print media writers who represent a variety of political viewpoints. the fault lies somewhere in themselves.STEVEN R." Obviously. motivational materials seem to reach a point of diminishing returns. Dale Carnegie’s book.
flaky life of floating and coasting. and tools you have to work with…" Habit Three: Put First Things First." Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw . is part of the draw. it may be helpful to look at all three books. Covey states. Habit 4: Think Win/Win. These principles are not invented by us or by society." Habit 5: Seek First to Understand. to build on strengths. Decide what you’re going to do with the time. There is even a Seven Habits screen saver. consciousness. This habit is to beef up your "PC" or "production capability. It was quickly followed by Principle-Centered Leadership . looks at the management of time. And at the top end is a highly disciplined life that focuses heavily on the highly important but not necessarily urgent activities of life. it allows Covey’s maxims to flash on a computer monitor all day long. He has made People magazine. In short. and conscience. write the program. exercising little initiative or willpower. to compensate for weaknesses. Covey’s latest book. This is the "endowment of the abundance mentality…You go from a scarcity to an abundance mentality through intrinsic self-worth and a benevolent desire for mutual benefit." Covey explains: At the low end of the continuum is the ineffective. To understand Covey in perspective. Habit 6: Synergize." No doubt Steven Covey is in vogue. Covey tells how to make principles the foundation for leading groups and organizations. Covey is one of the most successful authors of all time." And he draws many kinds of people. First Things First.So it was no small endorsement when USA Today called Covey "the hottest self-improvement consultant to hit U. These principles are woven into the fabric of every civilized society and constitute the roots of every family and institution that has endured and prospered. The Covey phenomenon began in 1989 with The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Then to Be Understood: Most people do not listen with the intent to understand. They’re either speaking or preparing to speak. Briefly. He says these are absolute laws that govern people:Our effectiveness is predicated upon certain inviolate principles--natural laws in the human dimension that are just as real. "If you are the programmer. Browsers also find them in the "self-help" section near 101 Lies Men Tell Women. here are Covey’s Seven Habits : Habit One: Be Proactive . avoiding responsibility and taking the easy way out. Take the initiative and choose your own response." It includes things like reading and exercise." It means "renewing the four dimensions of your nature--physical. talent. mental. as well as their emphasis on principled behavior. just as unchanging. But their bite-size simplicity. reading their autobiography into other people’s lives. They’re filtering everything through their own paradigms. Covey’s books sit near the ones about "reengineering" and "reinventing" corporations. Each of the books is available on audio cassette. spiritual. they are the laws of the universe that pertain to human relationships and human organizations. In Principle-Centered Leadership. The Seven Habits has been recorded in Spanish. It’s a life of leverage and influence. business since Dale Carnegie. They are part of the human condition. and social/emotional. "The essence of synergy is to value differences--to respect them. To the degree people recognize and live in harmony with such basic . In the bookstore. Habit Two: Begin with the End in Mind .S. they listen with the intent to reply. Their editors remarked that Covey’s maxims "sound like Gump with an MBA. as laws such as gravity are in the physical dimension. This is the "endowment of willpower.
The book’s cover shows a compass superimposed over a clock. self-managing teams. The approach considers the customers." Empowerment is the result of trust and win-win performance agreements." • Pathfinding means "creating an exciting vision of how to reach a worthy end. be true and loyal to each other"--but this value." He says there have been three "generations" of time management: 1) The First Generation involves using simple "reminders. Covey writes: For many of us. there’s a gap between the clock and the compass--between the way we spend our time and what is deeply important to us. "Don’t fink or squeal on each other. But for most of us the issue is not the difference between the "good" and the "bad. In Principle-Centered Leadership . does not represent "true north." So often. mind-numbing. The point is that effectiveness requires "true north" principles rather than an efficiency based on the clock. and personal. Roger Merrill and Rebecca R. and other "stakeholders. structures. managerial.principles as fairness." In the past. suppliers. as it is represented by the gang. however. appeared in 1994. • Empowerment is teaching people to "become relatively independent and part of interdependent. groups discover long-term solutions to their problems. their common values--the highest value being. Covey’s third blockbuster. I witnessed a mugging skillfully executed by a street gang. interpersonal. a sense of doing something that matters. and psychological beings but also spiritual beings." A worthy means encompasses and reflects all the stakeholders. social. • Team building means involving people in activities that improve the team's productivity and cooperation.the enemy of the best is the good. They are "pathfinding. ennoble them and help them achieve their higher selves. Covey sees interest in time management as an attempt to close the gap between the compass and the clock. The book gives an expanded explanation of the third of the seven habits." Covey emphasizes that "a worthy end cannot be reached with an unworthy means. kindness. organizations have tried leadership based on fairness. Merrill." You keep track of things you want to do . They provide vision and direction for groups of people. and systems. and trust. With leadership based on principles. justice. Covey tells this story to make his point: When I was in New York recently." The organization weds its mission and values to its strategy. Charles Hobbs and Hyrum Smith tell people to make decisions according to their value systems." the magnetic principle of respect for people and property. integrity." and "team building. These "true north principles" are "like compasses. This happens on four levels: the "organizational. and efficiency. They want purposes that lift them. I’ve sure that the members of this gang have their street maps. competitors. Decisions are easy when it’s simply a question of "good" or "bad." We know that some time expenditures are wasteful. draws a distinction between values and principles. He calls this a "popcorn phenomenon" with the "increasing heat and pressure of the culture creating a rapidly exploding body of literature and products. equity. honesty. Covey. He is joined by co-authors A. it also rests on the shoulders of the principle-centered philosophy. Effective organizations recognize the "spiritual" needs of everyone involved: People are considered not just as resources or assets. Three things have to happen if you want to turn principles into effectiveness." but between the "good" and the "best." "empowerment." They always point the way in every situation. even destructive. First Things First . not just economic. they move toward either survival and stability on the one hand or disintegration and destruction on the other. Covey adds "effectiveness" to the other three elements. they want meaning.
Covey provides an "activity matrix" which is divided into four quadrants. Quadrant I activities are both urgent and important. The method ignores an essential reality: Most of our time is spent living and working with other people. and repairing a broken machine. What is essential. • "Competence is king…" The idea is that if you can develop competencies. we all have to spend some of our time in Quadrant I. But…just because we value something does not necessarily mean it will create quality of life. People tend to act on anything that is urgent. Leadership works on the system… Before we consider the question. is the first step to putting first things. The problem is when it is the "dominant factor in our lives. as opposed to leadership. But if you’re headed south down the California coast… and your destination is New York City… you’re not being very effective." Calendars and appointment books enter the picture. "Am I doing things right?" we must first ask ourselves "Am I doing the right things?" Covey proposes a "Fourth Generation" time management: one that will retain the strengths of the earlier generations while avoiding their weaknesses. a self-destructive behavior that temporarily fills the void created by unmet needs." According to Covey. Management works within the system. meeting a deadline." 2) The Second Generation brings in "planning and controlling. But personal effectiveness is a function of both competence and character. control is an illusion. Just as some things are more important than others. • "Management cures all ills…" Time management is a form of management.Yet urgency itself is not really the problem. Beyond that. it overrides those things that are merely important…The more urgency we have in our lives. we set ourselves up for failure. some moments are more important than others. "traditional" time management theory includes these fallacies: • "We are in control…" The fact is. • "Efficiency above all…" The underlying assumption is that "more" and "faster" is better. 3) The Third Generation adds prioritizing and controlling. Management works within a paradigm. instead of simply responding to what is urgent.with notes and checklists. People set goals based on their personal values. you just "go with the flow. . Something that is urgent may or may not be important. They drive our choices and actions. Leadership creates new paradigms. • "The clock tells the truth…" The clock dictates the rhythm of our lives. Covey says that these generations have made people more effective up to a point. who can not be controlled. We can not truncate what we do from who we are. you can create quality of life. But is this idea of time an adequate framework for all of human experience? We think not. Examples include handling an irate client. is how much value you get out of you time "rather than how many minutes or hours" you put into it. • "Plug in your VALUES"…Values are critically important. Yet none of them present a complete "paradigm. When what we value is in opposition to the natural laws that govern peace of mind and quality of life." To illustrate the difference between urgency and importance. They demand immediate action. Covey says. the less importance we have." The result is like trying to drive somewhere using the wrong map: "Changing our behavior and attitude won’t help us if we have the wrong map . The fourth generation builds upon an "importance paradigm": Knowing what is important. but it is the urgency that drives people to action: Urgency is an addition.
"empowering others. A person can have more than one role in the same environment. activities checklist form. such as "administrator. what unique contributions you want to make. including Quadrant II activities into your schedule: To translate goals into action: The key is not to prioritize your schedule but to schedule your priorities. and in other areas of life. and long-term planner. in the family. in the community. it’s deterioration. Along the left side of the spread are boxes for the name of each role.The key to effectiveness is to maximize the time in Quadrant II. telephone and address page." Neglecting Quadrant II leads to "stress. anticipating and preventing problems. Besides the weekly planning space. Quadrant III is the "phantom of Quadrant I. Examples include unimportant phone calls and meetings. The reading of pulp novels. but not important. Most other well-known time management trainers are careful to distinguish between the terms "important" and "urgent. Because of its urgency." reading. roles can include both "wife" and "mother" or both "husband" and "father. A clear set of roles creates order and balance."You write goals that grow out of your mission. A mission statement can help lead your activities toward "true north. By investing time in this quadrant you shrink the amount of time in Quadrant I. and gossiping are examples of Quadrant IV time wasters. This quadrant can involve long-range planning. Quadrant IV activities are neither urgent nor important. Just like a compass. honest listening. to learn. one job may include several roles. the principles upon which you build your life. and investing "in relationships through sincere effort and deep. Also available from Day-Timers. it is often because we’re succeeding in one role at the expense another. burnout. mindless TV viewing. First Things First assumes that everyone either has a mission statement or would want to write one: This is a written statement about what you value most on a lifetime basis--what kind of person you want to become. First Things First is bringing time management theory to many people for the first time. A few comments may be in order. personnel officer. it can help direct your path. The user receives instructions to record information behind the role tabs. In that quadrant we can work on the what Covey calls "the fulfillment of the four human needs and capacities. rather than chronologically.Quadrant II activities are important. and note page." the idea is not new. At home. professional development activities. Because of its popularity." To help implement the system. to love. Each role gets its own goal sheet. Covey states: Quadrant IV is not survival. marketer. to leave a legacy. Although the Covey Leadership Center has obtained a trademark for "Quadrant II Time Management." Covey suggests that you plan on a weekly basis. preparing for future activities." At work. the organizer provides a two-page spread for planning each week. If we are unhappy. each role receives a tab section within the organizer. the Covey Leadership Center markets a Seven Habits Organizer. but not urgent. You schedule activities that contribute to your goals. it creates the illusion of importance." They are "to live. and deeper crises" in Quadrant I. The program also brings "roles" into the planning process: We have important roles at work. The organizer also has places for planning and recording "sharpening the saw" (Habit Seven) activities. There is also space for writing goals for the week that contribute to each role." You can also cover all the relationships at home with just one role: "family member." It includes things that are urgent. We quickly find there’s nothing there." Charles Hobbs included an .
