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Named after the city of Jaunpur, near Benares,

rag Jaunpuri is very similar to Asawari.

The main differences are in the mood, which is

less serious, in the use of ni, which is used
more freely, and in register; Asawari generally
avoids the higher octave, while Jaunpuri uses it

Some phrases in Jaunpuri that would not be

used in Asawari are:
Rag Bageshri (also known as Bageshree, Bagesri or
Bageshwari) is one of the most popular and often per-
formed of the night ragas. A simple version of the ascend-
ing-descending is:

This demonstrates the basic features of Bageshri:

Kafi that, Re omitted in ascent, Ma strong, Pa omitted in
ascent, but used in vakra phrases in descent. These features
are clearly stated in this longer version of the ascending-

An even more complete picture of the rag is given in this short

As its name implies, Bagesri Kanada is a combination
of elements from Bagesri and Kanada. A very simple

A chalan, with indications of what phrases come

from where:
Bagesri Kanada

Kanada Bagesri Kanada Bagesri Kanada

Kanada Bagesri Kanada

Malkauns, also known as Malkosh, is one of the
most standard, simple, yet profound ragas. It is
regarded by many as having numinous powers,
such as the ability to attract djins. It is treated
with great respect by many musicians, and
would never be performed outside of its appoint-
ed time of early night.
Its scale is one of the simplest:

Malkauns is also considered one of the six 'male'

rags, and has generated a large family of rags,
whose names end with -kauns or -kosh.

A chalan:
Bhimpalasi is one of the most beautiful ragas of
the late afternoon.

Two simple versions of the scale:

Bhimpalasi's main characteristics are shown:

ommition of re and dha in ascending, crooked
motions in descending.

A few typical phrases:

Asawari is one of the most important late
morning ragas. It has a serious mood and is to
be performed in a slow and dignified manner.
There are three types of this raga: one with
only komal re, one with only shuddh re and
one with both.

In all three, ga and ni are avoided in ascend-

ing, but ga is strong in descent. The vadi is
dha and the samvadi is ga.

the first kind is the most common:

The second kind, using komal re, is

sometimes called 'Komal Asawari' or
'Komal Rishab Asawari'.
The ascending-descending is basically the
same as the first kind, but the use of ni
and ga is a little less strict:

The third and rarest kind, using both

komal and shuddh re, but the komal re is
weak and used only before sa:
Gaur Sarang is the first raga of the afternoon,
and depicts the sleepy, naptime mood of that
time of day. Despite the 'Sarang' in its name,
Gaur Sarang has little in common with other
ragas in that family.

A chalan in three parts:

Jaijaiwanti is one of the more complex of the
frequently performed rags. Its gentle mood
and melodic complexity make it unsuitable
for fast performances. Ascending-descending
scales can only give a vague picture of this
type of raga.

Dhani is a simple, but not ferquently performed
rag. Its similarity to Bhimpalasi and Soha Kanada
may be the reason. It has a forceful and restless
mood, and is usualy played in a fast tempo.

One of the most beloved ragas of all, and the most
often performed of the rainy season rags, Desh
(also known as Des) should not be confused with
Desi Todi. The name means 'country' or 'land' and
rag Desh is suitable for a wide variety of styles,
from very plain to very complex and subtle.

A few of the most important phrases:

The key to the expression of raga is the phrasing of

' ' or ' '.
Here is an alap which shows some delicate orna-
mentation and phrases which are not obvious from
knowing the scale.
Many artists consider Desh and Desh Malhar to
be identical. Others, though, make a distinction
between the two. While both are considered
rainy season ragas, Desh Malhar adds a few
phrases that move it closer to the other ragas
of the Malhar family.

The biggest difference is in the use in Desh

Malhar of a small touch of komal ga, much less
than in Jaijaiwanti or any other raga. As in Jai-
jaiwanti, the komal ga is used at the end of a
phrase, and is always attached to re:

Also, careful touches of other signifiers of the

Malhar family may be added.
e.g. chromatic use of both ni-s

e.g. the re-pa connection

e.g. the ni-ma connection

This lovely raga is seldom performed, possibly
because of the difficulty in maintaining the distinc-
tion between it and several similar, better-known
ragas: Desh Malhar, Jhinjhoti, Jaijaiwanti, Kafi.
While it has many of the same note-sequences as
the other ragas, its phrasing and expression is dis-
Another of the simplest ragas, Durga as a friend-
ly and loving character, as befits a raga named
after the Mother goddess.
This raga is made up of elements from two of the
main families of late-night ragas, the -kouns and
Kanada families.

this chalan is somewhat unusual, in that it shows

the entire range, from low to high twice:
Madhuwanti, whose name means 'garden of
honey.' is a relatively recent addition to Hindust-
hani music.

Lalit, whose name means 'beautiful', is the first
raga of the morning. It is unique among ragas in
that the two forms of ma are freely used consec-

Mian-ki-Sarang is the most complex raga of the
sarang family. It is one of the only ragas to use
bot the Ma-s and Ni-s consecutively. As its name
indicates, it was allegedly composed by Mian

This rare and obscure raga uses the same notes
as the popular raga Puria Kalyan, but in a more
restricted way. It also has similarities to both
Marwa and Puriya.

Three chalans:
Also called Kedara, this raga is characterized by
the dominance of shuddh ma and the interplay
between both the forms of ma.

Madhu-Malati can be thought of as an expanded
version of Madhuwanti, one which uses both
forms of ma and ni.

Logically, one would expect that the higher forms

of the notes would be used in ascending and the
lower in descending, but the following chalans
show a more complex picture: