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# Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Certificate in

## Power System Modeling and Analysis

Training Course in

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

Course Outline
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

Basic Electrical Engineering Solution Load Flow of Distribution System Load Flow of Transmission and Subtransmission System Load Flow of a Contemplated System Load Flow of a Single Line

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

Basic Electrical Engineering Solution
How do you determine the voltage, current, power, and power factor at various points in a power system?
Sending End Line Receiving End

## 1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase

ISR = ?

Solve for:
1) ISR = (SR/VR )* 2) VD = ISRZL 3) VS = VR + VD 4) SS = VSx(ISR)*

VS = ?

## VR = 13.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF

VOLTAGE DROP = VS - VR

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Sending End Line

## 1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase

ISR = ?

Receiving End

Solve for:
1) ISR = (SR/VR )* 2) VD = ISRZL 3) VS = VR + VD 4) SS = VSx(ISR)*

VS = ?

## VR = ( 13,200 / 3 )0 = 7621.020 V I SR 666 ,666.67 31.79 = = 87.48 31.79 A 7621.020

VD = ( 87.48 31.79 )( 1.1034 + j2.0856 ) = 178.15 + j104.23 V VS = (7621.02 + j0 ) + ( 178.15 + j104.23 ) = 7,799.87 0.77 V VS = 7,799.87 0.77 /1000* 3 = 13.51 k V
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

Load Flow From the Real World
Sending End Line Receiving End

ISR = ?

VS = 13.2 kVLL

## How do you solve for:

1) ISR = ? 2) VD = ? 3) VR = ? 4) SS = ?
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

Bus2 Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ? I23 , Loss23 = ? Bus3 V3 = ? P3 , Q3 = ?

Utility Grid

V1 = 67 kV P1 , Q1 = ?

How do you solve for the Voltages, Currents, Power and Losses?

I24 , Loss24 = ? V4 = ? P4 , Q4 = ? Bus4 V2 = ? Lumped Load A P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

Load Flow of Transmission and Subtransmission System
G 1 How do you solve for the Voltages, Currents and Power of a LOOP power system? Line 2 3 Line 3 Line 1 G 2

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

Load Flow of a Contemplated System
How about if there are contemplated changes in the System? How will you determine in advance the effects of: Growth or addition of new loads Addition of generating plants Upgrading of Substation Expansion of distribution lines before the proposed changes are implemented?

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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simulates (i.e., mathematically determine) the performance of an electric power system under a given set of conditions. Load Flow (also called Power Flow) is a snapshot picture of the power system at a given point.

Flow

Analysis

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line

ISR = ?

VS = 13.2 kVLL

VR = ?

SR = VR x (ISR)*

## Voltage at Sending End

VS = VR + Z x ISR

## Solving for the Current

ISR = (SR / VR)*
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## Voltage at Receiving End

VR = VS - Z x SR*/VR*
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line

ISR = ?

## Receiving End Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF

VS = 13.2 kVLL

VR = ?

Converting Quantities in Per Unit Base Power = 1 MVA Base Voltage = 13.2 kV Base Impedance = [13.2]2/1 = 174.24 ohms
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VS(pu) = 13.2 /13.2 = 1/0 SR(pu) = 2/cos-1(0.85) / 1 Zpu = (1.1034 + j2.0856)/174.24 = 0.00633 + j0.01197
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

13

Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line

ISR = ?

VS = 13.2 kVLL

VR = ?

Let

VR(0) = 1/0
For k = 2

For k = 1

## VR(1) = __________ V(1) = __________

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## VR(2) = __________ V(2) = __________

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

14

Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line

ISR = ?

VS = 13.2 kVLL

VR = ?

## VR(k) = VS - Z x [SR]* / [VR(k-1) ]* VR(2) = __________

For k = 3 For k = 4

## VR(3) = __________ V(3) = __________

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## VR(4) = __________ V(4) = __________

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line

ISR = ?

VS = 13.2 kVLL

VR = ?

## VS = __________ VR = __________ VD = VS VR VD = __________

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

## ISR = __________ SR = __________ SS = VS x [ISR]* SS = __________

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

16

Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line

ISR = ?

VS = 13.2 kVLL

VR = ?

## PFR = PR / SR PFR = _________ PFS = PS / SS PFS = _________

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## SLoss = PLoss + QLoss SLoss = SS - SR PLoss = _________ QLoss = _________

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load flow Analysis

Bus Admittance Matrix, Ybus Network Models Generator Models Bus Types for Load Flow Analysis

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

The power system components are interconnected through the buses. The buses must therefore be identified in the load flow model.
Generators and loads are connected from bus to neutral. Transmission lines and transformers are connected from one bus to another bus.

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

19

## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Network Models
The static components (transformers and lines) are represented by the bus admittance matrix, Ybus
Y 11 Y 21 Y 31 M Y n 1 Y 12 Y 22 Y 32 M Yn2 Y 13 L Y 1 n Y 23 L Y 2 n Y 33 L Y 3 n M M Y n 3 L Y nn

[YBUS] =

The number of buses (excluding the neutral bus) determines the dimension of the bus admittance, Ybus.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Network Models
Line No. Bus Code Impedance Z pq (p.u.) 1 2 3 1 -2 1 -3 2 -3 0.08 + j0.24 0.02 + j0.06 0.06 + j0.18

Line 1 1 Line 2 3
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Network Models
Compute the branch admittances to set up Ybus: 1 1 y12 = ____ = ______________ = 1.25 - j3.75 z12 0.08 + j0.24 1 1 y13 = ____ = ______________ = 5 - j15 z13 0.02 + j0.06 1 1 y23 = ____ = ______________ = 1.667 - j5 z23 0.06 + j0.18
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Set-up the bus admittance matrix: Y11 = y12 + y13 = (1.25 - j3.75) + (5 - j15) = 6.25 - j18.75 = 19.7642 -71.5651 Y12 = -y12 = -1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y13 = -y13 = -5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y21 = Y12 = -y12 = -1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Y22 = y12 + y23 = (1.25 - j3.75) + (1.6667 - j5) = 2.9167 - j8.75 = 9.2233 -71.5649 Y23 = -y23 = -1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y31 = Y13 = -y13 = -5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y32 = Y23 = -y23 Y33 = -1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 = y13 + y23 = (5 - j15) + (1.6667 - j5) = 6.6667 - j20 = 21.0819 -71.5650
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