When he compares values to principles. His topics range from corporate strategic planning to coping with marital difficulties. roles have been covered before. and then organize the goal into a step-by-step series of specific . The laws of human behavior are not always as clear as the rising and setting of the sun. all that Covey really seems to be saying is this: Be sure your values are the ones that really work. Your confidence in your ability to accomplish them grows. Tracy talks about time management in several of his audio and video tapes. This is unacceptable. into the picture. The more goals you set the "more efficient you will become. Likewise. concentrate on doing the right thing." Ask yourself: "What are you trying to do? How are you trying to do it?" 2) Organized plans of action. They are simply acknowledging that different people will approach life differently because of their background and beliefs. In its discussion of principles." This is because they tell people to write down their values according to their own belief systems. or "true north" principles. it's not worth doing right. Covey states that "Third Generation" trainers (i." When setting goals. again. "How are you trying to do it?": The more time you spend planning. Here are some ideas that you can glean from the various Tracy materials: 1) Goals. "roles" have been covered before even if the trainer never mentions the word. First Things First gets into some slippery terrain. his competitors) tell people to become "a law unto themselves. rather than doing things right: "If it's not worth doing. he says. In re-working your plans for achieving your goals. However. The result is goals for the family and for the different responsibilities at work. other time management trainers tell people to set goals for different areas of their lives. the better and more foolproof your plans become.e." Set goals consistent with "your highest aspirations and your innermost values and convictions. There must surely be a way to reconcile Covey with the other time management theorists. What Covey is saying is that you should think deeply about the underlying roles and integrate them into your week. Tracy studies existing materials and tries to bring together "only the best" of the available ideas. The earlier programs simply tell you to set goals for each important area of your life. And that is a point worth keeping in mind--whether you’re an executive making a decision or Judge Pyncheon planning his day. BRIAN TRACY:RENAISSANCE MAN OF SUCCESS TRAINING Brian Tracy is the speaker on countless Nightingale-Conant audio programs. When you break down even the biggest goal into its individual parts. A plan answers the question. other programs tell you to set up sections in an organizer for different responsibilities and people. What Covey does do well is to bring a fresh perspective to some old ideas. your goals become increasingly believable and achievable. By looking at goals from that perspective.importance/urgency matrix with his 1983 audio program "Insight on Time Management. So. So. it is not true that other trainers tell people that they can get away with anything they write as a value." So it may be questionable whether Covey’s emphasis on "importance" really constitutes a new "generation" in time management.. For example. What is unique in First Things First is its emphasis on the roles themselves. a person might set some that might have been overlooked. The Canadian-born seminar leader seems to cover the entire personal and professional development field. unless you also bring natural law.
"Back to work!" 11) Key result areas: Your key result area is the answer to the question. or have someone else do any job that can be done at a wage less than what you earn or desire to earn. It is estimated that one minute in planning saves at least five minutes in execution." 10) Interruptions: Control the telephone and walk-in visitors. your investment in planning pays you a 500 per cent return. you feel yourself overwhelmed with work. Put another way. If. Tracy says.actions. Determine what is relevant and irrelevant. Deadlines act as a forcing system that causes you to work harder and more effectively as the deadline approaches. 12) Batching Tasks: "When you do a group of similar tasks together." Each person has one or two key result areas where they can make an important contribution to the organization. stop and take the time necessary to list every single thing you need to do. "Why am I on the payroll." 13) Neatness: "Before you start to work clear your work space of everything except what you need to complete the highest priority task on hand. delegate. 7) The time log: Tracy suggests that you set an alarm to go off every fifteen minutes: Make a note of what you're doing each time the alarm rings. without diversion or distraction." . By concentrating on your key result areas you will achieve the most significant results in the shortest period of time. Ask: "What is the most valuable use of my time. 3) Analysis. 4) Set priorities. "All of life is the study of attention." 9) Delegate: "You should assign. Just say. author of Dress for Success and How to Run the Competition into the Ground. Concentration means to work in a straight line from where you are to where you want to go. at any time." 6) Setting deadlines and rewards: Create a reward system for the completion of a major task and refuse to give yourself the reward until the job is 100 per cent complete. The pay-off from good planning is enormous. the more you drive the goal into your subconscious mind where it takes on a motivational power of its own. right now? What impact will this have on the future?" Also ask: "What is the limiting step that determines how quickly I can go from where I am to where I want to be. Make a list: You can bring order out of chaos faster with a list than with any other time management tool. The more you plan. The very act of organizing your responsibilities on a list will enable you to bring them under control. it seems much more manageable and under your control. "Is what I am doing now a good use of my time?" This will bring your full attention to what you are doing. without getting sidetracked into doing things of less importance. "You must learn to procrastinate creatively on the 80 per cent of things that you have to do that account for only 20 per cent of the value." 8) Procrastination: It can be either positive or negative. Tracy recommends a line from John Malloy. Ask yourself. What is the bottleneck that determines the speed at which I get there?" 5) Concentrate: "Concentration means the ability to stay with a task until it is complete. the amount of time it takes you to do each subsequent task declines.
He called it "time perspective. and taking a coffee break are activities that-no matter how well you do them--"will have no possible impact on your life. and twenty years ahead: What Dr." Be willing to come in early or stay late." 17) Punctuality: "Get a reputation for being on time. According to Tracy. or listening to an educational tape. or taking a course are activities with a "high potential future impact on your career." Tracy says the key to successful time management is to have a "long time horizon. asking you for $25. If a person or activity is not important enough for you to open your wallet and peal off twenty dollar bills and give them away. Tracy sums up his philosophy of time management Time management is really life management. 15) Transition time: Turn waiting time into learning time." He quotes Edward Banfield of Harvard University. . in effect. that person is." 19) Saying no: Say no "early and often. "It is not possible to accomplish meaningful tasks in less than 60 to 90 minutes.You begin to move yourself into a higher social class the day you begin to take the long view in your own life. Banfield finally concluded that there was only one factor that could accurately predict whether or not you were going to move upward and onward financially. To create uninterrupted time." You should value all your time the same as your time at work: If your hourly rate is $25. fulfilling." One way to set short-term priorities is look at the future impact of present decisions." Banfield found that successful people planned five. all the days of your life. high-performance life. When you get to the very bottom of the social pyramid to the hopeless alcoholic or drug addict you find a time perspective of one shot or one drink. 16) The telephone: Tracy says that anyone who picks up a telephone without something to write on "is a fool. Reading a book." At the conclusion of his audio program. author of The Unheavenly City." Watching television. and someone wants an hour of your time. the time perspective at each income level shortens. Remember that "relaxing is often a valuable use of time." 18) Work simplification: "Systematize the work process. Banfield found was that as you go down the social and economic ladder." The purpose of time management is to help you "get more pleasure out of life. you can become "one of the best-educated persons in North America" simply by listening to audio cassettes in your car. How To Master Your Time.14) Chunks of time: Allow time for important work. It is the one habit--the one skill-that is essential for a satisfying. ten. a discipline and a habit that can be learned. Tracy concludes that "long view" helps "sharpen the short view. reading the sports page." He defined time perspective as "the period of time that you take into consideration when making your day-to-day decisions and planning your life. Banfield sought the cause of social mobility: Dr. then discipline yourself not to do it." Spend time on physical fitness. work through the noon hour while everyone else is at lunch. 20) Balance: Use your increased productivity to "get more time to spend with the people you care about. Time management must be practiced every day. The average working person has a time perspective of about two pay periods.
" and that is to keep a time log. The 1972 edition of the book (revised in 1990) helped spawn the modern time management boom. and Mackenzie felt the "final put-down" when the man called him "Charlie. He tells of the time he kept putting off his calls to sell Celestial Seasonings Tea on his program. Mackenzie wearily identified himself. It is the title of Dr. Mackenzie uses himself to illustrate the problem of procrastination. Charles Hobbs credits Mackenzie with doing the definitive study on time wasters.5 per cent a year. If the memo writer. For at least three days. When his calls didn't go through. The service sector. Alec Mackenzie's down to earth book on time in the workplace. however.5 per cent since 1979." He had picked up the phone expecting someone else. this is an acute problem indeed. manufacturing sector is showing an improvement in productivity at the rate of 3. The president said. Mackenzie ties time management directly to the issue of American productivity: The U. they must write down every interruption and change of mental attention. the impact on the U.S. How soon can you come out to conduct a two-day seminar on time management for all my people?" Mackenzie asks seminar participants to do "the one thing they'll not want to do. Therefore our productivity must shift to individuals. Mackenzie devotes an entire chapter to each time waster. He finally reached him on the seventh call. the marketing vice presidents and the finance officers can learn to get better results and do it in less time. Mackenzie became convinced that the president wasn't interested." The purpose is to find out where their time is really going and which time wasters need to be . And since service industries represent more than 70 per cent of our economy. "Alec Mackenzie? I've had your name on my desk for months. "no matter how trivial. Here are the 20 biggest time wasters that Mackenzie found in the workplace: · Management by crisis · Telephone interruptions · Inadequate planning · Attempting too much · Drop-in visitors · Ineffective delegation · Personal disorganization · Lack of self-discipline · Inability to say no · Procrastination · Meetings · Paperwork · Leaving tasks unfinished · Inadequate staff · Socializing · Confused responsibility or authority · Poor communication · Inadequate controls and reports · Incomplete information · Travel In The Time Trap.ALEC MACKENZIE: ESCAPING FROM THE TIME TRAP The Time Trap is not a Star Trek episode about being caught in the a time warp or a space-time continuum. I don't need any explanation of your program.S. economy could be powerful. has lagged behind at a rate of 0.
for each day's plan. in effect. Mackenzie teaches a system to set and manage goals. Mackenzie asks the organization to set up a "quiet hour.you will have armed yourself with a piece of knowledge you can use as the groundwork for making radical changes in the way you manage yourself and achieve your goals. When he discusses the problem of the cluttered desk. Mackenzie endorses the use of an organizer to plan and keep track of time. Since you take the log while you are doing the activity. do you know why we stack our desks? It's all those things we don't want to forget. He says the time log will create the motivation leads to change: The time log is necessary because the painful task of changing our habits requires far more conviction than we can build from learning about the experience of others. probably the most prosaic of all time management topics.S. The time log is not only an essential diagnostic tool." a period when everyone is able. Jot down the entry during the phone call. The trouble is it works too well. Mackenzie sees goals as the way to cope with turbulence in the U. The man turned to him and said: Herr Doctor. He says that one hour of uninterrupted work is worth the weight of three which are constantly interrupted." They decide the best times for various activities and try to do them at the same time every day: The ideal day is a template. in theory. We put them on top where we'll see them. Also available: a "Time Waster Eliminator" form. Every time our gaze wanders. to work without interruption for 60 minutes. One senior AT&T executive liked it so much that he "never stopped taking it. and we forget what we we're working on. Mackenzie says a time log brings its own reward: The most astonishing time saver which results from a time log is the powerful selfcorrecting tendency which sets in automatically once you start the log. This is a subject . Mackenzie states: When you grasp the universal fact that there will never be 25 hours in one day." Mackenzie also introduces employees to the "ideal day. while a visitor is on the way in. Mackenzie's prescription is to "keep your desk clean for the rest of your life" and never have anything on it but what you are working on at the moment. Then. for your daily plan. economy: People in contemporary society are likely to make at least seven significant career changes during their adult lives--and not all of their own choosing. Along with the minutia of time management training.attacked. we remember them. you schedule the specifics in those major categories.when you internalize this basic truth of contemporary existence. We need the amazing revelation of the great portions of our time we are wasting to provide the incentive and the determination required to manage ourselves. and at the beginning of an interruption. Mackenzie recalls the story of an executive in Heidelberg. Germany. It indicates blocks of time for major categories of activities. it is an extremely effective time management device in itself. He tells them: It's something you can't afford not to take. His Time Tactics organizer includes "Control Sheets" to track projects and a "Contact Log" to record decisions and follow-up items. Many of Mackenzie's participants complain that the time log itself will take up too much time. it takes much less time than you originally think.
there seems to be more emphasis on planning by the week. TRENDS IN TIME MANAGEMENT TRAINING A Focus on Teams One recent trend in time management training is an emphasis on groups. Florida) suggests these reasons for weekly planning: Events change rapidly and it is not feasible for most people to plan a month in advance in detail. time management has tended to go directly from goals to daily planning. Kerry Gleeson of PEP (the Personal Efficiency Program. As an extension of its TimeQuest seminar.which should be dealt with universally in secondary schools and colleges so that it is less overwhelming when it occurs." Projects tend to be team-oriented. By the end of this audio program. On the other hand. if one only plans a day in advance. you simplify daily planning." "Employee. there is at least one time perspective that seems to be getting longer. personally and professionally Team-up. For the most part. and Planning for Results includes instruction in "project teamwork. The workbook lists these training goals: The purpose of this training program is to teach you how to utilize time to achieve goals. however. The wide exposure of the Steven Covey First Things First program has helped generate interest in ." or "Work Team Member." AN EMPHASIS ON WEEKLY PLANNING At a time when Tom Peters talks about nanosecond events. The person who has thought through the concepts of success. Alec Mackenzie published Teamwork Through Time Management. teams. Franklin Quest offers a program on "project and workload management. and teamwork. Boca Raton. it will be on your weekly plan. the roles mean relationships with other people: "Parent.and prioritize individual and team goals. Traditionally. The program even goes into the Tuckman model of team development: "forming. and change to determine what they really mean will be better equipped to approach change of this kind as learning experiences and as opportunities or challenges. a role could be something done entirely alone: someone might write "Amateur Photographer of Wilderness Rocks" on his list of roles. norming." Steven Covey devotes a full section of First Things First to "The Synergy of Interdependence. failure." By that he means achieving more as a group than you could have done alone. By identifying and prioritizing the actions to be done in the next week. Now. there is insufficient lead time to get critical things done.to turn goals into reality.to maximize success through the power of synergy.If it's important." Day-Timers' new Four-Dimensional Time Management also takes a collective approach. In theory. and performing. storming." Roles tend to involve other people.on what's really important to you and your team. Plan. In 1990. A key element in First Things First is its emphasis on "roles. you will learn to use your Day-Timer System to: Focus. Act.
we renew our awareness of our needs and capacities and true north principles. The perspective is insufficient to accomplish the result. PART TWO: THINK DIGITAL Digital technology has brought a new twist to time management tools. 3) Content in context: Weekly organizing puts content--the activities of our lives--into the context of what's important. weekly. and lose credibility with ourselves and with others. we can't just be focused on the big picture either. Similarly. It has the workdays. Of course. Both kinds of lenses distort the appearance of objects. As we bring them together again. evenings. A telephoto lens makes objects appear closer than they really are. the Franklin Quest Company offers a computerized version of its TimeQuest system. the weekend. the reality is that daily planning keeps us focused on doing the urgent things first. one of a particular focal length. we lose touch with reality. A wide angle lens makes them seem further away. we see the interrelatedness of the parts. Only a "normal" lens. and long range goals. but distant enough to provide context and perspective. marrying the strengths of both perspectives through the normal lens of weekly organizing. Through it.It creates a powerful framework that represents our best thinking around what first things first are and how we can put them first during the next seven days of our lives. If we don't translate that vision into action. can make objects appear as the eye sees them. For now. Covey compares this to the lenses for a camera. You look at the whole picture. 2) Whole-parts-whole. Today. you can plan for the week ahead: Quadrant II weekly planning itself is a renewing activity. it provides "36 sample values. The Ascend program boasts the following features: • An appointment schedule (with alarms) in daily. become idealistic dreamers. accompanying clarifying statements. however. An E-mail moduleThe ability to print on a variety of page sizesA "values and goals wizard" • The ability to connect to work groups and coordinate schedules In addition. It's close enough to be highly relevant. then you look at its parts: We bring them together again into the whole. The ultimate quest might be the ability to access any information. Covey suggests three other reasons for weekly planning: 1) Balanced renewal. "The perspective of the week prompts us to plan for renewal--a time for recreation and reflection. anywhere and anytime." During a weekly day of renewal. and monthly views.weekly planning. many people have a lot of other people to keep up with: sales prospects. Covey states: While the objective of most daily planning approaches is to help us put first things first. weekly planning helps us see events in their proper perspective: The week represents a complete patch in the fabric of life. For those who need help. People need to record the dates of their conversations and what they . THE QUEST FOR PERFECT ORGANIZER. a professional network." Much of the appeal of an organizer program is that it also works as a contact manager. or contacts for a job search. Franklin Quest offers a separate ValuesQuest program.
I'll be writing ACT! For Dummies. But if that item isn't done on the day it was entered. They include Sex for Dummies and Time Management for Dummies. Harvey Mackay. We meticulously write down the names of various tasks. Mackay has repeatedly promoted the idea of keeping a big Rolodex file. Similarly. the notes on a particular subject can become scattered among widely separated pages. It can be difficult to look at all the information at one time. The user can then put them into a regular Day-Timer binder and carry them around. And if it's not moved. Well. he says. (Only the latter book will be quoted here.discuss with each person. With a paper-based system. . The Series 3A's small size belies its strengths. Woman: You anticipate my innermost thoughts and needs. This. To help get around this problem. The emerging palm-top computers may offer hope in resolving the paper versus PC dilemma. Most time management trainers say that you should take your organizer everywhere you. is the key to building a "network of power relationships. It would take an ongoing effort to keep the two versions aligned with one another. is marketing a program called Sharkware. This. radio stations around the country aired this ad: Woman: I knew it the moment I held you. author of Swim with the Sharks without Getting Eaten Alive. Day-Timers encourages its software users to print out all the daily pages. With an organizer program you can quickly pull all the information together in one place. seems to break another time management "rule": Only record data into one time management tool. someone might set an appointment while carrying the printed book and forget to enter it into the computer. and I don't own stock in the company. In his books. projects." The Sharkware software combines the functions of a Rolodex and a time management system. people will type into the computer some of the time and write on their printed pages the rest of the time. to be honest. Mayer states: In would like to mention I don't work for Symatec. A computer-based organizer will automatically move an unfinished item to the next day. it must be moved to a future day. IDG Books has also gotten into the contact management ACT! The company became a publishing phenomenon with its For Dummies series of computer books.) In Time Management for Dummies. Although Sharkware is a time management tool. Mayer points out another advantage that a computerized organizer has over a paper-based one: It takes a lot of work to keep a list of things to do up to date. however. the magic of your touch! Announcer: For good reason. That won't happen if it's in a desktop--or even a lap-top--computer. we run the risk of forgetting about it. Over time. or other items of business that need to be done on a specific day's page in our daily planning book. a program created by Symatec Corporation in Cupertino. Woman: Oh. the main selling point is its use as a contact manager. California. There are some drawbacks to having your time management inside a computer. Announcer: People grow rather passionate about the new Psion Series 3A palm-top computer. For example. Inevitably. author Jeffrey Mayer touts ACT!. all that it takes is a few clicks of a mouse to change an appointment to another date. I'm just an everyday user who thinks ACT! is a very good productivity improving tool. In the fall of 1995. you write notes on the daily calendar pages. It is now extending the For Dummies idea into subjects that are not purely digital.so I'm more than just an everyday user.
