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a

, S. Bruschi (2)

b,

*, A. Ghiotti

a

, M. Simionato

a

a

DIMEG, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, Italy

b

DIMS, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38050 Trento, Italy

1. Introduction

The onset of ductile fracture is the most severe constraint in

designing and optimising process chains for metal parts, which are

based on forming operations.

The separation of material in ductile fracture is only a nal

event, which is preceded by extensive plastic deformation and the

formation of tiny voids, which then growand coalesce, resulting in

cracks that lead to fracture. As is the case with other micro-

structural phenomena that occur in the steps of forming process

chains such as strain and strain-rate hardening, crystallographic

anisotropy and mechanical bering, recovery and recrystallization,

grain growth, and strain-induced ageing the onset of ductile

fracture is strongly affected by the thermal and mechanical

histories that have been generated in the previous steps [1].

Therefore, in ductile fracture studies, the analyses of the different

steps of the process chain must be effectively interconnected.

In cold forging process chains, the effects of the stress and strain

histories stored during the process largely prevail over those of

temperature- and time-related parameters in governing both the

material response to deformation and the ductile fracture

occurrence. On close examination, the loading and deformation

in the workpiece material zones that are exposed to fracture risk

may show complex paths (non-proportional and non-monotonic).

The stress triaxiality varies from zone to zone and, for the same

zone, during the deformation step, with stepwise variations

especially at the changes from one process stage to the next.

Ductile fracture phenomena in cold forging operations have

been extensively investigated by using different approaches and

models. Depending on the approach, the models can be classied

into three groups: energy-based models, void growth models and

Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) based models. The models in

the rst group provide satisfactory results whenthey are applied to

single-step operations where tensile stress states are predominant

[2]. They are easy to use and calibrate, but they lack accuracy when

they are applied to most cold forging operations where loading is

more complex. Void growth models incorporate the dependence of

damage on the stress triaxiality and are calibrated through tests

that have to reproduce the same strain and stress conditions of

the process. Although they provide greater validity than those in

the rst group, they are unable to predict fracture occurrence for

the intermediate regimes of stress triaxiality where competing

failure mechanisms work simultaneously [3,4]. CDM-based models

can effectively predict fracture occurrence because they model

damage evolution on a micro-scale and take account of rheological

behaviour [5]. Calibrating these models requires experimental and

numerical procedures that are complex and time-consuming,

making it quite difcult to implement them.

In this paper, a new approach is presented, which is capable of

accurately predicting ductile fracture occurrence in multi-stage

cold forging process chains. The approach combines the fracture

criterion proposed by Xue and Wierzbicky [6] with a linear damage

accumulation law. According to the fracture criterion, the

equivalent strain to fracture is evaluated as a function of both

the stress triaxiality factor and the deviatoric stress parameters. By

introducing the deviatoric parameter, the dependence of the strain

to fracture from the stress state is captured, making the model

applicable for any stress state and any failure mode. The restricted

number of calibration tests and ease of performing the relevant

standard experiments are a further advantage. The damage

accumulation law makes it possible to track the continuous

material damaging taking place within the individual deformation

steps in the process chain. These features allow the approach

presented in the paper to overcome the main limitations of the

above-cited models.

The paper is organized in two main parts. In the rst part, the

approach underlying the development of the model and its main

functional modules are illustrated. Then the paper focuses on the

industrial application case. The material tested and the experi-

ments carried out to calibrate the fracture criterion are presented

CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 60 (2011) 287290

A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords:

Cold forging

Damage

Fracture

A B S T R A C T

The paper presents a new approach for the prediction of ductile fracture occurrence in multi-stage cold

forging process chains. The approach combines the fracture criterion proposed by Xue and Wierzbicky

with a linear damage accumulation law. Thanks to this feature, the approach is capable of predicting both

the location where the failure events occur under the action of external loading and the time they take to

be generated. An application to the multi-stage cold forging of a C35 Torx-type socket screw carried out

on a double-blow header is presented and results of predictions are compared with experimental

observations.

2011 CIRP.

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: stefania.bruschi@ing.unitn.it (S. Bruschi).

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology

j ournal homepage: ht t p: / / ees. el sevi er. com/ ci rp/ def aul t . asp

0007-8506/$ see front matter 2011 CIRP.

doi:10.1016/j.cirp.2011.03.135

together with the results from the application of the model and

their comparison with the experimental observations.

