Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Certificate in
Power System Modeling and Analysis
Training Course in
Load Flow Analysis
U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
Course Outline
1. The Load Flow Problem 2. Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis 3. GaussSeidel Load Flow 4. NewtonRaphson Load Flow 5. Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow 6. Principles of Load Flow Control 7. Uses of Load Flow Studies
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
The Load Flow Problem
Basic Electrical Engineering Solution Load Flow of Distribution System Load Flow of Transmission and Subtransmission System Load Flow of a Contemplated System Load Flow of a Single Line
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
The Load Flow Problem
Basic Electrical Engineering Solution
How do you determine the voltage, current, power, and power factor at various points in a power system?
Sending End Line Receiving End
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Solve for:
1) ISR = (SR/VR )* 2) VD = ISRZL 3) VS = VR + VD 4) SS = VSx(ISR)*
VS = ?
VR = 13.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VOLTAGE DROP = VS  VR
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
The Load Flow Problem
Sending End Line
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Receiving End
Solve for:
1) ISR = (SR/VR )* 2) VD = ISRZL 3) VS = VR + VD 4) SS = VSx(ISR)*
VS = ?
S1 = ( 2,000,000 / 3 ) cos 1 ( 0.85 ) = 666 ,666.67 31.79 VA
VR = 13.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VR = ( 13,200 / 3 )0 = 7621.020 V I SR 666 ,666.67 31.79 = = 87.48 31.79 A 7621.020
VD = ( 87.48 31.79 )( 1.1034 + j2.0856 ) = 178.15 + j104.23 V VS = (7621.02 + j0 ) + ( 178.15 + j104.23 ) = 7,799.87 0.77 V VS = 7,799.87 0.77 /1000* 3 = 13.51 k V
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow From the Real World
Sending End Line Receiving End
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
VS = 13.2 kVLL
VR = ? Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
How do you solve for:
1) ISR = ? 2) VD = ? 3) VR = ? 4) SS = ?
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of Distribution System
Bus2 Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ? I23 , Loss23 = ? Bus3 V3 = ? P3 , Q3 = ?
Utility Grid
V1 = 67 kV P1 , Q1 = ?
How do you solve for the Voltages, Currents, Power and Losses?
I24 , Loss24 = ? V4 = ? P4 , Q4 = ? Bus4 V2 = ? Lumped Load A P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of Transmission and Subtransmission System
G 1 How do you solve for the Voltages, Currents and Power of a LOOP power system? Line 2 3 Line 3 Line 1 G 2
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of a Contemplated System
How about if there are contemplated changes in the System? How will you determine in advance the effects of: Growth or addition of new loads Addition of generating plants Upgrading of Substation Expansion of distribution lines before the proposed changes are implemented?
Answer: LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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The Load Flow Problem
Load
simulates (i.e., mathematically determine) the performance of an electric power system under a given set of conditions. Load Flow (also called Power Flow) is a snapshot picture of the power system at a given point.
Flow
Analysis
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Receiving End Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VS = 13.2 kVLL
VR = ?
Injected Power at Receiving End
SR = VR x (ISR)*
Voltage at Sending End
VS = VR + Z x ISR
Solving for the Current
ISR = (SR / VR)*
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Voltage at Receiving End
VR = VS  Z x SR*/VR*
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Receiving End Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VS = 13.2 kVLL
VR = ?
Converting Quantities in Per Unit Base Power = 1 MVA Base Voltage = 13.2 kV Base Impedance = [13.2]2/1 = 174.24 ohms
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VS(pu) = 13.2 /13.2 = 1/0 SR(pu) = 2/cos1(0.85) / 1 Zpu = (1.1034 + j2.0856)/174.24 = 0.00633 + j0.01197
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Receiving End Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VS = 13.2 kVLL
VR = ?
VR(k) = VS  Z x [SR]* / [VR(k1) ]*
Let
VR(0) = 1/0
For k = 2
For k = 1
VR(1) = __________ V(1) = __________
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VR(2) = __________ V(2) = __________
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Receiving End Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VS = 13.2 kVLL
VR = ?
VR(k) = VS  Z x [SR]* / [VR(k1) ]* VR(2) = __________
For k = 3 For k = 4
VR(3) = __________ V(3) = __________
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VR(4) = __________ V(4) = __________
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Receiving End Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VS = 13.2 kVLL
VR = ?
VS = __________ VR = __________ VD = VS VR VD = __________
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ISR = __________ SR = __________ SS = VS x [ISR]* SS = __________
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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The Load Flow Problem
Load Flow of a Single Line
Sending End Line
1.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase
ISR = ?
Receiving End Load 2 MVA, 3Ph 85%PF
VS = 13.2 kVLL
VR = ?
PFR = PR / SR PFR = _________ PFS = PS / SS PFS = _________
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SLoss = PLoss + QLoss SLoss = SS  SR PLoss = _________ QLoss = _________
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load flow Analysis
Bus Admittance Matrix, Ybus Network Models Generator Models Bus Types for Load Flow Analysis
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
18
Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
The power system components are interconnected through the buses. The buses must therefore be identified in the load flow model.
Generators and loads are connected from bus to neutral. Transmission lines and transformers are connected from one bus to another bus.
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Network Models
The static components (transformers and lines) are represented by the bus admittance matrix, Ybus
Y 11 Y 21 Y 31 M Y n 1 Y 12 Y 22 Y 32 M Yn2 Y 13 L Y 1 n Y 23 L Y 2 n Y 33 L Y 3 n M M Y n 3 L Y nn
[YBUS] =
The number of buses (excluding the neutral bus) determines the dimension of the bus admittance, Ybus.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Network Models
Line No. Bus Code Impedance Z pq (p.u.) 1 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 0.08 + j0.24 0.02 + j0.06 0.06 + j0.18
Line 1 1 Line 2 3
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2 Line 3 Setup the Ybus
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
21
Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Network Models
Compute the branch admittances to set up Ybus: 1 1 y12 = ____ = ______________ = 1.25  j3.75 z12 0.08 + j0.24 1 1 y13 = ____ = ______________ = 5  j15 z13 0.02 + j0.06 1 1 y23 = ____ = ______________ = 1.667  j5 z23 0.06 + j0.18
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Setup the bus admittance matrix: Y11 = y12 + y13 = (1.25  j3.75) + (5  j15) = 6.25  j18.75 = 19.7642 71.5651 Y12 = y12 = 1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y13 = y13 = 5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y21 = Y12 = y12 = 1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Y22 = y12 + y23 = (1.25  j3.75) + (1.6667  j5) = 2.9167  j8.75 = 9.2233 71.5649 Y23 = y23 = 1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y31 = Y13 = y13 = 5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y32 = Y23 = y23 Y33 = 1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 = y13 + y23 = (5  j15) + (1.6667  j5) = 6.6667  j20 = 21.0819 71.5650
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Generator Models
Voltagecontrolled generating units to supply a scheduled active power (P) at a specified voltage (V). The generating units are equipped with voltage regulator to adjust the field excitation so that the units will operate at particular reactive power (Q) in order to maintain the voltage. Swing generating units to maintain the frequency at 60Hz in addition to maintaining the specified voltage. The generating unit is equipped with frequencyfollowing controller (very fast speed governor) and is assigned as Swing generator
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Bus Types for Load Flow
Generators and loads are connected from bus to neutral.
Four quantities must be specified to completely describe a bus. These are:
Bus Bus Bus Bus voltage magnitude, Vp voltage phase angle, p injected active power, Pp injected reactive power, Qp
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Swing Bus or Slack Bus
The difference between the total load demand plus losses (both P and Q) and the scheduled generations is supplied by the swing bus. The voltage magnitude and phase angle are specified for the swing bus. P,Q + Type 1: V G Swing Bus U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Specify: V, Unknown: P, Q
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
The total real power Pp injected into the system through the bus is specified together with the magnitude of the voltage Vp at the bus. The bus voltage magnitude is maintained through reactive P,Q power injection. + Type 2: V G Generator Bus U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Generator Bus (VoltageControlled) Bus or PV Bus
Specify: P, V Unknown: Q,
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
Load Bus or PQ Bus
The total injected power Pp and the reactive power Qp at Bus P are specified and are assumed constant, independent of the small variations in bus voltage. P,Q Type 3: Load Bus + Specify: P, Q Unknown: V,
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
V

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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
SUMMARY OF BUS TYPES
Bus Type Type1: S w in g Type 2: G e n e ra to r Type 3: Load Know n Q u a n t it ie s V p, p P p, V p P p, Q p Unknow n Q u a n t it ie s P p, Q p Q p, p V p, p
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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Power System Models for Load Flow Analysis
G 1 Line 1 G 2 Line 2 3
Bus No. 1 2 3 Voltage Generation P Q V (p.u.) 1.0 0.0 * * 1.0 * 0.20 * * * 0 0
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Bus Types
Line 3
Load P Q 0 0 0 0 0.60 0.25
Remarks Swing Bus Gen Bus Load Bus
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
Linear Formulation of Load Flow Equations GaussSeidel Load Flow Solution Numerical Example
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
Linear Formulation of Load Flow Equations
Pp + jQp = Vp Ip* Pp  jQp = Vp* Ip Pp = real power injected into bus P Qp = reactive power injected into bus P Vp = phasor voltage of bus P Ip = current injected into bus P
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The real and reactive power into any bus P is: or where
(1)
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
33
GaussSeidel Load Flow
Equation (1) may be rewritten as: Pp  jQp _________ Ip = Vp* From the Bus Admittance Matrix equation, the current injected into the bus are: Ip = Yp1V1 + Yp2V2 + + YppVp + + YpnVn I1 = Y11V1 + Y12V2 + Y13V3 I2 = Y21V1 + Y22V2 + Y23V3 I3 = Y31V1 + Y32V2 + Y33V3
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(2)
(3)
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
34
GaussSeidel Load Flow
Substituting (3) into (2) Pp  jQp _________ = Y V + Y V + + Y V + + Y V p1 1 p2 2 pp p pn n * Vp P1 jQ1 _________ = Y V + Y V + Y V 11 1 12 2 13 3 * V1 P2 jQ2 _________ = Y V + Y V + Y V 21 1 22 2 23 3 * V2 P3 jQ3 _________ = Y V + Y V + Y V 31 1 32 2 33 3 * V3
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(4)
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
35
GaussSeidel Load Flow
Solving for Vp in (4) P1 jQ1 _______  (___ + Y12V2 + Y13V3) Y11V1 = V1*
1 P1 jQ1 V1 = Y12V2 Y13V3 V* Y11 1
P2 jQ2 _______ V2*  (Y12V2 + ___ + Y13V3)
Y22V2 =
1 P2 jQ2 Y21V1 Y13V3 V2 = V* Y22 2
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
Y33V3 = P3 jQ3 _______ V3*  (Y13V1 + Y23V2 + ___)
1 P3 jQ3 Y31V1 Y32V2 V3 = V* Y33 3
n Pp  jQp 1 _______ Vp = ___  YpqVq Ypp Vp* q=1 q p
(5)
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
GaussSeidel Load Flow Solution
Generalizing the GaussSeidel Load Flow, the estimate for the voltage Vp at bus p at the kth iteration is:
n Pp  jQp 1 _______ k+1 = ___  YpqVq Vp Ypp (Vpk)* q=1 q p
(6)
where, = k =k+1
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if p < q if p > q
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
GaussSeidel Voltage Equations of the form shown in (6) are written for all buses except for the swing bus. The solution proceeds iteratively from an estimate of all bus voltages For a Load Bus (Type 3) whose real power and reactive power are specified, the GS voltage equation is used directly to compute the next estimate of the bus voltage. For a Generator Bus (Type 2) where the voltage magnitude is specified, an estimate of Qp must be determined first. This estimate is then compared with the reactive power limits of the generator. If it falls within the limits, the specified voltage is maintained and the computed Qp is inputted, in the GaussSeidel equation. Otherwise, the reactive power is set to an appropriate limit (Qmin or Qmax) and the bus is treated as a load bus in the current iteration.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
Numerical Example
Shown in the figure is a 3bus power system. The line and bus data pertinent to the system are also given. The reactive limits of generator 2 are zero and 50 MVARS, respectively. Base power used is 100 MVA. Solve the load flow problem using GaussSeidel iterative method assuming a 0.005 convergence index.
Line 1
1 Line 2 3
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2 Line 3
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
Branch Data
Line No. Bus Code Impedance Z pq (p.u.) 1 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 0.08 + j0.24 0.02 + j0.06 0.06 + j0.18
Bus Data Bus Voltage Generation No. V (p.u.) P Q 1 1.0 0.0 * * 2 1.0 * 0.20 * 3 * * 0 0
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Load P Q 0 0 0 0 0.60 0.25
Remarks Swing Bus Gen Bus Load Bus
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
Specified Variables: V1 = 1.0 1 = 0.0 V2 = 1.0 P3 = 0.6 P2 = 0.2 Q3 = 0.25 Note the negative sign of P and Q of the Load at Bus 3
Initial Estimates of Unknown Variables: 20 = 0.0 V30 = 1.0 30 = 0.0
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
The Bus Admittance Matrix elements are: Y11 = 6.25  j18.75 = 19.7642 71.5651 Y12 = 1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y13 = 5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y21 = 1.25 + j3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y22 = 2.9167  j8.75 = 9.2233 71.5649 Y23 = 1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y31 = 5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y32 = 1.6667 + j5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y33 = 6.6667  j20 = 21.0819 71.5650
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
GaussSeidel Equations
Bus 1: Swing Bus
V1
(k + 1 )
= 1 0
for all iterations
Bus 2: Generator Bus Q2 must first be determined from: P2  jQ2(k+1) = (V2(k))* [Y21V1(k+1) + Y22V2(k) + Y23V3(k)] then substitute it to:
V2
(k + 1 )
(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21 V 1 Y 23 V 3 (k ) * Y 22 V2
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
Bus 3: Load Bus
(k + 1 )
V3
1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31 V 1 Y 32 V 2 * Y 33 V (k ) 3
Iteration 1 (k = 0): V1 (1) = 1.00 P2  jQ2(1) = (1.00) [(1.25 + j3.75)(1.00) + (2.9167  j8.75)(1.00) + (1.6667 + j5)(1.00) = 0.0 + j0.0 Q2(1) = 0.0 [This value is within the limits.]
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
V2
(k + 1 )
(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21V 1 Y 23 V 3 * (k ) Y 22 V2
V2
(1)
0.2  j0.0 1 ___________________ ___________ = 9.223371.5650 1.00
V1 Y21  (1.25 +j3.75) (1.00) (k ) Y23 V3  (1.6667 + j5) (1.00)
( k +1)
P2 jQ2
( k +1 )
Y22
(V )
(k )
2
= 1.00711.1705
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
V3
(k + 1 )
1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31V 1 Y 32 V 2 (k ) * Y 33 V 3 P jQ 3 3
V31
1 _____________________ = 21.081971.5650 Y33 ( k +1) Y31 V1  (5 +j15) (1.00)
0.6 + j0.25 ____________ 1.00
(V )
3
k *
( k +1 ) Y32 V2  (5.2705108.4349)(1.00711.1705)
= 0.9816 1.0570
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
47
GaussSeidel Load Flow
V2 = V2(1)  V2(0) = 1.00711.1705  1.00 V2 = 0.0217 V3 = V3(1)  V3(0) = 0.98161.0570  1.00 V3 = 0.0259
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
48
GaussSeidel Load Flow
Iteration 2 (k = 1): V1(2) = 1.00 Let, V2(1) = 1.01.1705 P2  jQ2(2) = (1.01.1705)[(1.25 + j3.75)(1.00) + (9.223371.5649)(1.01.1705) + (5.2705108.4349 )(0.98161.0570) = 0.2995  j0.0073 Q2 (2) = 0.0073 [This value is within the limits.]
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
49
GaussSeidel Load Flow
V2
(k + 1 )
(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21V 1 Y 23 V 3 (k ) * Y 22 V2
V2
(2)
1 ___________________ = 9.2233 71.5650
0.2  j0.0073 ______________ 1.0 1.1705
 (1.25 +j3.75) (1.0 0)  (5.2705 108.4349 ) (0.9816 1.0570) = 0.9966 0.5819
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
50
GaussSeidel Load Flow
V3
(k + 1 )
1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31 V 1 Y 32 V 2 * Y 33 V (k ) 3
1 (2) =_____________________ V3 21.0819 71.5650  (5 +j15) (1.0 0)
0.6 + j0.25 ___________________ 0.9816 1.0570
 (5.2705 108.4349) (0.9966 0.5819 ) = 0.9783 1.2166
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
51
GaussSeidel Load Flow
V2 = V2(2)  V2(1) = 0.9966 0.5819  1.0071 1.1705 V2 = 0.0125 V3 = V3(2)  V3(1) = 0.9783 1.2166  0.9816 1.0570 V3 = 0.004
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
52
GaussSeidel Load Flow
Iteration 3 (k = 2): V1(2) = 1.00 Let, V22 = 1.0 0.5819 P2  jQ22 = (1.0 0.5819) [(1.25 + j3.75)(1.0 0) + (9.2233 71.5649 ) (1.0 0.5819) + (5.2705 108.4349 ) (0.9783 1.2166 ) = 0.2287  j0.0472 Q22 = 0.0472 [This value is within the limits.]
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
53
GaussSeidel Load Flow
V2
(k + 1 )
(k + 1 ) 1 P2 jQ 2 (k + 1 ) (k ) = Y 21V 1 Y 23 V 3 (k ) * Y 22 V2
V23
1 ___________________ = 9.2233 71.5650
0.2  j0.0472 ______________ 1.0 0.5819
 (1.25 +j3.75) (1.0 0)  (5.2705 108.4349 ) (0.9783 1.2166 ) = 0.9990 0.4129
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Training Course in Load Flow Analysis
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
V3
(k + 1 )
1 P3 jQ 3 (k + 1 ) (k + 1 ) = Y 31 V 1 Y 32 V 2 * Y 33 V (k ) 3
1 3 = _____________________ V3 21.0819 71.5650  (5 +j15)(1.00)
0.6 + j0.25 ___________________ 0.9783 1.2166
 (5.2705108.4349)(0.99900.4129) = 0.97881.2560
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GaussSeidel Load Flow
V2 = V2(3)  V2(2) = 0.99900.4129  1.00.5819 V2 = 0.003 < 0.005
V3 = V3(3)  V3(2) = 0.97881.2560  0.97831.2166 V3 = 0.0008 < 0.005
The solution has converged.
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
NonLinear Formulation of Load Flow Equations NewtonRaphson Load Flow Solution Numerical Example
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
NonLinear Formulation of Load Flow Equations
The complex power injected into Bus p is
Pp jQ p = E* I p p
and the current equation may be written as
Ip =
(1)
Y
q =1
pq
Eq
n
(2)
Substituting (2) into (1)
P p jQ
= E
* p
Y E
q =1 pq
(3)
q
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Let E = V p p
p
E q = Vq q
Ypq = Ypq pq
Substituting into equation (3),
Pp jQ p =
Pp =
n
VVY
q =1 p q
q pq
pq
( pq + q p )
(4)
Separating the real and imaginary components
VVY
q =1 p
n q =1
co s( pq + q p )
(5) (6)
Q p = V pV q Y pq sin( pq + q p )
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
The formulation results in a set of nonlinear equations, two for each Bus of the system. Equations Pp are written for all Buses except the Swing Bus. Equations Qp are written for Load Buses only The system of equations may be written for i number of buses minus the swing bus (n1) j number of load buses
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
The system of equations may be written as
P1 = P1 ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v 2 ....,v j ) P2 = P2 ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v 2 ....,v j ) M M Pi = Pi ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v 2 ....,v j )
(7)
Q1 = Q1 ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v2 ....,v j ) Q2 = Q2 ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v2 ....,v j )
Q j = Q j ( 1 , 2 ,..., i ,v1 ,v2 ....,v j )
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Equation (7) may be linearized using a FirstOrder TaylorSeries Expansion
P1spec P2 spec = P1calc = P2calc + + P1 1 1 P2 1 1 + + P1 2 2 P2 2 2 +... + +... + P1 i i P2 i i Pi i 2 + + P1 V1 V1 P2 V1 V1 Pi V1 V1 + + P1 V2 V2 P2 V2 V2 Pi V2 V2 +... + +... + P1 V j V j P2 V j V j Pi V j V j Q1 V j V j Q2 V j V j Q j V j
Pi spec
M M M
= Pi calc = Q1calc
calc = Q2
+ + +
MP
i
1 +
M P
i
+... + +... + +... +
+ + +
+ + +
+... + +... + +... +
Q1spec Q2spec
Q1 1 1 Q2 1 1
+ +
Q1 2 2 Q2 2 2
Q1 i i Q2 i i Q j i
Q1 V1 V1 Q2 V1 V1 Q j V1
Q1 V2 V2 Q2 V2 V2 Q j V2
M M M
spec j
= Q
calc j
MQ
1 +
M Q
+... +
V1 +
V2 +... +
V j
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P1 s p e c sp ec P2 Pi s p e c sp ec Q1 Q sp ec 2 sp ec Q j
P1 P1c a l c 1 c a lc P2 P2 1 M M Pi Pi c a l c 1 = Q1 Q 1c a l c 1 Q2 c a lc Q2 1 M M Q j Q c a lc j 1
62
P1 2 P2 2
L L
P1 i P2 i
P1 V1 P2 V1
P1 V2
P2 V2
L
L
M
Pi 2 Q1 2 Q2 2
M L L L M
j
M
Pi V1 Q1 V1 Q 2 V1
M
Pi V2 Q1 V2 Q 2 V2
Pi 2 Q1 i Q 2 i
L L L
M
Q
M
Q i
j
M
Q
j
M
Q
j
V1
V2
P1 1 V j P2 2 V j M M Pi i V j Q1 V1 V j Q2 V 2 V j M M Q j V j V j
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
or simply
P P Q = Q
P V Q V V
P P V P V Q = Q Q V V V V
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
NewtonRaphson Load Flow Solution
P J1 = Q J 3 J 2 V J4 V
p
n Pp = V p V q Y p q s in ( p q + q q = 1 ,q p p J1 P p = V V Y s in ( + ) p q pq pq q p q
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Pp Vp = P p + V p2 Y p p c o s p p V p V Pp = V V Y c o s ( q p q pq pq + q p ) Vq n Q p = V pV q Y pq c o s ( pq + q q = 1 ,q p p Q p = V V Y co s( p q pq pq + q p ) q
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J2
J3
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
V p J4 V q Q p V p Q p Vq = Q p V p2 Y p p s in p q = V p V q Y p q s in ( p q + q )
The solution of the load flow equations proceeds iteratively from the set of initial estimates. These estimates are updated after evaluating the Jacobian matrix.
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
At the kth iteration,
( ( ( p k +1 ) = p k ) + p k )
V p( k +1 ) = V p( k ) + V p( k )
The process is terminated once convergence is achieved whrein
MAX P( k ) p
and
MAX Q ( k ) q
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Numerical Example
Shown in the figure is a 3bus power system. The line and bus data pertinent to the system are also given. The reactive limits of generator 2 are zero and 50 MVARS, respectively. Base power used is 100 MVA. Solve the load flow problem using GaussSeidel iterative method assuming a 0.005 convergence index.
G 1 Line 2
Line 1
G 2 Line 3 3
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Branch Data
Line No. Bus Code Impedance Z pq (p.u.) 1 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 0.08 + j0.24 0.02 + j0.06 0.06 + j0.18
Bus Data Bus Voltage Generation No. V (p.u.) P Q 1 1.0 0.0 * * 2 1.0 * 0.20 * 3 * * 0 0
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Load P Q 0 0 0 0 0.60 0.25
Remarks Swing Bus Gen Bus Load Bus
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The elements of the Bus Admittance Matrix are:
Y11 = 6.25 j18.75 = 19.7642 71.5651 Y12 = 1, 25 + j 3.75 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y13 = 5 + j15 = 15.8114 108.4349 Y 21 = 1.25 + j .375 = 3.9528 108.4349 Y 22 = 2.9167 j 8.75 = 9.2233 71.5649 Y 23 = 1.6667 + j 5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y31 = 5 + j15 = 15.811 4 108.4349 Y32 = 1.6667 + j 5 = 5.2705 108.4349 Y33 = 6.6667 j 20 = 21.0819 71.5650
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Bus 1: Swing Bus (Not included) Bus 2: Generator Bus (Compute for P2) Bus 32: Generator Bus (Compute for P2 and Q2)
P2 P2 2 P3 3 P = 2 Q3 Q3 2
P2 3 P 3 3 Q3 3
P2 V3 2 V3 P V3 3 3 V3 Q3 V3 V3 V3 V3
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Specified Variables: V1 = 1.0 1 = 0.0 V2 = 1.0 P3 = 0.6 P2 = 0.2 Q3 = 0.25
Initial Estimates of Unknown Variables: 20 = 0.0 V30 = 1.0 30 = 0.0
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Compute Initial Power Estimates
P20 = V2V1Y21 cos( 21 + 1 2 ) + V2V2Y22 cos 22 + V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 2 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 3.9528 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 9.2233 )cos( 71.5649 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 ) = 0.0
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
P30 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) + V3V2Y32 cos( 22 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 cos 33 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 0.0
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
0 Q 3 = V 3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 )
+ V 3V 2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) + V 3V 3Y33 sin 33 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 ) sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 ) sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 21.0819 ) sin( 71.5650 ) = 0.0
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Compute Power Mismatch
P20 = 0 . 2 0 . 0 = 0 . 2 P30 = 0 .6 0 .0 = 0 .6 Q 30 = 0 .2 5 0 .0 = 0 .2 5
Evaluate elements of Jacobian Matrix
P J = Q P Q V V V
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J1:
P2 = V2V1Y21 sin( 21 + 1 2 ) 2 + V2V3Y23 sin( 23 + 3 2 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 3.9528 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 8.75
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J1:
P2 = V2V3Y23 sin( 23 + 3 2 ) 3 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 ) sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 5
P3 = V3V2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) 2 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 ) sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 5
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J1:
P3 = V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 ) 3 + V3V2Y23 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 20
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J2:
P2 = V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 + 2 ) V3 V3
= (1.0 )(1.0 )(5.2705) cos(108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 1.6667
P3 V3 = P3 + V32Y33 cos 33 V3 = 0.0 + ( 1.0 )2 ( 8.2233 )cos( 71.5649 ) = 2.9167
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J3:
Q3 = V3V2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) 2 = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 1.6667
+ V3Y2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) = ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) + ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 0.0 ) = 6.6667
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Q3 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) 3
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J4:
P3 V3 = Q3 V32Y33 sin 33 3 = 0.0 ( 1.0 )2 ( 21.0819 ) sin( 71.5649 ) = 20
In Matrix Form,
8.75 5 1.6667
1.6667 20 2.9167 6.6667 20
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Solving for Gradients,
5 1.6667 2 0.2 8.75 0.6 = 5 20 2.9167 3 0.25 1.6667 6.6667 20 V3 / V3
20 = 0.003984rad . = 0.2283 deg
30 = 0.02587rad. = 1.4822deg V30 = 0.02145 V30 = 0.02145
V3
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Update Initial Estimates
21 = 20 + 20
21 = 0.0 + 0.2283 = 0.2283 31 = 30 + 30 31 = 0.0 1.4822 = 1.4822
V = V + V
1 3 0 3 0 3
Specified Variables
V31 = 1.0 0.02145 = 0.97855
V11 = 1.0
11 = 0.0
V21 = 1.0
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Update Estimates of Injected Power
P1 = V2VY21 cos(31 + 1 3 ) 2 1 + V2V2Y22 cos(22 )
+ 1.4822 = (1.0 )(1.0 )(3.9528 )cos(108.4349 + 0.0 0.2283) + (1.0 )(1.0 )(9.2233)cos( 71.5649 ) + (1.0 )(0.97855)(5.2705)cos(108.4349 1.4822 0.2283) = 0.1975
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+ V2V3Y23 cos(23 + 3 2 )
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Update Estimates of Injected Power
P31 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) + V3V2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 cos( 33 ) = (0.97855 )(1.0 )(15.8114 )cos(108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(0.97855 )( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 0.66633
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Update Estimates of Injected Power
1 Q3 = [V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 )
+V3V3Y33 sin( 33 )]
+ V3V2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 )
=  [(0.97855 )(1.0 )(15.8114 )sin(108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) +(0.97855 )(0.97855 )( 21.0819 )sin( 71.5650 )] = 0.2375
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Compute Power Mismatch P2 = P2 ,s p P2 ,c a lc
= 0 .2 0 .1 9 7 5 = 0 .0 0 2 5
P3 = P3 ,s p P3 ,c a lc
= 0 .6 + 0 .6 6 3 3 = 0 .0 6 3 3
Q 3 = Q 3 ,s p Q 3 ,c a lc
= .0 .2 5 + 0 .2 3 7 5 = 0 .0 1 2 5
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Proceed to Iteration 2
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Evaluate Elements of Jacobian Matrix Elements of J1:
P 2 = VVY21 sin(21 + 1 2 ) 2 1 2 + VV3Y23 sin(23 + 3 2 ) 2 = (1.0)(1.0)(3.9528)sin(108.4349 + 0.0 0.2283) + (1.0)(0.97855)(5.2705)sin(108.4349 1.4822 0.2283) = 8.6942
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J1:
P 2 = V2V3Y23 sin(23 + 3 2 ) 3 = (1.0)(0.97855)(5.2705)sin(108.4349 1.4822 0.2283) = 4.9393
P 3 = VV2Y32 sin(32 + 2 3 ) 3 2 = (0.97855)(1.0)(5.2705)sin(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822) = 4.8419
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J1:
P3 = V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 ) 3 + V3V2Y23 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) = (0.97855 )(1.0 )(15.8114 )sin(108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + (0.97855 )(1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) = 19.3887
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J2:
P2 V3 = V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 + 2 ) V3
= (1.0 )(0.097855)(5.2705) cos(108.4349 + 1.4822 0.2283) = 1.4842
P3 V3 = P3 + V32Y33 cos 33 V3 = 0.6633 + ( 0.97855 )2 ( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 5.7205
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J3:
Q3 = VV2Y32 cos(32 + 2 3 ) 3 2 = (0.97855)(1.0)(5.2705)cos(108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822) = 1.7762
Q3 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) 3
+ V3Y2Y32 cos( 32 + 2 3 ) = ( 0.97855 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 + 1.4822 ) + ( 0.97855 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.2283 + 1.4822 ) = 7.0470
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Elements of J4:
P3 V3 = Q3 V32Y33 sin 33 3 = 0.2375 ( 0.97855 )2 ( 21.0819 )sin( 71.565 ) = 18.9137
In Matrix Form,
8.6942 4.9393 1.4842 4.8419 19.3887 5.7205 1.7762 7.0470 18.9137
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Solving for Gradients,
0.0025 8.6942 4.9393 1.4842 2 0.0633 = 4.8419 19.3887 5.7205 3 0.0125 1.7762 7.0470 18.9137 V3 / V3
21 = 0.0025 rad x 180 0 / rad = 0.1458 0
31 = 0.0038 rad x 180 0 / rad = 0.2150 0
V30
V3
= 0.0005
V 31 = (0 .0005 )(0 .97855 ) = 0 .0005
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Update Previous Estimates
22 = 21 + 21
= 0.2283 + 0.1458 = 0.37410
32 = 31 + 31
= 1.4822 + 0.2150 = 1.2672 0 V32 = V31 + V31 = 0.97855 + 0.0005 = 0.9791
Specified Variables
V11 = 1.0
11 = 0.0
V21 = 1.0
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Update Previous Estimates of Injected Power
P22 = V2V1Y21 cos( 21 + 1 2 ) + V2V2Y22 cos( 22 ) + V2V3Y23 cos( 23 + 3 2 ) = ( 1.0 )(1.0 )( 3.9528 )cos(108.4349 + 0.0 0.3741) + ( 1.0 )(1.0 )( 9.2233 )cos( 71.5649 ) + ( 1.0 )(0.9791)( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 1.2672 0.3741) = 0.2018
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Update Previous Estimates of Injected Power
P32 = V3V1Y31 cos( 31 + 1 3 ) + V3V2Y32 cos( 22 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 cos 33 = ( 0.9791 )( 1.0 )( 15.8114 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.0 1.2672 ) + ( 0.9791 )( 1.0 )( 5.2705 )cos( 108.4349 + 0.3741 + 1.2672 ) + ( 0.9791 )( 0.9791 )( 21.0819 )cos( 71.5650 ) = 0.5995
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Update Previous Estimates of Injected Power
2 Q3 = [V3V1Y31 sin( 31 + 1 3 )
+V3V2Y32 sin( 32 + 2 3 ) + V3V3Y33 sin33 ] = [(0.9791)(1.0 )(15.8114 )sin(108.4349 + 0.0 1.2672 ) + (0.9791)(1.0 )( 5.2705 )sin(108.4349 + 0.37411 + 1.2672 ) +(0.9791)(0.9791)( 21.0819 )sin( 71.5650 )] = 0.2487
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
Compute Power Mismatch P2 = P2 ,s p P2 ,c a lc
= 0 .2 0 .2 0 1 8 = 0 .0 0 1 8
P3 = P3 ,s p P3 ,c a lc
= 0 .6 + 0 .5 9 9 5 = 0 .0 0 0 5
Q 3 = Q 3 ,s p Q 3 ,c a lc
= .0 .2 5 + 0 .2 4 8 7 = 0 .0 0 1 3
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The solution has converged
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NewtonRaphson Load Flow
The solution of the Load Flow Problem is
V1 = 1.00 0 V2 = 1.00.3741
0 0
V3 = 0.9791 1.2672
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The bus voltages are: V1 = 1.00 V2 = 0.99900.4129 V3 = 0.97881.2560
Information from a Load Flow Study
The power injected into the buses are: P1  jQ1 = V1* [Y11V1 + Y12V2 + Y13V3 ] P1  jQ1 = (1.00) [(19.764271.5651)(1.00) + (3.9528108.4349)(0.99900.4129) + (15.8114108.4349) (0.97881.25560) = 0.4033  j0.2272
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P2  jQ2 = V2* [Y21V1 + Y22V2 + Y23V3 ]
Information from a Load Flow Study
P2  jQ2 = (0.9990.4129)[(3.9528108.4349)(1.00) + (9.223371.5649)(0.99900.4129) + (5.2705108.4349)(0.97881.25560) = 0.2025  j0.04286 P3  jQ3 = V3* [Y31V1 + Y32V2 + Y33V3 ] P3  jQ3 = (0.97881.256) [(15.8114108.4349)(1.00) + (5.2705108.4349)(0.99900.4129) + (21.0819 71.5650)(0.97881.25560 ) = 0.600 + j0.2498
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Information from a Load Flow Study
The branch currents are:
I pq = I line = y pq ( V p Vq )
I12 = y12 [V1  V2]
I qp = I line = y pq ( Vq V p )
I21 = y12 [V2 V1]
I13 = y13 [V1 V3]
I31 = y13 [V3 V1]
I23 = y23 [V2 V3]
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I32 = y23 [V3 V2]
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Information from a Load Flow Study
Line Currents
Ipq Vp
p
Iline ypo
ypq
Vq
q
Iqp
yqo
The line current Ipq, measured at bus p is given by
I pq = I line + I po = y pq ( V p Vq ) + y poV p
Similarly, the line current Iqp, measured at bus q is I = I + I = y (V V ) + y V
qp line qo pq q p qo q
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Information from a Load Flow Study
The branch power flows are: P12 jQ12 = V1* I12 P21 jQ21 = V2* I21
P13 jQ13 = V1* I13
P31 jQ31 = V3* I31
P23 jQ23 = V2* I23
P32 jQ32 = V3* I32
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Information from a Load Flow Study
Power FLOWS
The power flow (Spq) from bus p to q is
S pq = Ppq jQ pq = V I
* p pq
The power flow (Sqp) from bus q to p is
S qp = Pqp jQqp = Vq* I qp
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Information from a Load Flow Study
The line losses are: P12(Loss) jQ12(Loss) = (P12 jQ12) + (P21 jQ21 )
P13(Loss) jQ13(Loss) = (P13 jQ13) + (P31 jQ31 )
P23(Loss) jQ23(Loss) = (P23 jQ23) + (P32 jQ32 )
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Information from a Load Flow Study
Line Losses
The power loss in line pq is the algebraic sum of the power flows Spq and Sqp
S loss = Ploss + jQloss = S pq + S qp
= (V p + V q )I
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= VpI
* pq
VqI
* pq
* pq
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Information from a Load Flow Study
BASIC INFORMATION Voltage Profile Injected Power (Pp and Qp) Line Currents (Ipq and Ipq) Power Flows (Ppq and Qpq) Line Losses (I2R and I2X)
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Information from a Load Flow Study
OTHER INFORMATION Overvoltage and Undervoltage Buses Critical and Overloaded Transformers and Lines Total System Losses
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Load Flow for Radial Distribution System Procedure: Iterative Solution Initialization Solving for Injected Currents through the nodes Backward Sweep Forward Sweep Solving for Injected Power Solving for Voltage Mismatch
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Bus2 Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ? I23 , Loss23 = ?
0.635 + j1.970
Utility Grid
0.131 + j1.595
V1 = 67 kV P1 , Q1 = ?
I24 , Loss24 = ? V4 = ? P4 , Q4 = ? 0.4223 + j0.7980 Bus4 V2 = ? Lumped Load A P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF
Bus3 V3 = ? P3 , Q3 = ?
Load Flow for Radial Distribution System
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Equivalent Circuit
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Utility Grid
Bus3 V3
V1
0.0242+j0.0458pu
Bus4 V4
1 + j0 pu
V2
Base Values
Sbase = 10 MVA Vbase1 = 67 kV Vbase2 = 13.2 kV
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0.085 + j0.05267 pu
0.17 + j0.10536 pu
Base Z =13.22/10 =17.424
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Iterative Solution
1. Solve Injected Currents by Loads 2. Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep) 3. Update Voltages (Forward Sweep) 4. Solve for Injected Power 5. Solve for Power Mismatch Continue iteration by BackwardForward Sweep until convergence is achieved After convergence, solve Iinj, Pinj, Qinj, PF, PLoss, QLoss
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Initialization
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Utility Grid
Bus3 V3
V1
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
Bus4 V4
1 + j0 pu
V2
Initialize,
V1(0) = 1/0 V2(0) = 1/0 V3(0) = 1/0 V4(0) = 1/0
0.085 + j0.05267 pu
0.17 + j0.10536 pu
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Solving for Injected Currents
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Utility Grid
Bus3 V3
0.17 + j0.10536 pu
V1
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
Bus4 V4
0.085 + j0.05267 pu
1 + j0 pu
V2
Solve Injected Currents by Loads
I1(0) = 0 I2(0) = 0
I3(0) = S3* /[V3(0)]* = __________ I4(0) = S4* /[V4(0)]* = __________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Backward Sweep
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Utility Grid
Bus3 V3
0.17 + j0.10536 pu
V1
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
Bus4 V4
0.085 + j0.05267 pu
1 + j0 pu
V2
Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep)
I24(0) = I4(0) = _______ I23(0) = I3(0) = _______ I12(0) = 0 + I23(0) + I24(0) = _______
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Forward Sweep
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Utility Grid
V1
Bus3 V3
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
Bus4 V4
1 + j0 pu
V2
Update Voltages (Forward Sweep)
V1(1) = 1/0
0.085 + j0.05267 pu
0.17 + j0.10536 pu
V2(1) = V1(0) [I12(0)][Z12] = ________ V3(1) = V2(1) [I23(0)][Z23] = ________ V4(1) = V2(1) [I24(0)][Z24] = ________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Solving for Injected Power
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Utility Grid
Bus3 V3 0.17 + j0.10536 pu
V1
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
Bus4 V4
1 + j0 pu
V2
Solve Injected Power
S1(1) = [V1(1)][I1(0)]* = ___________ S2(1) = [V2(1)][I2(0)]* = ___________ S3(1) = [V3(1)][I3(0)]* = ___________ S4(1) = [V4(1)][I4(0)]* = ___________
0.085+ j0.05267 pu
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Solving for Power Mismatch
Bus2 V1 = 67 kV Bus1
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Utility Grid
Bus3 V3
V1
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
Bus4 V4
1 + j0 pu
V2
Solve S1(1) = S1(sp)  S1(calc) = ____________ Power Mismatch S2(1) = S2(sp) S2(calc) = ____________ S3(1) = S3(sp) S3(calc) = ____________ S4(1) = S4(sp) S4(calc) = ____________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Iterative Solution
Iteration 2: Solve Injected Currents by Loads Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep) I1(1) = 0 I2(1) = 0 I3(1) = S3* /[V3(1)]* = __________ I4(1) = S4* /[V4(1)]* = __________ I24(1) = I4(1) = _______ I23(1) = I3(1) = _______ I12(1) = 0 + I23(1) + I24(1) = _______
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Iterative Solution
Update Voltages (Forward Sweep) V1(2) = 1/0 V2(2) = V1(1) [I12(1)][Z12] = ________ V3(2) = V2(1) [I23(1)][Z23] = ________ V4(2) = V2(1) [I24(1)][Z24] = ________ Solve Injected Power S1(2) = [V1(2)][I1(1)]* = ___________ S2(2) = [V2(2)][I2(1)]* = ___________ S3(2) = [V3(2)][I3(1)]* = ___________ S4(2) = [V4(2)][I4(1)]* = ___________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Iterative Solution
Solve Power Mismatch S1(2) = S1(sp)  S1(calc) = ____________ S2(2) = S2(sp) S2(calc) = ____________ S3(2) = S3(sp) S3(calc) = ____________ S4(2) = S4(sp) S4(calc) = ____________ If Mismatch is higher than set convergence index, repeat the procedure (BackwardForward Sweep) [Iteration 3]
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Iterative Solution
Iteration 3: Solve Injected Currents by Loads Solve Line Currents (Backward Sweep) I1(2) = 0 I2(2) = 0 I3(2) = S3* /[V3(2)]* = __________ I4(2) = S4* /[V4(2)]* = __________ I24(2) = I4(2) = _______ I23(2) = I3(2) = _______ I12(2) = 0 + I23(2) + I24(2) = _______
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Iterative Solution
Update Voltages (Forward Sweep) V1(3) = 1/0 V2(3) = V1(2) [I12(2)][Z12] = ________ V3(3) = V2(2) [I23(2)][Z23] = ________ V4(3) = V2(2) [I24(2)][Z24] = ________ Solve Injected Power S1(3) = [V1(3)][I1(2)]* = ___________ S2(3) = [V2(3)][I2(2)]* = ___________ S3(3) = [V3(3)][I3(2)]* = ___________ S4(3) = [V4(3)][I4(2)]* = ___________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Iterative Solution
Solve Power Mismatch S1(3) = S1(3)  S1(2) S2(3) = S2(3) S2(2) = ____________ S3(3) = S3(3) S3(2) = ____________ S4(3) = S4(3) S4(2) = ____________ If Mismatch is lower than set convergence index, compute power flows
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Bus2 Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Bus3
Utility Grid
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0242+j0.0458
Bus4
VOLTAGE PROFILE V1 = ________ V2 = ________ V3 = ________ V4 = ________
Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF
Lumped Load A 2 MVA 85%PF
INJECTED POWER P1 + jQ1 = ________ + j ________ P2 + jQ2 = ________ + j ________ P3 + jQ3 = ________ + j ________ P4 + jQ4 = ________ + j ________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Bus2 Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Bus3
Utility Grid
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
POWER FLOW (PQ) P12 + jQ12 = ________ + j ________
Bus4 Lumped Load A 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B
P23 + jQ23 = ________ + j ________ 1 MVA 85%PF P24 + jQ24 = ________ + j ________ POWER FLOW (QP)
P21 + jQ21 = ________ + j ________ P32 + jQ32 = ________ + j ________ P42 + jQ42 = ________ + j ________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Bus2 Bus1
0.0364 +j 0.1131 pu
Bus3
Utility Grid
0.0075+j 0.0915 pu
0.0242+j0.0458 pu
Branch Currents I12 = ________ I23 = ________ I24 = ________ POWER LOSSES
Bus4 Lumped Load A 2 MVA 85%PF Lumped Load B 1 MVA 85%PF
I2R12 + jI2X12 = ________ + j ________ I2R23 + jI2X24 = ________ + j ________ I2R24 + jI2X24 = ________ + j ________
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Backward/Forward Sweep Load Flow
Line sections in the radial network are ordered by layers away from the root node (substation bus).
1 2 4 7 13 21 27 8 14 22 23 8 9 15 5 10 11 17 16 24 28 32 29 33 35 18 3 6 12 20 25 30 34 31 26
Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 8
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ThreePhase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method
The iterative algorithm for solving the radial system consists of three steps. At iteration k: Step 1: Nodal current calculation
I ia I ib I ic
(k )
S / V ( k 1 ) ia ia k 1 ) ( = Sib / Vib S / V ( k 1 ) ic ic
( ( (
) ) )
( k 1 ) Y * Via ia * Yib Vib * Yic Vic
Where,
I ia , I ib , I ic V ia ,V ib ,V ic Y ia ,Y ib ,Y ic
Current injections at node i Voltages at node i Admittances of all shunt elements at node i
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S ia , S ib , S ic Scheduled power injections at node i
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ThreePhase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method
Step 2: Backward Sweep to sum up line section current Starting from the line section in the last layer and moving towards the root node. The current in the line section l is:
J la J lb J lc
Where,
(k )
I ja = I jb I jc
(k )
J ma + J mb mM J mc
(k )
J la , J lb , J jc
l and M
are the current flows on line section l Is the set of line sections connected to node j
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ThreePhase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method
Step 3: Forward Sweep to update nodal voltage Starting from the first layer and moving towards the last layer, the voltage at node j is:
V ja V jb V jc
(k )
Via = Vib Vic
(k )
zaa ,l zab ,l zac ,l
zab ,l zbb ,l zbc ,l
zac ,l J la zbc ,l J lb zcc ,l J lc
(k )
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ThreePhase Forward/ Backward Sweep Method
After the three steps are executed in one iteration, the power mismatches at each node for all phases are calculated:
S S S
(k ) ia (k ) ib (k ) ic
=V =V =V
(k ) ia (k ) ib (k ) ic
(I ) (I ) (I )
(k ) ia (k ) ib (k ) ic
Y Via
* ia * ia * ic
S ia S ib S ic
Y Vib Y Vic
If the real and imaginary part (real and reactive power) of any of these power mismatches is greater than a convergence criterion, steps 1, 2 & 3 are repeated until convergence is achieved.
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Principles of Load Flow Control
Prime mover and excitation control of generators Reactive Var Compensation (e.g., Capacitors) Control of tapchanging and voltage regulating transformers
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Principles of Load Flow Control
Generator Voltage & Power Control
jX Ei
Vt0
The complex power delivered to the bus (Generator Terminal) is
Ei Vt 0 Pt + jQt = [Vt 0]I = [Vt 0] jX
*
EiVt Pt = sin X
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EiVt Vt 2 Qt = cos X X
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Principles of Load Flow Control
Generator Voltage & Power Control
EiVt = Pt sin X
Observations:
EiVt Vt 2 Qt = cos X X
1. Real Power is injected into the bus (Generator Operation), must be positive (Ei leads Vt) 2. Real Power is drawn from the bus (Motor Operation), must be negative (Ei lags Vt) 3. In actual operation, the numeric value of is small & since the slope of Sine function is maximum for small values, a minute change in can cause a substantial change in Pt
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Principles of Load Flow Control
Generator Voltage & Power Control
EiVt = Pt sin X
Observations:
EiVt Vt 2 Qt = cos X X
4. Reactive Power flow depends on relative values of EiCos and Vt 5. Since the slope of Cosine function is minimum for small values of angle, Reactive Power is controlled by varying Ei
Overexcitation (increasing Ei) will deliver Reactive Power into the Bus Underexcitation (decreasing Ei) will absorb Reactive Power from the Bus
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Principles of Load Flow Control
Capacitor Compensation ~
p Ipq q + jQc PL  jQL
The voltage of bus q can be expressed as
Eq = Vp
X pqQq Vp
X pq Pq Vp
Observations:
1. The Reactive Power Qq causes a voltage drop and thus largely affects the magnitude of Eq 2. A capacitor bank connected to bus q will reduce Qq that will consequently reduce voltage drop
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Principles of Load Flow Control
TapChanging Transformer
a:1 q s p r
The equivalent circuit of transformer with the per unit transformation ratio:
1 y pq a
Observation:
The voltage drop in the transformer is affected by the transformation ratio a
1 a y pq 2 a
a 1 y pq a
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Uses of Load Flow Study
Sensitivity Analysis with Load Flow Study Analysis of Existing Conditions Analysis for Correcting PQ Problems Expansion Planning Contingency Analysis System Loss Analysis
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Uses of Load Flow Studies
Sensitivity Analysis with Load Flow Study
1) Take any line, transformer or generator out of service. 2) Add, reduce or remove load to any or all buses. 3) Add, remove or shift generation to any bus. 4) Add new transmission or distribution lines. 5) Increase conductor size on T&D lines. 6) Change bus voltages. 7) Change transformer taps. 8) Increase or decrease transformer size. 9) Add or remove rotating or static var supply to buses.
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Uses of Load Flow Studies
1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS Check for voltage violations PGC: 0.95 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission) PDC: 0.90 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*
*Recommended 0.95 1.05 p.u.
Check for branch power flow violations Transformer Overloads Line Overloads Check for system losses Caps on Segregated DSL
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Uses of Load Flow Studies
2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point Request TransCo to improve voltage at connection point TransCo as System Operator will determine feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and other adjustments such as transformer tap changing and reactive power compensation
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Uses of Load Flow Studies
2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS Transformer tap changing Available Taps
At Primary Side At Secondary Side Both Sides
Typical Taps
Tap 1: +5% Tap 2: +2.5% Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage) Tap 4: 2.5% Tap 5: 5%
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Uses of Load Flow Studies
2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS Capacitor compensation Compensate for Peak Loading Check overvoltages during OffPeak Optimize Capacitor Plan System configuration improvement
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Uses of Load Flow Studies
3) EXPANSION PLANNING New substation construction Substation capacity expansion New feeder segment construction / extension Addition of parallel feeder segment Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit Circuit conversion to higher voltage Generator addition
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Uses of Load Flow Studies
4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and Subtransmission System 5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS Segregation of System Losses
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