137 CHAPTER 8

The Hydraulic Jump
When the rapid change in the depth of flow is from a low stage to high stage, the result is usually and abrupt rise of water surface. This local phenomenon applications of the hydraulic jump are structures and is known as the hydraulic

jump. Practical (1)

to dissipate

energy in water flowing over dams, weirs, and other hydraulic from the structures

thus prevent scouring downstream (2)

to recover head or raise the water level on the downstream thus maintain high water level in the side of a measuring

side of a measuring

flume and high

flume and thus maintain purposes;

water level in the channel for irrigation (3) to increase

or other water- distribution

weight on an apron and thus reduce uplift pressure

under a masonry

structure

by raising the water depth on the apron; (4) to increase the discharge of a sluice by holding is allowed back tailwater, since the effective head

will be reduced if the tailwater (5) to indicate presence
(()) (7)

to drown the jump; of supercritical flow or the

special

flow conditions,

such as the existence

of a control section

so that a gaging station may be located;

to mix chern icals used for water purification; to aerate water for city water supplies;

and

(8)

to remove air pockets

from water - supply lines and thus prevent air locking .

.Jump ill Horizontal

Rectangular
flow

Channels
rectangular channel, resulting the energy in a decrease of flow is

For supercritical dissipated through

in a horizontal

frictional

resistance

along the channel,

in velocity

and an increase

ill depth in the direction

of flow. A hydraulic jump will form in the channel if depth Y2 satisfy the

thL' lroudc
~'-ill~ltiol1

number FI of the now, the flow depth YI, and a downstream

( 1)

This equation
satisfactorily

may be represented

by the curve in Fig. 1. This curve has been verified and

with many experimental

data and will be found very useful in the analysis

design for hydraulic jumps.

138

2

4

6

8

10 12 Value" 01 f,

14

16

18

20

22

Fig.l.

Relation

between F I and Y2 / YI for a hydraulic jump in a horizontal

rectangular

channel.

Types of Jump
Hydraulic conveniently jumps on horizontal according floor are of several distinct types. These types can be flow as follows.

classified
=

to the Froude number F I of the incoming

For F I lor FI

1 , the now is critical, and hence no jump can form.
I to 1.7 _ the water surface shows undulations, and the jump is called an

=

undular jump.
For Fl downstream
l'lll:rgy
It)s:;

= 1.7 to 2.5, a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump, but the
smooth. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform, and the

water surface remains

is low. This jump may be called a weak jump. jet entering produces the jump bottom to surface and period

For F I = 2.5 to 4.5 . there is an oscillating back again which. with no periodicity. Each oscillation

a large wave of irregular damage

very commonly

in canals, can travel for miles doing unlimited jump. or the surface occur

to earth banks

.md ripr.ips. This jump may be called an oscillating
Illl

1\ - -+..5 to 0.U. the downstream

extremity

roller and the point at the same vertical in tail water depth.

which section.

the high-velocity

jet tends to leave the now

at practically to variation

The action and position

of this jump are least sensitive

..7 Undulor jump .E{.///. 7"..<'7///// /7// /177//777~. and a rough surface can prevail.' 1-1. energy dissipation ranges /..w/m77.W//m~I»O%/~.' <15·90 Sleody - -__./~/>/ / // F".'7//§// F."/?I// F..'l>" 7// ///. jump F..-. Bask Characteristics Several are <IS of the Jump of the hydraulic jump II) basic characteristics horizontal rectangular channels follows: The loss of energy in the jump is equal to the difference in specific energies before and after the jump..1//%lM/~?.l..0'/. >90 Slrc>ng jump rig..<-y OscillolinQ -.'J/...0 and larger. For FJ = 9. The from 45 to 70% .7-25 Weak Jump Roller _ -? --- __.' 25·4. The loss is - .//4// F.139 The jurnp is well-balanced and the performance is at its best..__ jump - -. Various types of hydraulic jump..I/T-7.0?..:t'! ~/.W//////7//////////////////////////7/. This jump may be called a steady jump.. --.2. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling clown the front bee of the jump.V/.--'_ 4...'.W!///I//.5 ~---:~ . The jump action is rough but effective since the energy dissipation may reach 85%. . generating waves downstream. I 'his jump may be called a strong jump..T/?..-- - /// ___.