24

## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Generator Models
Voltage-controlled generating units to supply a scheduled active power (P) at a specified voltage (V). The generating units are equipped with voltage regulator to adjust the field excitation so that the units will operate at particular reactive power (Q) in order to maintain the voltage. Swing generating units to maintain the frequency at 60Hz in addition to maintaining the specified voltage. The generating unit is equipped with frequency-following controller (very fast speed governor) and is assigned as Swing generator
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

25

## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Generators and loads are connected from bus to neutral.

## Four quantities must be specified to completely describe a bus. These are:

Bus Bus Bus Bus voltage magnitude, Vp voltage phase angle, p injected active power, Pp injected reactive power, Qp
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

Swing Bus or Slack Bus
The difference between the total load demand plus losses (both P and Q) and the scheduled generations is supplied by the swing bus. The voltage magnitude and phase angle are specified for the swing bus. P,Q + Type 1: V G Swing Bus U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Specify: V, Unknown: P, Q

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

27

## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

The total real power Pp injected into the system through the bus is specified together with the magnitude of the voltage Vp at the bus. The bus voltage magnitude is maintained through reactive P,Q power injection. + Type 2: V G Generator Bus U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

## Generator Bus (Voltage-Controlled) Bus or PV Bus

Specify: P, V Unknown: Q,

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

The total injected power Pp and the reactive power Qp at Bus P are specified and are assumed constant, independent of the small variations in bus voltage. P,Q Type 3: Load Bus + Specify: P, Q Unknown: V,
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

V
-

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## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

SUMMARY OF BUS TYPES
Bus Type Type1: S w in g Type 2: G e n e ra to r Type 3: Load Know n Q u a n t it ie s V p, p P p, V p P p, Q p Unknow n Q u a n t it ie s P p, Q p Q p, p V p, p

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

30

## Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis

G 1 Line 1 G 2 Line 2 3
Bus No. 1 2 3 Voltage Generation P Q V (p.u.) 1.0 0.0 * * 1.0 * 0.20 * * * 0 0
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Bus Types

Line 3

## Remarks Swing Bus Gen Bus Load Bus

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

31

Linear Formulation of Load Flow Equations Gauss-Seidel Load Flow Solution Numerical Example

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

32

Linear Formulation of Load Flow Equations
Pp + jQp = Vp Ip* Pp - jQp = Vp* Ip Pp = real power injected into bus P Qp = reactive power injected into bus P Vp = phasor voltage of bus P Ip = current injected into bus P
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

The real and reactive power into any bus P is: or where

(1)

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

33

Equation (1) may be rewritten as: Pp - jQp _________ Ip = Vp* From the Bus Admittance Matrix equation, the current injected into the bus are: Ip = Yp1V1 + Yp2V2 + + YppVp + + YpnVn I1 = Y11V1 + Y12V2 + Y13V3 I2 = Y21V1 + Y22V2 + Y23V3 I3 = Y31V1 + Y32V2 + Y33V3
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

(2)

(3)

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

34

Substituting (3) into (2) Pp - jQp _________ = Y V + Y V + + Y V + + Y V p1 1 p2 2 pp p pn n * Vp P1 jQ1 _________ = Y V + Y V + Y V 11 1 12 2 13 3 * V1 P2 jQ2 _________ = Y V + Y V + Y V 21 1 22 2 23 3 * V2 P3 jQ3 _________ = Y V + Y V + Y V 31 1 32 2 33 3 * V3
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

(4)

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

35

Solving for Vp in (4) P1 jQ1 _______ - (___ + Y12V2 + Y13V3) Y11V1 = V1*

## 1 P1 jQ1 V1 = Y12V2 Y13V3 V* Y11 1

P2 jQ2 _______ V2* - (Y12V2 + ___ + Y13V3)

Y22V2 =

## 1 P2 jQ2 Y21V1 Y13V3 V2 = V* Y22 2

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

36

Y33V3 = P3 jQ3 _______ V3* - (Y13V1 + Y23V2 + ___)

## 1 P3 jQ3 Y31V1 Y32V2 V3 = V* Y33 3

n Pp - jQp 1 _______ Vp = ___ - YpqVq Ypp Vp* q=1 q p

(5)

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

37

Generalizing the Gauss-Seidel Load Flow, the estimate for the voltage Vp at bus p at the kth iteration is:
n Pp - jQp 1 _______ k+1 = ___ - YpqVq Vp Ypp (Vpk)* q=1 q p

(6)

where, = k =k+1
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if p < q if p > q
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

38

Gauss-Seidel Voltage Equations of the form shown in (6) are written for all buses except for the swing bus. The solution proceeds iteratively from an estimate of all bus voltages For a Load Bus (Type 3) whose real power and reactive power are specified, the G-S voltage equation is used directly to compute the next estimate of the bus voltage. For a Generator Bus (Type 2) where the voltage magnitude is specified, an estimate of Qp must be determined first. This estimate is then compared with the reactive power limits of the generator. If it falls within the limits, the specified voltage is maintained and the computed Qp is inputted, in the Gauss-Seidel equation. Otherwise, the reactive power is set to an appropriate limit (Qmin or Qmax) and the bus is treated as a load bus in the current iteration.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

39

Numerical Example
Shown in the figure is a 3-bus power system. The line and bus data pertinent to the system are also given. The reactive limits of generator 2 are zero and 50 MVARS, respectively. Base power used is 100 MVA. Solve the load flow problem using Gauss-Seidel iterative method assuming a 0.005 convergence index.