" . says: Here's a piece of advice that I've learned the hard way: Don't let time management itself become a waste of time." She cites one survey that reported 60% of the people who try the "conventional approach" say it does not work for them. time management training isn't working. TIME MANAGEMENT RECONSIDERED "Don't attempt to change the way you work to fit a pre-packaged time management system. Charles J. you found out it was more trouble than it was worth. The palm-top computer seems to address the need for a tool that is portable. B. a time management course will make you more logical. Jack Gordon. Yet. The Thirteen Secrets of Power Performance (1994) Another trend in time management might be a rebellion against the time management programs themselves. Elaborate list-making. It's like having an office in your pocket. is that the systems do not take individual personality styles into account. And. I see them everywhere. they lead to frustration and anger. someone needs to make one that won't break if you drop it and that few people would want to steal. she says.Announcer: The 3A can hold your appointment calendar for the year or twelve months worth of sales data. there are many successful people with messy desks. says: In the Twentieth Century we have become more and more sophisticated. The problem. and C priorities--then you won't. editor of Training magazine writes: The truth is if you are already kind of logical." — Roger Dawson. because of that. I'm quite sure that you've had the experience of getting so frustrated by being disorganized that you went out and bought an expensive time management system. linear. an executive development firm in Minneapolis. Then. It simply didn't complement the way you work or the type of work you do." The real secret is not what the desk looks like. Time effectiveness is the goal not time warfare. I mean they are this wide and this thick. You probably spent hours learning how to use it and days setting it up. author of Wealth Without Risk. Givens. Woman: I couldn't possibly put a price on what you mean to me! Announcer: The Psion Series 3A palm top computer starts at just $400 which makes it easy to fall in love with a Psion today. Now. and organized. For example. Psychologist Dru Scott conducts a program based on "sound psychological principles. many managers believe that a disorderly desk is a sign of an unproductive worker. Scott states: There should be signs that read "a messy desk is a sign of a messy desk. Robert Cooper of Advanced Excellence Systems. If you're not--if you don't want to organize your life into A. We have become so sophisticated that some people manage their time with a thirty-pound time management book. minute-by-minute scheduling and neurotic clock-watching use up more time than they save and result in a rigid set of expectations that can rarely be met in the modern work environment. It takes so much time to use the time management book--who has time to manage their time? Dr. "In spite of the hundreds of millions of dollars spent on it. Even some time management trainers say that elaborate procedures will not help harness time. and organized. the secret is making sure the things that really count get done. The paper organizers still have those advantages. linear.
" It would be the ultimate time management tool. Technology plays its role in the daily drama. and stock prices." All of these things have become realities at the edge of the Twenty-First Century. Just as you acquire one technology to save some time. It could pay the bills on time." The problem. scrutinize his choices. OLIVER will know and act accordingly.You acquire a computer." he urged. However. As long as the alarm wails. He forgot to send it. or you will fall behind the technology. you give another slice to making the money to pay for it. It could also "remind him of his wife's birthday" and order the flowers automatically." OLIVER becomes your digital "alter ego. would not meet with people but with other OLIVERs. Toffler said it would "bear directly on the issue of man's adaptability. self-management is only part of the time management equation. You give one slice of your time to learning the new system. THE OLIVER TWIST Twenty-five years ago. Consider this: When Mackenzie spoke with us. in Future Shock. But despite Mackenzie's theories. OLIVER would go to business meetings in place of its owner and would make the same decisions he would have made.whether its owner would vote for candidate X. like exercise or sound money management. However. whether he would accept a dinner invitation from Z. much more was predicted for OLIVER: It is theoretically possible to construct an OLIVER that would analyze the content of its owners' words. Hundreds of people lose their jobs. the weather. but you probably can't corral time between cow skin covers. It is not the car being stolen but the time of the person who has to hear the alarm.>So. and library card.Surprisingly. You can do more with it than you could with a typewriter. It could obtain information from computer libraries around the world and "thus become a kind of universal question-answerer for him. Furthermore: OLIVER would know.computertrained psychologist: "If you are an impolite boor. At its simplest level. The Fortune article concludes: The courses offer wisdom. who told Fortune magazine: "Managing time is a lot more difficult than what I imagined when I wrote The Time Trap. OLIVER will know and help. you are not as productive as you would have been without it Technology brings a more efficient process to a factory. Alvin Toffler expressed some concerns about the technological marvels predicted for end of the century. If you are a marital cheater. he asked if we had tried his Time Tactics organizer. these are the words of Alec Mackenzie. whether he would contribute to charity Y. and his system. he says. OLIVER. and ultimately handle larger and larger decisions for him. This is all time that you are not doing anything else. his best-seller. OLIVER would provide information about his friend's preferences. This is time that they are not adding anything to the economy. human nature intervened. OLIVER would free up his time by making more and more of his decisions for him. a new operating system comes along: you have to upgrade your system. In the words of one. They spend thousands of hours looking for new ones. He promised to mail it the following day. A clap of thunder sets off a nearby car alarm. update its own program to reflect changes in his values. a few months later. of course. deduce his value system. another technology appears to take a piece away. is that the techniques go against human nature. data about traffic routes. "You really should. One of them was something called OLIVER (On-Line Interactive Vicarious Expediter and Responder) A type of personal computer. And yet Emerson's Law of Compensation remains in force. a notebook." The trek toward the perfect organizer has finally arrived. So do circumstances and the .