7 06 . Characteristic curves of hydraulic jumps in horizontal rectangular channels.. E2 E1 (8~2+1t2_4~2+1 = 8F.._--EJ 1.2 03 .:'> c 0. The relative loss is equal to 1.1 ~!J '0 0. = (Y2 - YI Y 4YIY2 (2 ) The ratio D EIEJ is known as the relative loss. Length in terms of sequent depth Y2 of jumps in horizontal channels. This equation indicates that the efficiency of a jump is a dimensionless depending only on the Froude number of the approaching flow. 0. 0. Efficiency The ratio of the specific energy after the jump to that before the jump is defined as the efficiency of the jump.140 DE = }_'I - E. 6 .Iw o ilI E. FigA.J.1::.z(2+~2) (3) function.7 5 vetoes 01 FI --_. 7 __ .. 0.4 '.I1:'J this also is a dimensionless function of F I.0 1% IG 20 Fig. . 0.

Expressing each term as a ratio with respect to the initial (4 ) Where h/IEI is the relative )'1 height.141 Height ofJump The difference between the depths after and before the jump is the height of the jump )'2-)'1. resulting in a set of characteristic Length of Jump The length of a j urnp may be defined the jump to a point on the surface immediately The experimental number \\ . or LlY2). In the absence in trapezoidal of dc\ duped for jumps udcquate data. functions of Fl. is the height of the jump. against a dimensionless primarily The curve shown in Fig. It is important experiments jump basis also for that the determining t for use in structural horizontal by the floor because have shown is practically he vertical as on the under a hydraulic profile. and relative channel curves. I EI is the relative initial depth. and El is the relative sequent depth. For example.I All these ratios can be shown to be dimensionless =-=-----Since the relative jump loss. takes place. occurring L'Y]. The Surface Profile Knowledge the retaining of the surface profile of a jump is desirable in designing the freeboard for walJs of the stilling the pressure pressure basin where the jump design. in rectangular approximately F.I:. initial and sequent depths of a hydraulic against ill a horizontal rectangular are functions of FI. this curve may also be applied to jumps formed c hannels. y-. they can be plotted F I. same would be indicated water-surface On the of experimental . or h) specific energy. efficiency. ~1+8F/ -3 F2+2 1 (5) relative height. with the Fronde data on length of jump can be plotted conveniently ratio L1(YrYl). 4 channels. as the distance downstream measured from the front face of from the roller.

can be represented by dimensionless curves for various F 1 values Location of Jump Hydraulic jump occurs in a supercritical flow when the depth changes abruptly to its sequent depth. The profiles A B and CD can easily be identified as of M3 and !vb type..7 . By the position of F'. If the depth Y2 is greater than YI' . it is assumed that the How is uniform in the channel except in the reach between the jump and the break.142 data. The following will illustrate the location of a hydraulic jump in three typical cases Fig. It becomes apparent that the jump will form between G and F. the horizontal distance EF is equal to the length of the jump corresponding to the depth Y2 at F..92· <1 0.. . Dimensionless surface profiles of hydraulic jumps in horizontal channels.8 0. F. respectively. = F.' 2. 0. For instance.. 5. depending on whether the downstream depth Y2 is greater or less than the depth )'1' sequent to the upstream depth YI. since the depth at F is sequent to the depth at G and the distance EF measures the length of the jump. the surface profile of a hydraulic jump as shown in Fig.. By trial and error.5. 8 Fig. The curve A'B is a plot of the depth sequent to AB." -.9 F. The above discussion applies also to the location of a jump formed at the foot of a weir or overflow spillway. for simplicity. the length of the jump can be estimated." 5. a horizontal intercept between the curves A'B and CD can be found equal to the length of jump. • ----- F .98. The jump may occur in either the steep channel or the mild channel.09. the jump will .53. 6.. Cusc B shows the jump in a channel having a break in the bottom slope that changes from Sleep to mild.." 1. Case A shows the jump below a regulating sluice in a mild channel.

Then the surface curve DC depth sequent to the line AR.143 occur in the steep region. Case C shows the jump behind an overf1ow barrier. Increasing the height of the barrier will move the jump upstream. the Y2 is lowered approximately jump will start to in case A. The line intercept A'P indicates the A 'P and CO at the section a horizontal IJ between that is equal to the length containingl. Now. will move the jump downstream. move into the mild channel. Theoretically. determine of a jump. Location of a hydraulic jump. In this case. Decreasing the When the depth at the barrier is less than sequent depth .6.'. till' depth at the barrier is greater than the depth Yt' sequent a j urrip will form if supcrcritical in the steep the height to the approaching OCcurs depth Y I The location of the jump is the same as that for case B if the jump region. If the depth It is apparent that a jump HJ will begin to less than Y. the jump can be located as described Cose B --_ S londinQ swell Fig. is of S) type.

a a from the source (such source as an overflow chute. In designing practical a stilling basin using hydraulic jump as energy dissipator. & ahead of the depth Y~ (= yJ ' and solid apron immediately v. and sluices. Case 3: represents means that the tailwater upstream possibly the pattern depth in which the tailwater y/ is greater than Y2. hydraulic jump is a useful means of dissipating below excess overflow From a practical energy in supercritical Its merit is in preventing possible erosion spill ways. the tailwater fluctuates. for it quickly reduces the velocity of the flow on a paved apron incapable of scouring the downstream is usually confined channel bed. Tailwater Conditions: whether problems.. or a sluice). flow. depth Case 2: represents the pattern in which the tail water depth y/ is less than Y2. partly or entirely to to a point where the flow becomes The hydraulic jump used for energy dissipation a channel reach that is known as the stilling basin. hydraulic Jump Position : There are three alternative jump to form downstream patterns ( Fig-15-9) that allow spillway. a jump rating curve may be constructed the sequent depth Y2 and the discharge Q. This will be forced jump. It is assumed that the tailwater has a certain fixed position. the barrier will be crossed which will not be followed by a standing swell in the form of a single undular surface rise by further undulations. less than.144 YI'. the values of Fl. its depth Y2' is equal to. B. out at the source. Yl. . or greater than the sequent depth Y2. the following features should be considered. channel. The design may be considered according to five different classes of conditions. because of the submerged can be most readily fixed. owing to changes in discharge of flow in the A tailwater rating curve is usually available to show the relation between the tail water to stage Y2' and the discharge sho« the relation between Q. A. In the practical however. the position As a result. Jump as Energy Dissipator viewpoint. Case 1: represents sequent the pattern in which the tailwater depth y/ is equal to the depth Y2 the jump will occur on a to yi. In a similar way. This is in case 1 is increased. becoming the jump a submerged jump and may finally be drowned the safest case in design. chutes. In this case.

7.e. This means that case 3 in Fig. Consequently. occurs at all times (i.e. This means that case 1 in Fig. and will An be drowned out at the source. tile iailwatcr depth is lower than the jump An effective sequent depth) and that the jump will form at a certain place far downstream. the conditions in which the jump rating curve is always at a lower Closs 3 : represents st:lgl' than the tailwater rating curve.. protected method of ensuring that the jump will occur on the apron is to usc sills to create a stilling basin. exists at all times and that a jump will form at the desired place on a protective apron at all discharges. Effect oftailwater depth on the formation ofa hydraulic jump below a weir or sluice. Class 1 : represents all ideal conditions in which the two rating curves always coincide. 7. Yz Case 3: y. Class 2 : represents the conditions in which the jump rating curve is always at a higher stage than the tailwater rating curve.7.145 Case I: y~ . the tailwatcr probably is higher than the sequent depth) and that the jump will move upstream little energy will be dissipated. exists at all times. . 7. > Yz Fig. (i. This means that case 2 in Fig.

::'1 ~ To ilwo te r rofln~ -c C 0 °NI :. ~ N C 0 '0 c 0 . Q . C Jump Types: In view of the various types of hydraulic jump described.:: '0 /-1-1 '}} Yz Y2 . ccs e f Co s e 2 )'~. The weak jump requires no baffles or special consideration.146 )'2"~. thus forming a jump at high discharges.1/..S.'1 VJ =1 Oischoroe 0 ~ .:: 0' Di s cb cr e e 0 Ot sc bcr c e 0 Fig. The only requirement necessary from is to provide the proper length of a pool. til "" c ose 3 COH 4 ·N c ose 5 >'0 c: 0 0. 0 Vl Y7//ffff/ff/lLI///. :ci!*. 2.. Class 4 : represents the conditions in which the jump rating curve IS level.quent depth. Class 5 : represents the conditions in which the jump rating curve is at a lower stage than the tail water rating curve at low discharges but at a higher stage at high effective discharges. This can be determined Fig. .::' '" Di ochoro. 00 til . effective method to ensure a jump is to build a sloping apron above the channel-bed slope of the apron can be such that proper conditions for a jump will be developed at all discharges.. 0 .o1er depth -. Classification oftailwater conditions for the design of scour-protection works./)/.. An method to ensure a jump is to increase the tailwater depth sufficiently high by providing a stilling pool..::' '" 0 Vl ~ . which is relatively short./ /. the U... All types of jump are encountered in the design of stilling basins. The on the apron to lower the at a higher stage discharges.S Bureau of Reclamation gives the following practical considerations: 1. 4. Another method is to provide a drop in the channel floor and thus tail water depth. An than the tail water rating curve at low discharges but at a lower stage at high effective method to ensure a jump is to provide a stilling basin for forming a jump at low jump at discharges and to combine with the basin a sloping apron for developing a satisfactory high discharges.

provided that the high bottom velocities at the end condition. 4. as controlled by the sill. cannot be determined analytically. In the model study. hence specially designed wave suppressors may be used to cope with them. the length of the basin may be designed for less than X. Forster and Skrinde have developed a diagram Fig. diversion dams. in other cases. and (3) the ratio between the distance X from the toe of the jump to the . The exact position of the jump. When the Froude number is greater than 10. having a magnitude sufficient to ensure a complete jump. and even outlet works. is difficult to handle. frequently encountered in the design of canal structures. (2) the ratio between the weir height h and the approaching depth ys. The difference between the initial and sequent depths is great. showing the relations among (L) Froude number F of the approaching flow. the length of a stilling basin should be made at least equal to X. altering of dimensions may bring the jump into the desirable range. or the basin have reached a value considered safe for the downstream channel A. The cost of the stilling basin may not be commensurate with the results obtained. Control by Sharp-crested Weir: On the basis of experimental data and theoretical analysis.147 3. however. such as sharp-crested weir. The oscillating jump. A bucket type of dissipater may give comparable results at lower cost. 9. If possible jumps in the 2. Waves are the main source of difficulty. For Froude numbers as low as 8.5 Froudenumber range should be avoided. Arrangements of baffles and sills will be found valuable as a means of shortening the length of the stilling basin.5-to -4. a stilling basin using the jump as a dissipator may no longer be the most economical dissipation device. 6. No particular difficulty is encountered in steady jumps. The ration is taken as constant in each test. 5. a tailwater depth grater than the sequent depth is advisable to make certain that the jump will stay on the apron. Baffle blocks or appurtenances are of little value. In many cases use of this jump cannot be avoided but. For economic reasons. broad-crested weir. In the design. and abrupt rise and drop in channel floor. however. Control of Jump by Sills The hydraulic jump can be controlled or effected by sills of various designs. this position can be represented by the ratio between the distance Irorn the toe 0f the hydraulic jump to the sill X and the depth Y2. and a very deep basin with high retaining wall is required. The function of the sill is to ensure the formation of a jump and to control its position under all probable operating conditions.

Experimental relations among FI. becomes 21. Control by Broad-crested Weir: For a broad-crested weir. Consequently. 7. H = y. h / YI and X / Y2 for a sharp-crested weir.148 weir and the depth Y2 upstream from the weir. the highest required weir should have the largest required value of h within the expected range of discharge as determined from the diagram.9. if the downstream depth is lower than the critical depth on top of the weir.33F' ~1-8F2 -1- Y1+8F2 ~1+8F2 -1-2hly.' -1+2h/Y1 (8) . ~ 2~--_'----~-----+~~-r~~~----~-- ~ ~ o OL_ __ ~ 1 ~ 3 -L 4 ~----~----~----~--~ 6 8 vctoe s of F 9 Fig. it is proposed that the curve XlY2 = 5 in the diagram be used. the tailwater will nut affect appreciably the relation between the head water elevation and the discharge. required weir does not necessarily occur under conditions of maximum discharge. Y2 / YI can be related to F then.h. and F = VI! fiY: \VhCIl a hydraulic jump is effected by the weir. For design purposes. that is.433J2i( Y2 Y2 +h J1/2 H3/2 the above equation can be reduced to (6 ) SinCL' == V 1)'1. Laboratory experience has shown that the highest 4 3------- -"I.:' . B. Thus. Eq. the discharge over a unit width of the weir can be written q q = 0. if Y2 < (2Y2 + h) / 3.

using the momentum theory. provided Y3 < (2Y2 + h) /3. It bas greater structural stability than a sharp-crested weir and usually requires lower cost of excavation than an abrupt rise. 1O. The consistency of the relations was verified by a theoretical analysis. Experimental relations among F I. Forster and Skrinde have developed a diagram Fig. Forster and Skrinde have found that this curve coincides experimental data for an abrupt rise with Y3 = Yc for X = 5 (h + Y3). Control by Abrupt Rise: From the experimental data. and h / Yl for an abrupt rise . Y3 / ". 11 showing the relations among F. Values of F Fig.149 This equation gives the relation between h/y shown I and F and can be plotted as the curve with the in Fig. Y3 / Yl . this curve may be used as a guide in proportioning a stilling basin using broad-crested weir as jump control.'( = yi. C.II. experimental data. and h / Yl of an abrupt rise for 5(h -t- Y3). 10. Analytical relations between F and h / YI for a broad-crested weir. Despite the lack of further Values of F Fig. similar to that made for a broad-crested weir. !\ broad-crested weir has certain advantages in comparison with some other types of control.

. Experimental and analytical relations among F. For a given approaching Froude number. This condition occurs generally at the end of the expansion of a supercritical flow. and h / Yl for an abrupt drop..12. .150 v1 v..-''--+---T---!./fo... The upper limit of region 5 is the depth at which the jump will begin to travel downstream. the downstream depth of a drop may fall in any of the five regions as shown in Fig. the drop does not control the jump in these .._- CO~--~--~2--~~--~--~5--~6--~7~~8~--~9--~jO t--I- f'V.Y3 / Yl .:: > 8 6 .- '0 0 . a drop in the channel floor must be used in order to ensure ajump. Co ntrnl of Jump by Abrupt Drop If the downstream depth is larger than the sequent depth for a normal jump. i"ig. The lower limit of region 1 is the depth at which the jump will begin to travel upstream. Evidently. t-=---+~---t-:~:-t. '" ... 12.

They are unsuitable. the sill is usually dentated to perform the additional function of diffusing the residual portion of the high-velocity jet that may reach the end of the basin. The jump is stable and the drop is effective for its desired purpose only in regions 2 and 4. Y3 /y I. The baffle piers are very useful in small structures with low incoming velocities. where high velocities make cavitation possible. = 1. for region 4. (9) and. Hus has shown that. outlet works. The SAF basin. The chute blocks are used to form a serrated device at the entrance to the stilling basin. they must be designed to withstand impact from ice or floating debris. This is recommended for use on small structures such as small spillways. Their function is to dissipate energy mostly by impact action. I. Harne piers are blocks placed in intermediate positions across the basin floor. The relations among F. 12. including chute blocks. In certain circumstances. Stilling Basins of Generalized Design The stilling basins thus designed are usually provided with special appurtenances. These blocks tend to stabilize the jump and thus to improve its performance. either dentated or solid. however. ( 10) These equations have been verified by experiments. There are many generalized designs of stilling basin that use a hydraulic jump as the means of energy dissipation I. and baffle piers. The sill.151 two regions.7 to 17. The reduction in basin length achieved through the use of appurtenances designed for the basin is about 80% (70 to 90%). For large basins that are designed for high incoming velocities. Its function is to reduce further the length of the jump and to control scour. and h / y I are shown in Fig. for region 2. By applying the continuity and momentum equations in an analysis similar to that made for the broad-crested weir. is usually provided at the end of the stilling basin. sills. and small canal structures where F. The intermediate region 3 represents an undular state of flow without a breaking front. .

.PLAN BASIN < . 3.. This is recommended for use with jumps of FI = 2. Proportions of the SAF basin. far Fl>4.EVATION STILLING DASIN DOWNSTREAM Fig. etc. <'x .S.)0. far use on small drainage .5 to 4..152 2. The jump-and-basin 33% with the use of appurtenances. The USBR basin IV. Soil developed.5. L ~./ )' Side wall Varies.5 which usually occur on canal structures and diversion dams. This is recommended for use on large structures such as large length is reduced about spillways. (U. large canal structures. ___ " 1. / TRA~f. 13.S Soil Conservation Service) The SAl<' Stilling Basin. R£CTANGUUHI STILLING BASIN waves HALF-PLAN "'/CD v TRAPEZOIDAL HALF STILLING . The USBR basin II. 13. This design reduces excessive created in imperfect jumps.2010AL STILLING BASIN HECTANGULAfl El. This basin (Fig. SAF denotes "Saint Anthony Falls") was structures such as those built by the U. .

7 to F. The floor blocks should be placed downstream from the openings between the chute blocks. where Y2 is the theoretical 9.75 y. for = 11 to 17. Wing walls should be equal in height to the stilling-basin wall should have a slope of 1 on 1. for FI =: 5. The stilling-basin diverge as an extension sidewalls may be parallel (as in a rectangular sidewalls (as in a trapezoidal stilling basin) or they may stilling basin).F J2 I 800) Y2. The height of the side wall above the maximum life of the structure is given by z = Y213. A cutoff wall of nominal 15. and by Y2'= (1.07Y2. from the upstream end of the stilling basin to the floor blocks is Le I 3.5 to 11. 10. 6. in the design of the stilling basin. No floor block should be placed closer to the side wall than 3y/8. sequent depth width at the floor-block 8. 13. = 17 is determi eterrnined 2. The wing wall should be placed at an angle of 45° to the outlet centerline. tailwater depth to be expected during the 11.10 . The top of the wing 12. air should be neglected USBR basin 11 W8S developed spillways for stilling basins in common The basin contains use for high-dam and earth-dam end and for large canal structures.85Y2.5Y2 = --=-~ Fo. the relatively and the the jump might cause cavitation The detailed design . The distance 0.. side walls. No baffle piers are used because on piers.F]21l20)Y2. width. for FI 0. The widths and spacings in proportion to the increase of the floor blocks for diverging in stilling-basin stilling basins should be increased location. 5. by Y2' =: above the stilling-basin Hoar is given by Y2' = (1. The floor blocks should occupy between 40 and 55% of the stilling-basin 7. L D u 4. The height of end sill is given by c corresponding to )'1.00 . The depth of tailwater FJ = 1. of the transition 14. The effect of entrained depth should be used at the end of the stilling basin.153 Conservation follows: 1. sill near the downstream entering chute blocks at the upstream and a dentated hiuh velocities end. The length LI3 of the stilling by basin for Froude numbers between Service. 4. = 1. = O. The design rules summarized by the investigator Blaisdell are as F.76 1 The height of the chute blocks and floor blocks is y" and the width and spacing are approximately 3.5.7 to 5.

~. OJ \0: _o <:::: 0 m "00 \iC) .: a. (JQ ::J ~ ::.::> i = Cl. 0.154 TW depth D. ~I~ 0 V> N -"" co ~i~ _"'1 f 31 r-+ 0...<> o" ~ :> 0 '. .~ V> "'"~ . '-< ::.. -. ~ E- - <--. n -o 8 C . 0_ -0 c-=-:. NO ('.<> ()) N N .<> . N o ~ '" 0.. :? :> :. ()) N a a deQrees a a .- .. u C/1 ~ :T a n N c- _.. 0 ... 0..:0 r-+ ~ ~ ~ ~ _.. _.__ n a __ I..... m _"'T1 0> ~ ~I~~ N .

155 data for computations follows: 1. In this design a block is recommended adjacent to each side wall (Fig. Actually.15 D2. provided this is done proportionally. but the lower values should not be taken for granted. Basin II may be effective down to a Froude number of 4.6: 1 to 2: 1 in these tests. In other words. 14) The slope of the continuous portion of the end sill is 2:1. the Bureau recommends that a minimum safety margin of 5% of D2 be added to the sequent depth. there is a limit. The height of the dentated sill is equal to 0.14 are guides drawn for various ratios of actual tailwater depth to sequent depth. The height of chute blocks is equal to the depth DJ of flow entering the basin. 2. However. would produce a "sweep-out" For design purposes.2 D2. plus an added factor of safety if needed. however. 15-16c. 14. 3. and the maximum width and spacing recommended is approximately 0. Reducing the width and spacing actually improves the performance in narrow basins: thus the minimum width and spacing of the dentates is governed only by structural considerations.5 DJ is preferable along each wall to reduce spray and maintain desirable pressures. The length of basin can be obtained from the length-of-jump curve in Fig. the basin should not be designed for less than sequent depth. Set apron elevation to utilize full sequent tail water depth. A space equal to 0. Studies of existing designs indicate that most of the basins were designed for sequent tailwater depth or less. The width and spacing should be approximately equal to DJ. are shown in Fig. it is advisable to reduce the width and the spacing. In the case of narrow basins. The rules recommended for the design are as It is not necessary to stagger the chute blocks and the sill dentates. (1. which is governed by the curve labeled "Minimum TW depth" This curve indicates the point at which the front of the jump moves away from the chute blocks. designs considering wave suppression are recommended. the slope of the chute does have an effect on the hydraulic jump in some cases I. In fact this practice is usually inadvisable from a construction standpoint. The verification tests on basin II indicated no perceptible change in the stilling-basin action with respect to the slope of the chute preceding the basin. in fact. For additional safety. 7. It is recommended that the sharp intersection between chute and basin apron be replaced with a curve of reasonable radius ( R ~ 4 DJ) when the slope of the chute is 1:1 or . this may be varied to eliminate the need for fractional blocks. any additional lowering of the tailwater depth would cause the jump to leave the basin. 4. that is. which would involve only a few dentates according to the above rule. The dashed lines in Fig. 5. For lower values. The slope of chute varied from 0.

a model study of the specific design is recommended... USBR Stilling Basin IV. For better hydraulic performance. 15 is the minimum required to serve the purpose. Basin IV is applicable to rectangular cross sections only.5 to 4.a . it is desirable to construct the blocks narrower than o Fract lona I space _7C.. The above rules will result in a safe. also equal to the length of USBR basin I or Lj).'. 4 (i. 8. When FJ = 2.. preferably 0.5. larger unit discharges.. Fig. The length of the basin is made equal to the length of the jump in a horizontal stilling basin without appurtenances and. rnox. and to set the tailwater depth 5 to 10% greater than the sequent depth of the jump. an oscillating jump will be produced in the stilling basin.156 greater. For greater falls. too tn width Space' 2.75 D'i.~:o=--_ L~ -~~~--::.. conservative stilling basin for spillways with fall up to 200 it and for flows up to 500 cfs per foot of basin width. Chute blocks can be incorporated on the curved face as readily as on the plane surfaces. Proportions ofUSBR basin IV. USBR basin IV (Fig. provided the jet entering the basin is reasonably uniform both in velocity and in depth. indicated.5w Di o 0 . 0 I--'--~. generating a wave that is difficult to dampen. can be determined from the curve in Fig. 15-16d._-. The approximate water-surface and pressure profiles of a jump in the basin are shown in Fig.·. . On steep chutes the length of top surface on the chute blocks should be made sufficiently long to deflect the jet. 15. The number of chute blocks shown in Fig. thus. or possible asymmetry. L- w.. 15 ) is designed to combat this problem by eliminating the wave at its source.e.

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