Line 1

1 Line 2 3
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2 Line 3

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

40

Branch Data
Line No. Bus Code Impedance Z pq (p.u.) 1 2 3 1 -2 1 -3 2 -3 0.08 + j0.24 0.02 + j0.06 0.06 + j0.18

Bus Data Bus Voltage Generation No. V (p.u.) P Q 1 1.0 0.0 * * 2 1.0 * 0.20 * 3 * * 0 0
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## Remarks Swing Bus Gen Bus Load Bus

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

41

Specified Variables: V1 = 1.0 1 = 0.0 V2 = 1.0 P3 = -0.6 P2 = 0.2 Q3 = -0.25 Note the negative sign of P and Q of the Load at Bus 3

## Initial Estimates of Unknown Variables: 20 = 0.0 V30 = 1.0 30 = 0.0

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

42

The Bus Admittance Matrix elements are: Y11 = 6.25 - j18.75 = 19.7642 -71.5651 Y12 = -1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y13 = -5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y21 = -1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y22 = 2.9167 - j8.75 = 9.2233 -71.5649 Y23 = -1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y31 = -5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y32 = -1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y33 = 6.6667 - j20 = 21.0819 -71.5650
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

43

Gauss-Seidel Equations
Bus 1: Swing Bus
V1
(k + 1 )

= 1 0

## for all iterations

Bus 2: Generator Bus Q2 must first be determined from: P2 - jQ2(k+1) = (V2(k))* [Y21V1(k+1) + Y22V2(k) + Y23V3(k)] then substitute it to:
V2
(k + 1 )

(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21 V 1 Y 23 V 3 (k ) * Y 22 V2

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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(k + 1 )

V3

1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31 V 1 Y 32 V 2 * Y 33 V (k ) 3

Iteration 1 (k = 0): V1 (1) = 1.00 P2 - jQ2(1) = (1.00) [(-1.25 + j3.75)(1.00) + (2.9167 - j8.75)(1.00) + (-1.6667 + j5)(1.00) = 0.0 + j0.0 Q2(1) = 0.0 [This value is within the limits.]
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

45

V2
(k + 1 )

(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21V 1 Y 23 V 3 * (k ) Y 22 V2

V2

(1)

## 0.2 - j0.0 1 ___________________ ___________ = 9.2233-71.5650 1.00

V1 Y21 - (-1.25 +j3.75) (1.00) (k ) Y23 V3 - (-1.6667 + j5) (1.00)
( k +1)

P2 jQ2

( k +1 )

Y22

(V )
(k )
2

= 1.00711.1705
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

46

V3
(k + 1 )

1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31V 1 Y 32 V 2 (k ) * Y 33 V 3 P jQ 3 3

V31

## -0.6 + j0.25 ____________ 1.00

(V )
3

k *

( k +1 ) Y32 V2 - (5.2705108.4349)(1.00711.1705)

= 0.9816 -1.0570
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

47

V2 = V2(1) - V2(0) = 1.00711.1705 - 1.00 V2 = 0.0217 V3 = V3(1) - V3(0) = 0.9816-1.0570 - 1.00 V3 = 0.0259
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

48

Iteration 2 (k = 1): V1(2) = 1.00 Let, V2(1) = 1.01.1705 P2 - jQ2(2) = (1.0-1.1705)[(-1.25 + j3.75)(1.00) + (9.2233-71.5649)(1.01.1705) + (5.2705108.4349 )(0.9816-1.0570) = 0.2995 - j0.0073 Q2 (2) = 0.0073 [This value is within the limits.]
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

49

V2
(k + 1 )

(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21V 1 Y 23 V 3 (k ) * Y 22 V2

V2

(2)

## - (-1.25 +j3.75) (1.0 0) - (5.2705 108.4349 ) (0.9816 -1.0570) = 0.9966 0.5819

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

50

V3
(k + 1 )

1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31 V 1 Y 32 V 2 * Y 33 V (k ) 3

## - (5.2705 108.4349) (0.9966 0.5819 ) = 0.9783 -1.2166

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

51

V2 = V2(2) - V2(1) = 0.9966 0.5819 - 1.0071 1.1705 V2 = 0.0125 V3 = V3(2) - V3(1) = 0.9783 -1.2166 - 0.9816 -1.0570 V3 = 0.004
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

52

Iteration 3 (k = 2): V1(2) = 1.00 Let, V22 = 1.0 0.5819 P2 - jQ22 = (1.0 -0.5819) [(-1.25 + j3.75)(1.0 0) + (9.2233 -71.5649 ) (1.0 0.5819) + (5.2705 108.4349 ) (0.9783 -1.2166 ) = 0.2287 - j0.0472 Q22 = 0.0472 [This value is within the limits.]
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

53

V2
(k + 1 )

(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21V 1 Y 23 V 3 (k ) * Y 22 V2

V23

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

54

V3
(k + 1 )

1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31 V 1 Y 32 V 2 * Y 33 V (k ) 3

## -0.6 + j0.25 ___________________ 0.9783 1.2166

- (5.2705108.4349)(0.99900.4129) = 0.9788-1.2560
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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V2 = V2(3) - V2(2) = 0.99900.4129 - 1.00.5819 V2 = 0.003 < 0.005

## The solution has converged.

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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Non-Linear Formulation of Load Flow Equations Newton-Raphson Load Flow Solution Numerical Example

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

57

Non-Linear Formulation of Load Flow Equations
The complex power injected into Bus p is

Pp jQ p = E* I p p
and the current equation may be written as
Ip =

(1)

Y
q =1

pq

Eq
n

(2)

P p jQ

= E

* p

Y E
q =1 pq

(3)
q

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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

58

Let E = V p p
p

E q = Vq q

Ypq = Ypq pq
Substituting into equation (3),

Pp jQ p =
Pp =
n

VVY
q =1 p q
q pq

pq

( pq + q p )

(4)