2. The approach

The major requirement that the predictive model has to meet is

to predict damage evolution and fracture occurrence in the multi-

stage cold forging processes with the complex loading and

deformation paths that operate in industrial applications. Non-

secondary feature of the model is the ease in its implementation

and application, particularly with regard to calibration tests. With

these requirements, the predictive model requires the joint use of

complementary techniques, both numerical and experimental,

organized in four functional modules which are devoted respec-

tively to: (i) application of the fracture criterion, (ii) calculation of

the damage accumulation, (iii) FE analysis of the process chain, and

(iv) generation of the material data for process simulation and

fracture criterion calibration. The four modules are described in the

rest of this section.

2.1. The fracture criterion

According to the ductile fracture criterion proposed by Xue and

Wierzbicky [5], fracture is postulated to occur when the

accumulated equivalent plastic strain, modied by the function

of the stress triaxiality T and the deviatoric state parameter X,

reaches a limiting value equal to one (for the denition of T and X

please refer to the original reference [6], where the two parameters

are named h and j, respectively). With the introduction of the two

stress parameters, the fracture criterion can be adequately applied

to deformation conditions with any stress state and to any failure

mode as well. Moreover, the fracture locus can be conveniently

represented in the stress domain.

In the case of material behaviour obeying the Hollomon

rheological law, the upper and lower limits of the fracture locus

can be correlated through the Tresca failure hypothesis [7]. The

equivalent strain at fracture e

f

, valid for any value of the stress

triaxiality T, can then be expressed by Eq. (1):

e

f

e

1

sinp=3

sin2p arccos X=3

1=n

(1)

where e

1

is the upper limit of the fracture locus. Assuming e

1

to be

an exponential function of the stress triaxiality factor T [8], Eq. (1)

becomes the fracture locus represented by Eq. (2):

e

f

C

1

e

C

2

T

sinp=3

sin2p arccos X=3

1=n

(2)

where C

1

and C

2

are material constants to be calculated through

tests aimed to calibrate the fracture criterion (see Section 2.4) and

n is the exponent in the Hollomon power law. Therefore, the

material fracture locus can be fully determined as a function of any

stress state expressed in terms of the stress triaxiality factor T and

the deviatoric stress parameter X.

2.2. The damage accumulation law

The accumulation of the material damage in the deformation

steps of the process chain is tracked by a linear damage

accumulation law. According to this law, the additional damage

introduced at each time step in the process chain numerical

simulation is dened by [6]:

D

Z

e

f

0

1

e

f

T; X

d e (3)

where e

f

T; X represents the material fracture locus of Eq. (2). The

time derivative of Eq. (2) is implemented into the numerical code

used for the process chain simulation by compiling a user routine

whose ow chart is shown in Fig. 1. The material failure is

postulated to occur when the damage parameter D reaches the

unit value.

2.3. The FE model of the process chain

The main task of the FE model of the cold forging process chain

is to provide an accurate analysis of the stress- and strain-related

parameters inside the workpiece material in the different stages of

the process chain. The damage law described in Section 2.2 is

implemented in the FE model. In this way, the damage

accumulated inside the individual stages of the process chain is

calculated and the accumulated damage is transferred from one

step to the next.

2.4. Tests for model calibration

Rheological and workability tests are utilized to identify the

material constants C

1

, C

2

and n in Eq. (1). In particular, compression

tests are used to determine the material ow behaviour and to

calculate the strength coefcient and the exponent of the Hollomon

power law. Tensileandtorsiontests areusedtoidentifytheconstants

C

1

and C

2

. The two constants are calculated by comparing the results

measured in the experimental tests with the corresponding values

calculated through numerical simulations of the same tests, and

therefore are independent fromthe particular reference process, but

only material dependent. Details are given in Section 3.1, where the

tests carried out for the application case are presented.

3. Application case

The application case refers to the multi-stage cold forging of a

Torx-type socket screw carried out on a double blow header (Fig.

2). The material is a 6.5 mm diameter wire of carbon steel C35.

After straightening on a roll straightening unit, the wire is cropped

to the required length and then forged. The two forging steps

consist in a preliminary heading followed by the piercing of the

Torx socket combined with the calibration of the screw head. A

ductile fracture regularly occurs in the last forming stage at one of

the six points of the star-shaped cavity (Fig. 2d and lower part of

Fig. 6). It is important to note that the material zone where fracture

occurs has already been damaged and separated during the

cropping operation. In the forging sequence, the same material

undergoes complex loading with medium-high values of stress

triaxiality, which shows stepwise changes when the blank moves

from one forming stage to the following.

Fig. 1. Flow-chart of the damage accumulation routine.

Fig. 2. Forging sequence for a C35 Torx-type socket screw.

P.F. Bariani et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 60 (2011) 287290 288

3.1. Material testing and data generation

A set of tests at room temperature was carried out on samples

cut from the C35 wire in order to generate the rheological and

workability data, which are required to calibrate both the FE model

and fracture criterion. The testing program includes compression,

tensile and torsion tests.

The compression tests were carried in order to generate the true

stress-true strain curve of the C35 steel. The tests were carried out

on an MTS 322 servo-hydraulic machine with a ram speed of

0.1 mm/s. After compensation for the press frame stiffness, the

ow curve was modelled by using Hollomon power law [9]. The

strain-hardening exponent n and strength coefcient K were

calculated through linear regression analysis and their values are

shown in Table 2.

The tensile tests were carried out on both smooth (un-notched)

and notched specimens in order to evaluate the inuence of stress

triaxiality on the material workability limits. Three different values

of the notch radius were utilized: 2.00, 5.00 and 11.00 mm, which

generated a suitable range of variation for the stress triaxiality. The

tensile tests were carried out on an MTS 322 servo-hydraulic

machine with a ram speed of 0.1 mm/s. The equivalent strain at

fracture was calculated from the area reduction to fracture,

measured on a coordinate measuring machine.

The torsion tests were carried out in order to generate material

workability data under plane strain conditions. The torsion tests

were carried out on a torsion machine equipped with a special grip

at a revolution speed of 10 rpm. To determine the equivalent strain

to fracture, the material ow curves were calculated according to

the FieldsBackofen theory.

3.2. Finite element analysis

To provide accurate analyses of the stress- and strain-related

parameters inside the workpiece material in the different forming

stages of the Torx-type socket screw, a 3D FE model of the whole

process chain from wire drawing to socket piercing was

developed using the commercial FE code Forge 2008

TM

. The main

assumptions andinput parameters in the FE model were: (i) elasto-

plastic behaviour of the wire material according to Hollomon

power law, (ii) perfect rigid tooling, (iii) a Tresca friction factor

equal to 0.07, according to measurements in double cup extrusion

tests [9], and (iv) constant values of 10,000 and 10 W/(m

2

K) for the

heat transfer coefcient at the material-tooling interfaces and with

the environment, respectively. For accurate simulation of the

material separation in the cropping stage, very ne mesh was used

in combination with the killing element technique, which deletes

the elements when the critical damage value is reached.

3.3. Fracture locus identication

Fig. 3 shows the stress triaxiality factor T vs. the equivalent

strain e for the un-notched and notched specimens of the tensile

tests. The values of T and e were calculated in the neck zone by

using an FE model of the tests where local Lagrangian sensors were

implemented. Because the parameters T and e vary during the tests

and in the necking section, average values were dened [10], which

are given in Table 1 for the four tensile tests together with those

calculated for the torsion test.

The material constants C

1

and C

2

were then calculated from the

data in Table 1 using linear regression analysis applied to Eq. (2),

where current values of T and e

f

were replaced by average values.

The calculated values of the two material constants are given in

Table 2. Finally, the material fracture locus for the C35 steel is

shown in Fig. 4, where the data of the tensile and torsion tests are

indicated.

3.4. Results

This section presents the FE predictions computed with the

proposed fracture criterion and damage accumulation law. These

were then compared with the measurements from the industrial

trials and with the FE predictions obtained by implementing the

conventional Oyane damage criterion, which was calibrated on

the basis of the torsion tests described in Section 3.1. The

comparison was made with reference to: (i) the shape and

extension of the sheared zone in the cropping stage, (ii) the

damage evolution during the heading and piercing steps, and (iii)

the location of the damaged areas on the screw head in the nal

piercing stage.

Fig. 5 shows the comparison of the sheared zone obtained in the

industrial trials with those predicted by both the proposed model

and the Oyane damage criterion. The shape of the sheared surfaces

computed in the FE simulations is strongly dependent on the

implemented fracture criteria, as was evidenced in [10]. According

to the proposed model, the average height variation of the sheared

surfaces was estimated to be about 170 mm, while for the bar it

was around 200 mm, with a deviation of less than 10% compared to

experimental results. The deviation of the same prole simulated

using the Oyane criterion was signicantly higher (35% larger than

that in the experiments). Fig. 6(a) shows the evolution of the

Fig. 3. Stress triaxiality at a Lagrangian sensor location for the different tensile

samples.

Table 1

Workability data of the C35 steel.

Specimen geometry T

avg

X e

favg

RNB2 (tensile) 0.91 1 0.38

RNB5 (tensile) 0.67 1 0.46

RNB11 (tensile) 0.54 1 0.59

Smooth (tensile) 0.45 1 0.69

Torsion 0 0 0.69

Fig. 4. Fracture locus of the C35 steel.

Table 2

Rheological and workability constants of the C35 steel.

K n C

1

C

2

881 0.22 1.8224 2.377

P.F. Bariani et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 60 (2011) 287290 289

damage as predicted by the two criteria, and the evolution of the T

and X parameters computed at the point P plotted vs. the time

during the heading and piercing steps.

At the beginning of the heading stage, the values of the damage

calculated with both the criteria, are not null since they derive

from the computation of the previous cropping step. The proposed

model proved to be accurate in predicting both the accumulated

damage and localization of the damage areas. In fact, the critical

value D

prop.model

is reached in the piercing stage, as was recorded in

the industrial trials. On the contrary, the time needed to reach the

Oyane critical damage, indicated with D

Oyane

in Fig. 6(a), is

signicantly longer. The lower part of Fig. 6 shows the maps of the

accumulated damage as calculated by the two criteria. The

maximumvalues of the scales indicate the critical values according

to the two damage models. Due to the stress state of the piercing

stage, characterized by high levels of both the T and X parameters,

the initial calibration of the Oyane criterion through torsion test

data proves to no longer be valid. On the contrary, thanks to its

formulation, the proposed damage model does not require any

additional calibration and can predict the fracture start and

propagation fromthe points of the Torx star, as was recorded in the

industrial trials.

4. Summary

A newapproach for the prediction of ductile fracture occurrence

in multi-stage cold forging process chains was presented. The

approach combines a proper fracture criterion with a linear damage

accumulationlawandit provedtobecapable of accuratepredictions

of both the location where the failure events occur under the action

of external loadingandthe time theytake tobe generated. Thanks to

a fracture criterion that is reliable with any stress state and failure

mode, the approach proves to be general enough to be applied to

most of cold forging process chains. Ease in calibration and

application is a further advantage of the approach. Further research

work in progress at the time of writing deals with the implementa-

tion of non-linear damage accumulation law, which should be

considered for damage evolution description in complex stress

paths, such as those induced by reverse loading.

References

[1] Pietrzyk M, Madej L, Kuziak R (2010) Optimal Design for Manufacturing Chain

Based on Forging for Copper Alloys, with Product Properties Being the Objec-

tive Function. CIRP Annals 59(1):319322.

[2] Ceretti E, Taupin E, Altan A (1997) Simulation of Metal Flow and Fracture

Applications in Orthogonal Cutting, Blanking, and Cold Extrusion. CIRP Annals

46(1):187190.

[3] Gouveia BPPA, Rodrigues JMC, Martins PAF (2000) Ductile Fracture in Metal-

working: Experimental and Theoretical Research. Journal of Materials Proces-

sing and Technology 101:5263.

[4] Barsoum I, Faleskog J (2007) Rupture Mechanisms in Combined Tension

and Shear-Micromechanics. International Journal of Solids and Structure 44:

54815498.

[5] Soyarslan C, Tekkaya E (2009) Chevron Cracks in Extrusion: Modelling

and Prevention. Proceedings of 5th JSTP Seminar of Precision Forging, Kyoto,

5358.

[6] Wierzbicki T, Bao Y, Lee YW, Bai Y (2005) Calibration and Evaluation of Seven

Fracture Models. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 47:719743.

[7] Coppola T, Cortese I, Folgarait P (2009) The Effect of Stress Invariants on Ductile

Fracture Limit in Steels. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 76:12881302.

[8] Rice JR, Tracey DM (1969) On the Ductile Enlargement of Voids in Triaxial

Stress Fields. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids 17:201217.

[9] Simionato M(2010), Damage Modelling inCold Forging Process Chains, DIMEG

PhD Thesis.

[10] Breitling V, Chernauskas E, Tupin. Altan T (1997) Precision Shearing of Billets:

Special Equipment and Process Simulation. Journal of Materials Processing and

Technology 71:119125.

Fig. 5. Shape and extension of the sheared zone: experimental measurements (a);

calculated by the Oyane criterion (b) and by the proposed model (c).

Fig. 6. Damage evolution according to the Oyane criterion and the proposed model

(a); maps of damage according to the proposed model (b) and to the Oyane criterion

(c). Cracks in the industrial trials (d).

P.F. Bariani et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 60 (2011) 287290 290

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