Time Power. Richard. Alan. Super Self: Doubling Your Personal Effectiveness. Franklin. "How America Has Run Out of Time. Steven R. 8a-8d & 72a72d. 12 June 1995. pp. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Givens. Englewood Cliffs. New York: American Management Association. "Habit Former. 24 April 1989. 1994. New York: Harper & Row. New York: David McKay Company. Six audio cassettes with study guide and workbook. First Things First. Covey. The Thirteen Secrets of Power Performance. BIBLIOGRAPHY Cooper. Steven R. New York: Summit Books." Reader’s Digest. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. it is in the nature of people to try to bring it all under control. Charles R. Most of us would rather just own our time than manage it. Your Work. Lakein. Yourself. the society as a whole will still be caught on a runaway treadmill until we capture control of the accelerative thrust itself. Steven R. Covey. Six audio cassettes with workbook. Ralph. Gibbs. Leider. F. 1990. pp. Hobbs Corporation. Alvin Toffler came to this conclusion about the effort to cope with change: No matter how individuals try to pace their lives. New York: Simon & Schuster. Chicago: Nightingale-Conant. The Personal Efficiency Program. Covey. no matter what psychic crutches we offer them. Minneapolis. The Performance Edge. Salt Lake City: Charles R. October 1991. and Douglass. Manage Your Time. Merrill. 1991. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Benjamin. 1989. Gleeson. Benjamin Franklin: Writings. The Great Gatsby. Roger. Covey. Keys. Six audio cassettes with workbook. First Things First. pp. Nancy. 1994. The New Time Power. Robert. Allentown. 1992.. 1925. 81-82. "First Things First: Special Book Bonus. 1995. Taking Charge Life Mapping. Chicago: Nightingale-Conant. 1987. Roger. 111-114. Nonetheless. Steven R. Merrill. How To Get a Job in This Crazy World." People. Douglass.. Six audio cassettes. A. Rebecca R. Principle-Centered Leadership. Merrill E. Inc.. Robert." Success. Scott. MN: The Inventure Group. New York: Simon & Schuster.. Salt Lake City: Charles R. Steven R. One . Rebecca R. 1992. Charles R. Eight audio cassettes with workbook. 58-67. 1973. & Merrill. How To Get Control Of Your Time and Your Life. In Future Shock.season. 1994. 1993. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Library of America. The Insight System for Planning Your Time and Your Life. Hobbs. 1995. pp. 1993. A. PA: Day-Timers. Covey. Hobbs Corporation. 1983. Kerry. Roger. "How To Unlock Time. Donna N. Half. & Merrill. Hobbs. Four-Dimensional Time Management. New York: Fireside. April 1994. 1991. New York: Crown Publishers. Hobbs." Time. no matter how we alter education. Dawson. Fitzgerald. Charles R. Charles J. 1987.
Smith. 1994. Tracy. 1 August 1994. IL: Video Publishing House. Alec. Louis. Alvin. Mackenzie. New York: American Management Association. "The Trouble with Time Management Courses. TimeQuest: Increasing Productivity through Value-Based Time Management. New York: Villard Books. Six audio cassettes. 1993. 12 December 1994. When Will You Find the Time To Do It Over? New York: Simon & Schuster. The Classical Economists. 1989. "Think Visual" (song). Chicago: Nightingale-Conant. Liberation Management: The Necessary Disorganization for the Nanosecond Nineties. Power Shift." Bottom Line: Personal." The 1985 Annual: Developing Human Resources. The Vasthead is the professional web site of . Tracy. Brian. 1979. Tom. Dru. Ringer.. Alec. Twenty-four audio cassettes with workbook. Time Management for Dummies. If You Haven’t Got the Time To Do It Right. One audio cassette. Recorded KPRC Radio (Houston). Mackenzie. Smith. 1989. Annetta." Fortune. Chicago: NightingaleConant. and Brown. New York: American Management Association. New York: Warner Books. Timothy J. Ray. 4 June 1990. 1990. Toffler. 1991. The 100% Solution. Personal Time Management. The Time Trap. Chicago: Nightingale-Conant. Salt Lake City: Franklin Quest Co. 1990. Teamwork through Time Management. 1988. 1991. Smith. Mackenzie on Time. How To Master Your Time. pp. Hyrum. 116-126. Brian. Jeffrey J. 262. "Are We Really That Lazy?" Newsweek. One video cassette. 1990.audio cassette with Life Map Workbook and Life Map Primer. One video cassette with training guide. Nashville. Six audio cassettes. p. Million Dollar Habits. 1993. 1995. Mel Mackenzie. McCormack. CA: IDG Worldwide Books. Mackenzie. How to Put More Time in Your Life. Mark H. Two audio cassettes. Miller. Mayer. 1994. Managing Your Goals. 60 minutes. Rukeyser. Alec. Jeffrey J. 1985. Chicago: Nightingale-Conant. VHS. London: DavRay Music. San Francisco: University Associates. Hyrum. Alec. 1986. Mackenzie. New York: Random House. The Ten Natural Laws of Successful Time and Life Management. Toffler. Eight audio cassettes with work book. Future Shock. Davies. 1995. 1992. 24 October. Alvin. New York: Bantam Books. 1990. Chicago: Nightingale-Conant. Action Strategies for Personal Achievement. Chicago: The Dartnell Corporation. Scott. Tracy. Brian. "A Situational Leadership Approach to Groups Using the Tuckman Model of Group Development. Robert. New York: Wynwood Press. Mayer. 1970. Schaumburg. "What’s So Effective about Steven Covey?" Fortune. Psion Computer advertisement. Foster City. 1988. Covey Tells How To Use Time Wisely. One audio cassette. Tennessee: Knowledge Products. Peters. "Steven R. 17 February 1992.
Texas. http://vasthead.Grady McAllister of Houston.com .
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