## Separating the real and imaginary components

VVY
q =1 p
n q =1

co s( pq + q p )

(5) (6)

Q p = V pV q Y pq sin( pq + q p )
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

59

The formulation results in a set of non-linear equations, two for each Bus of the system. Equations Pp are written for all Buses except the Swing Bus. Equations Qp are written for Load Buses only The system of equations may be written for i number of buses minus the swing bus (n-1) j number of load buses

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

60

The system of equations may be written as

(7)

## Q1 = Q1 ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v2 ....,v j ) Q2 = Q2 ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v2 ....,v j )

Q j = Q j ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v2 ....,v j )
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

61

Equation (7) may be linearized using a First-Order Taylor-Series Expansion
P1spec P2 spec = P1calc = P2calc + + P1 1 1 P2 1 1 + + P1 2 2 P2 2 2 +... + +... + P1 i i P2 i i Pi i 2 + + P1 V1 V1 P2 V1 V1 Pi V1 V1 + + P1 V2 V2 P2 V2 V2 Pi V2 V2 +... + +... + P1 V j V j P2 V j V j Pi V j V j Q1 V j V j Q2 V j V j Q j V j

Pi spec

M M M

= Pi calc = Q1calc
calc = Q2

+ + +

MP
i

1 +

M P
i

+ + +

+ + +

## +... + +... + +... +

Q1spec Q2spec

Q1 1 1 Q2 1 1

+ +

Q1 2 2 Q2 2 2

Q1 i i Q2 i i Q j i

Q1 V1 V1 Q2 V1 V1 Q j V1

Q1 V2 V2 Q2 V2 V2 Q j V2

M M M
spec j

= Q

calc j

MQ

1 +

M Q

+... +

V1 +

V2 +... +

V j

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

P1 s p e c sp ec P2 Pi s p e c sp ec Q1 Q sp ec 2 sp ec Q j
P1 P1c a l c 1 c a lc P2 P2 1 M M Pi Pi c a l c 1 = Q1 Q 1c a l c 1 Q2 c a lc Q2 1 M M Q j Q c a lc j 1

62

P1 2 P2 2

L L

P1 i P2 i

P1 V1 P2 V1

P1 V2
P2 V2

L
L

M
Pi 2 Q1 2 Q2 2

M L L L M
j

M
Pi V1 Q1 V1 Q 2 V1

M
Pi V2 Q1 V2 Q 2 V2

Pi 2 Q1 i Q 2 i

L L L

M
Q

M
Q i
j

M
Q
j

M
Q
j

V1

V2

P1 1 V j P2 2 V j M M Pi i V j Q1 V1 V j Q2 V 2 V j M M Q j V j V j

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

63

or simply

P P Q = Q

P V Q V V

P P V P V Q = Q Q V V V V
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

64

P J1 = Q J 3 J 2 V J4 V
p

n Pp = V p V q Y p q s in ( p q + q q = 1 ,q p p J1 P p = V V Y s in ( + ) p q pq pq q p q
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

65

Pp Vp = P p + V p2 Y p p c o s p p V p V Pp = V V Y c o s ( q p q pq pq + q p ) Vq n Q p = V pV q Y pq c o s ( pq + q q = 1 ,q p p Q p = V V Y co s( p q pq pq + q p ) q
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J2

J3

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

66

V p J4 V q Q p V p Q p Vq = Q p V p2 Y p p s in p q = V p V q Y p q s in ( p q + q )

The solution of the load flow equations proceeds iteratively from the set of initial estimates. These estimates are updated after evaluating the Jacobian matrix.

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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At the kth iteration,
( ( ( p k +1 ) = p k ) + p k )

V p( k +1 ) = V p( k ) + V p( k )
The process is terminated once convergence is achieved whrein

MAX P( k ) p

and

MAX Q ( k ) q

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

68

Numerical Example
Shown in the figure is a 3-bus power system. The line and bus data pertinent to the system are also given. The reactive limits of generator 2 are zero and 50 MVARS, respectively. Base power used is 100 MVA. Solve the load flow problem using Gauss-Seidel iterative method assuming a 0.005 convergence index.

G 1 Line 2

Line 1

G 2 Line 3 3

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

69

Branch Data
Line No. Bus Code Impedance Z pq (p.u.) 1 2 3 1 -2 1 -3 2 -3 0.08 + j0.24 0.02 + j0.06 0.06 + j0.18

Bus Data Bus Voltage Generation No. V (p.u.) P Q 1 1.0 0.0 * * 2 1.0 * 0.20 * 3 * * 0 0
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## Remarks Swing Bus Gen Bus Load Bus

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

70

The elements of the Bus Admittance Matrix are:

Y11 = 6.25 j18.75 = 19.7642 71.5651 Y12 = 1, 25 + j 3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y13 = 5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y 21 = 1.25 + j .375 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y 22 = 2.9167 j 8.75 = 9.2233 71.5649 Y 23 = 1.6667 + j 5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y31 = 5 + j15 = 15.811 4 108.4349 Y32 = 1.6667 + j 5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y33 = 6.6667 j 20 = 21.0819 71.5650
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

71

Bus 1: Swing Bus (Not included) Bus 2: Generator Bus (Compute for P2) Bus 32: Generator Bus (Compute for P2 and Q2)

P2 P2 2 P3 3 P = 2 Q3 Q3 2

P2 3 P 3 3 Q3 3

P2 V3 2 V3 P V3 3 3 V3 Q3 V3 V3 V3 V3
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

72

Specified Variables: V1 = 1.0 1 = 0.0 V2 = 1.0 P3 = -0.6 P2 = 0.2 Q3 = -0.25

## Initial Estimates of Unknown Variables: 20 = 0.0 V30 = 1.0 30 = 0.0

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

73

Compute Initial Power Estimates

P20 = V2V1Y21 cos( 21 + 1 2 ) + V2V2Y22 cos 22 + V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 2 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 3.9528 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 9.2233 )cos( 71.5649 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 ) = 0.0

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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P30 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) + V3V2Y32 cos( 22 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 cos 33 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 0.0

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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0 Q 3 = V 3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 )

+ V 3V 2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) + V 3V 3Y33 sin 33 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 ) sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 ) sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 21.0819 ) sin( 71.5650 ) = 0.0

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

76

Compute Power Mismatch

P20 = 0 . 2 0 . 0 = 0 . 2 P30 = 0 .6 0 .0 = 0 .6 Q 30 = 0 .2 5 0 .0 = 0 .2 5
Evaluate elements of Jacobian Matrix
P J = Q P Q V V V
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

77

Elements of J1:

P2 = V2V1Y21 sin( 21 + 1 2 ) 2 + V2V3Y23 sin( 23 + 3 2 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 3.9528 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 8.75

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Elements of J1:

## P3 = V3V2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) 2 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 ) sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 5

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

79

Elements of J1:

P3 = V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 ) 3 + V3V2Y23 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 20

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

80

Elements of J2:

P2 = V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 + 2 ) V3 V3

## P3 V3 = P3 + V32Y33 cos 33 V3 = 0.0 + ( 1.0 )2 ( 8.2233 )cos( 71.5649 ) = 2.9167

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

81

Elements of J3:

Q3 = V3V2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) 2 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 1.6667
+ V3Y2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 6.6667
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Q3 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) 3

82

Elements of J4:

In Matrix Form,

8.75 5 1.6667

## 1.6667 20 2.9167 6.6667 20

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## 30 = 0.02587rad. = 1.4822deg V30 = 0.02145 V30 = 0.02145

V3
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

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Update Initial Estimates

21 = 20 + 20
21 = 0.0 + 0.2283 = 0.2283 31 = 30 + 30 31 = 0.0 1.4822 = 1.4822
V = V + V
1 3 0 3 0 3

Specified Variables

V11 = 1.0

11 = 0.0
V21 = 1.0

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

85

Update Estimates of Injected Power

## P1 = V2VY21 cos(31 + 1 3 ) 2 1 + V2V2Y22 cos(22 )

+ 1.4822 = (1.0 )(1.0 )(3.9528 )cos(108.4349 + 0.0 0.2283) + (1.0 )(1.0 )(9.2233)cos( 71.5649 ) + (1.0 )(0.97855)(5.2705)cos(108.4349 1.4822 0.2283) = 0.1975
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+ V2V3Y23 cos(23 + 3 2 )

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

86

Update Estimates of Injected Power

P31 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) + V3V2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 cos( 33 ) = (0.97855 )(1.0 )(15.8114 )cos(108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(0.97855 )( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 0.66633

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

87

Update Estimates of Injected Power
1 Q3 = [V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 )

+V3V3Y33 sin( 33 )]

+ V3V2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 )

= - [(0.97855 )(1.0 )(15.8114 )sin(108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) +(0.97855 )(0.97855 )( 21.0819 )sin( 71.5650 )] = 0.2375

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

88

Compute Power Mismatch P2 = P2 ,s p P2 ,c a lc
= 0 .2 0 .1 9 7 5 = 0 .0 0 2 5

P3 = P3 ,s p P3 ,c a lc
= 0 .6 + 0 .6 6 3 3 = 0 .0 6 3 3

Q 3 = Q 3 ,s p Q 3 ,c a lc
= .0 .2 5 + 0 .2 3 7 5 = 0 .0 1 2 5
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Proceed to Iteration 2
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

89

Evaluate Elements of Jacobian Matrix Elements of J1:

P 2 = VVY21 sin(21 + 1 2 ) 2 1 2 + VV3Y23 sin(23 + 3 2 ) 2 = (1.0)(1.0)(3.9528)sin(108.4349 + 0.0 0.2283) + (1.0)(0.97855)(5.2705)sin(108.4349 1.4822 0.2283) = 8.6942

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Elements of J1:

## P 2 = V2V3Y23 sin(23 + 3 2 ) 3 = (1.0)(0.97855)(5.2705)sin(108.4349 1.4822 0.2283) = 4.9393

P 3 = VV2Y32 sin(32 + 2 3 ) 3 2 = (0.97855)(1.0)(5.2705)sin(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822) = 4.8419

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

91

Elements of J1:

P3 = V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 ) 3 + V3V2Y23 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) = (0.97855 )(1.0 )(15.8114 )sin(108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) = 19.3887

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

92

Elements of J2:

P2 V3 = V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 + 2 ) V3

## P3 V3 = P3 + V32Y33 cos 33 V3 = 0.6633 + ( 0.97855 )2 ( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 5.7205

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Elements of J3:

## Q3 = VV2Y32 cos(32 + 2 3 ) 3 2 = (0.97855)(1.0)(5.2705)cos(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822) = 1.7762

Q3 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) 3

+ V3Y2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) = ( 0.97855 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + ( 0.97855 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) = 7.0470
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Elements of J4:

In Matrix Form,

## 8.6942 4.9393 1.4842 4.8419 19.3887 5.7205 1.7762 7.0470 18.9137

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

95

0.0025 8.6942 4.9393 1.4842 2 0.0633 = 4.8419 19.3887 5.7205 3 0.0125 1.7762 7.0470 18.9137 V3 / V3

V30
V3

= 0.0005

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

96

Update Previous Estimates

22 = 21 + 21
= 0.2283 + 0.1458 = 0.37410

32 = 31 + 31
= 1.4822 + 0.2150 = 1.2672 0 V32 = V31 + V31 = 0.97855 + 0.0005 = 0.9791
Specified Variables

V11 = 1.0

11 = 0.0
V21 = 1.0
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

97

Update Previous Estimates of Injected Power

P22 = V2V1Y21 cos( 21 + 1 2 ) + V2V2Y22 cos( 22 ) + V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 2 ) = ( 1.0 )(1.0 )( 3.9528 )cos(108.4349 + 0.0 0.3741) + ( 1.0 )(1.0 )( 9.2233 )cos( 71.5649 ) + ( 1.0 )(0.9791)( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 1.2672 0.3741) = 0.2018

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

98

Update Previous Estimates of Injected Power

P32 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) + V3V2Y32 cos( 22 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 cos 33 = ( 0.9791 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 1.2672 ) + ( 0.9791 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.3741 + 1.2672 ) + ( 0.9791 )( 0.9791 )( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 0.5995

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

99

Update Previous Estimates of Injected Power
2 Q3 = [V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 )

+V3V2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 sin33 ] = [(0.9791)(1.0 )(15.8114 )sin(108.4349 + 0.0 1.2672 ) + (0.9791)(1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin(108.4349 + 0.37411 + 1.2672 ) +(0.9791)(0.9791)( 21.0819 )sin( 71.5650 )] = 0.2487

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

100

Compute Power Mismatch P2 = P2 ,s p P2 ,c a lc
= 0 .2 0 .2 0 1 8 = 0 .0 0 1 8

P3 = P3 ,s p P3 ,c a lc
= 0 .6 + 0 .5 9 9 5 = 0 .0 0 0 5

Q 3 = Q 3 ,s p Q 3 ,c a lc
= .0 .2 5 + 0 .2 4 8 7 = 0 .0 0 1 3
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## The solution has converged

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

101

The solution of the Load Flow Problem is

V1 = 1.00 0 V2 = 1.00.3741
0 0

V3 = 0.9791 1.2672

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102

## Information from a Load Flow Study

The power injected into the buses are: P1 - jQ1 = V1* [Y11V1 + Y12V2 + Y13V3 ] P1 - jQ1 = (1.00) [(19.7642-71.5651)(1.00) + (3.9528108.4349)(0.99900.4129) + (15.8114108.4349) (0.9788-1.25560) = 0.4033 - j0.2272
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## Information from a Load Flow Study

P2 - jQ2 = (0.999-0.4129)[(3.9528108.4349)(1.00) + (9.2233-71.5649)(0.99900.4129) + (5.2705108.4349)(0.9788-1.25560) = 0.2025 - j0.04286 P3 - jQ3 = V3* [Y31V1 + Y32V2 + Y33V3 ] P3 - jQ3 = (0.97881.256) [(15.8114108.4349)(1.00) + (5.2705108.4349)(0.99900.4129) + (21.0819 -71.5650)(0.9788-1.25560 ) = -0.600 + j0.2498
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## Information from a Load Flow Study

The branch currents are:

I pq = I line = y pq ( V p Vq )
I12 = y12 [V1 - V2]

I qp = I line = y pq ( Vq V p )
I21 = y12 [V2 V1]

## I23 = y23 [V2 V3]

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## I32 = y23 [V3 V2]

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Line Currents
Ipq Vp
p

Iline ypo

ypq

Vq
q

Iqp

yqo

## The line current Ipq, measured at bus p is given by

I pq = I line + I po = y pq ( V p Vq ) + y poV p
Similarly, the line current Iqp, measured at bus q is I = I + I = y (V V ) + y V
qp line qo pq q p qo q
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## Information from a Load Flow Study

The branch power flows are: P12 jQ12 = V1* I12 P21 jQ21 = V2* I21

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## Information from a Load Flow Study

Power FLOWS
The power flow (Spq) from bus p to q is

S pq = Ppq jQ pq = V I

* p pq

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## Information from a Load Flow Study

The line losses are: P12(Loss) jQ12(Loss) = (P12 jQ12) + (P21 jQ21 )

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## Information from a Load Flow Study

Line Losses
The power loss in line pq is the algebraic sum of the power flows Spq and Sqp

## S loss = Ploss + jQloss = S pq + S qp

= (V p + V q )I
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= VpI

* pq

VqI
* pq

* pq

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## Information from a Load Flow Study

BASIC INFORMATION Voltage Profile Injected Power (Pp and Qp) Line Currents (Ipq and Ipq) Power Flows (Ppq and Qpq) Line Losses (I2R and I2X)

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## Information from a Load Flow Study

OTHER INFORMATION Overvoltage and Undervoltage Buses Critical and Overloaded Transformers and Lines Total System Losses

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

112

Load Flow for Radial Distribution System Procedure: Iterative Solution Initialization Solving for Injected Currents through the nodes Backward Sweep Forward Sweep Solving for Injected Power Solving for Voltage Mismatch

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

113

Bus2 Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ? I23 , Loss23 = ?
0.635 + j1.970

Utility Grid

0.131 + j1.595

V1 = 67 kV P1 , Q1 = ?

I24 , Loss24 = ? V4 = ? P4 , Q4 = ? 0.4223 + j0.7980 Bus4 V2 = ? Lumped Load A P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF

Bus3 V3 = ? P3 , Q3 = ?

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

114

Equivalent Circuit
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Utility Grid

Bus3 V3

V1

0.0242+j0.0458pu

Bus4 V4

1 + j0 pu

V2

Base Values
Sbase = 10 MVA Vbase1 = 67 kV Vbase2 = 13.2 kV
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0.085 + j0.05267 pu

0.17 + j0.10536 pu

## Base Z =13.22/10 =17.424

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

115

Iterative Solution
1. Solve Injected Currents by Loads 2. Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep) 3. Update Voltages (Forward Sweep) 4. Solve for Injected Power 5. Solve for Power Mismatch Continue iteration by Backward-Forward Sweep until convergence is achieved After convergence, solve Iinj, Pinj, Qinj, PF, PLoss, QLoss
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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

116

Initialization
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Utility Grid

Bus3 V3

V1

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

Bus4 V4

1 + j0 pu

V2

Initialize,

## V1(0) = 1/0 V2(0) = 1/0 V3(0) = 1/0 V4(0) = 1/0

0.085 + j0.05267 pu

0.17 + j0.10536 pu

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

117

Solving for Injected Currents
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Utility Grid

Bus3 V3
0.17 + j0.10536 pu

V1

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

Bus4 V4
0.085 + j0.05267 pu

1 + j0 pu

V2

## Solve Injected Currents by Loads

I1(0) = 0 I2(0) = 0

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

118

Backward Sweep
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Utility Grid

Bus3 V3
0.17 + j0.10536 pu

V1

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

Bus4 V4
0.085 + j0.05267 pu

1 + j0 pu

V2

## Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep)

I24(0) = I4(0) = _______ I23(0) = I3(0) = _______ I12(0) = 0 + I23(0) + I24(0) = _______

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

119

Forward Sweep
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Utility Grid
V1

Bus3 V3

0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

Bus4 V4

1 + j0 pu

V2

## Update Voltages (Forward Sweep)

V1(1) = 1/0

0.085 + j0.05267 pu

0.17 + j0.10536 pu

V2(1) = V1(0) [I12(0)][Z12] = ________ V3(1) = V2(1) [I23(0)][Z23] = ________ V4(1) = V2(1) [I24(0)][Z24] = ________

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

120

Solving for Injected Power
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Utility Grid

## Bus3 V3 0.17 + j0.10536 pu

V1

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

Bus4 V4

1 + j0 pu

V2

## Solve Injected Power

S1(1) = [V1(1)][I1(0)]* = ___________ S2(1) = [V2(1)][I2(0)]* = ___________ S3(1) = [V3(1)][I3(0)]* = ___________ S4(1) = [V4(1)][I4(0)]* = ___________

0.085+ j0.05267 pu

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

121

Solving for Power Mismatch
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Utility Grid

Bus3 V3

V1

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

Bus4 V4

1 + j0 pu

V2

Solve S1(1) = S1(sp) - S1(calc) = ____________ Power Mismatch S2(1) = S2(sp) S2(calc) = ____________ S3(1) = S3(sp) S3(calc) = ____________ S4(1) = S4(sp) S4(calc) = ____________
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

0.085 + j0.05267 pu

0.17 + j0.10536 pu

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

122

Iterative Solution
Iteration 2: Solve Injected Currents by Loads Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep) I1(1) = 0 I2(1) = 0 I3(1) = S3* /[V3(1)]* = __________ I4(1) = S4* /[V4(1)]* = __________ I24(1) = I4(1) = _______ I23(1) = I3(1) = _______ I12(1) = 0 + I23(1) + I24(1) = _______
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

123

Iterative Solution
Update Voltages (Forward Sweep) V1(2) = 1/0 V2(2) = V1(1) [I12(1)][Z12] = ________ V3(2) = V2(1) [I23(1)][Z23] = ________ V4(2) = V2(1) [I24(1)][Z24] = ________ Solve Injected Power S1(2) = [V1(2)][I1(1)]* = ___________ S2(2) = [V2(2)][I2(1)]* = ___________ S3(2) = [V3(2)][I3(1)]* = ___________ S4(2) = [V4(2)][I4(1)]* = ___________
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

124

Iterative Solution
Solve Power Mismatch S1(2) = S1(sp) - S1(calc) = ____________ S2(2) = S2(sp) S2(calc) = ____________ S3(2) = S3(sp) S3(calc) = ____________ S4(2) = S4(sp) S4(calc) = ____________ If Mismatch is higher than set convergence index, repeat the procedure (Backward-Forward Sweep) [Iteration 3]

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

125

Iterative Solution
Iteration 3: Solve Injected Currents by Loads Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep) I1(2) = 0 I2(2) = 0 I3(2) = S3* /[V3(2)]* = __________ I4(2) = S4* /[V4(2)]* = __________ I24(2) = I4(2) = _______ I23(2) = I3(2) = _______ I12(2) = 0 + I23(2) + I24(2) = _______
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

126

Iterative Solution
Update Voltages (Forward Sweep) V1(3) = 1/0 V2(3) = V1(2) [I12(2)][Z12] = ________ V3(3) = V2(2) [I23(2)][Z23] = ________ V4(3) = V2(2) [I24(2)][Z24] = ________ Solve Injected Power S1(3) = [V1(3)][I1(2)]* = ___________ S2(3) = [V2(3)][I2(2)]* = ___________ S3(3) = [V3(3)][I3(2)]* = ___________ S4(3) = [V4(3)][I4(2)]* = ___________
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

127

Iterative Solution
Solve Power Mismatch S1(3) = S1(3) - S1(2) S2(3) = S2(3) S2(2) = ____________ S3(3) = S3(3) S3(2) = ____________ S4(3) = S4(3) S4(2) = ____________ If Mismatch is lower than set convergence index, compute power flows

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

128

Bus2 Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Bus3

Utility Grid

0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0242+j0.0458

Bus4

## VOLTAGE PROFILE V1 = ________ V2 = ________ V3 = ________ V4 = ________

Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF

## Lumped Load A 2 MVA 85%PF

INJECTED POWER P1 + jQ1 = ________ + j ________ P2 + jQ2 = ________ + j ________ P3 + jQ3 = ________ + j ________ P4 + jQ4 = ________ + j ________

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

129

Bus2 Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Bus3

Utility Grid

0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

## POWER FLOW (P-Q) P12 + jQ12 = ________ + j ________

P23 + jQ23 = ________ + j ________ 1 MVA 85%PF P24 + jQ24 = ________ + j ________ POWER FLOW (Q-P)

P21 + jQ21 = ________ + j ________ P32 + jQ32 = ________ + j ________ P42 + jQ42 = ________ + j ________
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

130

Bus2 Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu

Bus3

Utility Grid

0.0075+j 0.0915 pu

0.0242+j0.0458 pu

Branch Currents I12 = ________ I23 = ________ I24 = ________ POWER LOSSES

## Bus4 Lumped Load A 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF

I2R12 + jI2X12 = ________ + j ________ I2R23 + jI2X24 = ________ + j ________ I2R24 + jI2X24 = ________ + j ________
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

## Training Course in Load Flow Analysis

131

Line sections in the radial network are ordered by layers away from the root node (substation bus).
1 2 4 7 13 21 27 8 14 22 23 8 9 15 5 10 11 17 16 24 28 32 29 33 35 18 3 6 12 20 25 30 34 31 26

## Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 8

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

19

132

## Three-Phase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method

The iterative algorithm for solving the radial system consists of three steps. At iteration k: Step 1: Nodal current calculation

I ia I ib I ic

(k )

S / V ( k 1 ) ia ia k 1 ) ( = Sib / Vib S / V ( k 1 ) ic ic

( ( (

) ) )

## ( k 1 ) Y * Via ia * Yib Vib * Yic Vic

Where,

I ia , I ib , I ic V ia ,V ib ,V ic Y ia ,Y ib ,Y ic

Current injections at node i Voltages at node i Admittances of all shunt elements at node i
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

133

## Three-Phase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method

Step 2: Backward Sweep to sum up line section current Starting from the line section in the last layer and moving towards the root node. The current in the line section l is:

J la J lb J lc
Where,

(k )

I ja = I jb I jc

(k )

J ma + J mb mM J mc

(k )

J la , J lb , J jc
l and M

are the current flows on line section l Is the set of line sections connected to node j

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Three-Phase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method

Step 3: Forward Sweep to update nodal voltage Starting from the first layer and moving towards the last layer, the voltage at node j is:

V ja V jb V jc

(k )

(k )

(k )

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Three-Phase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method

After the three steps are executed in one iteration, the power mismatches at each node for all phases are calculated:

S S S

(k ) ia (k ) ib (k ) ic

=V =V =V

(k ) ia (k ) ib (k ) ic

(I ) (I ) (I )

(k ) ia (k ) ib (k ) ic

Y Via
* ia * ia * ic

S ia S ib S ic

Y Vib Y Vic

If the real and imaginary part (real and reactive power) of any of these power mismatches is greater than a convergence criterion, steps 1, 2 & 3 are repeated until convergence is achieved.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Principles of Load Flow Control

Prime mover and excitation control of generators Reactive Var Compensation (e.g., Capacitors) Control of tap-changing and voltage regulating transformers

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Principles of Load Flow Control

Generator Voltage & Power Control
jX Ei

Vt0

## Ei Vt 0 Pt + jQt = [Vt 0]I = [Vt 0] jX

*

EiVt Pt = sin X
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

EiVt Vt 2 Qt = cos X X
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

138

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Generator Voltage & Power Control

EiVt = Pt sin X
Observations:

EiVt Vt 2 Qt = cos X X

1. Real Power is injected into the bus (Generator Operation), must be positive (Ei leads Vt) 2. Real Power is drawn from the bus (Motor Operation), must be negative (Ei lags Vt) 3. In actual operation, the numeric value of is small & since the slope of Sine function is maximum for small values, a minute change in can cause a substantial change in Pt
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

139

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Generator Voltage & Power Control

EiVt = Pt sin X
Observations:

EiVt Vt 2 Qt = cos X X

4. Reactive Power flow depends on relative values of EiCos and Vt 5. Since the slope of Cosine function is minimum for small values of angle, Reactive Power is controlled by varying Ei
Over-excitation (increasing Ei) will deliver Reactive Power into the Bus Under-excitation (decreasing Ei) will absorb Reactive Power from the Bus
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

140

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Capacitor Compensation ~
p Ipq q + jQc PL - jQL
The voltage of bus q can be expressed as

Eq = Vp

X pqQq Vp

X pq Pq Vp

Observations:

1. The Reactive Power Qq causes a voltage drop and thus largely affects the magnitude of Eq 2. A capacitor bank connected to bus q will reduce Qq that will consequently reduce voltage drop
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

141

## Principles of Load Flow Control

Tap-Changing Transformer
a:1 q s p r
The equivalent circuit of transformer with the per unit transformation ratio:

1 y pq a

Observation:
The voltage drop in the transformer is affected by the transformation ratio a

1 a y pq 2 a

a 1 y pq a

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Uses of Load Flow Study

Sensitivity Analysis with Load Flow Study Analysis of Existing Conditions Analysis for Correcting PQ Problems Expansion Planning Contingency Analysis System Loss Analysis

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Uses of Load Flow Studies

Sensitivity Analysis with Load Flow Study
1) Take any line, transformer or generator out of service. 2) Add, reduce or remove load to any or all buses. 3) Add, remove or shift generation to any bus. 4) Add new transmission or distribution lines. 5) Increase conductor size on T&D lines. 6) Change bus voltages. 7) Change transformer taps. 8) Increase or decrease transformer size. 9) Add or remove rotating or static var supply to buses.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

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## Uses of Load Flow Studies

1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS Check for voltage violations PGC: 0.95 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission) PDC: 0.90 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*
*Recommended 0.95 1.05 p.u.

Check for branch power flow violations Transformer Overloads Line Overloads Check for system losses Caps on Segregated DSL

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point Request TransCo to improve voltage at connection point TransCo as System Operator will determine feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and other adjustments such as transformer tap changing and reactive power compensation

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS Transformer tap changing Available Taps
At Primary Side At Secondary Side Both Sides

Typical Taps
Tap 1: +5% Tap 2: +2.5% Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage) Tap 4: -2.5% Tap 5: -5%

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS Capacitor compensation Compensate for Peak Loading Check overvoltages during Off-Peak Optimize Capacitor Plan System configuration improvement

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Uses of Load Flow Studies

3) EXPANSION PLANNING New substation construction Substation capacity expansion New feeder segment construction / extension Addition of parallel feeder segment Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit Circuit conversion to higher voltage Generator addition

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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## Uses of Load Flow Studies

4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and Subtransmission System 5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS Segregation of System Losses

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

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150

## U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration

Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering