Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry - Wikibooks,...

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Masonry Skill Level 3 Vocational General Conference Year of Introduction: 1937 Contents

Primary materials include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Brick Concrete Block (also known as cinder block) Poured Concrete Stone Glass Block Tile

Secondary materials include 1. Mortar 2. Rebar 3. Grout

Plumb line

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Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry - Wikibooks,...

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo...

A plumb line is a string with a plumb bob at the end of it. The plumb bob hangs straight down, so the plumb line can be used to make sure that a wall is perfectly vertical and does not lean in any direction. A perfectly vertical line is said to be plumb.

Plumb Line

Line stretcher (chicken legs)
A line stretcher is used for guiding the mason when laying brick or other materials in a straight line. Typically, the mason will build up the corners or ends of a wall first, stretch a line between them, and lay the remaining bricks between them. The line stretcher is often set about a sixteenth of an inch away from the wall so that the bricks do not touch it (otherwise they might push the line out).

Level
A spirit level or bubble level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is level or plumb. Spirit levels feature a slightly curved glass tube which is incompletely filled with a liquid, usually colored 'spirit' (a synonym for ethanol), leaving a bubble in the tube. Ethanol is used because of its low freezing point, −114°C, which prevents it from freezing in cold weather. Most commonly spirit levels are employed to indicate how horizontal (level) or how vertical (plumb) a surface is.
Level

Trowel
A trowel is used for applying mortar to bricks, blocks, or other material. It is also used for "throwing a mortar line" - that is, laying a line of mortar atop the surface upon which that the bricks will be laid.

Trowel

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Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . Concrete will shrink and expand with temperature.. These are most commonly seen as the gaps in roadways and sidewalks. The S-tool should be used sometime between the time that the mortar is placed. http://en. Once the concrete is wet. S-tool An S-Tool is more commonly known as a jointer. and in these cases. It is sometimes necessary to add more water than this so that the concrete can be poured into a form. The concave grooves seen within the mortar lines of bricks are placed there by scraping the S-tool along the mortar well before it sets.Wikibooks. this is done by covering the concrete with plastic sheeting or by spraying it lightly with water as it cures.. so large slabs must be fitted with expansion joints... and when it begins to harden. and the mortar is placed on in excess.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. Mason's hammer Properly mixing and curing concrete will address most of the problems listed here. but they are also built into walls and other structures 3 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . It must be kept moist while it cures. Sometimes an S-tool is not used. The mortar will not have a smooth concave surface. Mason's hammer A Mason's hammer has one flat traditional face and a short or long chiselshaped blade. Ideally. you should only add enough water to the dry ingredients to make them all slightly wet. and it has a very nice effect when the bricks are painted afterwards. The purpose of the S-tool is to place the grooves in the mortar between bricks.wikibooks. and this can be accomplished by slowing the evaporation of the water that was mixed into it. the slapping of the bricks causes it to drip down over the bricks. only enough water to get the concrete to flow should be added. it will begin to cure. and will look very raggedy. If the S-tool is used too late. Adding too much water to concrete will cause it to lose strength. It can thus be used to chip off edges or small pieces of stone without using a separate chisel.. Usually. The chisel blade can also be used to rapidly cut bricks or cinder blocks. then it will result in uneven lines throughout the mortar.

every builder should develop methods for achieving maximum efficiency.wikibooks. Both types can be purchased pre-mixed so the mason need only add the water.. There are two basic types of mortar: type N and type S.. often in a wheelbarrow or on a sheet of plywood. Mixing is done on a hard flat surface. 4 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . provides some of the basic terms you will encounter. not buried). The following list. The work must be arranged in such a way that the Builder is continually supplied with brick and mortar. It must be built in such a way as to cause the least interference with other crew members. as well.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. which is referenced in Figure 1. Each motion should have a purpose and should accomplish a definite result. To efficiently and effectively lay bricks. you must be familiar with the terms that identify the position of masonry units and mortar joints in a wall.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . It is made by combining: Lime (one part) Cement (one part) Sand (six parts) Type S mortar is used for below-grade applications such as retaining walls and basements. The scaffolding required must be planned before the work begins. After learning the fundamentals. Brick Good bricklaying procedure depends on good workmanship and efficiency. It is made by combining: Lime (one part) Cement (two parts) Sand (nine parts) Water is added to either of these mixtures and worked in with a trowel or a hoe until it reaches the desired consistency. Efficiency involves doing the work with the fewest possible motions.Wikibooks. http://en... Type N mortar is used for interior work and exterior work that is above grade (that is. but more properly in a mortar box..

.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. Figure 1 Course One of several continuous. Bull stretcher A rowlock brick laid with its bed parallel to the face of the wall. Row lock A header laid on its face or edge across the width of a wall.wikibooks.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . Header A masonry unit laid flat on its bed across the width of a wall with its face perpendicular to the face of the wall..Wikibooks. Sometimes called a tier... horizontal layers (or rows) of masonry units bonded together. one masonry unit thick.. Stretcher A masonry unit laid flat on its bed along the length of a wall with its face parallel to the face of the wall. vertical section of a wall. http://en. Generally used to bond two wythes. 5 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . Bull header A rowlock brick laid with its bed perpendicular to the face of the wall. Wythe Each continuous.

In the Dutch corner. consisting of all stretchers. metal ties usually form the structural bond.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. Structural bond refers to how the individual masonry units interlock or tie together into a single structural unit. Mortar bond refers to the adhesion of the joint mortar to the masonry units or to the reinforcing steel.wikibooks. The joints between stretchers in all stretcher courses align vertically. In laying out any bond pattern. depending on the structural bonding requirements. you can use bricks called blind headers. Soldier A brick laid on its end with its face perpendicular to the face of the wall.Wikibooks. use a three-quarter closure at the corner of each header course. Pattern bond refers to the pattern formed by the masonry units and mortar joints on the face of a wall. sixth. having a course of full-length headers at regular intervals that provide the structural bond as well as the pattern. You can start the corners in two different ways... You can vary the common bond with a Flemish header course. The common. The pattern may result from the structural bond. Flemish. The English bond consists of alternating courses of headers and stretchers. or may be purely decorative and unrelated to the structural bond. Bonds The term “bond” as used in masonry has three different meanings: structural bond. each course consists of alternating headers and stretchers. English. bond is a variation of the running bond. common or American. The headers center over and under the 6 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . or pattern bond. http://en. In the Flemish bond. or seventh course. Header courses usually appear at every fifth. Figure 2 shows the six basic pattern bonds in common use today: running. and English cross or Dutch bond. or American. Figure 2 The running bond is the simplest of the six patterns. You can achieve structural bonding of brick and tile walls in one of three ways: Overlapping (interlocking) the masonry units Embedding metal ties in connecting joints Using grout to adhere adjacent wythes of masonry. The headers in every other course center over and under the stretchers in the courses in between. stack.. When headers are not required for structural bonding. a three-quarter closure starts each course. be sure to start the corners correctly. In a common bond. mortar bond.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .. a 2-inch or quarter closure starts the course. In the English corner. Because the bond has no headers..

with no overlapping units and all vertical joints aligning. In large wall areas or load-bearing construction. You can vary the pattern with combinations and modifications of the basic patterns shown above. use metal ties to bond the exterior wall brick to the backing courses. A slushed joint is made simply by depositing the mortar on top of the head joints and allowing it to run down between the bricks to form a joint. The stack bond is purely a pattern bond. The only effective way to build a good joint is to trowel it. consequently a poor bond results. This pattern usually bonds to the backing with rigid steel ties or 8-inch-thick stretcher units when available. often retains water in the wall for long periods and. stretchers. Figure 3 shows three typical metal ties. You should provide weep holes at intervals of 18 to 24 inches to drain water to the outside that might accumulate on the flashing. These joints center on the headers in the courses above and below.wikibooks. The flashing should extend through the exterior wall face and then turn downward against the wall face to form a drop. such as sills and copings.. Flashing diverts the moisture back outside. However. the joints between stretchers in all stretcher courses do not align vertically. such as a roof and Figure 3 Metal Masonry Ties parapet or a roof and chimney.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .Wikibooks. When a wall bond has no header courses. and frequently at floor lines. insert steel pencil rods into the horizontal mortar joints as reinforcement. for example). You cannot make solid joints this way. depending on the type of construction... This type of concealed flashing. by concentrating the moisture at one spot. Even if you fill the space between the bricks completely. there is no way you can compact the mortar against the brick faces. 7 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM .. http://en. Always install flashing under horizontal masonry surfaces. Mortar Joints and Pointing There is no set rule governing the thickness of a brick masonry mortar joint. The secret of mortar joint construction and pointing is in how you hold the trowel for spreading mortar. above openings (doors and windows. Weep holes are even more important when appearance requires the flashing to stop behind the wall face instead of extending through the wall. The English cross or Dutch bond is a variation of the English bond. It differs only in that the joints between the stretchers in the stretcher courses align vertically. You can use blind headers in courses that are not structural bonding courses. when combined with tooled mortar joints. You must use dimensionally accurate or carefully rematched units to achieve good vertical joint alignment.. However. Irregularly shaped bricks may require mortar joints up to 1/2 inch thick to compensate for the irregularities. at intersections between masonry walls and horizontal surfaces. Install flashing at any spot where moisture is likely to enter a brick masonry structure. mortar joints 1/4 inch thick are the strongest. Use this thickness when the bricks are regular enough in shape to permit it. does more harm than good.

. http://en.. You can pick up enough to spread one to five bricks. Figure 4 shows the correct way to hold a trowel. pick up mortar from the outside of the mortar board pile with the left edge of your trowel.. If you are right-handed. A pickup for five bricks is a full load for a large trowel. not encircling it. with your thumb resting on top of the handle..org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. depending on the wall space and your skill. Figure 4 The proper way to hold a trowel Figure 5 8 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM .Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .Wikibooks. Hold it firmly in the grip shown..wikibooks. A pickup for one brick forms only a small pile along the left edge of the trowel.

Figure 6 Poor mortar bond 9 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . tilt the trowel slightly and move it to the right (view 3)..Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. work from left to right along the wall. http://en. Return any mortar left over to the mortar board.. Holding the left edge of the trowel directly over the center line of the previous course.. spreading an equal amount of mortar on each brick until you either complete the course or the trowel is empty (view 4).Wikibooks.. If you are right-handed.wikibooks..

Figure 8 Proper way to hold a brick when buttering the end Figure 7 Making a bed joint in a stretcher course. http://en.. Using a smooth... cut off the excess mortar and use it to start the next end joint. Mortar spread out too far ahead dries out before the bricks become bedded and causes a poor bond. view 1). Throw the rest back on the mortar board. Retain enough mortar on the trowel to butter the left end of the first brick you will lay in the fresh mortar.wikibooks.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. Pick up the first brick to be laid with your thumb on one side of the brick and your fingers on the other. Throw any surplus mortar back on the mortar board where it can be restored to workability.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . even stroke. After bedding the brick. This reduces the resistance of the wall to water penetration.four or five brick lengths is best. The mortar must be soft and plastic so that the brick will bed in it easily. Squeeze out the excess mortar at the head joint and at the sides.Wikibooks. cut off any mortar projecting beyond the wall line with the edge of the trowel (view 2)... Spread the mortar about 1 inch thick and then make a shallow furrow in it (Figure 7. Make sure the mortar completely fills the head joint (Figure 9). 10 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . Do not spread the mortar for a bed joint too far ahead of laying . Apply as much mortar as will stick to the end of the brick and then push it into place (Figure 8). Figure 9 Making a head joint in a stretcher course. A furrow that is too deep leaves a gap between the mortar and the bedded brick.

spread mortar over the face of the header brick before placing it in the wall (Figure 11. To make a cross joint in a header course. squeezing out mortar at the top of the joint...Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . First.. shove the brick into place. Figure 11 Figure 10 Figure 10 shows how to insert a brick into a space left in a wall.. spread a thick bed of mortar (view 1). Then. you know that the joints are full of mortar at every point.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. 11 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . spread the bed joint mortar several brick widths in advance. Next.. This way.Wikibooks. cut off the excess mortar as shown in view 2. Finally. view 1).wikibooks. http://en. and then shove the brick into the wall space (view 2) until mortar squeezes out of all four joints (view 3).

.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .. First. You can also fill holes and correct defective mortar joints by pointing. cracks will form between the brick and mortar.. As we mentioned earlier.. If you do disturb any adjacent brick.wikibooks. filling exposed joints with mortar immediately after laying a wall is called pointing. allowing moisture to penetrate the wall. spread about 1 inch of mortar on the sides of the brick already in place (view 1). as well as on both sides of the closure brick (view 2). Figure 12 Figure 12 shows how to lay a closure brick in a header course. 12 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . You should place a closure brick for a stretcher course using the same techniques as for a header course.Wikibooks. using a pointing trowel.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo.. lay the closure brick carefully into position without disturbing the brick already laid (view 3). Then. http://en.

. When using concrete block to build a wall.. Standard concrete blocks are 7 5/8" wide..wikibooks. http://en. Block Planning The first step in laying a block wall is to carefully plan the project.Wikibooks.. 7 5/8" deep. Assuming that the mortar joint is 3/8" thick brings the block plus mortar dimensions to 8x8x16". it is important to select the dimensions of the wall based on the size of the block. The height of the wall should also be a multiple of the block height (including the mortar joint). You will want the outside dimension of the wall to be a multiple of a half-block length (minus one mortar joint) so that you do not have to cut blocks to a custom size.. and 15 5/8" long.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. Locate the Corners 13 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM .Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .

. http://en. If the foundation is badly out of level. a level plane should be established with a transit or engineer’s level. the entire first course should be laid before builders begin working on other courses.. In locating the corners.Wikibooks. 14 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . or lay out. If this is not possible. Figure 13: Laying the first course The first step in building a concrete masonry wall is to locate the corners of the structure. view 1).. Chase Out Bond The second step is to chase out bond. by placing the first course of blocks without mortar (Figure 13... you should also make sure the footing or slab formation is level so that each builder starts each section wall on a common plane. This also helps ensure that the bed joints are straight when the sections are connected.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .wikibooks.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo.

wikibooks. Lay the Mortar Bed The third step is to replace the loose blocks with a full mortar bed.Wikibooks. Then. Figure 15: Vertical joints.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . Figure 16: Checking each course at the corner. This helps you get an accurate measurement.. Snap a chalk line to mark the footing and align the blocks accurately.. Carefully position and align 15 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . Figure 14: Leveling and plumbing first course of blocks for a wall. spreading and furrowing it with a trowel to ensure plenty of mortar under the bottom edges of the first course (figure 13.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo.. use a piece of material 3/8 inch thick to properly space the blocks.. view 2).. http://en.

As you lay each course at the corner. usually four or five courses high.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . This ensures a well-tilled vertical mortar joint (view 5). This assures that succeeding courses and the final wall are both straight and true. http://en. Then. the corner block first (view 3 of figure 14). use a mason’s level as a straightedge to check correct block alignment (figure 14. you can apply mortar either to the ends of the new block or the end of the block previously laid. level.. 16 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . Figure 18: Checking the Horizontal Spacing. Lay the remaining first-course blocks with the thicker end up to provide a larger mortar-bedding area. apply mortar only to the block ends by placing several blocks on end and buttering them all in one operation (view 4). to ensure well-filled joints (figure 15). For the horizontal joints. After laying three or four blocks.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. for level (view 2). Build Up the Corners The fourth step is to build up the corners of the wall. Then.. Carefully check each block with a level or straightedge to make sure that all the block faces are in the same plane. view 1). Make the joints 3/8 inch thick.. apply mortar only to the tops of the blocks already laid.wikibooks. view 1). For the vertical joints. check the course with a level for alignment (figure 16. and plumb it.. Always lay out the first course of concrete masonry carefully and make sure that you properly align. place each block in its final position. straight walls. Step back each course one-half block. and push the block down vertically into the mortar bed and against the previously laid block. use the level to bring the blocks to proper grade and plumb by tapping with a trowel handle as shown in view 2. This is also called laying up a lead.Wikibooks. and for plumb (view 3). This ensures true. For the vertical joints. or both.. Figure 17: Using a story or course pole.

the mortar will stiffen and lose its plasticity.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. How you grip a block before laying is important.Wikibooks. 17 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . Any adjustments you make after the mortar stiffens will break the mortar bond and allow water to penetrate. tip it slightly toward you so that you can see the edge of the Figure 19: Filling in the wall between corners..Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . Then. butter both edges of the opening and all four vertical edges of the closure block with mortar. Then place the lower edge of the new block directly on the edges of the block below (figure 19). http://en. Also check the horizontal block spacing by placing a level diagonally across the corners of the blocks (figure 18). and durable concrete masonry wall. Fifth and last. Then lay the top outside edge of each new block to this line (figure 19). Installing the Closure Block Figure 20: Installing the closure block.wikibooks. lower the closure block carefully into place (figure 20). course below. When properly made. The recommended width of mortar joints for concrete masonry units is 3/8 inch. remove the block and repeat the procedure. these joints produce a weathertight. helps accurately place each masonry course.. A story or course pole. Figure 21: Cutting off excess mortar from the joints. Make all position adjustments while the mortar is soft and plastic. leaving an open joint. do not spread mortar too far ahead when actually laying blocks. First. Level each block and align it to the mason’s line by tapping it lightly with a trowel handle. When filling in the wall between the corners. neat. If you do. To assure a good bond.. If any mortar falls out. before installing the closure block. first stretch a mason’s line along the extensor block edges from corner to corner for each course... which is a board with markings 8 inches apart (figure 17).

Figure 22: Tooled mortar joints for weathertight exterior walls.. As you lay each block. cut off excess mortar from the joints using a trowel (figure 21) and throw it back on the mortar board to rework into the fresh mortar..... Use either concave or V-shaped tooling on all joints (figure 22).Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . Figure 23:Tooling mortar joints.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. Weathertight joints and the neat appearance of concrete masonry walls depend on proper striking (tooling). tool the mortar joint when the mortar becomes “thumb print” hard.Wikibooks. After laying a section of the wall. 18 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . Tooling compacts the mortar and forces it tightly against the masonry on each side of the joint. however. http://en.wikibooks. Do not. rework any mortar dropped on the scaffold or floor.

The metal lath underneath holds the concrete or mortar filling in place. http://en. soft bristle brush.Wikibooks. Space them not more than 4 feet apart. followed by tooling the vertical joints (view 2). You must prepare in advance for installing wood plates with anchor bolts on top of hollow concrete masonry walls. Then.. Pointing of this nature is called tuck pointing. However. Use anchor bolts 1/2 inch in diameter and 18 inches long. when you complete the top course. pointing may be necessary for filling holes or correcting defective joints.. The threaded end of the bolt should extend above the top of the wall (view 2).. view 1).. Basically. To do this.wikibooks.. A procedure known as pointing may be required after jointing. 19 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM .Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . insert the bolts into the cores of the top two courses and till the cores with concrete or mortar. Tool horizontal joints (figure 23. view 1) with a long jointer first.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. place pieces of metal lath in the second horizontal mortar joint from the top of the wall under the cores that will contain the bolts (figure 24. pointing is done to restore or replace deteriorated surface mortar in old work. Figure 24: Installing anchor bolts for wood plates. Pointing is the process of inserting mortar into horizontal and vertical joints after the unit has been laid. or by rubbing with a burlap bag. Trim off mortar burrs from the tooling flush with the wall face using a trowel. even in freshly laid masonry.

or key. or tampers." Before placing reinforcing steel in forms. You must then consolidate the concrete. but relatively weak under tension. Figure 25 shows a typical footing formwork for a bearing wall.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. more often.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . when the two are combined. in the concrete. Rebars must be tied together for the bars to remain in a desired arrangement during pouring. also called a load-bearing wall. scale. pour the concrete into the forms. or more commonly "rebar. or other foreign matter.. puddling sticks. Do not add more water to the mix than the bag indicates is acceptable. This leaves an indentation. The short braces at each stake hold the form in line.. The steel may consist of welded wire fabric or expanded metal mesh.wikibooks. grease. Since the strength of the 20 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . Concrete is strong under compression. Once the forms are in place and the rebar has been laid. and figure 26 shows bracing methods for a bearing footing.. Use a hoe to work the water into the cement until it is thoroughly worked in. Any compacting device must reach the bottom of the form and be small enough to pass between reinforcing bars. but. When you pour the foundation wall. When the mixing is complete. A keyway is made in the wet concrete by placing a 2-by-2-inch board along the center of the wall footing form. is an exterior wall that serves as an enclosure and also transmits structural loads to the foundation. the combination is known as reinforced concrete. A light film of rust or mill scale is not objectionable. You can use such hand tools as spades. The process involves carefully working around all reinforcing steel with the compacting device to assure proper embedding of reinforcing steel in the concrete. but mechanical vibrators are best. Consolidation eliminates rock pockets and air bubbles and brings enough fine material both to the surface and against the forms to produce the desired finish. first into the concrete and then into the second bar. The form sides are 2-inch lumber whose width equals the footing depth. When steel is embedded in concrete in a manner that assists it in carrying imposed loads. Mixing can be done in a wheelbarrow or in a mixer. Stakes hold the sides in place while spreaders maintain the correct distance between them. A footing is a concrete structure upon which a wall is built. A bearing wall. the key provides a tie between the footing and wall. You can get the dry ingredients premixed and simply add water to it (follow the directions on the bag). http://en. Tying is also a means of keeping laps or splices in place. it is time to mix the concrete. mud. the board is removed. The reverse is true for steel. use a piece of burlap to clean the bars of rust. Figure 25: Typical footing form. Figure 26: Methods of bracing bearing wall footing forms and placing a keyway. Laps allow bond stress to transfer the load from one bar..Wikibooks. it consists of reinforcing bars.. one makes up for the deficiency of the other. Adding too much water will create a weaker concrete. Therefore. After the concrete is dry.

To consolidate concrete by spading. This is actually a template (usually a 2-by-4) having a straight lower edge to produce a flat surface (or a curved lower edge to produce a curved surface). Continue spading or puddling until the coarse aggregate disappears into the concrete. With each sawing motion. puddling sticks. either reduce the rate of forward movement or cover the lower edge of the screed with metal. floated. depending on the effect required. or various types of tampers. proceed as described for a footing. or troweled finish may be specified. This stops the tearing action in most cases. If the screed tends to tear the surface.Wikibooks. The aluminum float. through the layer just placed. However. This fine material forms a thin... sidewalk. 2. The interpretation of "commercially mixed" cement is up to interpretation. the surface should be worked sparingly with a wood or aluminum magnesium float. as it may on air-entrained concrete due to its sticky nature. Move the screed back and forth across the concrete using a sawing motion. insert the spade along the inside surface of the forms. Begin floating immediately after screeding while the concrete is still plastic and workable. gives the finished concrete a much smoother surface. Floating has three purposes: 1. but once the screeding is done. begin aluminum floating when the water sheen disappears from the freshly placed concrete surface.. 3. to embed aggregate particles just beneath the surface.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo. Do not use cement or water as an aid in finishing the surface. Hand screeding requires a tool called a screed. To avoid cracking and dusting of the finished concrete. you may wish to use "commercially mixed" cement available in bags (just add water). Sometimes you only need to correct surface defects. Two types of screeds are used in concrete finishing operations: the hand screed and the mechanical screed.wikibooks. To remove a coarse texture 21 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . There are many ways to finish concrete surfaces. or pavement is rarely placed at the exact specified elevation. be careful not to displace the reinforcing steel. concrete member depends on proper reinforcement location. It's up to you. Manual consolidation methods require spades. and troweling: Floating If a smoother surface is required than the one obtained by screeding. edging. fill bolt holes. that is certainly "commercial. Screeding The top surface of a floor slab. which is used the same way as the wood float. and. or clean the surface. there are additional steps in finishing: floating. do not overwork the concrete while it is still plastic because you may bring an excess of water and paste to the surface.. http://en. and several inches into the layer underneath. or a broomed. to compact the concrete at the surface in preparation for other finishing operations. to remove slight imperfections (high and low spots). To lay a sidewalk or a floor. move the screed forward an inch or so along the forms." But if it's a small job.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . Unformed surfaces may require only screeding to proper contour and elevation. If you call a concrete company and have them show up with a cement truck. Screeding brings the surface to the required elevation by striking off the excess concrete.. weak layer that will scale or quickly wear off under use. Finishing The finishing process provides the final concrete surface. This forces the concrete built up against the screed face into the low spots.

Troweling should leave the surface smooth. wear resistance. 22 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . you usually have to float the surface a second time after it partially hardens.wikibooks. and so forth.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry . Hydration continues indefinitely at a decreasing rate as long as the mixture contains water and the temperature conditions are favorable. Wet spots must be avoided if possible. mix proportions. Adding water to Portland cement to form the water-cement paste that holds concrete together starts a chemical reaction that makes the paste into a bonding agent. An edger dresses corners and rounds or bevels the concrete edges. required strength. as the final finish. or has been mopped up. Troweling should begin after the moisture film or sheen disappears from the floated surface and when the concrete has hardened enough to prevent fine material and water from being worked to the surface. produces a stone-like substance — the hardened cement paste. During this period. such as freeze and thaw resistance. and volume stability. smooth finish is desired. An unslippery. Once the water is removed. Both the rate and degree of hydration.... During this final troweling. called hydration. and future exposure conditions. has evaporated. Troweling If a dense. This results from overworking the concrete during finishing operations. The properties of concrete. and free of marks and ripples. floating must be followed by steel troweling . For most structural use. even. In this process. Edging the slab helps prevent chipping at the corners and helps give the slab a finished appearance. The period can vary from a few days to a month or longer. weather. and the resulting strength of the final concrete. Checks that develop before troweling can usually be closed by pounding the concrete with a hand float. mix proportions. hydration ceases and cannot be restarted. follow the first regular troweling by a second troweling. however. All edges of a slab that do not abut another structure should be finished with an edger. Edging As the sheen of water begins to leave the surface. watertightness. cure or improve with age as long as you maintain the moisture and temperature conditions favorable to continued hydration. the curing period for cast-in-place concrete is usually 3 days to 2 weeks. too long a delay in troweling results in a surface too hard to finish properly. Such cracking is aggravated by drying and cooling too rapidly.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo.. finishing operations should not be resumed until the water has been absorbed. The length of time that you must protect concrete against moisture loss depends on the type of cement used. fine-textured surface can be obtained by troweling lightly over the surface with a circular motion immediately after the first regular troweling. The second troweling should begin after the concrete has become hard enough so that no mortar adheres to the trowel. The usual tendency is to start to trowel too soon. Curing is the period of time from consolidation to the point where the concrete reaches its design strength. depend on the curing process that follows placing and consolidating the plastic concrete. the trowel is kept flat on the surface of the concrete. you must take certain steps to keep the concrete moist and as near 73°F (23°C) as practical. edging should begin. size and shape of the concrete mass. This period depends on such conditions as temperature..Wikibooks. Hairline cracks are usually due to a concentration of water and extremely fine aggregates at the surface. However. http://en. This step should be delayed as long as possible. Spreading dry cement on a wet surface to take up excess water is not a good practice where a wear-resistant and durable surface is required. When they do occur. cement type. Where a hard steel-troweled finish is required. strength. the trowel should be tilted slightly and heavy pressure exerted to thoroughly compact the surface. and a ringing sound is produced as the trowel passes over the surface. This reaction. Troweling too early tends to produce crazing and lack of durability.

and revised and reintroduced in 1986.asp?iNum=fra0307 http://www.Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Masonry .org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vo.net/sweethaven/BldgConst/Masonry/lessonmain. Masonry was introduced in 1937. it is in the public domain. See Terms of Use for details.com/content/construction/14043 /index. at 13:42.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Vocational/Masonry" This page was last modified on 21 December 2007.... Federal government.htm) Wikipedia article on Masonry http://www.Wikibooks. http://en.. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. meaning it is legal (and ethical) to use it for any purpose (including providing the excellent instruction for this difficult requirement). Builders 2&3 Volume 1 (http://www. Much of the material for requirements 5 through 8 was taken verbatim from the U. Since this manual is an original work of the U.wikibooks. 23 of 23 5/6/2011 5:01 AM . discontinued in 1956.com/diy/BasicBrickConstruction. Navy's training manual NAVEDTRA 14043.quikrete.html Retrieved from "http://en. additional terms may apply. US Navy NAVEDTRA 14043..tpub.S.wikibooks.S.free-ed.

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