Design of Below-the-Hook

Lifting Devices


C A NI IN AT liON A L S 1".A. IDA R D' N


~.. ~

~.. ~

~.. ~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~

~... . . ... ... ... ... . ~. ~ ~~. ~. ~

v vi

COI.n:miJ[bee' Ros;te!: ~~~~. ~~. ~~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~ Correspondence WUh the BTH Cemmittee ~~~~~ Summaey of Changes. ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ,CIiI<lpkl~11 1,1 [,2 1,3

~~~~~~~~. ~~

~ viii



$~,e'pe,and IDefinli~iotlil$ Purpose .. ~.. ~ Soope ~.. ~ New 0'I]1d! E)(i~t:ing: Devices 'Ger~e!:-al Requirements De'E.inltions ~~~~ Sy[nbol~ ~~~~~~ References ~~~~~~ lLifter Cl.assffifh.':altions, 'Get1eF-aJ .. ~.. ~ Design Category ~~ Service Class

~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~.. ~ ~.. ~ . ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~.. ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~.. ~ ~.. ~ ~~~~~~~~~. ~ ~.. ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~. ~

~. ~ . ~.. ~. ~ . ~~~ ~. ~ ~. ~ ,.,., _ ,.,.,.,. , ,~ , . , . , .. ~~~ ~ ,., . , . , .. ~~~ ~. ~ ,.,.,.,. ~ ,.. , . , .. ~~~ ~. ~ , , ~. ~ , . , .. ~~~ ~. ~ , ,.,~ , . , ~. ~~~ ~. ~ ~. ~
~. ~

:1. :1. ] :1.

I. 3

8 11

(liI<1p~e~:2 2,1 2,2 2,3 ,CIiI<lpte~:3 3,1 3,2 3,3

~.. ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~

~.. ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~. ~~~

13 14 14

3-5 ,CIiI<lp~e~ ~ ,M 4,2 4,3

St~ut1u~a~ IDeslgnl 'Gene!:-a.! ~~. ~~. ~~~~ M:ember ·Des~gn Con[ll:ecl:ion Des;ign :fatigue Design ,Other Design Considerations

~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~. ~~. ~~~~ ~ ~.. ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~. ~~~~. ~~. ~~ ~.. ~

~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~. ~~. ~~~~ ~ ~.. ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~ ~.. ~ ~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~~ ~~.. ~~.. ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~. ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~. ~~~~. ~~. ~ ~~~~~~~~. ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~
~• ~~~~• ~~• ~




44 4,5

HI 4~ 4,10 (liI<1pte~ S 5,1

Meflil<lnic;al~ IDesffign ~~~~. ~~. ~~~ 'Gene!:-aJ . ~~.. ~~.. ~ ~~.. ~~.. ~ Sheaves ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ 'W:ire' Rope . ~~. ~~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~ Dl':ive Systems ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ 'Gearing ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ Bea:ring.5'~~. ~~ ~. ~~~~. ~~. ~ Shafting ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ Fasteners ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ 'Grip RaUo . ~~. ~~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~ Vacuum Lift:i[jJ:g Devioe Design ~~. ~~. ~~
E(e,dllikal 'Cl!llililpl!ll1,e~Iil~$ ~• ~~~~• ~~• ~



5·6 5,t

'Gene!:-aJ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ Electric :MotOfS and B.rakes . ~ ~.. ~ Limit Switches, Sensors, and Push Bulto:n~ ConlIollers and Rectifiers for lifting Oevke 'Gl\OUlll, .. ~ ~ ~.. ~ Power Disconnects ~~~~. ~~. ~~
BO'IUeries ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ i:ui

~~~~~~~~. ~~~ ~.. ~
~~~~. ~~. ~~~
MOliNo! ~~~~~~~~

, ,.,~ ,.,., .
~. ~
, ~. ~


~.. ~ ~~~~. ~~. ~~~


. ~. ~
~. ~


FillllItreS C3-'] C3-2 C3---3 C3-4

4-2 lIraJb~es .2, 1 C2-'], C3-'] C3-2 C3----3 C3-4 3-1 3,2 3-3 34 3,5

Se~ected Examples of Tab1e 3,1 He<:]Juiremen'ts, , " " , , ", ", , _______ IiUockShear """" , , , , , , """"""""""""'" , , , , , , """"""""""" " " " , , , , , , , """"" Pin-Connected Plate Notatien ".""." """" , , , , , . """". "". """ " " . , , , , , , ". "". Sl:iffened P]ate Lifting Beam .. "".. "".,'" , , " , , . "".. ""... " " " , . , , , , , . , ". . . . Silieave Dimensions """"""""""""" ""'" , , , , , , """"""""". " " " " , , , , , ", ". ". " Silieave 'Gap. ".. ,"'" ,,,,,, ".. """" ,,,,, " , " ., . , , , , , , . . . Se~ke Class """"'"""""""""" """" , , , , , """"""""""""' " " , , , , , , , ", """. " Service Class Life ""'"""""""""" """" , , , , , """""""""""" " " , , , , , , "", ", """ Design Categury A Static; Load SpeCIl'iLlro", , , , , , , . , , ", ..... " "" , , , , , , . , "" Design Categury A DynO'lmk Load Spectrum '""""""""""""""""""'"""." Design Categury B Static Load Spec~rllun "'" , " " , ,',',' _______ Design Categury U Dynamic Load Spectrum , , , """"""""". " " " " , , , , , ", ". """ Limiting Widith,Thickness Ratios for Ccmpresslon Elements """",.".,"" Minimul1ll EfTecHve Throat Thickness of Pm"tia],P,elll:eITatiol'l Groove Welds """"" Minimum, Size;, ofPillet Welds """" """" , , , , , , """""""". "., " '" , , , , , , ". """ AMQl,vableStress Ranges, hi (MPa1' .,"'" , , , , , , ", . , , "..... , " " , , , , , , , , . , "" Fatigue Des~gn Parameters """""""" """" , , , , , , """"""""""., " '" , , , , , , """"" SlTeng:thiFa.cbO[!;:O Calculatlng Load Capacity [Ameeican Standard Tooth for :iFC!':~m5)".. ,"" , , , , , , ", . , , ".. ".. ,"'" .. ,,,,,,,.,," " '" , , , , , , , . , "" LloD Lif,e """" """" , , , , , , """"""""""""'" , , , , , , """"""""""" " " " , , , , , , , """"" Key Size Versus Shaft Diameter {ASMEIU '7.1) """', ,',.,""",.,., Key Si7ie Ver::;.usSha~t Diameter (D]I\~N.l65,l) "",.,'", ,' "" , , , , , , . , "" Fatigue Stress Al'l1lplifiOltilOOll'a.ctors"", , , , , , , """"""""""" " " " , , , , , ", """""

22 24 25 26 4:1. 4:1. 1) 13, 15 15 15 15 1.8

28 29 3<0' 44 44
45 45

4-2 4-3a 4-3t1 44



ASM.E. STIH-:lJ.-2.0oe;.

Chapte,r 1

S,c,op,e'an d Defi nltlens
This Standard sets f'Orth design. cnlteria for ASMiE B30_20 belcw-Ihe-hook ]jMng de'vic;es_ 'Ihii!;:o St<l![1I,dam serves as a gukl,e to·(;, manubch:ul"!;m;, purchasers" and users off below-the-hook hfling devkes,
COITIIl1l1lentary: lhi$ Stal1ldard has beenll dieveloped in re~ponse~lOllme need to proviide clalrifiic:ationll of the intent of ASME E30.20 with Ir>e$pect to the sfrueturad desi9l11l f below-the-hook liWng devices, S,inllcetm€:omi9li. o ilia II pubtleatton IOf .ASME B30.20 in 1986, l!JiSer.S Iilave rEN'IIUeSled ilntelrpre{atiiOIlISoV tnle ool1lstlFUcti:OI1l :[stlructl,ll al r desigll1l~req'l,lIiir,elnlenlIIS$la,ted therein, The level of detaill r€'qUlired tID provide aideq'uate anllSVller$ the questions ro :,mbmilted extienlds Ibeyoni'lj that wmich C!illlll be covered by Iinllle~pre~ati'o:n Qf 131 830: sare~ staindalrdi. $



The dfective date O'fthls $ta[1ldam shall be 'Ollieyear after its date of issuance, Lifting devices manufactured ahel"the effective date shaM conform to the requlrernents O'fthis Standard.. When a lifter is being modified, it; desi.g[ll shall be reviewed re']a:t:iveo~hiJsStandard, andthe needto meet l this Standard shall be evaluated by the manufacturer 01: a qualified person,
CQmm~ntlilry: II ii$ nllotthe iintent ofthis St:al1ldiarot(l Ireqluiir,eIretrofiimng of ,existlinlg Iliifting devices.



1l·4.,1 IDe.slgnl ReS:I~l!In:s:lbllnlly

1-2SiDl)PE This Standard provjdes mlnfmurr, struetural and mechanical des,ign and electrical COmpQllI,elllt selection criteria for ASME B31J20bdow·the,hook lift:ing devices. The provlsi.onsin this Standard apply to the design or modlfflc-allon of below-the-hook li:ft:ingdeviQes., Com, pHanc'e' w.ilhre'C)ulren1ents and c:rit.e'dl'l thllr. may be Im:i.CJ!ue to ~pedali:zedindlJl;s:t[ies, and. envirOIll:me.nlt$ is outsid,e of~he scope of this St~l1Idl'lrd. UfHng devices desigm~d to thiJ~Standard shallcomply wHh A$MEBJH20, Below-the-Honk Lifting Devices, ASME BJO.20irndudes provisions that apply to the marklng, construetion, il];'lna~iQl1lilll."'lpec;t.ion,~esting, maintenance, and operaHolll of below-the-hook lifting
devices, Co:mlllil~l1rtary: ASME BlH·1 ai;ldre$$e$ Qnllv d,esigll1l retlulirem,elnts . .As such, this Standard should be used il1l COnli'unlldionwitlm ASME: B30.,20,VIIlhi:ch addlre~$e$ safety requlrements. ASIM E ~HH·1 does: not repllace ASME B30,20. The designllt:rliteria set fQrth are milniim!JJim retlulirerru;:lnts that may be im:realll:€:dal the tlisciretiion of the IIiifting devI:ce ifnllal1l,ufac1tl!Jlre:r quail iified person, or a

Uftlntg devices shall be desigllled by, or under d!]rec;t s,upe.rvision of,. a qualified person.


COillIIUIn:el1lil:ary:Althoug nl a,IVllaY$im plied, th ii$ provision nllOWe)(p!lici~ly$'lates t111Iat tm,edesig;n of below·th:e· hook Ilinin'91d€:vic€:s lis the r,espolnsiibillity of a quallfied IperSonl.Tlm~s req'ulr,elrllienllil,a,$ been eslalbllii~hed in IreoogInliliioln of time iimpact thatthe peniQrmanllce of'a IIlirUng devioe has QllIwm:Klplla,r;:esafety, the cOrllipll,exityof tnle desiigl1l proces$, and the Ilevel of Imowl'edge anlldtrra.il1ling Irequiin!d to c(l:rllipe~enUy desigl1l Iliiftingldevice$.

A dual unit format is used, Values are' given llll US, Customary units as the primary units f011Qwed by the International Sy~tem of Units (51) in ]J.<Irenllhe;es, as, the secondary UI1I:itl;" Thevalues stated ill U.S, Customary units arefo beregarded asfhe standard. The $] units llll the text have been directly (softly) converted from US., Custom.ary Ul1lit.!;:" Commentary: lime reql!Jlliremerlt:s of this Standallro are preselntedVII h erever possl Me i nlla ma n nlle hat is: rt dim.elnsio:nailly lndependent, thus alllloVIIlinlg application of tlil,ese r,e,quirelrlliel1lts'l,lIslin'91 either U.S, Customary ul1lit$

{USCU) or II,ntelFlfllatiQl1Iadl SY$:teml
Cmitl(lmlalFY Stal1ldard. units are the p:riimlary

Qf Unit$:

{SU, U.S"

Ullfllits, (WIsed li'n tlhi$:

static strel1lgth. While the use of suelhl methods is not pmhiibited, modellilflg of ~he devI:ee alfllo iinterpretationof

th e Irie·s'l,lIlts d em an ds .$1,lI b lie ex pertiiMto ita

aSS lUI t me rl1:



req'l,lIir,emelflltsof tlil,is Sta,noalFd are met without cr,eartil1lg! uII1IMoe:s:sarily conservative I,im,its for static s.tFengtlil, al1lcl fMigtue

life, M,atetrffial

AU below-the-hook mUng devices shall be de~igned hu s.pecifled rated loads" load geQm,elry, Design Category (see secfion 2~2),and Service Class (see sectlon 2~3).Resoludon oJ loads illi1~oorces and stress f values, affecting structural members, mechanical compo~ nents, arid connections shall he performed by an accepted analysis method,
COI1l1lJilil:el1ltl'lry: design terrns of its rated ASME B1iH·1 now Timl1:ori'glilflla,1ASME def,ined later


IEl30.2!O stmctl!Jlrall
ol1lly i,n UaIUgllJle I)M.1. of a

req'l,lIliremelliU load.

a IIiiUiilfl1gtdevic,e


Illih: IF,eq'lJIliIF,emelfllt$;by ref'ererice to ANSlfAWS IliH,er iilnt,erms of tn"e rated

def,il1l,es the d,esligtn reqUJliremeols

lead, the

The design prQvisi!CJins this Standard are based en of the use of carbQn,.high sb:englhlow~aUo'Y' orheat treated cnnstructienal all!CJiyteel f01" structural members and s many mechanical eomponents, OIU:1ier materials may be used, provided t:he'ma:rgi:ns o~safe~y and fa Hgue' life are equalto 01" gr;eater lh<l!rn those requilred by this, Standard, All ferreus aM. nonferrous metal used i[j[the fabeieanon O!fHfHngdevioe structural members, and mechanfcal compenents shall beJdenttfled by an ]lJIduslrY";l,vide or wrltten ]Jr{Jpdetary speclfkaHQn"
(::OITllm¢ntliry: and 4 are based u,si,ng carbOIfl,

lJoesiigl1l CategoIFY"
0111 pr!1l'ct~ce~

and the Servlic'e Cla'~$: tn better match the d,esign of the Iliifter to its intended service. AI1I extended diis(:ussiol1l of
the baSis oflhe can be D,:;:siign f(lliJInd CaNgolFies alno 2: Servlice and 3 Cla,sses

The d 11:$,[igrn previs iQI1ISil1l Chapter$! :} and research for d,esigln
and heaHreated eq'lJIatiiollis pre-

Ihliiglm·s1rel1lgth II0w.a!lloy,



oon:S1Drucliiotlial alilloy steels, Som.ern'the

Comrn eIflIM,de:s.

se'nted are ernplrical and m,alY I1iOt be directlly to IlJIsewlitn, other malt:;::Fia,ls. Botlm fenousalrld nonferrous




mati:;:riialls, ilfllcll'l,lIoilng time constructiQlnall$:te'el:s, uised ln the iiTlIecha'lfl:iical


be iiln

The allowable stresses and stress ranges defined, in this Standard are based Ql1the assumptfen of analysis by classical ~tre'lllglh of material methods (models), altlh, analysis methods may be used. The al:;j,a]~ a ysi~bedil.n]quesand. models, U''iiOO by the qualified person shall accurately repreaeuttheloads, material properties, and device geometry; stress values liesuW:n:gfrom the analysis shall be of suitable form to permit correlation wilth the allowable stresees definedin this Standard.
C'OIllllJililemltalrv: The a,lllow!1lble$tre:sses defilfll,ed i,n ChaptersS arrd 4 halve beel1l oevelloped b13ls,:;:oon tlhe pres'lJIm:ptiioln tn,art tlil,e actl!Jla,l Ill(Iaids. wilill be computed metn,od$ dfecHvel:y computa average a struetu ra,l 0 r m ecn,a,nic:al elem ent, Considieratlion of the effects of stress not normally IFl1:q'lJI ired wn'¢ln :Stlriel1lgtm of a lifter cQmponenl paIFa.,3:.5.,2:t tions ILiftlilfllg ~%vke$ or geometric: However, often stress are m,ost irnportent when dUle to tlm,e cle~igln metlill;)cls. Suclm :StIF¢S$eSactingt Oln concentIF13,ti'Q:n$:lis 'lJIsing! classical



Cna'pter ~, 11l1Icius,try.wide specif,i(:atiiQ ns are-those tiiQl1Is $,m::h a:s ASTM Iron a,ndi Ste,el Ilntl1:matiional ,(ASTM). 11fl1·Smut,e ~AISI},.

f'Fo:rIrlOrgia nizatime Americaln Socliety Qf

a'lflld the

A'lJIltomotive Elligtil1leel's ~SAIEk .A proprietalry stPeciifiicatiolfll i$: orie developed by a 111 iiviid'lJIaII m:an'lJIfa~lJIr,eF. iind



Allwelding desigllls and procedures, except ~'orlhe desillgn strength ofwelds, shall be In accordance with the requirements of ANSI! AWS D141,1, The design she:ngth ofwelds shall be as defined in pam. 3--3.4, When (:'Qnmct'S,exIst between AN$1!AWS D14,[ audfhis StaiJldarci, the requiremenns o~ fhils, $tarndiard sham govern"
CCllmm~nt8rv: ba$:lis for we lid design AN SllAWS and with D 14., 1 is cited IP'FOcedmes. CMAA as the This fQIF

determil1llingt tn'e statie ~s,ee Comlrlrlentary for


tn,e effects are ol;lllistmcwed



eoncentrafartigl!Jle Ilife, pi'lli and bo I~

req'lJIir,emelfllt is i,n aglFeement

#70 and those


estab I~shed by A.S ME B:30.20. fIi1:e a Illowablestres:se$:

wi~h dli$CQrnt~lfllui~ie$ Ikeyways that usiing lPe!3,k 13,$


Imolle:s·,I1Q1i)ches. iil1l$ide cOlFlrler$, and sMft ad al$ il1li~iartiQ'n de$: for fatiigue crade$. Alnally:s is of a liftli IfiJgdevi'ce Iliniurfinlite :StIFe$$eSthat element ilnd:ic:ate failm,e, !3l111!illy:sis ill w wher,e load

welds a"re m'Qoifi,ed ~Ifl this Sta'lflldalFdJlQ P'FQVlide the hiigtlher desligln factors deem,eo n,ece:ssary for IlliWingt i;!evlitles ..

wi~h dlscontlnultles typiicaillyshow



faliliUlFI1::sdiefi:ned i

tim,:;:pOilfllt at wlil,idm ~me applied considerationl. Thts

IFeaches tlil,e II0ss of u Ifl:der evalUIOItiing

1iil,lllfllction Il0ad 10lFII~m:it starte~ of tn,e part or device is particull1ilr,ly truewhen

The design pro'vistons Q~this $tal]da'l:'d are CQlliSilldered applkaMe l,vh:elll he temperanue OFthe mter structural t or mechanicalcomponent under QOl]silcier<ltion ilswithln the range O!f25 ]'1 to 150°F (-4°C~o ,66°C)" Wbel] the

dit.yde's Wa1"a .:.e ves$:ells fabri(:i'ltecl from IIOV!J(:arbgnsteell at temperatures al$ h~gli"l 81$50"IF 110~ra.These cOIll..11.e Innecha.:. 1~.'5ider<ltions alY inchide choosing a m materfalfhat hal' be~l'er cold-temperature 01" highj~ temperature properties. of a spe<.e $tre$s values tn.lf: lift:. [)efi IIllition. <'I Of qualified person creates p~oce~et> to salis£y a d. 1. STIH·]-200S· ternperature o. 1i11edes. 1ifIlUS.M.JI$eS.e lower Ilimit.1. Lifter! those at !ilmbient.~vices can he sl!Jlb· [eeted to tempesatures in €. structures humanneed [section 1.e$:implle ellevatedtelflfl. FIi'lWs illl steel pllaite lfIfl.omp~nents desi. and other forces created by the operaliOrTl and geometry ~f the' lifting device { (para .. must be used iIll'de1tenn'IJI maximum and mmhnum load Wa1"a . applied: external fQlQe(s) a.OOOl"IF . ~ped<ll ad.hooks.$:iolll' stress at 200~1t {93~CL Some rnaterials d.g:rada~ign !3t150~F ~66~Cl'..gliMerilng ref.11l d Sltandam:$ lLe)(i:(:on and other elll.ll:re.. If the e)(posm. Dalta from tli"le ASIME IBgli~er &: Pr€ssme Ve$sell Code mi'lt€riall design tablles iIllJdiici'ltetmat$ome carhon$iteel$ hav. the Comm mee sell.J temperature of olPelrartiion iin ax 1fIfl' al summer desert D!efllillitions: ~ G e".iallwer.11d€.. beiow--the-hook lifbj:~gdrruice{lifting device.peri'lture va.nd.ese~emper:!lrtuIFeS. the nUlnberofloadi and magnitude Wa1"a.e !ililready Ibe·glun to dec.4.el1lt e rather than theamblent temperature. dead 10<'161. fatig/.~5..v~ som e cornponents 1Di"lat ecome li"lei'lted dueto contact.00d: cne sequence of twoload reversals that define aralllge b. and ]~fting at+achments.sign: the activity in which devices.~ype tha~ a member sustalns befeee failure hoist:· a machinery unh that is. l~5.j[J(mponen~.vl:ilelie term is first used. IOOd.gthe de$ig Ill' rated load a. machines.abl.ielo each chapter o'ltlh. fluid systems are' not covered by this. I.5~ellill.imits stated are basedon ~i"l ioiliowi lIl'g.llue.on~ideraHon~ may be required .e.A sllraignl. lnsome incll!Jstrial I. and better gl!Jlallity()hecks in current pra. 3 . padeye.etw.Ce~n.~1. l. the COiIfli'lIIlTl. r':ommemIHlry:Th. l~!t2:) ..(ll(:eptab!. wli"lich is: lower thalll' tn...mgli"l an areaof friglid aiir witli"lout theternpereture of ~h.ted~o opera~e in ambient temperatures beyond this Iimit shan have electrical c.)( (para.~uEeaher a sufficferrtn. . lood.rIgg:ir[llg hardware.. a HfitelFtlhrarthan dles very nlot ilems may ha.. At ~h.rnpettiture:the temperature ~ff the ahl]:osphe:re surrounding the ]ifting device (para.i$t of ddinli~ tions appli:()!ilble 10 the designl of belcw-the-heok lIiifting d. 1f-Ii$1ioriiC!illlly.1 j.nd aillowaible telll.i'lmbif'j:~t le.7).e!Xpec.eeted the 25'1= {-4·C~ temperatureas a rea.1)~Ii"lati'lre (:olllisiidoere(:i. The ddi ned terms a fie divided irito gelll eral terms '(paIlF(iI 11·5. the rii$kof sueh faillme is rsduced. cyde.1). other [h<U1Jl slings.e. :].ater.4. but mosti'lre Iless than that am 0 I!Jlnt .a..s: Pressurized $talll:dard.E.6%.:ting: seof the lifter until the component tempera. Of iimpolFt!ilnce wheln .If::' the process of progreseive locahzed pemranent mateelal d<'l:mage'hat may result [[it cracks or complete t fr<l. such as li!fl~ng~ugs. l~:U) .(!540I"CI. closer metallll'U1r'gJi'C1. Ibroadly !ilppllicable to tIMe $l!Jibj€ct matter and iintlOgroups of terms thalt are specif..3).s:$ul~i2!edl flu:md SY. d.Ailne i IIlterpolatio 1111 between thelalbUiliated valuss for materials at 1OO~1t'[:38·t:.5). A Ilifter may move Ibr. ).Jiine in both yield $tre$s a...eviee$.-jJffic. ttlte:ri: the maxil11lumloadi f~r whkllllh:e ]ifting device by the manufacturer {pam.~clliine by as much as 4. . l~5.ed and cyt:11iie in nature .DO°F ~9lOjC} in tli"liis referen ce Q iv·e$ a.e Standam.hing loads.2). u ture falls within the statedIimits.e temperature lI.Ulk¢wlis.Thi$ klVlIer t€mpe:Fl'ItlWlw.:.$:i'I reasonable Inn i1fIfl.t have m~nima.f the' component is beyooo these lilm:i~.J:ary:Tlmiis section presents a I.niei'lll properties of most materials are greatly reducedov.erellll(:e$i'lIFe 'LJJ$ed wherever possilble.I11 centre].elfl.~ and 2. ll· 5.~1} lifting tmi'lcliment: a load snpporUrrug device attached to. 14.i CH] <I I del'ilg:1ll!. used for lifting and ]ow~ er. and sim]~ar appu:rlenanc.umber of ]~ad ..esignfodtJ'f: the ratio of ~he lilnH state stre$s~et» of an element to' the permiselbleIntemal stresstes created by the external . used for <lUa.'I. to a hoi~t (section l~:n.e steel i:lrgppingl to ~he pOlililt of co IIl.$:fiFlOm th e ASM E Safety Go des a.l.1 stresses to a lower perce'llitage of ~he allowable stresses or resll':h.s.ign pm'v:isl:olllsf01" electrical ':..ood(s). /atig/.cHng on a structural m:ember Of machine' element due to the ratedJoad. limit:ing the' det>igJ. Hi. wi~h recmm" men daticms made by All SC 120mn. the object being lifted.ieflly thn. tru:rmions.e the primary cause ofthese fi'llilluIFe$:.e is prololng.force(s) that ad upon the element Wa1"a.em~ .g:ned for the higher ambient temperall.:.IliU... b 1-5 OEIFINIIIIONS The' par<'lgmph gilven after the' definition ~f a term refers to the pamgr<upl:ill.of 1. IS designated 11·4.:8 IP~e.e limit is !iliiso '~onsiisteni1. :]. e tens igill briiUle failures have oeeurred durilngl hyi!':lm1est i 1111 preSSI!JIW. the creep mptl!Jlre strenglth o:f the materiall. cycles. 1ifted: a device. II~feof the device. itli"l tiigi"ltelF producW tionl IprOC€sses.ctice...are' considered applicable when arnhiem tenrperatures do not exceed ']~Jll°F (40°C).dMa: fhe weight's of the pads of the lifting: device Wa1"a. The Connmittee seleetad the I!Jp:per !temperature limit a.evalluMillllg the effect$oflemper· ature is ~m t~lnnperatu re of the IIiifter COIflfl'IPon.AS.

lgeh:rak stress per cyde (para. rtffedive ]Il!. 'Iension stress is considered to have pri. Ill. stress. bar(s. tl"ainirl1lgnd experience. 1". Ol"thogonal planes around the mmimum net failure path of the' con:necti. gr.ffe~rence' a between maodmum and minirmsm stress.1). o.igld assembly O'fcomor ponentsfabrlcated from structural shape(s). forging(s).ect:ion 1.2. but wu] nut resl$~ inelastlc local buckling at strain levels required for a fuUy p]astic stress dismbutIOIli (para. fliyir-lg slIr/lice:' the plane of contactbetween two pliesl)f a bo]~ed conlllect:ion {para. highes~ algebrai~ a.3-2.5. 1 mO'f.rHr. wIvel.ces. a structural member cross-seetlon that can develop a ful]y plastic stress dismhutIOIli before the onset of ]ocalbuckUng W:8Jl'a3.Wblock. seuJfceabildy /i.. pbte{s). 3·23. dunbUHy. 1.1). eyeboln. OF p'erf!J'm:um~e 'of a 'be]ow"the·hook lifting device or Hfting device oompo· nent h.c sign from compression (para..r recO'nsh'iLlction 'of a liJter component [section [-2) . 3·.t stale: limIt:ing conditlon <lffectiJll!. o.~el'veits m a:intainabilHy. :].ol" devil' s (para. including. ~ffi'!'ChW'!I~J~g-n'l:the equivalent length Kl used sion formulas Wal"a. mil~hmmi. assembled.1).astenf 11. a:rnnged to support..~mber: a the opposite algebl"ai. M:r:t:'ss conC€.2). 1-41J}.5· intended function (se.3).rni.ed e~the~ ~o be no 10lJlgeruseful faT 11:. cutouts.1J~5. 3·'t5)..1ltethe failure off the whole member 0'11 stress level below the' yidd stress of the material a (para.I'l: fu]! cross-secfional (para. shear and O'f tensl'OIliacting '01Jl.lity Umil state:) or to be unsafe {51:r1!'ngth 1iJl'.low. fabricatlon. desigrn. 1-5.oa: that can develop the' yield stressin compression elements beforelocal buckling occurs.r-lge: lgebraic d:i.1)_ ~ffi'!'CtiW'! mt tel'i!si/e:! portinn of the gross~ensHe area liti'!'ill: that is assumed 10 carry the' design tenslonload at the' member's connections or 0'1.3. by pOS5eSl!i~onf a re~og" o nized degree in an applkabl. fhe advisabil]tyof which depends on the facts. 01" other reductionsof cress-seen onal area (pan . fatig:ue. of machinery undennormel usage' shall: indicates that therule IS mandatory and must be fol~owq.15. j~~lJ'r-lCOrl'[p.d {secHolJI. 1-5J).ltlll.2)_ oriW. .rfun~tion (para. 5t. c-a.IJd.rnemot:(r: stress member with agros~· cross section that does nut vary alOllJ. area of the member limil' 5t1lte:·a condhien tn wnkh a structuee or component becomea unfit fur service. c:ouplll1l. m1!'c!umiCilll C"OJ1JP'OJ'Ml'i!t:· a combination of one crmore machine elements a:lo. 2. .2."5. insl:abiHtyi and ls judg.}.-alionthe of theboh (para.iit state} W:8Jl" elements (para.1 ). pmdlJl. its prying force: a force' due connectiens app]l. with an assumed uniform stress dfstributlon. Mrr.1·6.mlwillm: a detachable 10<1dsupporling device such as a shackle. 3.g. 1-5J) stress pel" ~yc. .micetilbi.2)_ prier sectfQJ~. enmpres- fessional stand:ing.efinilt.vlhiertconnected to a hoist Ql"1lJ1Hng device at the sling's upper end and when . 1~6. utch.ubjecl matter and work (section [.2). O'r who. company. indicates that the' m~e' ]S a reeomrn endatl on. 3-4.brake. 15· ccentric to the ax]sof the bolt.g.).illtiQ)~~:loca]ized stress considerably b::-tl1btld:Nl'i!g:the bl]~k~lllIg off a compression element.ed.g length (para . modify. such as brittle fracture.1).pe'ed~ranSl"nlssion (para. but not lim:ited a load at the sling's lower end {para.llnk..t:( fm:ctt1rl?: COJ1ipacl ings.f". ~fffXh'!l'f! width:' the reduced width OFa plate whkh.est (para. oy extensive know ledge. or castingl(S} (pa. <l1]td. excessive deformatlon.e ItbHlty of a structure to pl'q.upporU. qualifi~ jHrwrt: a person who.rnmnrfoctw"er: the' peroon. 1-5J} 1el'i!gth frlct(}t~ theratlo between the effectlve Length and. l'llJl.on ( e of the fitting and an 8J1111:plifi..:. screw Jack.1}.. and adjustaole s.~'5S.3).s.i0nl!i Iff0r Chap~er :1 bI{Jck s/'lrnr: a mode of failure in a bolted orwelded connection that ]60 dueto <I C1!J(mbinaHolJI.-y responeible for the de$. (}ragern.eltbmly~o solve or resolve problemS[1ellttlng~o the s.e field ur certificate of pn)' abrupt cleavage withlittleorlThO ductile defOl'ma6on (para . the unbraeed length of the member measured between the centers of gravity of the bradlllg members (para.3.the' same effect 0111he belllil!v]orof a structural member as t the actual plale' width with Its nonuniform stress dlstrlblu[l. riggil'i!g hr. [".iglil.le M:r:t:'ss tll. 1-41. 1.5. hi.". .:.gher than average {even in urdformly Ioaded cross sections ofuniform thlckness) due to abrupt dLang:esin geO'metry ol"loc-alizedloading {pltm. the' pillQ.2). in each situation (para. ~2).1L}. dura- 'bilHy.. 1L4.lcl-r. addition to.g l!h.1 location 'of holes.!!!1Mtic rI'l..adi/irntilJ'l'i!: <lillychange. slh~!g: alll assembly to be used for Hfnngl.e~ .1}.2 ID.4). plastic with their f:ramew. ortransmit motion.ed ]oad deformation aXial fo~ein 4 10 the lever action that exists in in which the line oJ application of the a C1!J(mponent r. 1-5J).2).2J.od!::.2). has suocessfu]~y demonstraoed a th. d geaF reducer. 1·6.. I1Mxhl'mm. that may prec-:ipit.oss at1!'.illCl' a structural member cross-section 51!'c-ti..

r<lpbi given a~ter the deflnition of 11 symbol refers 10 tlhe paragraph where the symbol is nrs·t used.. Each sym.UI1I.tlmk£~ a device.000 ]b.Iem thatisto compensate for s. and dhedion imparted toa movingalPpara~u.otor. tiillCr.~5.'i).DOOlbnd the live 10l1lJd 50.<l\J:l). {para. the weight of the 10l1lJd does netinclude tlh:e~yeight of the lifter (section 4-9).r!illlg albernaHng C.i~~ilIlJ...4). a..bdow~the~hook~l.measured behveen the' centers of gravity of the hrac. 1~. 5-2.rebys. 1~. pO... 4.5. a device for mak]lJIg.! {para..circuit (para.i£J. nlj~H~ing. sb~~~~gUl state: lim:iting condition affecting the safety .fting device for lifting and transporting loads using a holdilng force by means ofvacuum (sectlon 4~W).). or c.e tensionIn opposit:e pa:rts of a rope.P1gshEilV~ {pam. HIs IlIO! termed a run.6.fng: a sheave usedto eg]IJ. 5.. force. vo]ts.3}.slip-crflirn!: a type oif bolted connection ill] w hich shear 15 h:an~miUed! by rnearrs of the hktilolJl pr.oduced between the Faying surfaces by the damping action of tlhebtih:s {para." tlh:e powel" del:ivel'ed! to the motorto which H IS connected {section 54). tiillCr. :].1 um:pre~ure'Ie..ys.3}. 4~ .limd of the structure. ':::OJ~~tw!peme/: <In assembly of components tha~ go-verllls the Am. .Mr redifier: direct a device for .e' to a signal{s) from a control de'vke{s.~ for Mck-. switch. eiectric: arotating machine thattransforms electrlcal energy into mechanical elliergy {sect:ion 5~2).:3!di:mpa:rt~ motion sy~tem (pam.U generatorfaiku·e (para.3 De~lli1itmon(ii 'Clrua~iter.'i!i·] is definedwhere it is first used.2). S'rippilJg forte:' the m'f"Ce that the liMrng device exert~ on the road (pm"a . shetiv£: a gr'OOVed! wheel.g:roup of devices that gov~ ern orre'gul<lte the' operatton of an apparatus... NOTE: Sit·inldard. lPreveiClt~ back-drivlng (para .erooir. speed.rti. Fiol' example..1ectri:ca~iy eonoectedto earth orto so-me' C1[J(nduclilll:g body that serves illl place of the e. / (~ + 2) X 100 '" 2(l% gnlJlrui! (gr:tmriii~d): e.~52). 5. etput1iz.1 um 1iftiP1g . ·~mi:ffij.J.'Of vacuum (para .h {section 5~5).v of power to or from a mntor 01" other equipment ln l"espons. 4-2.!for Chaplter 5 . driue sy5t&m: an <lssemb]y of compenents th..4. ll <15type !AC or Dq.1Jnel1t (std]on 54).~~ d".5. a device that crespom:ls~o <Iph ysk:al srimulus andtransmits the resulHng sigl:1lal (section 5--$).. :].e1ec.. Because of its s]igh! movement. a a predetermined manner.. eie"Uitnl: the !>pedi.J).5 sme {para.entage {para.):'device used to go-vern or l'eg:u]ate the fimca tirms of an apparatus (para.efiniltions. Wltilum re5.drivirtg: to the drive 1=5. J]1 grip tliti!l: the ratlo of the "urn of thehorlzontal forces on one slde of the Ioad to the live weigh! of the load. 4-2. the a IS grip ratio is 2. ifthe total horizontal force on one s.:3!t:governs the' stal"tilng. 2 rn~n ~Jff "" ).g initial motionbetween.:::oj~~tro! system: an assemblyoi.5'). ]rn whkh fhe ultimate 10ad ca:rryilll:g c'<I!padl:y l!> reached {para. .:. of the a memben.. 1. used.. breaking..b':ic. 1~5.~9. }.arding or ~topping mction of 111'1 appamh:us by frkHOI:1O[ power means ~section 5~2).a!Ill. {para. um p:ad:' <Idevice that applies a Ihold:ing force on fhe 10ad by me.'i!i.4 ['!.1) .a~i:z.2).~'ter:' the diemeter of a sheave measured atthe centerline of the' ['(we (pam.k"lion!> of therequired or supplied ..[).1 The parag. switch. that rotates thalll ambilen! as the ]oadis SNetlV£. currentinto 5t:l~~S!i'r(05).'a sheave supply. the' evacuated s'Y'...2). ...elec.3).al"t. C(Mffif'. pornolll of a vacuum leakage in the vacuum reservein the event of 4-'](1. s. 5 number obtained by dividing the fl"kt:ion furcere."'''' :>y.. other than a ITIotm'. thi~ . master: a manual 5wHdlthat dominates the O'pera~ lion off cont< or to provide a vaClmm VaC.. r<ltingOl" speclffic.. a conditfon vs here the' lO.2} !lj~~b'rl1ced!~'!~~glh: distance between braced PO]I]~. <I rope to change directlon and point oif applkaHOIli of a puUing foro. or Qther :remo~e']y operated devices (par<l.1ng memhers {par<l. ~du!liv£. s.:::oj~~tro!ter:' device N gr{l!l1]Jof devices that .~: the nondimensional . For purpo!>e'.f this calculafion. :]. sl'opping.ation me off a jock-up: a condition whereby frietion In the drive ~ys...t/evict:.5$).J). used (ol"fet. d anilps" cydes.~5 . pitd~ Jiml'f.j'n'ti<:'ffij~with.~eT1~.mllxi~~ may Il~ d!iffi. L](i ty cyc:k: and is expressed EXAMPLE: as· a pel'l..rridty. 5~3.hang:Ulllg the connections ]n an .). m.'i!i. 4~. <l\"W.twe bodies by the normal force pre~illlg thebodies togetlhel" {rara.JJ.!tof stahc frictitJJ.J}. atmoephedc tlil1Cr..ide of the load is :UlQ<.:::oj~~tro!(. lifted preS'" orlowered (para ..(06) 1~S.) {para. andphaee (pam 5~:t3)... with. bearing bearilIg lift: the bask (para.govern. 1.

(moo) (TaMe 3-:]) actual net width o:f a pin·cormected plate between the edge of the hole and the edge of the plate on a line perpendlcularto the line o~ action {)ifth:e appmed b:td.4) allowable be'arilllg stress. 3-2. 2 (mln2) (pal'''.~ss of the tension]oacl.3 .1) factor for bending stress in tees and. 1989) and the crane des:iglill s.3.ion.1) effective width to each side of~he pinhole.onfmilnalilce wi~h the notation used. in. ksi (MPa) (pam. 3-2. the x or y direcHon.00'0 hi {200 (loo MPa) for st eel (para. 3-2.2.3.eratiOl1. ) 6 allowable tensile stress. in. as il1ldkated. 3-4 .2.hi (MF.] (MPa) (para. Cor. ksi (MPa) (p:<l!l"a. 3-2. b.4) coeffieient applied C.1) modulus of elasticity 29.tori ks.3.atk member and dependent upon cohnnn curvature' caus·ed by applied moments /fui. 3-3.) computed normal stress in. ks: (MFa) (pam.2.]vere:.5) fl' f~" Cf em /1 Fm F~ F t> - C"". - (para. hole diameteriIn.tantffOl" Fatigue arralysis (para.1. (mm) (pal"a.Where IIllot:ation d ~d not e)(ii$it. in . 3-3.ksi (MPa) (para. ksi (MFa) {pam. dfvidedby the design Facto·r... 3---3.1) tellis~re stress. in.1). double angles (para. ksi (MFa) (pam..5) allowable crltical stress due to combined shear and normal stresses.1) allowable l:emsi1e stress FOl"a bolt subj ected to combined tension and shear stresses. - f~Jy Fy (para.. il]temdion equaHom fur prism.l.3. 3-2.2) total area of thetwo ~hear p]anes beyond the pinhole. in.. diameter of roUel".I) (pam.ected be clealr lin m. ksi (MPa) (pam.5) Euler stressJor a prii[j. ksi (MFa) (para. E. 3-2.6') crcss-sectfonal area.) cohimn s]endeTnes!. to 'CQIIlilIITl>Ilntary: Dx.. in.eaniing to~he user. b. J. ksi (MPa) (pam.5) coefficient applied to belllding term illi. 3-2.1Il Symllids kI r Chi} p~er 3 reng:th of thenonweldedroot face in the dlrectiiIJin (l'f the thkkllu.1) allowable ibeli1i1ing stress about fhe x or y axis. ) 2 compuled axial compressive stress. 3.4) strengthreducUon factor for pinconnected plates (para_ 3-3_3_1) outside diameter of circular hoUow section. 3..U) aUowab]e axial compreesion s~rei[ji[j. 2~ - A . asindicated {para.iii 3·2:3. 3·33. b1J CD C ~~ - - pill diameter (para . {mm) (para..5) spedfled.pecifiicatiOlns pubIlished. ft.$iEH:1 Ii1111this Standard are gelflerailly in c.) bending coeHkie'mt dependent upon moment gradlent (para. (mm) (para.j (MFa) {pam. f~.2) nominal tensile strength of the weld metal.. 6. D d- t. comP1'ess.3.nimum ulHmate ten si le (lh:e:ng~h. q.in2 {nitm:!) (pal"a. llll? (mm21' {pa:r. ksi (MPa) (para. ) 5 spedfled mi.y Af A~ f"r Au B F" ~ F~' . ksl (~4:Pa) (para.1. 1n.ed plate.5) critical stress. .lI. .2) computed axial tensile stress. ksi (MFa) {pam. 3·. 3-2..\. as indieared.6) computed shear steess. 3-41.3.] (~.2.. 3-2.1) distance fTI"oml the edge OF the pinhole to the edge' of the p]ate in the direction of the applledlO<ld {para. illldkated. 3~2J) ..3.ine]as:tk buddlug (pam.2) stress category COIllS.1.. GMAA #70..3. 3-2.2 {mm2) {para_ 3-3. 3-4 .ion equat. b.4) Euler stress aboutthe x or y axis. ratio sepa:rating elastlc and. 3-2.h. 3~2.(08) The sylilnbols '1.] {MFa) (Table 3·1) allowable stress range' for the detaH under {.. Ii1111 other desigln standards that are in wide 'L1Iseiilllithe 1In lte d S ta tes. 10.o belllding term in illl~eract. 3--3.matk member divided by the de5ign fac. 3.4) allowable be'lJldilllg strese.3. (mm) {fable 3·1. in.3. bV AllST alnd GMAA {AIIST Teehn itall Report lMo. [mm) (pam..1) - £Xx Fi) f" f& fMl Fhy (08) 1~6. 3--$.) area 0 f the cempressieu flange.1) 3 allowable shear stress.) depth of the section.. 1TI]1ll1mUm yield! stress iks.2. unlqus sym bols are defilned IhlenHn and Imave been Soe. 3-2.5) computed bending stress about the x or y axis. lsi (MFa) (pam.. 3~2. 3-3. about the' x or y axis. (mm] (para. su eh as th e AIS C s p eeificatli Din ~AISC.l. 3-2. ai[j. " - b~ b FI' F. 3~2.ofl.:lFa) {pam. f~ I.1) .3. 3-2.!. hi (hlPa) (pm-a.i (MFa) (pam. <l:liea. 3-2. 3-3. bi (MFa) (para... 3-2.:iciual stress m flange.i (MPa) ( 3-4.3.3 .[mm) . as lrrdicated. ) 2 width of a compression element. IFes:pectivelly).3..4) tnl:'eshold value For fwki[j.

) Pt1 allowable double plane shear strength beyond the pinhole.". 3·'t2) number of cycles for the iWI portlon of a varia hie amplttude ]oad:ing spectrum {para. (l111m} (tomme'llltalT f01" P><l11"<1· 3"3.2) 3 ry minor axis radius of gymlion. in. 3-2.. (mm) (para.32) ~arger belrldll1lgmoment at the end of the unbraced lelllgth of a beamtaken about the' strong axis ofthe member.3. in. this value lU<I!y be' taken as the clear distance between flanges Ie. if any. (N'mm) (para..) (para. radlu~ of curvature of the' .arble 3-:1. in. [rnm] (pma~ 3"2~3~) 1 ~alera]ly unbmced~eng'lh of a bending member above which the' limit state wm be lateral-torsional buckling.gati. 3-4.3. tl' (01m) (para. ). J (nlln'~') (pma~ 3-2~32) torsional constant.. (mm) (para. 3-3. 3-3.3. 3"2~3.em. 3"2~3~) 1 smaller be1r1dlrn:g oment at the end of m the unbracedIength of a beam taken ab01:ut the ~h:ong axis of the member..) shear modulus of e]astidty 11. 3"3~2) p lasfic moment.'5i (Mfa) (para. 3·2:3.e.3. (1111:01) (para. - M m Mp Ml - M:. IIll.(mm) (pam. 6 minor axis moment ofinert:ia.3. 3-2~3.lip p]anes in. thidm. in. 3-2~2).11' leg size of the l:einro. kips (N) (pam. .1) r radsus of gyration about the axis under C'onsideraHon. 3"2~:. 3-4. reference stresarange 1'0 which Nt!'tl ..r. in .(01) (faMe 3·1) 1.2) PI allowable tensile st.d!ng the ccmpresalon flange rhlt5. kips (N) (pam.(KVmm) {para. in. LO).. in. (mm] (Table 3·1) thlckness of the tension-loaded plate..ed.3. 3-2~2) distance between Cl'OSS sections braced ag):li.. kip-In.1) 3 steess l"<lngeflJr the ~11t p01"tionof v<ll':iaMe SIt. (min.m) (para. kips (N) (para~ 3-3.e plate..) r. 3·33.. (Ml. (0101) (para.. 3·<t2) maV01" xis section mQdu]Lls. 1<.mnmoment case (C~ .3."I specifled minimum yield stress of the f1.Pa)(Tabre 3-1) hi specified minimum yield stress of the web. ki.on.II:.rength thriVlIIgh the pinhQle. of a section com:pd:. ).. In~4.(mrn) (COO1nThel]la:ry for pam. ) 2 S. J K - L& - Lp L.i!ng contouring or fillet.rc. kips (N) {pam. the connection (para. 3-2. 3.ffhe tell!.1) ~hickn. 3-3.' - - .. 3-3. in the dlrection of the ttTrkk~ ness 5 R. kip-in.errt of t the compression Halllg.fiQI rolled ahapes.1.eoo ofa compreeslon 3 element.{nun4) (paHL 3-23~1) effective length factor ba sed IOn the deg1ieeof fixity at each end of the member (para. (mm$) ) (pam. taken about all!.· amplitude loading (mm'!') a Si' (pam. 3-2.arruge..axis in the plane of the web. 3-L3) eq uivalent number of constant amplitude cydes at stress range. 3-2.ess of the plate. ki.G11 Iy.. unlf.41.1.1) P.... 1<. radius of gyration. 3~2. in.2) the actual unbraced ~ength of the member. {01m) (paea.2:) number 'of of tl:"ri.p-in. (N'mm) (para. (N '01. 3"2~3~2:) maximum laterally unbraced Iength of a bending member for whkh the fu]~p]as" tlc bending cap acHy can bereahzed..200ksl (11' 2.2) p~ :1I!H(}w:1I!b]e p]ane fl"acture &hengrh single beyond the pinhnle. in..1) 4shear plane ]ocatilll.major axis plastk modulus in .. (N~mm} (para. 3~2. 3-3.ers. bi {MPa) (para. in . 3-2.1) R dist<l!nce from the center of the holeto the edge oJ the plale in the directien of the applied load. Ern..3-3~3~1) 11.ffhe detail be~ng evaluated (para .$~on·]oad. in.l1~twist or ]ateral d:isplac.g angle hu pirl1lconnected plates (pa1"a.6) Z' _ IOi5~ length of the shear pl<i!l]e a pirlll~ of in crmnected plate.. ln. {mm) (para. (mrn) (pam.00 MPa) for steei (pma. 34.ed t plate.Pa)(f.t2) allowable' major axis moment fortees and double'"angle' members ]'oaded in the plane of aymmetryykip-in.3. 3-2. . 34$) desig..2) desired design faHglJe ]ifein cycles o.2) clear depth of the plate parallel to the applied shear force at the section under investi.1) Zi' ..3.'5i (Ml. (mm] {para. in.1) RI' _ a llowable be'aring load on roll.6) tft? Ihkkne5'5 or the web.·he fillet or curner t radius. aHowab]e shear capacity of :11! bolt In :11! sltp-crifical COHneCUQn.0Ii1e·third of the ecmpression web area.l - N Nd N.if (pal'a.n factor W:1l!l"a.

4l-:4i3) coefflclent 0'£ static fl"ktion (par.5 (b )]1 1'1' ~ computed transverse shear stress.uUons.4.hb<t'ail:U. 4Ai3') d nominal shaft diameter or bearing irm.../sec. i!A..1I) {para.1) GRm:iD 11 bearing powel" faC~Ol"(para.). 4~6. fn Ib (N) (P:Cl!l'"a. 4-6 . Ill! {N) {para.6.6. ~ portion of the computed tensile stress due to fluctuating loads.. 44i4) VI' ~ mlnlminnvacuum ~para.. 4J.7'.. 4J.3} (umput. (MPa) (pam.3(d) ] 1-7 REIFERIEI~(ES is a list of puihlkatioIli.! (ANSI..ombilmedlatigLle· shear stress. n_-1 {lnm-1) (para . . 4A..ksi ~MP:CI!) 4~7.2) S ~ computed fatigue stress. 4J.ed in S~ Sc S~ computed bending 4~'7. 4~. ) 3 mimi:mum g:dpratio (para.ue 1).l:Ti. 4. bi (MPa) [pan.d~ In.7'..6J(d) ] stress.ed cornblned axial! bending.4) diametral pitc.e' surface measured from horizontal {para. (.6A) dynamic eql. .in.. lb {N) {para.pedHed str-engtlht.)] UPC ~ calculated ultimate' vacuum pad capacity ~para..6. ks~ ~MPa) [para.11 ted [para.W..C'95. 25 W~t 4~rd Strel. (1'11[01.7.. psi.dde' diameter.l) maoufacturer (pm'"a.~7' X ~ dynenncradial Ksr KTi'J stress amphfieation factor shear [pam_ 4~7_6_3~b)] stress amplifiC..3(a)] bearing length.11)]1 5 minimum yield str.mallergear. [ s~[\ess. per bearing manufac.4l-:' 10.2} RatingflactorSo for InvO]~l~e' Spur and! ...) [ (N} (para_ V. (mm) (para. ksl ~MP. psi. K .7'.4k.3) Kro L £..o.. NY 1()OO6.4l-:.. 4.7'.1J\.pedFIed -y ~MPa) [para .:.. ANSl/AGMA 20m . 4-'7.rure:r..4!-1).1ltion [para.7'...inst the male.3) i DI F face wi dth of .7'.10 stress ampllfication factor for directtension [para.ha~t.3) - fH mimi:mum gripping force on each side of lllie ]oad..emgU'I. TI1e' f"Mowing this Standard.3{d.revJmin (para..D be lihed {para . ksi (I\4:IPa) [para. 4.5(a}] computed 4~'7_5(a)] aKial strese.7'$.il So1f1 pI(l(rlion 'of the' computed tensile stress not due to Iluctuatmg loads. N!.T.I..6.... ksi (I\4:IPa) {para.. hi (MPa): [para.!6.3(a}]l minimum uJ[]mate~elllsile S" ~ s.3(d) ] axial tensfle stress.5(b )]I of the computed shear stress not 1'&1i ~ portion due to the fluctuating loads..5(c.i (MPa) [para. 'May alsobe ~. ~MPa} (]'y ~ specified {para. eadial component level speclfled atthepad pad rating VPR ~ maximum caleu (N) (para.3) '1 ~ computed combined shear stress. ksi ~MPa) 1'[ ~ computed to'rs~onal shear [para. 4. 10.ks.7'.1l_ 4~9.4k.1) f.) (p:Cl!r>:l.. bend!ing.'7li.rderen...6.:W.1l) [para. bi S ~ s. ) 2 allowablce tooth load in bending.~f.6. dYllHll1llk axial Y ~ Lewis form fa:C~Ol" load lac~or pe'r bear][ltg manufacturer J-I-SF (para. ksi (MP a) -f [para.1) minimum yie1d stress.!J\----5. rial surface .llivalenlradia] load.3) vacuumpad des.1) (N} (pam. = [c N N" P Pr S S. 4~. 1'/ ~ computed ksi (MPa): [para.!J\----503} oolal]onal speed.stress. 111" (para.6.3) axial component 'of the actual bearing Ioad.1) basic dynamklll)<ld rating~o theoretically Cr endure one mmkml revol.i {MFa) [para.fll.'7. ksi (MFa) [para.5 (b )]1 (J ~ angJe' nf vacuum pad interfac.6.1) SOL' ~ corrected faHgue [endurance) limit of shaft In reversed bending.7'$.A) bask rating life exceeded by 90% 01 bear' ing'S tested.1) of the' actual bearing load.!w Yi)ik. 4. in.!'t.5(a)] sh'el>".:.4l-:05. lit! (N) {para. of polished.iJ\. "H..A "" effective area of the vacuum pad! enclosed between the pad and! the maferial when the' p:<ldis fully compressed ag):!.. in.gue (endua-ance) HmH unnotched spedmeninreversed ks.3(d) ] .tit)!l.! merican National A St<l!nd!a:r.4l-:.4) load factor per bearillig W ~ bearing ]oad.i ~MP.:.ks. hi (MPa} St ~ computed [para.IJ\.3(b)]1 of the computed shear stress d.4l-:.3(a)] for torsional facto!" for bending (Table .4J..ks] ~MPa) [para.5.4l-:.llndameDlta] and Calcu larion Me·thod5 Helical Gear 'Ieellli] computed combined 4~7.'Jli... ksi (MIPa) [para." 4~ 10J) ~verage pressure..1) V ~ surface velocltyof s. ) 3 fatilgue stress amplification factor {para. [rnm) (para.I~/min {01..IJ\.3(a }]I SR.!d from Iffiil. ~ portion to HUC~llIating loads.4l-:' 10.6. 4~6.}ll fati.4. 4.ignfactor based onorienta~]on of lead (pm.

Alllowable S1Dress Diesigmam:i I"ilastlit: D.MA 325.. '9Ocl WestpalFk .1. '66. Keys and Keyseats ASMEBJO.N[ W'007~2300 AS1'.ic. Suite '1847..2005 I 2 0 '~C:mgil1l.e] Publlsher: American Concrete II'rlsutcLllte [ACIIL P. :120/10'5 ksi MiIllinmm 'fensHe Shiel1lgth A$'fM A 490'.I. Alloy Steel. 11994a.e the Load alilid Resistaillce Factor Design Sp.C95.. • A IPFobability. l. aIOlfu~stalillda wd to tn e 9'Featest extie nt pu etlca I.t'I. How€!v.' II.!if.d Sfelill E.gif:iI1HHifl(J J. 11:992.IFdis: acccmpanled by a commen~aFy tlmal!explains. 2003113 ANSII/AGiMA 20m .G. Box . 500 Mon~gQmery Stn.eeificatiolill for S~FUctl... G.ealriing B $:1 ANSII/ABMAlHI990 m1999').s: Stallllda. Stand ardSpedfkatlonfor Structural Bolts. edRiOin Publisher: ~ol1i11lWHey Nff C(lmment. Specification For WekUng ·of Industnial and MUI Cranes Handling Equipment] and Othee .und Over]clad Relays Rated 600 Volts IeS 6... Keyways.1941.llIFal Publisher: American Welding Society {AWS}]<li Of tn.alild Samu.tenings WltbQu~ Taper Action: Parallel Keys.(06) 2:00.eariing~1 I"LlIbl..Drive Type Fas.1oI.Publisher: American Gear MaJl1I:llIfaC'hll:rers Association IAGMA). VA 222. n5 .ationfor Wel!diillllgi ov IIIil d!!Jlstrliall and 1M Cranes and OlnlelF Ma~elFiial iilill Halndlilll gl EqUlipment 1 Publtsher: American W. Vol. Miami.1·20nS(FIeaffiiFlrIIl 0 1111 of AS MIlE.echmologIY { for Tes:~lng and Materials IASTM). N a~l()llIa]Bleetrlcel Cod. of til e pu blli sh elF$: f o tnIO$:edocuments." . Heat Treated.Below"the":HOOk UfHmg Devkes1 Pub lisher: The American Society O-F Medlali1ica] Engineers (ASME).mmtJf. IFarmil1lgrtol1l Hiills. Wa$:nlilllg~o1111.C. Three Park AvenlJ.lI.isted below .e. IIIL 60S0M0011 Madselll.:1997.Mat.allld IFrallllk.4. I"ubllishew: Am erl c.e.. AII.20. West Conshohoclelll. StandardSpeclficatlonfor Structuraf. '150 lsi MhJl:im.l1ldother documents tlma.1990c ~R2MO~.e plFOvi$:iiQI1IS tlillatchaptew . Fatig!!Jle lUre fOIFIBa. some alreas awe Ibest $.l774 Pactors..ld. vi d es til e iliam es alillda d dress es. Amerlcan B. ~ ACt Journal. 2000 I"ubllishew: AssOCliatiiOIi1for lren ~md S~e. Ilel-iL. c(O]N).1.: entrollers.aill Gear Man!!Jlfactur. Mclealll. Gnliicaglo. Petersen's Stress Concentration & SOIll.ull. Alexendrfa.esi9lm. Miami. Nlo. ~Reporn of Crane G'lilFdewTes~s/ Iron . Assoelation (AIBMA).$ AS$oc.lIited~o Ihe C1ov.2005. FA 19428.W. Code.. NW. N(ilv.8:5"'~T. 0'7I[)SOb!. S.ewlmeadTraveillilllg Cwalllle$:for Steel Mliilll Se:Fvic.l. Inc.ists:codes.2003. VA 2231~15S1 ANS[jAWS D14... Vol!. FuIIlldamelltall Railing FactlDrs allld Call1c.D.l1 i$ structured to be a sta 1111 di.t are clted wlthln the maiiln body of thiis Stali1dard and pro. T. Motors and GeneratnfS Publisher: Na~ional Electrfcal Manufacrurers Asseciation INEMA).1997 Spee:ifii¢. 70.e$: reeited oor IiIIllf'QIFmatliOIli a emily.09 Pilkey. 191~ id.n. FL 33126 AN$:[ / NfPl'\.oIFg [:2:0013~ GII.eeriimg FAG:$:S'ectlion 4...112000~. Specificatlionlfor Electric. all!i 1 " Safety Sh'llilidards for Mecli"lalllicBllll'o\iVerT'FBnS'rIIlission Apparatus I"ubllishew: AssOCliatiiOIli of Malli1ufalcturillllgl iec. D.li1lilQlogy.' . .bem~5. where nec1essalry. Mill48333 EllliflfiU. lLoad IFlatilllg alilid F1iItligue IUfu fOIFRo Iller B.$: for Involute Spll.3{lONorth 17th.umTensile Shiel1lgth Publisher: American Sg. NI .. 12 Struc.elrlIl ber Tech In licail RepolFt INo. "Flexural Strength of WT Ssctiens. Load Ilhtilllg a. W~ne. These refer.. 1997. Sh:eet.F<lid:ie.atiom Method... Heat Treated. COrl1lellll. 1186 Thorn Hlilll Road.Germany lCS 2. Lejeune Road. VA 22102.9. Quincy.191:19: Y'LlIra. Oll. If'l 3312:6 9 550 Publisher: National Fke ProtectlonAssoclation INFPA). . ellllc.exandwia.elFedy b reference toestab Ii's:hed il1ldus~Fystand Control and System'5: EndQsures MG 1.elllltaries: are II.allioillOF S~FUc1tl!Jlfall f Steel lBulildlings .ig:]cHl l.Bolts. MA 02:269~91 01 ASME 1317J. Ea(:li"ldlaptier oiti"lli. NIO.~~r..lllF and Helical GealFTeeth1 .S.n. 'I BaUerymal'l.tiion (AIISC).En.V.Jr. New YQrk.aln lnstltute 'of Steell ConstlFUc.lI VOIF Analysi$: of G!!Jlyandl StiftfIeg lDeHlick$. 550 N.300'.Balsed.a'.1 ral ilding s. Wanem:ialle. PA 115066 AINSI B Alii publlcationsclted of ilill these COrlfllrlfll.l. 19'6:9'.O..'5.421013 AINSllfABMA9'. time basis .nd200Oc Spec!i~icallio ill 'low Str!!JIC!UlFEII Steell BUliIidiiIllgs.gin.2/www. Rev. VA 22:31M562 ANI SlllfAWS Ln14.:1993 (R20(ll). :UIOBarr Harbor Drive..ll Slteel 8. 6. Deep Pattern Publisher: Deutsches Instltut fur N o-rmu[ltg e. ]1 :1.lLA.iialllion {AG MAL SOcQi IMolilltgolflfliery StIFeet. stalilidiards:.:bPark. 2.1.200B.e$:~illlgMethod to Determine the Slip Co'efificieillt for Goatliillgs Used ln Bollted Gomnectiiol1ls.e East WaclkelF IDnive. Sec~ion 1.200{l. Order Department: 22 law Drive. 2. Rosslyn. Vol.:1967 (Reaffirmed 1998).e'LlineRoad.earingl Malillufac~UlFerS. Industrial Control and Sys. NY ]OO~6~5990. Ov.fngltMlildng .ry: ASMEB1H. 2025 1MStlreet. ILe J. 19.. w.2. Box 9094.3 I"ublisher: Americ. C Centactors.21[){l41.A.ali$c. a.2.o.29!5i9 DI[\~ 68S!5~:]. '1{li'lL Ber]]rn. Hoboken. RiveI' $Ilieect.elding SO(:liety (AWSI.

edCraine B'OOIflill$ IPubllish. Pan'liliel Keys.iilng Sbess Des:iigln Pubiliislil'eIF:A'f"lIlelFiic.. 4th eo lti Din .n01. New Y(ld!. INY IKl!Jlla. J. G.2 Fislrn. 1:9'B7.and Doiy.esF.Metal Structure. Deep Patlerlill IPllJIhli'slil.9!. 1952" ~A New of the S:twctur. llilree l"allFkAvenue..OOnl D'epalrtment of DefelillSe. Sp.e Girder Electric l'ra.l'Jg M'echanlcs Div[slon.rc Welld. Cdted. 1953.. Palrt [).e !=actor [l'esiign for Steell. M. B.Iln.e:r:Sociietyof Al!Jtolflillotlive ElIllgliMers {SAE lnternational).so Gallambo$.oe.C.K" and (3 allallrlil es.e~: ID. No. Kulla~. 16~170.ColllWlmns. Guide to D~sJg.ewYork.8)..8. 100 Ban Harbor Dlriive...".fQ'Cf) . iMcGraw. S1r9' G!ililambo$. D.for Steel Eleam. NY Pl!Jlbli$h.01ted lind Rlveted Joints. V 01. 198:7.alnc.6. O.cliation !NFPA). Overl'liuldano Gantry Craliles C'ii'01P IR'LJnlniing 8lFidge. No..eIF:The Amfmie:!'1IIliSoclietyof Me.AINSII/!Nrtll'A70.S.. I"A 1509s. ~Slilealrlin9lIProperli.! Be. IM. Wiir.:.eciifiicatiol1ls for lop Rl!Jllillning Bridge & Galntry lype MllJIlltiplle GlilFder Ellectrk OverheadT.Ji.e~: Wire Rope iechmllieal 80ard" 601 N. 10~.elnt$ iln Hlle Anadly~i$ of ILugs and Slilealir lI'iiIllIS.bNUy Design r. ~ J'liinlConnection Strength and Sl!Jlpelriilllltendelnt of Gov.IM.ey &: SOI'llS.lalilld Allloy SteellS!.959' Speciiflic:aUon N e.IF.2. 3re! editi\on. . "The IBendiing ResiShi:llnceof Stee.D.V. 74~2:004.m. IFaiirfax Street D. IM.a. Part .91m API RI' 2A. n]OID Handlbook Miln.l'J$actio\ll. IN. ~IFi IIlditeD.• 11 d Jc:mr. '-'8uckling Prolperties of lMonosymm.iM. and Strulk.r. R.viior.elo.' Journal of the Structl1ral l)iV'i'$ gl ASME IB30.s. No." and Godhey" I·U.. ~OQiCommonw. 9'7. ST9 Kitiipornchad. 8m DUlerr. 1 We:i91htHa ndllin91Eq ui pment 29 CFR191'O'. No.PA 119~2B. pp.e IRope Us. l. 1 tMIUerym a ~t:h Pa." Journal of S![$'lr. 2:4. Keys and Keysealt$ ASIM E B30. line...e:r. Ililc. Sil'llg.a.W.chan~callE. IDesigning. J.lngi. ILiillllcoll. ICMAAI. I.e.K. DC 20005.40170 ASME !B17. T.lh eOli~ion.fng..nA. Clevelalnd.exl3lncierBelllDrive.104.oad and ResiistalillCenesiigl'll Grliteria fur COlllllllleciors. 20402. C of Il'IIc. !ilIllORavindr.low.T..r: rene Manufllictuirers.le or Ml!Jlltiple Girder.eell for Welldeo S~ructlWlr.e:rmalny SAE .rO IIIlldu$trlia. W.Jtil1fal Divicsi:Oll. and GOlilstFl!Jctiilng IFiixed Offshore PlaUorms . No. . New York" NY l'M1 6.A..oln'sRaltio of StrulCtura..lIhli'slil.179. !3lllld Ravlilndra.Perm rma IIllceSta IIlloalrdfor Ove~lhi.Qu ~ncy. S"and iralhiair.Stlrlengtlil.M" 1985" Advanc. 1.Hill. J.r:8lve. Vo II. Hodge.4400 lys.e. Top Run IIllil'll TiroIlley if-IoiisU. AprH Ravl n"jlra.. ~'Jour!uil orUle Structure! I). ..W" Gall!illflilibo$.Hooik Liiftif1lg [llevices1 ASME 80iler & Pr. 9~rnediNon...G.r NOirmllJll'IIgmIN) e..ingl FOl!Jlndation.5 lDocl!Jlmelnts.New Yerk.:2(1)3.'M.. INo. Allexantiriia. Voll.V.Jchn Will...20..ew$Manl!Jlal. Drive Type Fastenilngs Wlitho!JJltl'alper Actiioln.s. Washlin9~on.N. GI.lnc.Wet.ent IPdlllltiiln'gl Oftice. "Ii.".~' Journ. 70~2Q04. and if-Iobillit. 2nd editlion.V.l Stan'M:la."toad an d b Res.eIllICalrlilp.essl.A" Galambos.isiol'1.rtk. 1197 .I1:. ~ ·JQ'uH'l.. NY IMelico:n.s. AP..alllld IBal!JllrIilelist:er.. Alloy St.. IMA '022:00. Sectlion III. and Sideb'ottorn. N .Stu.W" 11956.. 119'78."." New Ymlk.e. 5. ASSoodaliolil1 Amerlica. ~[l'evelopm.epartlflillenl:22 law IDrive. eds.c.lhe.30n.59'90.." Pm(j'uct En. ..IK.2 ASM E HST~. EM2. INW. Overhead and Gant1ry Cranes IPl!Jlbllis[h.. 1801 AI.Ji oh n Wi I~Y & SOln$.er.. Fish.nal of Ute ErllJille~d.Ji 78:·1994. Fainfiel'd. E. Warlrendall.C. ( and POli$s.eva. " 197B. Sir9 IPubllishe~. Americalill Society fo~ il"estiililgalilid Materials: IASiI"M Illnt:erlnaltional~.2... West COln$h(llillockien.a{ Dlv.oIIlISof GllJIlrVe Bea rn s. and..K. Voll. 113:2. VA 22314 Avall~one." P.ecommelll ded MethodoT AIlI!3llytiica n]eterllTlililiililg the Co:nn lIy petenee of Hydlra 1!J111ic Telesc:opie Call1tlillever. 1220 L St~eet.1 978.. 104.rC(l1rar Etlgil'J!i:'~rin.2.L... 1M.edfiications for lop Rl!Jllillning & Under iFI 'Ui nn iillllgiSlilngll.el!JllfIill Ilnstiitl!Jlte(API). 872'0 R.etric H3eams. "$. McGraw Hillll..s..alof the S:tructuMf Dlv.rd. Vo1L104. lJI. D . :2000. 10772. Electrica.. V" 1:9i78:.f)ri~forB. D~$iprl o. INo. 199'8. NatlionallEleC1. 19913 IPll. H. Hm. 1980. V. V" !il1Il1e! Ravilndra" MI.OH 80re$i.7007.3 Pubiliislil. Waslhi iilnglto:n.IASeE).V.llreVessel Code..Work.IPropert~es of " Ste." Journal oUlie .885·1 [1968~. ILG. Mew Y'ork.2300 IB.arlil$.el for Use iilllillRIF[).velliillllgi Cralnes IlHlilliz:ing Under Rl!JlIllnl~lngl '1Irolley Hoist IPulJllish.H967 m199.. No.erilillll.Yii. !Bo.i$1. linC..J'1 C'ri!. The Ja.R.Marb' i. Keyways. 11999..ead Eleetriie Wlire Rope if-Ioisls IBH)iJer..rlicallCode1 ANSl/iNFIPA 79~2002.x 2. CIil'1ilrllone"INC 282117 IDIN 6.e. IFlavindra. a1111 d Sioelbottolrlil.a tor. SiG McWlhiortelr. Gvide to $ta. IIllee~$ ~ASMlEI.eutsches InsWl!Jlt fij.A.. 19'98. "LR. VA 2019' l"'I~*ol.eal~hi [l'ri. 200. Vall. C U.IHDBK. 1933.ii for 1 MlachliIIlllHy I'lubllisher: Natiolil all Fiire PlFIIltectio'l'lA$!. St.alld'~fd Hand'book ior M'f!!chanicaf .eha. Orcl. 1978. No. m A R.f 'WiHded Structur~$. J Society of Civil Ic.2.ed Oak Boull.afof the Strucfural DivisiDn. NY 8110dgeU.M" Altlrlna' MIX. 74. i.iorlm(p".." Jo'uM.gin€if!!ril'Jg. n.~' Tr.IFD Criteria. Voll. 5'119' Yura. NY Mech~flic. NJ '0.A. Sp.Jchn Wiiley & Sons.iiing Cranes Speciifkation N c. Vol.Q05. J. Galam bos.erlnlrlil.ngiineerS.Vol.etil' f M at~da'~.. 1nt38.isio'l'J Vol. I"llallllning. ed.-932.

..Jchn Wil.c.D. 111111(: .. W . B"l1IlIetii1111 28. ~'A IPhotoelas1i(: Ilmlestliglatiiolill of l!wg :S~Tes$:es all1ld Faliliullres.. MeG r. Univelrsity 1'11'0. 2:0'O'2.. 1997...G . Th.hanlcal En(Jiru~€JrinfJ D~.. J . :2:l1Id edltion...N.3.. Pe!e<. R. 1934. fIN II ..f.R . Bea. ... IIIL YOUl1Ig.~r'sTh·e$:li$:. W... New York... 7th and Strain. lne. W.rmulas for Sire...s. INY Tolhert. 119'70. Ni'lshvillle. ~ Mi'I$'gn. !lInd l3udyn!ils. Ili'lnderrlbilt L!il1liverdy. NY Shigley. C. l. MeG raw· Hlilll.Roark's' Fo. . 2()'Ol. Urbana. N1Y Wilson. Ne'w York.. of 1IIIilllll(liis Elfiglil1leelFiilng Experi'mel'nt St::I~ion. IR.i'lVli'·lliilll..ring ilalue of RoJJe.Pilkey. !lIn d Mischke.. 6Hli ediitioln...r)n'$ Stres» Concentration Factors.line" New Ymlk.r$...C.M'li'H.ey & Sallis..M ..

lypic:ally. D!(lslgnl C. 2·1. The dlscussjcns ofthe Desigl1l para. If 1]01 specified by the OWl1e~r.1 CalegoryB. The selection of Del.J' and normal atmos. ~1~41.eflil1Ied il1l para.2 Ufter Classlficatio IS 2~'!l GEINIEIR:AIL commentary: Am blent opelFat~ng temperatl!Jlr. unless a qualified pe~rson detennines jhet Design Cat.ll11 d!esig~ be nated fm: each lifter..A qualli~ I flied per$on onthe lintegrityand perforrnence ofa li'faelF cannot by tM Illifting spec ifiic.e strel1lgrth alnd LlIsefl!Jlllliife of tlI1N~~lifter~o be matchedto the needs ofthe I!Jlser. Servke Cla~~. and.elrto con.irgncateg(llde~ definedin paras. CaICl!Jllartionl~.itih.a 111'1 ned. and CO'ff{lS~Ve environments). Tihl€: effects.ormsiv.e iil1lcil!JdelOp Ilevel dlrawilngs:.egory and Service Claas shall be marked on the lifter and O'lppearon quotaI]Qrh5.'ign Category and Service Class shall he the responsibility of II qualified pe!l:Soru rep[e~ semling the' owneri purchaser. lhese com ments :!3lreln II1ID way til be illiltelFpFeted as perm irttirn·gl a liHill1lg devli(:e to be used above its rated load urider alny climLllmstal1l0es other tlrn!ilnl fer Iload testilng inl aeeerdal1lce wi~h ASMIE 83'Qi.t).3. 114. 1~4.. a sl!Jlmp~ioll1lS:Of rare and o:nly minor dming unintended overloadroutine I!JISe.:3 IFeV.s11.gJ.4 Emvirolilmetl1lt AU lifter components are assumed to operate wilt. Liflers· sl:ii.ignatecl when the l1lLagtrlitude nd variation ofload!s applied to the' lifter a are' pred:ktable. a CiOnllMlentary: The purpOSe of tihlis reqll. 2.S. 2.A aware of the assig ned n]eslig n Category an d the Serviice Class.ategoriies s and Service Classes: aillow tln.·1.lliiH!:mell1i~Ii$: til} . adequ alte structural relialbiility servlicle IIiie.20 or other stain dalrds er r.ed USe $0 13.llallined person. ComlMl@ntary: TlhH~~elections .$l!JTe~ihla~ the Desigll1l Category and Service Class spec:ifiied VOira partlcular Ilifter are alppropriarte for ~rne lill1l~end.1I1.n cOll1lsiideratiol1l$halll be glliveH toallolperatiolns thatwlilll affect the l'iftill1lg d. and .$ to prm(iide expected 131esig 1111 d w. moistare.riOl" lU~er.'7 m<uy regJllI:i:re addltfnnal conslderatien.ev€:lopmellitof Comrnantarvfor 9 iVenlto un il1ltJellided ~rne desigll1l fadoIF. 3·1.ibility The de.. nd documentation associated with the lifter.Jal$.3.tir..tDeglory. plJlf"Chase.1)i·IDeS:ignl G..:.hin the temperature mnge defined in pam..iigtli Category iimpact loads A lifters (lIn establish the sh:ess limiJts~o be used in the desi. The design facters are' give:nin para. may documents tlhalllreq'Lllir.ign.liderra~kmls l ill1l d.~desigru fl'lc~or~ ltit.egorie$ bellow and ill1l 3·1. Of user of the lifting device. Il1nall1lufac~mer. 3·1. and mam. iilndicalted mark. Commentlilry: Whel1lij:Ii:. of A is approprlete.dteda) and Servlce CIIIs.llated malnl. (a) Design Categuiry A should be des. lhec:omponent temperature of eacihl palFtof the liifter must be considered wlheln the device i$i operatlil1lg iiln an envircnrne nt outs ide the Ilim iils d. 2~2_2 provide fo[ dm. and 2.s (fIltiglJlellfe c. and end user are 2.the Des~gn Category and! Service Class shall be deldgnated by thequalifled person respensible for the' de~ign.dterla) deseribed ill] sections 2~2 and 2~3 shaM be based on the operIlting conditions (use) and expected life ofthe ]ifbel:.ingls quotatiolns. Thesedesi cdi b.pheric.llfactl. mild ihe de$iign factor speciiied is based in for [)'e:!:. cnndltions (fl'ee from exces~ive' dust.<ll~be' de~igned~o Desl.llrer gin co nsid erations and accounted for or qll.e[edmo n The selec..elnsure tih~alttine de·sigIMr.e$afety The Oes.e desiign .ded oll1lly til be a glLlliidelline. Ca~.lInof a De.. w herethe loading <und environmental conditions are accurately defined or not seve~. ovelFloads Cat.tepry. (b) Design Category A lifting devices sl:m]ibe limited to Service CIa$€:rk Sl!JhS:~:!3I11·c:es be rnu st A Desiglll Categcny and.1. moiistme.3 1!I!lentmfllcatio. 2·2J.eviic.5~gJ1 Category (s~aUc s:trengtlhl c.$.eg ulatlons. device or manufaeturer II1n IWI$tas.e Ilim· ltsars ill1ten. (c) The-nominal designfaCi(lirfo[ Design Category A shll]~be In accordance with para.2.l€:c~iing a [)\esigl1l Ca.'Chapter .7.·1.e evallll..drawirlllg~.2 IRespo'liIs. Comll'l1l@ll1I1tary: Gihalpter3 inl'gl. Lifter componenlS operating artemperatures outside therange spec-:iHed illllpara. and c.

D 1 1 30.if.1 mlber$ of load cycles melFvice 0 Class m. ia.1! lass ( 0.ilnil1l91 tn.e:Fatioln$! are COnl.ntli.000 O~!!r 2. However.cls beil1lg handled may not Ibe weill Iknowlfl and tme IIiHing operatiolliS are cond IlJldeo ln a liln0 re IFa plid. 'U$'agiealilclilifis il1ladver$!e.ctor COITIIMe.TlilIe$!e load eortditions are eharacterlstlc of IlJI.easonl'8b!y weill knownandthe liming op.dlitiolnsor useare present.e desligllfl' factor $peciifiiecl iilfl Chapter 3 for DeSign Category B Ilifters lis:based 0111 presum ptiolns ~colnnpared 10 ~eSligln Ca.tended to apply to linil1lg devices used in contrclled cOllioliHonl..s discussed above.l Se'rvi.lfl.te9l0ry A~ of a grea~er Iilay 10 25 50 100 :200 ~ 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 .The i nltenit li.pads.000'. IDes..Mionl' for this [)!esigl1l CaltegOWl" includ e IliflS 011 slow$peeds utillli.1 HI 0.edesired.lIadv·er$e environInn elfllla.~nl. le$~eO:ntrolied cOIfl.hl. IPractical1considerations of vadollJls work enl. the lJ:eslign C!3lle'gIOrylEidesiigl1l f1.e r.. 3-].r'y:Tlm.~ruc~(]:ralmembers !section 3-4) and design paranoeters for mechanical .oi~io'n$.ign CategUiry B should be d.$ervke il$ IIeS$ severe. (~des.S-M.maximum lim'pact m.IDe$ign Category lEiwiil!glelfl.1 .eoppontulnily fOF mOre ecoM:nnical designs for time ca. of The load cycll. A cim 0lic1e five Serv. .2 (ll) does not n·e·ces-$!allrlily accourrt for a.l¢'Hect$. 'C<l~egl'lry B Des. This Des.$lo plFQvide the owner wi~mlm.$!e tn.000 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 Ii Ii s li li li 3 3 4 4 4 4 ..g. (.00:1 .1 are Clonsis1telnt wi~h the Ireql.esigIllBJt:edwhiert the magnitude and variation of Ioads app~red~o the lifter are not preclk-fable.e C2.. iypicallcha ractertsflcs ·of the !3'Ppliic:atliml'for this Des~9111 atiegolFY C lim:ilul!:lie rougn.000.ere duty .pact lI. 2-3 SEIRVI(E(ILASS The Service ClaS_5of the IH~e:rshallbe determined from Table Z~l based om the specified fatigue life (load cycles).g device of app Illicallli Ifl'Swith Ilow 111 1. p.led. rOlUgn"er halfl. 1 1 2.zinlg a weill mainta"il1l!$:d liflling device under the corrtrel of a Ilift SUpervlscr :iI'nlO experi· enced CIFa.e nmges shown lir! TI3.'omponents (sectlons 4-6 and 4·jl 'fa blle:!-l il1lthe weight of the Iload beiing hand.egolFY A ~s.ioe Classes ii$ provio. 2 2 2 2 :2 :2 :2 :2 3 ~ )00 750 a cOnlltr·ollledrnsnner.e t:onditiionl's. 'CorrHlil'IliYllltli. plFoducti 0111'0 I"iiented rn an iller.e IIi'fter ln work enviof renrnents where the weiiglmtsof the Iloaos Itleiinl.econornlc decislion belween. a.iiglnCategoljt$ho IlJlldnot Ibe used inanv environment where severe co nl.001 . 01" not accura~e']Y defined. the pPs$libillity af somewhat grealter !!Jllnilfl.oll·ed ar.ry: IDe$!iglnfor fatigue involves a. de~ilFed life and eost.2.lliirement$ of ANSlfAWS 1D14.$lerm. These Iloaid conditions are characterlisti:eof USe of the Illifie:F lilfl'work elfl.000 100.) ad cydes that correspond to Service Class 11 and Imigher com mOlnlly equate to usa. and :ii' maximum impact in lilnultiip!iler of 100%.erailly be appropriate for liftersll'lal areto be used i. where tlwloadlng and environmental conditions are severe. Thus.ul~ipllierof 50%.e requ ired Servic~ Class Ibasedon Iload cydes per oay andi service I.000 2'0. whiclh..'.nleOperator.001 .$es wn.3.tended overrll·oaoS.virOllimenlllSwhere ~me welighU of the Iloa.igl1l Cat.n severe environmenta.ed. TIle'selected Service Cla'5S establishes allowable SITessrange' valuesfor s.dHngl otths lead.MO 500. w~111 Ire-$llJllt higlher iim.000 ~ Ii Design.g Imanl. Typk:al eharacterisiin tics of the a'pplic.s. under whiclm the desligln fseloF of IDe$igrl' CateglolFYA Ii$!lnappropdate.l. tme IlJI·$!e ~esjg n Category A is restrlctedto liflli Ifl.100.ce (liliSS lLoad (ydes 0 .20. .IJ) The nominal designfacto:r for DesiW1 Category B shall be in accordancewith para.v~rOI1l· lilnenlllSiil1ldicailethat the hig h nu rnbers of II.' hal$!been ilnduded to assist lilfl'o.

ences such alS AIISC t2n.e J. 111.$!ucim as gripping! or lailerrallforoes.n:i'lllInic load.i.: structural members and connections of a be·low·tbie~ hook ]iftlOg device. such as grIppingforc. derived based On the asaurnption of the rnembers being prismatic.1JaI components of the' ]ifter..eliihood of liftinlg 81Ilo1ildglr.iJgt'l.1.r. 3· U! 8 nd 3·5.e.ldinglOFbl.115. .ed !JJ1$:in'gl in a plrolbablIlistic aII18llySiiis th e staticand dyM mic loa ds 110 of whlicml liner.e"e taikenholflfll this research alnd used for devellolP· rnent ·Oif· the IBfH de$iign factors .$ucimOv.Chapter 3 StructtJIrallDesign 3. of Des." trum of loadatowhlehthe lifter may be'S: (a) Desjgn fadon for Bes.11969. hr most de$:i'glns. for stre II1g IIli its 0'1 fracture an d fo "eo n n ecti 0 1111 9 n tml m desl w. theweigh:ts (liE the ill1ldi. Si9~ of tlh.m of tml.Values of the coefficient of vari!1lti'oln for differell1l wiPes of structural members and COll1lnec~i·ons h ave he en d etelflITliin ed iilna 1111 . (C3·11)' ~CoFl'llell. 2iOOU..he liik.anc! all11Y fun:es.ot addressed herein shall be based on the'!ollowing des. and other forces created by the opemtkm of the' lUter.'IS follows: N.v·the-l:ilook li~til1g devices shan be clesigrned~o resist the actual appliedloada.lybeen..e.iilgnCale'gol"y B ]ifling devices shall be not less than 3.xleII1I$!ive resea "elmpm= gram spoll1lsmed by the Amelriicall1l IIIFon and Steel Ilnsti~l.elnce tmle Com m iitlee meillnhers.iiglnCategory A Illiiftelrsare considered tel be ussd at relatively I'Iligh peroentage$ ofthelr rated Iloads. S·ectliol1l~A1i.iJgn Ca~egoryB U~teI~ 14 Tmle term VR is ~m e()oefifidelntof va rialion of ~heelement st1rengtml.rp~. COlll1lmellll:tarv:Thie stalic strength designl provlslons def II1led ChalPter 3 have been derliv.vld. 1 "" 3~1.eater t than the rated Iload lis considered $mall arrd .terralforces lin this paragra ph is ~nt:ended to refer 00 calcil.e:rie~of pap.eyand Mischke.NERAIL Allowabfe stresses for design cond iflons n.00 for li:milt states ·of yielding or buckling and! 2. 0 for limit statesof 0 yieldillig or buckling and! 3. The inclu$iiolnof la.ns.'mirdmum values of the nnminal design factor N~in the a]]owable stress egua~ tiOl1i~· shall be . Tmle1telrm Vs li$ tmlecoefificiiell1t of va..40 for limit states of fracture and f01" 'i(l(nnection design.iJgn fa. the we~glmt$ 0'1 tlh.~ ~ :2. an aldded impact adlowall1lce Ii$:II110t requjre d. D'l!Jeto .eAmerican Society of Civill E 111 gliII1lee Maximum vallues of VII equall to 0.ers in tlm.~ha~ Ires!JJiIt from Imle full1ctionl of the devlce.. Resolnfion of these' loads into member and COllinecholli.00 for Des.esililil IRasi:!> lifflillllg The statk ~t~el]lgthdesign of abelow-the-hook device shaM be based on the allowable stresses defined in' s~tions 3~2 and!::ling!alnd O. um .m Pu. The di$llrlib!JJltion of IIi1Tted load$: IFela~iveto rated load lis co II1lsid red to be as e shown linlfablle 'C3·1.. Theseloads shall include the ratedJead. Nd '" "Jv~ -I- 1I~ - t'v~v~ 1- .u Des. Rder.a~lIij ::M3 Sl:atmcD.s:e This d1aple~ sets forth design criteria for pdsmatic. Time ETiHICommittee developed a set of static and dY. . spectra based oln I~ IfIflllitedcrane load $:research a nd the eXlperli.eo[ leteralloeds.·1.00 fl.llla!ledIlatera I fo rces th at occmas a resullt of the ilntendedor eXlpected use of the lifter.g:rn factors for De':.Slmlgll. COI1l1lITI@nt!llfV: The strl!Jl'ct!JJlral members aln·i.riiatlionof~he spec. the level of IPllalli1ll'll~ng generailly assoeia~ec!wlitmlthe 111ISe of lhiese liift~lF:ll.!60for limit states of fracture and for connectlon design..2 ILOiilds Belo1.gnCategory A ]IfUng devices shall be not less than 2. and Blodgeu n9sel. . Appendix F3. COl'llllll'l1leUlllt·ary: The m eillnber !1Illllowable str.. IlJIE. Thiis issue I$! dlisclWlsseo further in Commentaries for palras. 104.isioln lis not iintended to reqlUirelhe use of an alFbitlFary Ilateradl Iload in lifter design. forc:es shall be performed by <11m accepted structural analysis method. This prnv.#)rtItJ·f of the Structurs! ['J'ivi$fr.I rnechan iicBll1 cemponerrts ofa bellow·tme~hook IiftiII1lgl devi:(:eaIFe to be designed for ~meforces illlnpcN~'ed the by lifted load (a value norrnellv equal to the rated load).$! IfIflI~ybe subjected and the uncertainties wlith wlhich theS'lrength of the IliftelF members and cormectioll1ls malY be callcl!Jlla~ecI.e iin Sep~ember 11978Illl!SUe Noll. INo.Ca~egory A ]ifbers "" 3. fOIF$ilreng'~h Ilimits of Yli. stlrell1lgtlm ull1cer~ talnties al~.e related toa desIgn fador NrJ !JJlsing$:.Ite ~AIISIJall1ldIPl!Jlbllished a s.eIF' loarlling is not liik1ellyto exceed 5%. The load alnd.may he uSclul1for tmledell!ig 1111 tapered Mellinbers.. of ~M.e device's parts.QO}. (b) Desi.' rs. I)esliglnof tapered members may IFlequire additional c·oll1ls~deralt' defiln ed ln Gmlapier:3 have genera 1.

every Ilift.ern~.Tailbll1: C3<! iis time statiic 1101'10 pectrurrn Talbll. O fQIFIlimit:s of frra.elre condjtlcns.llCI'dilrlga. 40. to Due to the 9 r. Usiing time vallues tnlus e$'tabllisnled.ed of load for . iinclll!Jldling abl.adl Spe'Cln.(:tUlFealrldfOF connee~ Uo 111 deslig n are callcl!Jllatedus ing .nt ef Ra~ed ILoad 4 ~ :2 :2 A . The Co mm iiU.00 for fralctureal1ld COl1llrlectliolrls Thus.$. '1i'lme . whlicnl is g. and may be ul$ed to Ilift a broader relnge of lIoads. /3.evices l!J$ilrlgAISG allowable stlFeS$eSalilid perlmaps an impad factoFtypicallly IIli0tgreater than 25% of the lifteo load.2.amic 1101'10$ iis gleatelF fur Design Category B thaln for Desigll1lCa~egoTy A. Typicall dYlillalmlicIloadswen~ 0111 theorder (If 20% of the lifted load and the uPlper bound oyirlalitrlic load was about 50% of nile Ilifiled losd. liftersaFie . A sfrnllar process was CD1111eted for Desigl1l d I!JI Category B.allTic~ fOT tnle clomlbil1latiOI1l i of the spedra shown iinlTables C3.elloped for this spec!ia! case is shown in Table C3..67for yieldilrlg and bucklilllg alrld 2. ~C3. tlill.lUliIl W'eroellit of ILln~ I'l!ranlof Ratl!d i!.08: fOIFmember design and 2:'(1Q.156 for tIIlN~' o stalndalFo desIgl1l spectrusn .el1l.e. CategolY A Some manufacturers of heavy equlprnen t sl!Jl'Clm pow'er genentii'olill as madlllil1lery Ibuillo liftelFs. the CQmmittee IS .0QJfor Ii m iil:$of ylielldiiin.ielded Iloadiiil1lgcoefficients of vari ati 0111f 0. Tabte C3~3 IDe$igm Catego.!. 11: albilllty ilrldex. labile C3~4 I!)'esign >category B I!)Yllillalflflie!Load S.dilIl. rience of time GomliTIliHee memlber. to 2.a Iload spectrum was estallblliished for dYlrlamic Iloading {Tablle G3"n.:h dYlllalmlic 10adil1lg1 tn the derrick was measured. to be used fOIFtJlle nlalrloliirlgof their eqIW1ipment k$ucim.ry ElStatlk S.$..$tmctlioncommonlly desigl'rled liUlilrlg o.l!llIl . provided des igl1l facto Fswlitnl respect ~o the rated load Clf 1 JS7 to 2..30 [h~:sign Cate'gj)~ A I!)ynalflfli.the dYlrlallitrlliC Iloaoin1Jgcan IFeasonablly be expected ~o be somewhat lessthan tnle normal n)esigln CategolFY A IllifIers.saccleptablle for liftera 11I0W c1ias$lifi. ~otall Iloaidilipectmm was developed and tim the e statistical arlallY:$is p.erlmead cranes ~Mads.The coefflclent of valria.201 in 19'86. The B·fH Committee oevelolped a set of staltiic 1311110 oylrlamlic Iloaid spectra bal$ed on the [u dg m.'[abLe C3~1 De:5iigm C<ltego..gor bl.(I~ lifts Load v' n 4~$ lil1lcol1l.This value was adapted for IDesigl1l Cate'glolFYA.gwas f()l!Jjl1ld Ihe 0.erffoIFmeo.1 near at 11'00% IFal1i. the Iral1lge pf both static 1'11110 'Ill oylfl. the lifters are IlJIs.eq.eater ullioelFtaliil1ltYOifim Ipadilrl 9 condite ~ions aSiliQciatedwlithi [).50 fur eonnecflen oesign.e prior design .e:Load Slpee:tn.$. IISC n974~ leporn the resullts of load tests II:H~r' A formed 0111tli1ITllegl s dierlFictk1l illiwllih..erne.1131fu r tlm.'dev. ilhie a'pproplrliate staH$tiical alrlailyslis y.a1]snlJ)w.$eoond diynamlic Iloaid spectrum wa. 11111 tnliisapplicaltion.rc.$iglill factors of 11.ent and eXlpe.AISC sp. Gliiven these pl.e·e noted tim the current at structural steel speclflcation (AISle.ll. lalblLe (3-2 Dynall1l~c load as Peroellit {]if m~e!CIIILoad 1.nd2 .ry.$e. Tlille IFlllng'eoftotal leads was d. Tim s.ed 0.EHeoyl1la.392.esigll1lCategmy 8. '1i'lhie !ilgreem. ~C3. metlmoo.o!lld A similar diistributliQlrl waS' oevelloped fOIFdym311itrl i'c 10adil1lgl.edfiicatiolrl provides nominel d. tiDn to r the Iloa.andl 0. Tests on ov.A :St<l~ie ILo.edas Desiglrl Category A. TlhleIIast tesm iin EN..Pe~toenl of ILI'fl!eilload Agali 111.luliI IPeroemt of ILI'fIs (S!:allJd(lr!CI) P.e. Ths oistdbl!Jltiion dev. 20 5a 1'~ 20 7 P. elrlgilll.pedlfl!lllflfl W'eroellit of ILln~ Dyoomic load as .llbllii$heddata and experience-besed jl!Jidgmellt£..elopeo fur 131 $pedal case of n)esign.' and C3.l)to he establ'islmI1:dii$tim IFl1:lli.e1rallly recoglnlized a. but due to the nature Q'Itlillos'e Ilifi.nt orf Ulits (Slll!dll!l Casi!) Ij)dor tothe first i$£uanceof ASME: 830.pel:tflUIIiIIl li"e.e speda IIcase.ent of the compluteo 8fH deslign factors wlith tnle pri'or praetlce was felt to vallidiate the re·SI!JIIt1l .expected to Serve relialblly under 1lTi0lFe sev.ed somewhat Iles$ SeV.eveloped by computilllig ~he tolall load (stalic pilus oyn.mic Iloadling.·2. ~V. oesigln factors ~mlJlndedoff] of 2.n.e C3~4 i$ the dynamiic s s:pectlFU m.V' . 19. 200m ii$ based on a value of {J -3 .el1l.

.5 Curved M. the reqlJlired member and cOlfllnectlion de$:iigln factnrs must be provided .pernies~ha~ dlow o.llinn bendingl$'lrength lii. A nonI(:olfllfl'pa. U$lilng~he$.Thu$.3:· ~pedfieclin sectlons 3·2.~he d1erli\la~ion oHhe equations by be used for n)esign Cate·glory A.embeu: The de5lgJ:l of curved membersthatare subjected ~o bend:i:ng in the p]ane of the curve sl:1i.ed stre sses fOF tiliI'e qualiifiied Inot specifically person ito employ add ress. as applleable. eq. The de$~gln factors to be mlnlmum higher desigln spel(:ifi ed ln pl3lr.: i~ wlilll be n¢ce$S(ilry design metlhod$ liftlin.JliIFed for a fully plastic stress d istri bution. TIillis$.4 fatigue Design Bas.2D silfllce iit$ imQeIPt~Oln..2 .as.sof tnle metMd IJls.ectliom .se.ed to cyclic: lcadi Iflgl and for whlil(:h the fatig ue Ilife Innust be assessed. Compre'ssiion element:s fOWiIiTlIL1llla~. must 1M peak ~mthe Iino IJs~riiaIlappllicatJi(lns I)esiigm Category B iis.1. vEl11 iidates tnle process. B ~j3.. AMstructural members. ilfll pla$1. I't is the respOln$:ibilli~y of l31 quallfled person tID derermli ne wnlelfll hig her d esi'gn fu.and! connectnra s. Som. s.1. 8·oresi and Siidebottonn.e.ed memlhers su b. Pormuteeia« th:is $. 3·3. As with the I)e:l. 3. trne cOlfllnectiolfl1 desiglfl.ecessitate r.l(:tiio:n" and "noncornpact section.eella$1.~he belflidilfllgl stre~s. plla. as a straight member {McWhorter. :H. due to e proportionsamd thalt alre of sudl material con- rela:tiolfl' ship Ibetween botn [lesign member ami COlfllm.flJllly provlisions. stresses and $~Fie$S .ectlion isc:apalble of dev'Il:.evelopmentof a pllas:ti'c moment wiilll halve time $81fl1fl1.esses.e lIiifter appllications may Iloadi'l1Ig1tnlat willi n. Ibul Iflleed Ifli0t be cOlfllsidered wh:ich~h.tlrne~Mor.esame 0 Ifll th e fu n da m entail alssu m ptiiom IB'l.M.ignl factors for Categories.ers aregliven Table 3· Member.aM account for the in~11ea:sen maximum.stic mloment]. 1191861.agl.s the most c:ommoll11types.Vabiestresses specifledIn these sections do not apply to peal stressesin l'egjon~ of connectlons. and Innay be blunted bYI(:OInfined yiekli1ng.00 fOF Ilimits of thalnl woulld belndiinl'gl stre~s The a'PIPlropriaN llmltsfor varlouscorn 1971.e IflltS.ik: moment A desiigllfll Iactor.pel(:ified as 3. this agr.. ~M. The stress increese due to member curvature need nor be ~ort5. 0'1 a allFe based sections IFemailli plane clJIFV~d beern may {Yo'l.00 Liifte FS used for wh:idll x 1.e vaillues.ed.)n stress lscapebteof elememts d.3}. approprllate of the types have tradl- all.s.epealedlll)adirlJl:g shallbe desi:gned.nall he pmpodlol1l:ed so the stresses due to the loads stipulaoed in pan. ~o that the maximum S1Te5~ does not exceed the values given im sections 3·2 and 3=3 and the maximum. It that lis nlot lintended may be tlhalt Ih:ligilly Ilocallizedi pealk stresses deter- by computer'Elided metho-ds of alnallysiis.ed Classlcal andthe The desiglln falcitOF tnlat nlas been sucl(:ess. 2002].ess ral~i'o~ of the iir com presslon ele m.g de\l.o1.tdered fer flexural members that can develop the FUUp]astk momentwhen evaluating static s:trengtlh . requli rernent de{iin'ed im for del(:ades.00... Members and conne~tions subjected 10 Fel.a.~ec:tto bel1ll:liilngl sld e~ of the ClJlFVe uSlilfllg nile Co:n.r.eld IiIfllits co mpre~sion fYolUlllig and IBL1IdYIfl. 0 Ifl.c:torof3.s$· llnd Str$.eemelnt betw'een~h'e basis of tlrn.ectii. {C3·H iis used to compute ~munded off] desi:g:1li factors oil 3.iglfl of below. COITUllIllel1lil:arv: exh iiblit stresses thet venltliolnal CUIFv.. bending stress due to the curvai lure.2 dio not exceed the allowable stresses and stress r<l!m.e he computed !3lnld noncom pact sec~iom'l are defiilned by tlhe e leim wli dth-th Compact om ~he insiide {concav. 2002].3·3.iig Ifl Category ated for mem bars s'Ulb~.ectJiondes. Reg!1lrdllles.s St.e fur static $.e desiign of flexurall alflldl com pressiolfll IflIfllembelF$ make IUlS·eof the terms "compact .11 in RotJrk'.eliecteo to IJISea hlighe:F valllJeoi vallL1leof3 the rnellialOiility ilndex .. waS ilnl(:realsed by whlil(:h tnle com puted that plane ben din gs1.lIlariedon the srnowln im fables C3~3 and G3.OOO cycles (Service Class 0) need not be' analyzed for fatigue.. CommOlfl1 to s~ruct'L1l ralll Innem b.ress distrlbution Membelrs ex ists iln tlm. providedthe requirements OF section 34 are saHsJIeci" Commen1t&lfY= T'nlealilowabile ralmges deflined iiln sectlons .eIloadspedra desig n factor calc'l.lllly plaslic stress d istdb utlo Ifll befo rethe onset of Iloca.e straln Ilevelis r:eq'I.lopi'lfllg :!II1iil. lin orn.:2 thalli ~m speclfied e MEMElER.elelnn. alre n.eldilng a Iflid buc!kll~ngl alnd 3.4 IJls.3.i(:tOlrs are required and to determine the apprcprlate values in sueh cases.esses.ver~han 2J1).esullt Ii111 glFeatier dymamiic factnrs . as has been required by ASME IB~Q:. connec~iQl"h5·.e mal:>:iilnnll... allnd 3·4 alre to be I(:OIITl pared to aver.ed Ihereiilfll.e locall b L1Idli Ifllg occurs .IDESI16IN Comllllil~nt8rv:Time requirements for tlm. and 34.e Or nomliilnall caII(:IL1I~alt. factor is pro.401 'lor Iiim:it:s of fFal(:tlJlr€ a Iflld 'low nel(:ticm design. str!lliiglht due tID the mined wn:ich: Iloads deflined lin para." A co:nnpact s. The al~. with As till!3t !lIre moire slender 16 . r<l!mge of stress doesnot exceed the' values given in section'. 3~1. of members alnd ecnneetions used in the des.:3 alre stated values.eve:loplilngl tlh'e y~. less 3.tJrengtnl d.1 bUlcklli Iflg iin orne or mOIF:e 'of ~ts conn pression .iion to malilfll~l3lin tirn.esigln for members can be attalilflecl.lIngand 10% for Desiigln Catego!).'i!i' and cormectlons 5ubject~or.cts. must be a IIIQwElble$lr. IflIfllalY used to satlsfvthe be in this Stal1ldard MdlFes.ices" 1111 some cases.emt$.lIrvaltuFe be evalu- tioinailly beelfll proportiiolned USilflig :!IIdesign fa.2:0-3.Jl~Ci'!lnlfllot resist lnelastic locall Ibuc!klliing art tlm.• bI.The beern bendingl tlmeory. ']['h:is tresslnerease shall be consideredwhen eva]uatlJmg s fatigue. desi'gn aids such alsTalbl~e 9'.

r.Qn~i[jjm:ms]y connected . 3~3.--_ 40C" 4!OC~ r c .mpre5sie.(JIn major axis section moduais major axis ]Jlas.6....e:F:!3:geof!3i1n perrnltted for 111 OIilICO pact shapes: m:!3I'Yfaiil by is: m local budklilllig at atress levels below the yi€ld stress.n Nh.1Tfectiv€ I. (3~2)ol] the effectivenettensile bm.secHQnal are" are" o.compressive stress on the gr05~ sectlonis 1. a:rea where all of the' elements ofthe sectlon meet the' noncompact provlsfons of Table 3·1 andv. Ila$t paragraph.effect of such be Indin 9 stresses. 2. :!3lble:!3lXiall cmpresslen stW!$l$SaIF!$l c basedon the assumptiimll of paak IFesiidu!il11compFesiliiive stresses eqI!J11iIlto 1'7 Mp J S. ReVer ~o COmnn€IfII~:!3lry~o paralS:. {i7E 2:wE (3-7) [3-4} " ".0N~ [3-2) where F" .2.[. 197~.. 3·2.. ~3·6l'll iis 8 oOl1lstant 1. The allowablebending SITeSS F~. . 1i9i8·9Or A.f the compression flange depth!...3 IfllexLl~al Mellillibers l~2.3 for pinned connecrlon d.compression stress F~ onthe gl·l)~.liI! eU~l'.orwiith r. (e.enllil.5hape members and by eg" (3·8) fo:r box members is· (3·6) The allowable axial .fO'rmembers with CO'm. e with respect to budklilllg .KIll' exceeds C".6.lmbers O.-ros:r-. the bOIFder betweelill ellastlic and i Mlla$tr:1(: bl)ld::llilngl. Q! the section torsional CQI1tS·tant plastlc moment t11 2" ::... ..]F'y 2(.15N .g.Tim€ Iilliglill€r desigll'll d factor for rnorealend er Inn elflflilbers provides added preteetlo 1111 :!3'gI:!3litnst . SAE J1 078]" The slenderness ~atiio equlall to Co deflines..15N".:klil'llg ilill tlil..y [e.e ilnell:!3lstic ralilge ~e·q.. thelargest hen slenderness ratlo Kljri:.He' s:trengtlhl F~ "" specified minhnum yi:eM stress Refer to pan.1 TelilllOi~HiI Mem b ern The allowable tensile stress FI shall not exceed the value given by ego (3-:].CMAA #7'0. A$ isthe practice ~I'II IIil.englth fal(:tolF K p rovli d e$ :!31 Oinvein i ent C method of deternnnlil'lliing time bud::lilllig str.exceeding Lp as defined by eq. '. AIISC. E:d€lIllsive oov.~ pact sections aa defined by Table 3·1 ~ymme~dOlI about.3.: less than Cc is [ 1~ [K1!J.e toplic can be foul'lld il1l G:!3II:!3lmibos 9981. th€ desiigl'll fac1..60 Fr.m~he gH)~.. as is ¢:olrnlmonlly used linll structural des:iglllls:peci.with the flanges Qontinuou~ly connected to the web orwebs. the a!]Qwable axial.esign requirements.2.< [3-3} fa "" ---------- 9(K. Genera II 9 I!Jlid ance '01'11 tm!$lv:!3llue of K "or vario I!JIS s:iluations can be foul1ld in Chapter C Of time AIISC Gommelnt!ilIF'!" (AISC:.}l.engltlill of com· presslon IfIfllembersotherthal'll p:i n-endedstruts.aihle 3-1 01" squaretubes QIC square box compact flanges allid.' Z" r-11 - . {3·j') for ]'. For circular tubes with compact walls . 13. area nor the value given by eq.epQlnt INo.e abcve-cited standards.l.. 13c3H varies: flFom Ndto' .e E ~ modulus of e]astidty K ~ dfectll1e leng~h factor based Qill the degree of fixity at eech end of the member ~ the actual unbraeed length of~he member f~ radius of gymtion about the axis und er consid eration Comrnentlilry: flhie fOrlflflll)ll11il$ tlil':!3ltdenne jlm!$laillow. AISf Technical R.eS$il. here A Af d wher..2. F'J fir L2. TIM. :!3llnd3·2. and 1000~e:rally braced at intervals not .5 f!J S~ for homogeneous sections 1 minor "xis :raciilliS of gyrati...::1:. VOIFcom mellfl$ on shinder elements.T Whelll.~kmodulus as defined by sectienswlth 'fable 3·1 and ~o the webs.eS:ligl'll factor for v. The lower d.Imp1lict S'Il!':~ie'nI5.000). fil(:atiiol1l$ tlod:!3.IM3-(KJ(ri] N~ 1 +--~.IISC.1 Sllm'liI! AxilO B. 0 I '.speclfled mlnimum ultlmate tel1c5.ery short comp.:. ~m!$l ill e e. Ilas:t p:!3lragraph. the plane of the rrdnor aX15. webs as defined by wlththe flanges C.€ desigl'll factor il1l tlm!$l lastic r:!Ilnge Ileq. .ll'll members lis jl!Jl$tiified byth!$l in'ilielllsitJivitry of such members to the bending tlil':!3t m:!3IY OCCl!Jlr ue to aecldental €ccelntrliciiHes. and Ioaded illl.

dl stiffened '~~!!. 18 .ntinluous contllct. "" '" --...12.I.CCi!$Shol@" [Noit@ (3)] Webs In.f~) ~NOl~ ~M 1.70 .'tions un 11(H111 tlli~ck. .(sl.. un:o.rmly (o:mll..ed fi!!Jmral and aJ!ra~ compression! 5.ess sultJ.7'1.£ In (.@~nhole.~d shapes '" 16_'~ kosi (i 14 MPa) for welded slliap@s (1}J_.F.~Cll ng Im m mmpre~~on !!.omll'r!!~slon Legs of :slngl@ angl. tlange COV~I plates and dJall.l5 :.31 ~/f~ (1} r. n~nge$ of clliann@l$ In pure (.and hollow stmctllra~ 's@>C.f!I~.menIS. outstand Ing lags (I~ pal FS(I~ angl!!..V~ {i (.\1'IHd:tIh...ed beams In FleKIJle l'ilanlges pl\Cl~i!cUng from buUt·u p compl@!.j.. legs (I~ d0ubl@ lIngl.tJff.ln.s p@Ffo!al@d.>' .~· monts.!O<s@. i.Q WUls. f~) 2_3. 4 (3} Assumes n!!'t arsa of plate at lh@ wld.ten!@FS m~lds Unsu PP0rtedi widlh M co .~~ong 't\!ro.11 ~/f~ 0.f(~} Va!~d only wlli!!nIFlang@s Ine ()i~ ..0]4---. use lh@ YI!!.o..n.-. l. /!I" <=VIl5l~' All.· 'sl(I<n"1l'llI~es proj.dl rol~~d baa ms and chan nels In flexure Filanlgi!s of I·slliapl!!ldl hyi:lnld or wel.F (If (fw .}n m. Filanlges (If I·slliap!!. fE . (4} ~m hybrid ~} .}ng 0ne edge d/l Filanlgi!s of rectangular b>ox.- sq ual siz@.@"! s. supportad al.~ struts wllh separators.-) 01 flw! ksi (MPa) 00 m presslv@' resld ual Slr!!SS In tlillngQ '" 10 k!i~ (6:9 MIPa) fOI roll.--..T.· 1!liIld:· llIes~ RatRc Filanlges (If I·slliap!!. oth e~ un If:O.omltJ.upport!!.~.enedi elem@ng. '" Pi '" sm~~I!!..IJdl stress of lh'Q ~lIn[e f!. (Jo. 0. p~at!!.AA an.embe~.: ( 1 .s i:letwe~!nI lines (!I~n'lli. edges (:1rcular hollillw sections In axial cOlli1Jpr~ssnon In tlexure NOTES: Ojl 0.:]. -er willl1 11 suc(!ess~on (!I~a. ec :.a.h ragm plat!!.dl :sectlonis In Ilill r!! compI@S. (. -yf.ecl !CI i:I@nd· of Ing or com pressi0n.

Equatioll. {S·6) fur any length between pol:nn.j!A F~I •- (:3. {3-I2)J Forl. loadedjn the p]ane of s.ll$ In!)t pac d exceed i'ng~h.AS. ('3·13) or {3·IS}. the allowable-bending stressin compression is. '?J of the compreselon web area. shall be taken as unity [see]rngthe compresslonflange plus. approximatelyrectangu]a:r in shape.7) I.uppli.ajor axis. and where . the allowab]e bending stress fntension IS given by eq.cirngldleifined by eqs.gaxis.ection $ a 1111brace d Sit Iin teIFva.IO) for I·shape members and by eq" (3·1J) for box members is given by eq.etlildlfn g elf INe'IiII' The allowable bending stress for members with noncompact secfions as de·fi. ililg stress i.J (if! Lv) Jlyl J shear modulus of elasticlty G mino:: axis.herthe maJOl"or 111[inO'r axis. C.given by eq.MIlM2 is posiHve when Ml and MOl have fhe same sign (reverse curvature bellld:ing)" C~11I].e f o timeweb The' allowable' m.hape member forwhich the unbracedlength of the ccrnpreesion Hange falls inte the range defined by eq" (3-]. Inot lNoncompact exce!l:olilng $:lhlalpes~hat are braced r ~3·1H of the $padlllig defillll¢Gl by ha. CDtIillIP<lC~Sedi0tlil'$. mll.y "fable 3·:]. moment M for bees and double-angie members..neodl:J. {2H6}.'. in.s-hape members and charmelsbenr about t:he' sh'ol]:g axis and with.tiy. Theallowable belndling stress for IfIfIlembere wi~h ncncornpactsectlens provkle's a des:iglll' factor Nd with respect to outerfiber yieldiing. unbraced lengths that fall in the' l"<l:nges defined by either eq..Bilil..-ableonly 1:0.e m om eM th at to ou~er fiiber yield.vellJ. loaded through the shear cen1ter.~aken about the SITong aods of the member. compresslon is the larger of the values gi.Jlgtl (3·n~ define alillowabl'~ bel1ldilng cornpressl 0 1111 stresses that provide 131esign facror of Ndwiith d respeet to tlhiiiji limit state.ymmetry i!l (30·18) wl:Ti:el. SeCHO!1l5 ith a w compression filang:ethatis solid..17) 3_19't~C~ F¥ L~·-·-- 2rvf.:.:]. p." O_MEC~ . the allowable bendi[ljg stress.$:may faill in IBrteral1 tors lo III all bl!Jlck.·H) where' Lb ~ distance between cross sections braced agalrns.e when the stem is in compression anywhere along theunbraced l:el]gth" COiIfli'lIIltl:elfl.e a sec".espect to the plas. the allowable compressive stress is given by eq. the allowable bend.WhelJl the bendjng moment at any pointwit11in an unbracedlengthIs larger than that atboth ends of this length. and that has an area nut less than.7) . the 19 where' 1.itih: r. (3·1'7)" When (3-13) the tlon pla..rnd o.sW: momell'ilt axi$s:hape GieMralllly.ti\..3· 10]00 1 equ!iltes.F~ '. .[AIISC 19'99' stress for members wlith bol!J.Biy consei-vatfvely taken aa be Im:Uy. for major axls bending as· defined by eq. (3·14) major fae~or (r.-N .J:ary: at intervals eCj$:. of latera] b:nu:.' .[L!o!1 / At) N.w.: moment.. l"Sh!3lpe members and channels bent about th:estrong ax i. (3~9)"for channels bent about time$hollJ.llilng. (:!)1fIfI1 t ·s:.]O'nflange rr = radhus of gyraHom of a section c:ompr. STIH·]-200S· the allowable bernding stress is given by a lim it$tat.~akellJ.) r (3·~3)is tensien Ifhm:ge'.$: {3"lt3~lhlrOu. {3-9)" For an ]"8. the-larger of the values g:iven by eqs" {3-16) and p. Stnl<lilg Axf'$ iUil!dl Wea k Axis B.uI]Yvalue of Lnl rr fb. stn!Jc~ulrBII stlape$ hav.Fo·rchannelsbenr about the' :majN axis.e$pa.125 if the stem lsintension i!3 ±l. eqs" (:3-14)and p. 0(.3).2 (3·16) For .:f7) .M.0 if the' stern l!l in. The alllQwable S!eclNorn$ provides Or greate:r . compression . .bent about eH. Equation {3-T7)is .t twist or ]a~era] displac:em:ernt of the oompress..eM1 llh:esmaller and M2is the la:rger bending is moment at the ends of the' unbraced kllg:fh.ry: TlhH'~ hel1ldilng limi~s:~a1te for members wit In. (3·9) )·2.d btel'>:Illy braced at intervals not exceed:ing L. moment O'fmertla iy Ii - The' value B l!l positive when the stem is in tension and Ili:eg):!.ge defined by eq" {S·lS).E.1Jllg" Coml1l1l€lnt&.ati:o of plas~ic modul!JJls~o IfIfIlodulus·l' that ~$12:% Commentary].ajlJl. abou~ an axisin the pl.esiglrn fac1tor compact 131 lower When of N". {3.r (~. by FO'ran ~~5hape member forwhich the unhraced length of the compression fbl1lge falls into the r.

25 Ii$: Ibased on the dii$.efillll€s the allowable d slhapes eq ..e I)es ig:n Cate·glory lEispe. maxlrnum static Iload e·q]ualto 105:%o<f the wa1ted Ilo:adalilid a maximum iimpa(:t eq'l.apes with flanges and webs as defined by Table 3~1.. 3-2. ~3"2n) alndi (3"22 ~ is balsed Oln the dis(:lLJl$:siiolilln i Comm. arrd unstiffened plates fee whidl 11/1.(:ussiOI1l1111 COlfllllm. Methods ueedto determ[llId~ strength of $.3 StilMNilig .e between flang:es less the fi]~et tubes (}r box sh.25Fr ~L20 x 2..iIIlilld I!J n stillifEmed PLalte$. SecUons. t" shear forces-for W Muchl hjt > 2.ent b1ilsed onthe Iles:$elF [imjtstate of lall. as 3~2. thils value may be taken as the clear dis[<I!IlI.(:tra d!l:fiitnea IfIIllalximlLJlm st1iltlieload equal to 1:2:0% of tille rated load and a maximum im pa ct equel ~O lDi(~% Oil tnle Ilifted Iload. about the~l" weak axes..45 E/F 11 shall pl\()vide a desigJ1!acwrw:itlh. so]ld rectangulae secti(l!l1sbent about theii. Jecbed. the a]lowable bending gilV'en by eq. 5 Biaxia~ B. tlhe tlheoreHcal maxim ILJIIfIIl bendlil1lg stress iis 11.e bel1lding stress willi 11I0t.25 iilll eqs.and Hsshape members wlth compad ...3.eld 1LJIlilideiF maxii" the mum lIoads defined in the load spectrel ILJponwhjl(:h~he desi·gln factoFs ale o:al$:ed.e theoretical maxlmum oend~ng~ress is 1.vs: (3-19) (3-20) (3-21) Commentl'ilry: Many shapes Dommolflly used ilill 1i1Tt" il1lg devices have shallpe factors that are siglllldif.J.Members (lither than cyl]l1" drical members subjectto biaxial berndingwith no axial load shiaM be p[{lp(l!r~iloned to $a~L5Jyeq. 3"2.eHicielnt 1..sq uare baIFS:. S·IlILIdBa.eChl!llI.00 -. Pilli1$.3 3·2 . Iespec~ to the ]jmit s:tane 20 .12.for d(mltdy Syl111" computed Y axis.r Sedillllills.a]~ot exceed n (3-2.1tegolFY spec.m:lli3.3.en dlmnlg.OO -. solid round and square bars. axes..elntaFY Tor pa.ates s.afS.Collillpad. Forr.8) l.50~12 .. pins.. A tra define a. (3"26)"Cylindri" cal members subject 10 biaxial bending wlth no axial load shall be proportioned to satisfy eq.4.r B.2. (3~2'7)" (3-26) (3-23) (3-24) (3-27) Cmnmen1tlilfy: Tnle pr·ovisiolillS of this section alr.1 W·e. 3·2. fl·"m para. Thus.vhi:el'€ h "" dear deptlht (lif the plate parallel t" the appli:ed s.e)!ceed yi. thickness of the plate stress is .cli<lll1guUa. metric I. IfIIlletric I" and lH"sh1. Thus.xpTe·$$:~Oln tees and dOILJI" '101F ble angle members eq. 1I"tleallowablle bendings:tF!essfor tnl. The shape factors for tnle$:e shapes are typi:cailly or gre1il1i)~:F. 119801'oryield o a ~lt:llilifrill.llpemembelrs wi·th cOlliTlpadtlarlges bent albOILJI~ weak.Ol98Frn..oontilliuO:Llsly connectedto the webs..lue of $ '"' 1.eral tor" $iiOlillall ucklling ~lKi~ipowlillchai mi irahalilF.3.2DNcI OIF glreater wi~h respect tna IiIfIIllitstarte equ aIIto tlile plastlc moment. a design factor 0if·1.Axis IBelilldilli1glllfSeUd" force· a~ the section under ill]vestilgatiOIl" for rolled shapes.Tihe IDesign Ca.icantily glF!ealter than 11..gular compact with the B!llIdbent t "" or corner radius. B.Fr' um (3-22) ]·2 .tis given as fo~~ol.5 {1. s 2A5JE/Fy sl:il. . as allowable Y aods. [3"2:5.4. 3"2. nd their 01 solid redalngullarsec1tiorls bentabout their we1ilk alxes. (3"6).e.utb~. fJ!ange5. The va. th.ak Axis 31 Sa 1'5.Iilang:es as defined by Table 3-1 eontlnuously connected t" the web and bent about the~l" weal axes... ~3:"118} ..weak axes.)gives.JIlltsin 131 conditlon iillliwni·(:nl th. 119:9r2}.ra.6 Shear O:1i1 bending stress about the x or indicated bend:i:ng stresa about fhe x or indicaced.05 X 11 Fr . ilh.JIall 50% of title tID lifted load.elntaryifOIF Ii para. lhlis adll·owablll: stress res'l.r5"am:!lIRe.e include doubly$:ym .3. TI1e a~]owable bending stress ~()r a rectangular sectlon cd depth d and thklmess . et all.he. so Ilid rou IIlldalnd.elilldffil1g of .s. and.. lhle allowable· bending stress is (3-25) The average shear stress F u on bars.e taken from AIISC {2005L The co.The aillowabile moment e.

ear yield$.edion alFle Mll::en 'kOlnn AIISC ~11989'1.eIJ o. are IfIIOtincluded inthe Stam:iard. P [3-32) 3~2_5 CJ. .4 bending 'CoDill. O~32..ress.~ have the same v1il1lliJleili fur both axes.SlrnealF.:. [3-3S) It Iy ~ computed shear stress ~ COlTi[plI~ednormal stle~.lIlfIfII bendiingl$1lr¢sse$ about~vvo mlWtually per.<I~ anld Sr!lleiIJf:St~e<S!i.'Ving requ:i:rements: (a) AM members except cylindri..a] members. 2(011).of buckling not !'e55 than Regions off members subject to eernbiaed normal and shear stresses sha I] be proportioned such thatthe critical stress f~r computedwlth eq. aiM . eq. The lnteractlon oor1n'iullas for cylilflidlFica! rnlemiber:s.en in tlhlis·$.~l1Iilary: fheallllQwabl'e s:iOIfiIi$ based on CMAA #70.TlrneIFefoIFIff:.elnt v1iI1lues are !3'Ppll~c!3lbl.pp]±e5~0 all members except cyJ]ndrl:i:.ecogl' nize tlrne moment amplllificaltil)lfIl that Ire·$'l.) and. differelfllt lrrtaraetion equations must be u·$ed ~.·in the X ~ cernputed normal stressin the y tE. {S.15.eq.ding St~es$es where thle slenderness.. An i n.. If differ.31 members shall sati5fy eq~.t:MA~ are based on tnl.WS. (3~2:9) and (S·lO} or (3·3:]) (b) WnenfiFot:f O'J5. O~31)is permiUed in lieu of eqs. 3~L. (3-32) and. (3-37) [3-34} where tension and bending (>heS$e!'l shall be ]Jm'Jl(l!rl]onecl to sat:i~fy the fo]~owi[lg eguO'IUm"b".d1ep~h di$CliJl$$io IfIlof al)(ii1il11.e asaumprlon tlhat C'"" .01111.e$s is ib1il:$'edOlfllthe tE.f eqs.bililedAxliIJl and Ben.ombiinecl ~e:m" and normal stresses Iff to cylindrka] members. stresses shall be ]JmJl(l!rlkn""ecl to 5al:i~fy the fo]~m. 1'<II:io KJjf i~ thatinthe bencli[1lg imder consideration plB![jj..nte radio IfII:!'Ini. 0.tion COllMlmellfllttSIII'Y: ..lo not occur at the same point Equations: (3·an. has shown that the members of below- f- E:)(perience the-hook IIiifting oevk:e$ a.ellelflfllelfll1ts. reetM ma:)(lim'l.e·of Member5· sl1hjec.tion d!irec.e nlQtglenerali:y com posed of slender . 3~2.. [3-29) Lower "a]lIe5 fm' C"i' Cjj'i" or em\! may be used jf [ustl{fed by analy5~~.:L the applicable value given in (3-36) Co:mlllil.'n.34}is permiUed in 1~. computed axial compressive stress F~ '" allowable axial IfIloard. II 1"1 - C.lInd F. (d) WhentJl'f' •• 0. (3-29) and (3-30)..pUlted axial tensile stress allowable tensile stress froml pO'lra.lIllts.The fQrmulas giiv.. (3-37) does 11Qt exceed the allowable stress F~rdefinedinthe eg)uati(ln.ekl str.l the i oHrnes.e formulas may be fQUlfIlO i.I))..EguaHOIli (3~315)a.• API 1Ft 2A .:.F~'.. 3-2.aU5atisfy eq5·.n (3.ompr"" i dfec~:$.en IiIfIIthis St.-. (3~. ith modifiica~'ions:!'lS: w neCeS$allFY to accou IfIt for~he derivatibn [3-30} ~199Sk ognize~hat desig IfIIfactrirs 9 iiv.1 )·2. t3.ergly of normal and [l'iistorlionThe·orY'Flelationililhi 21 .qliJlatioln d!irec. ' C(I:mlmelll""SlfV: The de$igln of members subject to ccmbined axial compresslon and belflldlinlg IfifIl'L1I$'it r.r. Eqaatlon (3·36) applies (e) Members axial subject to combined Fe!:' ~ allowable critical stress due to . .vvhich a ole shear stress as a fun(:tiio:n shear StIFeS$ expresspecifies thelllllow~ of the slrn.fhe Ilimitilflig s:llenoerness raUOl)f ph3lte$ in $rnealF is Ullken from AIISC In eqs.ner9Y of DiistQr· tion fheQry mlrnigleV ami Mis. {3~33).t to combined axial .iE l.nlear yi.2 I~- r.pelflldlicliJllar alX'esi.9 . The :$. (J--S3) 01" ~3--J4).FIorlil P-.provisions fOIF tnle des:ignl of slender $nlear ellernlentiS.bendil1lgl.ed Nlol'im.:.IoN J(K!/r {200m.33}.alamlbQs [3-31} (c) Cy lindrlcal rnembers 511.29) through {3·36}.ompre$'~~ve stress from pal.[3<l7~ is iip Ibetween tml€: tE.e.1.'Imb[n.

'·2. 3·1. Cd·1..lIlin.<lringstress in I t '-----\.llelfl dsr COIITI pres.. 81.. ~~~ S~llId. When the gravity axes Qf cormecting. ax:i8Jlly 5ITes::.(!llId.ven in.':::.. LI'M.. Methods used te rleterrnine the' 5'lr>ellligthf slender o compresslon elements shall pnl'Vide 8Jdesiglll factorwith respectto the limit state of buckling not less than the applicable value gi.enle~al bo~ts sbt<l~]nO'~he ~onsider>ed <IS combinatkmwlthwelds. not x·axis al1ld ycaxis be'rl dliIfIlgstIFe$'$'e$.(:0 m pact and nOlflcompact seetions iil1lTahl e3-1.ion. able cmiti:(:allstress.fHted be8Jring sUffel].ers. ..tme dirediOlillS . pl\ovision shall be made For ibelliding '. ther steel o parts ]11 static contacrls [Iii C.~lld!edIIBo:x Strong .esigll1lfactor.plFovisiol1l$ for~he design of s.dJQn elements : shall beless than or egjU<l~lQthe va ~uesgi.:merl~.x and Var.e Iflfll'utl!Jlalllyper.ven ill] pan.(!I]jd.e~ W..1Il 'G.jgll.10'1 AISC (2:0 DO). below-theIhook Ilifitilrlg o. Ipelrloicular orlentations of normal stresses. l'heroef'OII€<.$ I!Jlseo in Ta.ble 3:·1 for tli1:.uf3'111Ii!Jbll· Strong .Qllinec~ilQn de::.eCB members do nQtinlersed 8Jt one PQii[ij~. The allowable be8J1'iimgstress fp on the contact area o.Axi~ Bllndingl ~d] ea rstresses {:S Ihig Ileyallid M ii~chlk. Table 3· 1 to be fl1]~yeffective.Allis Bllndlngl nil' WJ9IJi:1l9ri:1l Bo:x Wlla'k .Axis IBllndh~.eapplli'cable o.llrjpose of~hli$ IFeC!'l.3.6 3·3 COINIINIE£lION DESIGN The' wldfh-thicknessraflos 'Of ~omrljet5.evices.==~. N..!ll1 Tul'lll W&l!Iik .Tlille Iiirnits expressed therei IfIlalFe based o:n Table 135. n]efii niNons of the dlimelfl!s.e..1. C.kity in the connectjon. aile Mt gelflJerallly composed of slender c(l:nnpreS$iOIfiI ellement:s.Axl!~Bllndlngl -----P---------~ ~.g 22 .om mentary: Co m p'Fes$iolrl ele lckIrleSS ratios are defined for .IFor the pll.e nt wli dth. isthe Inna1teFialyield stress divided by tlm.sion ellem elrltsare IfIlot iincll!Jldeo lin this Stalfloard.$: wi~m sllelrlder pla1tessubje(:ted ito $lhealF. 1·1. Timea Illow.f milled SlJIrfaces.r.':<I~Llckli n g B A. shear stresses due to ecoentr.200n.emost cemmon compresslon elementsare illll!Js~rateo Iin IFig.

Mfa) lower yield stress O'f the parb in contact The actual shear stress ff) shall be based onthe gross area of the b~]t if the s.peC1t to fracture or 13.The prlIrlrla.] units {f'w MPa} d H d passes ~hoo·ugh the threaded leng~h of theboh and the bolt shear due to the applled Loads as defmedin pam. 3·1.girh5bllat:i~nboprevide aninitial tension equal to .lI~d connection is d¢fiilned to r of tn. whe'l'e A~ - tensile stress are<l m . B. respec:Oively.ry cha..20N ~ wilthrespect to fraca 5pedfied mlrrimum yield s.~635 mm) ' Jd if d .1.notlhier II..elilitary: tn.~hie terms mWed . mined by te!.ikiil1lgliinlo aceount the b neture of the i~em and its praetlcal sensitiviily to 110[:1'111 surfaces are painted or otherwise coaled sl1i.e'ctliolrl$ follllo.m.eaning betweerl ity of the connection shall be reduced acco·mil[ltgly. two bolts.a. Eql!Jla.enrgth of tb:e bolt.2 H .<l!li'I 1in"es€ Illeawiilfilgi stress lim ~ts aplplly 01111'1 to hearil1lg ~hebolt diameter.bll¢ Itlearil1lgl$'lress ba$ed d~fiil1l. h~i) 90 when using sr units (Fy. when the connected material has a minimum desi.<l]~ shear. parts ofthe Iliifter al1ltl the Irteml being handled IfIfllus·t be The slipre5~5tance ~f connections in which thef<lyillig ¢valualtecl bya q'I.3:·39) is ba se d 0 Ifi AIISC (200 Q) a lfild Wi 1$0 111 may be required Ibetw. 635 mrn) ~ 6.eci to a true pla.3:4.'76 Mfa) . keys.>t:illl. The al]~wable teI:il5. or the mol area If the shear pl.Pl1lti!3. number of sl:ip planes. be used in sllp-critical connections.ea~er tlh." in. IfiIO'rl permanentconor more parts are jOlinledlliogethe:r linl whlichi two . the OIpail> behvee1rl parts in tlhie liliftilfi'ijl device..helJl.. A hardened flat washer shan be used under A bolted connection shall oonsL5. H larger are iintended tn IiIfi:clude SIU mace$.S.. 1ihe aUow13.ile C.e basic procedures asar¢ defin.. are necessary.r (3-41) where Ii - - fy - dfc The a]~mvablelensile s:tre::sF/ fer a b~lt subjeded combined nension and shear stresses is to {' of bolted and welldedcon~ Irl.'i!fi.' that have beel1l 13.sur· taul. '" VI[IF~ (3-42) the speo:. unpaintedIs (3-U) on AISC !19M~alrld AISC ~2QOn).r...40 or 3.r where Fr. mlllea.~.e purpcae nlectkm A bo.hi) 3C1_2i(.only ASTM A 32S or AS 1M A 490 bolts sh. a IfiIOmm.. shear. (635 mm) diameter of mMe!r l3.1::.Vablebe<lringIO<ld length {N/mm) factor of 1.25 ilIJJ. {3·38) The allowable shear capacUyP~ gf a boll in a slilP~ crltlcel connection il] which thefayill!g surfaces are cleen al:il:d. IQ]ler5 i~ R~ ]Il! kip!.l.-1> 635 mm when using $. or block (2. (2 mm) gr. ""L2[)N.ny sUlitallllle meanS.2 Bolted ConnlectiolllS . Customary deterccrnpresslvestress. OJ" othei..3) A ii$.3.As used thrQl!Jlglhiout Ihis SMlfildan:l.eel1l parts that to one a.5 The actiLlal~ensile stress h shall be based on the tensile stress area of the bolt and the bolt tension due 10 the applied Loads <IS deflned in para.ed lt~ IProviide desiglrl faC:~OFsof 2.>pe!rincl:it ~f O_1'i2F~ F" '" L2()N.a~~ designed..vl:ii:eillLlt'ing US.00 witlhi res.ed perS. HOJll. in the connection The hole diameters for bolts in slip-critical connecshall not be more than ~.· essfhan 40' ksi I ture of the connected pal"i's in tension.25 ill1L.. edge distance shall be deterWashe~rsshall be used under both the bolt head and nut mined by an accepted de~ign apprcachso as lQ provide of ASTM A 490 bolts.The d~1. CUl'~omary units (Fy.w tlhie s.JIl6er load.2.n!}es are iin the Ilevelsof aillowabll~ stresses that lhiave Ibeelrl esta ol..lI! by a. S~andalrd a$ a.]~e stress Ft of the boll is Bohed connections subjected to c:ydk shear loadlng sl:Ti. Boh spacing and.g_ Boh~ in ~Iirp"critkal cormectiens shall be t:ightened d:ud!li'I..ed or 1iiniisn.ed by for De$iiglrl Calegofli.tiiQrl 0 9..close-fit elements.using U.:.isn. The allowablebearing stress F p ofthe oonneeted par~ on the pmjec~ed area of the bolt is$(tmss wiill move relative {.is.heal"plane passes through the bolt shank.ed m]Il!]I"!(lUm uftlmate shength ofthe connected part tens. 2$ in ..(:cmately $a.Oi1lll'mIiI'@llfItarv: li).lres. A loweralillow~ ablle b¢a. 3~:t2.0 if d > 2~5 in.(Fy. .~ a minimum ~f of the part turned (mut ~r bolt head) during installation. as S]ilP'Cl·]tkal connections be unless the F~ F~ '" --shear losdis transferred between the connected parts 1_20N~ by means of dowels.ed in AIISC (19a~l') and ANSlfAWS n]M. C:ollfn~.w..~.' eq.'It least 1'0% of tlhe specified mlnimmnIenaile str.

4...e(:tliolnUKL1Illaikt al.33 and a O(lI1If. 987)..eIpalililted or otnle[wiis:e coated ~Yulra and IFranik. the aillowaibll.n.(':l'e Dlj ~ hole diameter Dp "" pin diameter PrJ D~ (3-46) 24 .ength beyond the pinhole par-alld to the line of action OFthe appli:edloacl.l(:ticBIIt!)dlefiin.s:tn aIllow r.li0 n . 1987~ 0111 et co IIllnections made witlm .~tempt to address: tine nnalny valFliances with respect to evalllL1latilngltime s:tr.healr stIF~ngtnl. lit is not pra.esealrclhl{K'L1Ilfllik ail. The design plrovisiOIliS'for sliip.(2: Inn 9 rea1telF 1111 tmle 10011\::."3Jnce" delpel1ldenlt en the linstaillatkllntenisiion of is the holts and the coefl'lidenl of frlictiioln at ~h~ fayilng surfaces.Olr slip r~ijiiijit.!!}.eg:iol1of the pinhole shall be taken as.e a g. Ilf the lengtnof a bolted connection exceeds albolut 15 iil1l. '" I ~ ~1275 l.e sjip resistance of paililited or c!)alted surfaces varies ijlFeatly. Theali p r.. e eq. depe'ndilllQ on the type andthleknessof coatiing. lnthe absence of silflfl:iilar research r.enelrflilacceptabile . Iits cain be usedto d.talblismed as tnle 'ultinnBIJte tensile strength. fayilngl SliJrfaces thalt are freeof Iloos.xmlibit 131 redliJlc~d s liip Ir€ijiiis~a IIllce. Develo prn e ntof th isfiriic1.resi'stant cOllllinectiiOIilIS.ecesotm. nS':87~.iile allrea pilus the aillowabile shear stress actiing on the lilllldi(:ated shear areal.Ilf Iia~g. TI1e sb:e:ng~h of a pin-conuected p1ate in It:er. wilill li~ely val~y gn~atliy fH~lIf1fll~he sltBlndan:i types of eOIllII1lec:tions sed ~ns~eelleol1lstmctiioln. The allewablefensile >:treng:thtl:ilrQugh the pi!ld10'lePI shall be calculated a~ fuUowl': (0.ii$1. Time c!)lIllfiig'L1llration of bolted connections in lifting devices. S2% of the IL1IIItimaUtensUe stlFl~ngth (Kulak et al.cdtiicallcol1lnecliion iis a connectlonthet transmits shear load by IfIflleans oi the frlctlon betweel1l the conn ected parts.engrth of th~ part is ~e tnle SII.The ultlmste snlear $trern'grthis taken as. .sed 01111 a calli· bir:!. Equatiolill (3. 1ISI85).latliveIFOt:aliolill.ed t(l9letmler iln such a m!'lllll'n..elF thaln to r.e oeffecHve area on a plane through the center of the' pinhole' perpendicular to theHne of action of the' app1i:ed load.(':l'e A sllip. Aillowable stresses(lr allowable loads ilill bolts are e$.estlilllg to deterffiline the sliip resistance lis required for sl'ip. aeappllcable. Actual stresses: dliJleto !'Ippllied Iloads are to be cemputsd ba. rn] tnla €. iilhiill! vallL1leis realMlnallbl.Thi es1.lrt~d wr.e based 0111 eXlpe:rimellltall r.5 aIIlld .A325 and A.eshear per bollt should! be r.ll 0'1 !3 co rlnecled p!3lrt.ength of the cormecte d pli.!nt relative motiolll!. para.elrholes: alre l1I.educed toaeccunt for the incre.ed on. eS:$allry.3. the fracture srre:ngth beyond the pinhole on a single plane para]]e] to' the line of action of the applied load.. whrdm~h. h'ff "" eoffec:Uve widthto each side of the plnhole C. and the double plane shear Sh:.A 490: bolts. This Stalildaird u does: IMt a.i dence Ilevel ·pif·sn % is used lis consld er-ed 131 pinllea' cQl'ill:ec:tionalnds:hall be desig ned as such.ench lilns:~alll!lrtioni (Kullalk . UN.VI:il.s:1i res:iS~fllnCe such co n. 987]. A connection in whicn a$iitllglle fa.1.III..r.ASTiM A 32. l<3.emiillls:call~.$telll.sed Oln tnle bolt's gross area..dJ oonnectiol1l.2 Iliimilts: he~ypes.e iaying SliJllrfac'es iin alr.llCh.e. thefigulFe Il!hows a bol~e.1StaJUc Strengthl 0fUile Plates. n Comm~ntliry: A plntrl:ld CQnnection lis defined for the purpose (If tlmfs Stalndardi as a IrlOnpemalillelllll C'OI1l' necticn in wmlich~\i'!. tlhiiistype of faillure can also occu r Iin a welded con IIllectiion.alnc~ def~ned iln tmlis Staindalrdi is bas.tIMet~st reSIU re por~ed in lKuIiaIt: ~t ail. Th. paiinl< arid ether coatiings . The slli p resistance of Con nectiio ns i 1111 wh iiemltnle bolt holesare -Illn ore tha n ~ 6 iin. ilillustratesthes:pe(:ia. p for T. e Equatliolrl (3~43) ~s derivedfrom IKL1IIIakt aiL. 1987).44~lis based 0111 131Innealnsliipol)eiificiient of 0.lIIIIn time alillowable tensile stress actillll91on the of ililiolicated telns. tM ultimate s.clFiticalcolnne(:tiolilliji for reletivelv cornpaet bolted! connections.3c-3. 0 r sllip n~~slistalnoe iiviided by tim appro· d ~ plFiat€ d~giigl1lmc:toIF.esullts: ull!in'gl other Iypes fllnd gnildles of o.witlmthreaded fasteners lnsuch a manner BI$itO plFeVII. :!.lo or more parts arejl)in. 13:80mml.elr .20N"" Fig ure C3·2. AI~holiJlgm.nections. tMcolnnec:tiolill lis still corisldere d a pinned c(llll.l case of block shea r fa iilll.ollt$.ectiiolll' and shall be d.equilre ~mattlm~s~r~lIllgtlm tlm~COIllI' of nected piiec~s: withil1l the eonnecticn prn vide a d!esigln factorof art least 1.8) Wl:il. root area" or telillsHe stress: area.esi·glnedas sll.E a I velill if a threaded fastelilier iis:used !'IS'the !pin..eC..e~er:nn ilne~he red IUlcedca pacity of time co IIllnec~ion. theleast value OFthe tensile sb:eng~h of tn.asling ineHicliencyof the COinIIlI. of t bolts that may be used iilnsllilP·crlitiical conneetlenstc ASTiM .

sN.Hl7} Ie se. Note th at tiMl~ ite:rm iin brackets: il1leq. "" actual width of a pin-enemected plate between ~heed. nle~~ are tel1lsi'OIilIon the e1Tf.e.a due tJ. ~3~511 ii$: he length oif OIM shear pl!aM. the$tre1ngth eql!Jla.plidcal.alF s1rel1lg~hiS~:!Illl::ellll 70% of the ultias mate t¢lnsiilestrengrth in eq.Ilnlthe second method. 131 ifaiilme mode.3. Ilf tmle edge of tmle plate t iis curved. Tolbert.ectivealr:e:!ll ln a Ipilalillethrough the O center ofthe pilnholl€: perpendicular ito tim€:Ilillll€: f action o of tlhH~~ appllii~d lioaid. w11ere' b. If the curved ~dge iis drcullaralnd sYlnnmetri(:all abcutan al)(li$ defiilned by the line of a.lIcll::li of the { o nlg plate~ as.Hffe:ned er otherwise prevented fr-omb"lckli:ng out ~J plane" The allowable sing~e planefracture strength beyollid the pinh~le' Ph ]~ Direc'Norli of a. C.e app~lecl1oad The u I~imateshe!il r strengtlmof . et al. fractureon a silnglle plane beyond tlm.$:hea. The effective width shall be taken as the smaller ~f the values calculated as. alilid by out of plaine bl. Tests have siMowlnval'lJl.s.(:tiiolillof time alpplied lead. (34'1) does. ~C3~:2I" where rIi~ the radim. as illustrate d iilnIFlig. the edge of the plale on a line perpendicular IQ the' line of action ~f the appli:erlload! The width limit o.i tneeurvatura must be acco'untdfor. tiiol1ls are fitted to the itest results.rv~s ~o~Iim inate dlisiMlingio I!Jlt f plaine b I.ell1Jgtheq'Lllaltiiol1l$for tiMleplates are erm. based 01111 research {Duem.g:e of the hole and.e are two methods commonly ulsed lin pr1.ellllgtlm. 197'l)) and abol!Jll "0% for T·l steel ~Bilbber. ~3·50t The .ir pilalille Z' i$gliven Iby '~q.edgle of the p Iate.epinhol~ parallll~11 tiMleIliM ofacNonmlhe to applli.ecllby eq. fQ~~ow8-: (~47) lime str.llCtiic.edgle beyol1ld!the mlole thalt is: Iperpendicular to the Hlneof aeti 0 1111 of time appllied load.eof !ilctiiolill M theepplied load. {3~5H li$ Ibased on p tiMl€: 'geolnnetlFyof :!I plate with a sltraiiglmt. not apply toplates thai are . and ComrnElntlilry: A piin. The allowable double plane shear ~~[1el]gthbeyond the pmhole Pl'is where' At> "" ~otal area ofthe two shear planes beyond the pinhole where' Ii "" distance from the edge of the pi:nho:l:e~o the edge of theplate inthe direction of the applied load.ppll iQd load b • where R ee dislRllIce from the oelil~e[of thehole 10 the edge o:f the plate inthe d!irection of It. of Cil.ll'cklilng.r values ~f Dp/ Dk greater than (1:90. may be taken as u:m fo. 1003. The dinnelil'sions used iin tiMlefo rm I!Jllasfor pi IIlI'COln IIllected plart~s a fie IiIlustli"i!3rt~d iin Fig. C3..feq.1 isoften gliven Ii111 tex~books as 67% tID 76% ofthe ultiima~e~ensil~ s~r. lher.llrvatur~onhi~ . r -}..m Iliimit of tiM t~lnsile stress alr~a defined Iby ~q. the values ·s'lJllnnlnned arrive at thelotaill strelngth of time to dietalill. lin Ollie IfIfllethm:l. the loss o'lsmeallr aIF~...ed Iloaid"shear OIilIEwOplanes beyond the pi'l1Ilholle parallel to the Iliiln.each plate is cOlflflpl!Jted131110.cOnI1H~~cted plate may faill ililltM IFegiionof tlhH~~ pilnlholl~ in alillY of fOUiFmodes.~mestrengtml of . tiMlen tme loss of lelnijlth of one dl¢1. 01tnlel"'lNll$e.~ - (~p "'f sin {C3·2) Plin"conlilected plate$ malY be des~gn:ed with doubler pllalt€:s to reinforcethe piinlmole reglion. 2:QOS}.escommonlly in the ral1lge of SO% to 95% for Innilldslteell$ {lysealnd Godfrey.r llalne areal clefiin. z: . commonly C!ililled disbing.The value of C.195n The ulti mate sM. The e1TfeCliivewlidl.e detiermiine the to strengtml contrlbutlcn of the dOl!Jlbl~r pllate. C3·3.. the load is assumed to be .

. Shear forces and bending IiII moments in the pin shall be computed based on the geoITIerry ofthe eennectionvDistelbution of fhe lo-ads between the plates and the ptn In<lYbe assumed 26 .e~s. {:3·5. H <I pir~ho:le i~ located at a point where ~i:gn:Hk-ant stresses are inducedfrom member behavior such astension Of bending.5. (J--53).eglenerailly based Olflltime pFovi$lions of ANiSII/AWS DlI4.'~I'.e nllUlmber of c)ldles should be detaiilee!..rveelflltlhie pin and thi.ddea maxirmrm surface :roughne.iificaltiion does IfIIOtaddress piinil€dCOlrlnie(:tiom!i. and 4> te:rms.llifiied Ipelrson.5ILm) around the inside surface O'~ the hole.ho!e deal'>:lnce 1(08) un connections t11111 wlllretate imder Ioad N that will experleuce Ioad I~V'erSlI] in service for a l1Irge number of cycles ($e:rvke CI. Plinholes in cennections designed. based on the projected area of the pilll. COmiilll:el'ltary: Tih e fatli gue dle$igln req ui rernents il1l section . tHJ4)~ fS 5!0%of the eq."eS$e.. 3-41. Experience shiow~ thatlhis lis acc.n of alny partk:ull!ilr conlnectlion snlall be determined by a.Tlhle c1ie.3. (3"J54).lla~iOrti of the detail. tnle lilflil€nu. 3HI. The alllowalMe beallriil1lgstres~ giveln by eQl. but il1ldudes pinned connected plaiNs and eyebars.l.earing stlre$S.3.4and 3~2.3fOE Sh~Siio Category E.3·53) i.t.'llfll¢e be usedwi IIIdepel1ld oln to tlhi.bever ]1' smeller. Slilffet1lers prevBnl aut-Qif-pllamil b!1Jd::1 iln'Q Bel1ldil1lglof tM lifttilfllg beam produces ~el1lsiOln time at lop of the platerThe velrti(:alilioaic in the pinhole PIFI)d !1JI(:e$ snlea" stresses above the hole. Thebearing stress between the pin andfhe plate.esig.alFil1l'gtress Iiim iMtiolfll$:erves s strelnglm limii!.eclions Stress Category IE.unffcrm b€1BJringl ber.adng Stress.dalte large ang le$of rotatlon under load or that willi rotate un del" loale!. slhiall be ilnacli1llilflled required to aVQiidllrne notches th..Re. this Iregion lis due to the result alS flrQmtlaliln e c!1Jlllingl.)·. qualifiied pelr$!OIflI bal$led 0111 a ralional evalll. 2006J has shcwrr fhat tIille I!ossofstr. ).(!i. for Service Classes 1 through 4 slll.eq.elatively sliglhit for plates ilfllwihii'eh the hole diiamleter does notexceed 11"0% of tne pin diameter.1.ll. The method to be used for d.lIs-51 or hi.' Filitig:ue Ll'.for!31 II!3rfg. as f 1j)liln ll)lles ln Illiftiin.s.: If a piilfllhole ii$ Ilocat.:lion of Im:allalnd 'g..).i reamed. COinIfIlectiiolfll$ in deviices d'll:$:i'gIMd fOIF S€ni(:. Thlis strength 10$3 lilfllconnections wi~h Ilarge piilfll.en tlhiepiin is a Ineat m in tne hiole.eciFiticall stress in. II is not a FI III P 181101 be aim 'CQIAillm. This spe!!.ese shealr and tensile stresses. (l2. tn centro I deformaliolfll and w.3}allllowaMe b.ecilearalfl:(:e$ I$: a.t a.egiolnof the pinhole is a mal(~ ilfl'lIUrlfil wh.e~ are lrrdueed from member behavior sueh as ~el1lsiiOlnorbendlilfllg.lo·nloll. or otherwise finbe ished to pl"101.lllfllled fur by time C. 3·3.or fatligue desigll1l. (:olfll.e Clal$ses 1throllJlgihi .e Clas$: Glareat times flame: cut.e plla~es i$!ass'l.e.esS for cOIfIIMction$ that wlilll rotate under load for al Ilarge: number of cycles: leq.e re(!ulreITIelnlof CMAA#7Q. Piinlned conl1lectliOllis that IITIIUS. A$: tlhe cl!Mlr· ance betweelfll the plil1l andf he hole lil1lcre:~ses. CQmm$llfIttliJlr.engrlh is r.ross member stresses m!1J13111le considered.1I]] drilled. loeal stresses from the fmildiolli.alflldi stn-e$:Sral1lgesa$: AINSMAWS D14. The bearing stressbetween the pin and the p]ate UI] connections that wmro~al:e under load for <I large number or cydes (Servioe Class 1 gr higher) shall ]lO~ exceed the vahre given by eq.where fy ]s the yield stress of the pin or pla~e.fhis fur1nn~ the basis for cIIas~iifyiin9 pinned cOIflII1l. AISC ~1994) defiines.3. smalll d..ept!ilMe practtee for devlees not )·'. 3~2.ed ata point where~lignifiicalfllt~tr.(.ybic. with alsmalllpil1l·tlD·nlolle clearance to milfllimize wear and pla1yIiIfII$:ewke.ealml$!hOWI1Iin t Fig.g devices used iilfll con$:tlructiOI1l n {Servi(:.CCOl.3.4 IBe. of 500 jllLilll.erhe II~ftillig b.not exceed the vahie gilvenhy .holeshall not exceed the limits defined illl para.sear(:h {Duerr.s1j. Tlhi. tlhi€:S:alilne Iload~ in'g condlltiiol1l$ a pinned connection shall be comblned with the gr-005 member stresses in aecordance with pllr<lS.lImed)..2 Combililld 5.shared among tlhie iilndh'lidu:!l111 phllb:!s ln proportlon to their thlcknesses .. tlhie stlrengtnl Of trne plate d€cn-eal$€S.gher) shallbe <IS required to pe:rmit proper funetlon of the connection.shall ..I'IIH~. subject to cycii(: loacliing.. C3~.etermine an acceptalbl€ clean-l'lInce.lIrilt:ary:Tnle Ille.eactual detail alnd Iload ccndltlons.CCOlilnlilno.ear of tnle plates. A qua.: The statie st"el1lgtlrn of a pilate ln a pillilnedeonMct~oln ~nlhe r.ladJllliIlg" The average tensile stress onthenet area through lllle p]lJj.$:lid.5 IPln.$ based en iIh.te'Ctealr·anl(le"P:in·tg. The allowable b€arilng$h. 3<1.3·~ alr. CQll'I1Imen1sr'. As an example.~ II"1 Deslgnl.

Intermlttent g:I'{l>lJ'lle welds are' not permuted. (. 'of loaded parallelto ~he axis of theweld shall be det..joinl"pene'lration or pa:rti. (rmm) M!II~rH~'l il'h:H~kn(!ss 'Tihl. fO'r depositing timewe]cl metal TIle sllielligth of welds is.the basls fmthe aillowable I$.e regiiorl. If two 01" InOlieof the genera] types of welds (paras. the effective throat Ihic'kne. ~ times ttTi:eadius of the r bar 01[ bend. governed by either the base material or the depoeited weld material as noted In the foUQwillllg: (ili) The design sn:e:nglh oFl. Thliiiji Ii:. StressesIn the base metal shall no~exceed the limit" defined in sec-nom 3-2.eneraL. In pal.. the effec-tivethl""al tltlcknese Js the thiCkness of the fhmner part jolrn'ed.d etermlned bytbe thkker pa[t g Whelrl designlinllg a pin fow alconnectlon linlwlhii:ch dOI. {1 so) %6 (5) '!~ (6} %6 (8) J.igned fm: shesr forces.1li . Inllsuch a case.fa rndh 0 d tha~ accoUlrlts for the effernof loc:al d efmlnnati'olrl$:of the plales may be used ~.1'IM be separatdy computed with reference to the aXISof the 2.4. but sh1e~"ils determined oy effec-tive thool<lt thk:kne.ti. ilm Table 3-2.'jnldt the calculated t" forces..e defined il1ltmlis $ec!iion to pmvlicle the reql. Fillet we~d s.Jlilrecld.ecUvelength of <l!1lIj' groovewelrlis the length over whkh the weld cross-section has.igura!iiol1lS: are Iba. less The minimum parfial-penetratjon gmO'vewdd effeclive thl'"al thickness is given.a single joint.ecl:ive lelll.oomp1ete.crOSsthe tmlickl1lessoflhe plate i$:a DOmmO:rl . Wli1Ierll mle Iplla~esare relal' t tiveliythiic!::.. nl~et. % (IG) LA ("3) V~(n) (UI~ GE.livethmat thickness be' less than the size :re<:J!uired ITa!IJI. Groove' welds may be either . U$:~lJ.2 Groove W'ernd:s:.ilrlg prccedures a.N ERAL NOTE: 1IllIi! @Fl"{!~ti~~ tllima:t do!!. tlhe ito aSSUIlmlPtionlof IQading to the pinijilhlalill be censjstent with tnle as:$l!Jlmptionll f Imow tlhe Iload Ii$:$:halredannolrlg o themai...4.s. The dfect.s. The e. (191.'5 fO' al. the depth of . the proper effeorlve throat thickness. in.ve1ds.2thmugh 3-3.r-om deg to 60 de'g. in nO'case shallthe e'ffec. the effective throat thickness IS '.JI.gthof weld ml]~tip]i:ed by the dfect:irve throat thickness. plug.JA.ioof the bar 01" bend.nd conf.. .ckllme'ss of IPartiili~·. 3~3.iively conservative resu Iits."g[\OQves~. For V·goo>lJ'llewelds"the dfect:irve thrnat thickness is. The effectlvethroat thickness i~ the milnimlJm distance (rom the root ·ofthe' gr-oove' to the face Qf fhe weld. _Forbevel welds.3 I1nm). ..jO'int"pene'~l-a..etlon AINSII/AWS I)Ht1. O\'>\~r % (19) to ~../u.65L e 1H~ 4. (6} O\. However.venby eq.~he e. COlTIml~lfI'tary: Fliilrldes:ignllbased 0 nthe assum ption that the loads from each plale a.apadty 'of the combmation.. the' effec-tive'thr(hat V 45 thidme. 1 gmup Ill!order to determine the aMowable c.ects oflocal 01" f01" the effective capacity of each sh.t:t 1.ength {Fiis:her.1 '·3. TI1e effective throat of a fillet we]d shall be the shortest distance from the mot to the face of the weld. (3~55).d lHobllit.:~r ..~ the e~f.2 through 3. ~3.ff. section. !FO'r .!>('313) O\'>\~r t% (38) l<l'2Y~ (57) O\.f"n11l m3Y aCC!Vll!IlI.. weMs . . or U~gmO'ves. .s not l1i!edl to e)l)u~!!d Ill1..~d.esign factor.aI'pene'lranolJl gr"OO'Ve IS the depth o'f g:oo>lJ'lle ~in.(1.tebe UI1i.~~ i?art J'oln.~eli1euatilJlli1 Glmove 'We~dls.tresses fur welds linl AIISC ~2000~and ArNSlfAWS iD114J alnd for ~hie requirernent iinll q.. a pp Iiied tel· tlhie plinllas a II. mIQwever.are IndicatedJn paras.e l. 3'.~ tl1ld::nl@!is (I:F Ihe Ihln:nl@r pari ~oln!!dl" ~-"-- ~t60E. and slot welds .fm: pLll'PQSeS this.rl~(:enlil:M~plla1teallid the doubler pI a. F p Jable 3-2 Mimill1lllJlII!I ElTfettiVe.approa.iveweld area for either type is. The Ilo'wer bound shear$ilrenglthof depo:$ited weld metalis 60% of the tensile str.ubjecl~o tension or oompression shall be equal to the effeetlve area of the weld multlplied bythe allowable stress 'of the base metal defined in section 3~2.Jf:ectivethroat l tltlckness Is besedontheradius ·of the bar or bend tQ whkh It is.'1.4} are combined in.3.'95~1'.For a complete-penetration groo·ve weld. (n'llln) To '.1I G.Throat Ihi. (M The design strength of we]ds subject to shear s111'1]] be e<:J!Ul1'I~ effective area O'fthi:eweld multlpliedby to the nile allowable stress F" 3.!:liry: Structural weld.f the we]d shall be des. except tha~ design stlrengtnl of welds ar.i7ieis specified by leg wld!th.COITIIMIIIIIII. attached and the flareweld"ove.t ln.and for bevel or Y'gl\OOVet.Melconll a'rl.thiis: method can yield exces:$.55For J. te) CQmbh:~iliti()j:~(}fWf!M5. defined as fhe e. ]imit1'lHolll.1tes.20N~ ("3-5S) where En "" nominal tensile &hel1g:thofthe weld metal For bevel and V~groQ<vela re we. Welds loaded perpendicular to the axis o. Effectilve areas and.UQ]l Iype welds.. Urnes the ncliu!.mifurmly disltribl!Jlled 110M a. The mistimum throa] thickness. 1IS7S}. less any reinforcement (usually the depth QF gr-oO've).>\Qr:l% (571 to 8 (1So 0) O\.>\er 6. with a minimum angle of 60 degis.ce5. MlnlRlll!l1flil IErfe(tivi!TllrMt '1Il'1ld:'M'~SS.>\Qr '!~ to 'h o[H} (6) O\'>\~r '!~ (13) to ~.•) 1!'1I11E\tWe~dls.ignoo f01" tension orcompresslon fm.'is. bier pllates aim IlJI·Sied reinforce the pinlhiol.We1ded connection del)ign i5h1'lHrovide' adequate p access.

.5'arenot to be considered plug or slo'~welds. Thewldth of tlhl. The mhriminn s.1 Genlera~ Whel] applying the fatigue des. Thesereturns shall be ]Il! the same planeas the ['e8'~'iHet weldsinhio:l:es or ~lot. The' mlnimnm Ieugtb. the thickness of~hepar~ OOllitaining H plus ~6 in. center-te-center spadngin a Iongltudinal direction 01]1 any: Iine shall be two times the' lel:itglh uf the s. when necesS'aJry'. in thickness shall be equalto the thick. :1.padng of lines.]d size shall not be less than the size required to transmit calculatedfcrces nor the s~ze given ]n Table 3-3.4 P~ulg <lind Sla~ Weld:!>. bothl.not be Iess than. Where lap joints occur in p]a~es or bars that are subject I" axial stress. (6 mm).!l!pped parts shall be welded along their ends.elll~ ever posS'ible.elot s s. A]ong edges where the mO'lterial thic. (1fIil1'1'II) O<:~@r '/!. ~in.2in. CO:IIIi'IITI1ellliltary: lhe fatiglue des igllll req UJliIF€ FIHet we]ds shallnot be used in skewed 'f~jOilllt5 thai have arm !rlldm:iled angre of less than 60' deg or more nnet than 135 deg. (16 mm).t The thkkl1es$ of plug or slot welds in ma~e:ri. The effectivelengtlhl of a..all!rial.all not be grea~e~ than the material thlckness mirTms7. for filletwelds in holes or slots. the effecHve l:elllgth shallibethe length! of the centerline OF the weld alollig the pl!l!ne through the 'center of theweld throat.Iolllled. (6 mm] or greateri the weld size sh. the weld she shall not exceed the' thiJc.of thickness less than 7.hie induding end returns. The maximum.bu~ no~ less thiB!1ll lin. y~ (13) O<:~@r 'h {H) to % (19) O<:~@r 'li.this effectlve throat thickness is.:.egmetrica. (Rlilfll) M~lIIimum S~ZI!olf mlA!~Wl!~d.ay be usedto transfer calcufillet lated stress acm£5. components of bum .conslderedIo be' on <I ~deg ang1e' j]'"m the leg and have a dlmension equal ~o O. [n~e~rmit:beli1~ welds m. (SOD mm).tive'throat thickness. ('3 mrn] mexhrrum. component p.]o.In gel]''''l'~l. . These tabulated S'izes do not apply to fHlet weld reinforcements O'Fparflel.10 Hl1:ilit theroot opening I" ~ in. the weld thickness shall be at leaS'~one·nalf the thlekness of the rnateelal but notless than ~ ][lJ.1'(lj'~]me5'the leg width.e ffecHve l:engrh of e any Intermittent finet shall be not less than fm:ur times the weld g.6 ()} % (t.i~.. {2 m:m}. whichever isgr'eate1".fillet .. {Hi mmjor less.kness is. In . Plug and! slot welds maybe used to transmit sheaa. andare approprlateferthe type~ of steel upon whiiclhithe prevlalons of Chapter :3 . The dismeterof the hole for a plugweld ahall.iin th~$ section 81F1e derived from AISC (20'QiO) and AIST Technical R€port INo.bew:Hh a minimum ·of ]1.) 1\6 (S} The maximumfillet weld size-is based on the thickness of~he connected par~" A]cmg edges of mO' in. ~~.e]oped hy a confinU(l!US. the thickness of theweld. or the weld size shan be consjdered not to exceed %i of the effective we]d length. )·3. Tl:ii:elenglh of fhe slot f01" a slot weld shal~ not exceed :]0 timesthe thickness of the weld. The minimum center-to-center s'padng of p]ug welds sh..In lap joinls.kness. of slot welds ]Il! a diirection transverse to' ~heir Length shall be four times the width of the slot The minimum. The ends of~he slot shall be semicl rcular 01"shan have the comers rounded to' a radius of not less than the thicknese 'of the part: conla:inlrng it. {3S mmkIntermittent welds shall be made onboth sides oJ!the joinr ("r at le.hall meet the same cdteria as the diameter of the hole for a p]ug weld. O'f The minimum effective length of a flllet weld shall be four Urnes the specifled weld s. J!ll. Wl:ii.2 in.ign prO'visiol:ilS defined in this section. p u members. a lroJ:nt 0'1' faylng surface when the strength required ii)less than that d!ev. (3) 7. (16 mm) tlhrkl.aU be four times the diameter of the hole. (2: mm).] discentinulties . Il~ck~I~~ of 'IIhld.inlap Joints or to' prevent bu~U[ng of lapped pads and to join.of the' material. FIHet weldsin holes or slots may be used to' transmit shear in lap joinb or to prevent the buckling O'rseparation of lapped parts and '" jg]l1I. The effective weki! area "f a fiMet weld i" defined as the effecHvelengtl:Tt of weld multlplied lOythe effe. ne5S of the material. 3->4 IFAIHjl!JIE DESIGNI 3~~. <I fiUet weld! shall be terminatedwlth end returns.asl 25% of its length. of end 1'etums sl:iiaM be twO' times the we]cl size. The minimum fillet we. (3 mm)Ol" 2% limes. The edge of the ahutting member shall be' beveled. spacing of intermittent fillet weH8. (19) To .l!r T Pm~ . {. except fer those ends that extend to' the edge of the part.veld shall be the overall lengttTtO'fthe full"S. (8 mmjrounded I]p~O the next larger odd 716in. calculated stresses shall be' besed UpilJin elastic analysis and stresses shall no~ be amplified by stress concentration factors for g. (f~) [(). In material over %: ]Il!. nilJirgreater than. The effective weld area shall not exceedthe cross-sectlonal are:a of the hole OT sliIJi~. the' minlmum diameter plus 'lain.4.I'~(6) fa. (2$ rnm). TIlI. the' minirnum amount of ~ap shall be five times the t!hkkness of the tbimrer part jO]llled.or complete-jcdnt-penetraticn welds.arts of built up\ in.lg and slot welds shall be cnnsidered as the nominal crosssectional area of l!:we ole or slotin the plane of the faying h surface... The effective shear area of p]l. ilUet weld of the smallest permitted size and to [oln components ofbuUt-up members.

e f.3 usim.Iim.j.IS: an of tlil.e standard Iload s:pe. tCi the allowable s~Fe$S: IFa. asses:s· ment of tlm. CiDrnmlelfl'tllry: The alUowablestress IFalmgeS glivelll Iim. These dass]fk~~IQniS'are based on U:5e offthe Ilf~e~at loads 'of V'arylrng cr1l1.ected aspectrusn ef va ryilrl9 to loads.~~hportlon 'of <I variable amplitudeloadtng spectrum rdelielll.e develp opmentof thii$i St!1lmdalFd whicm the eCl'l.:l. The use of other matertals may requirea dif· ferent means of eva~lLJlatiing falligue liif. TM f13i1:iglLJle Illii.erlt 111m· iin IlI bersefeonstaet ampllitude Iload cyCII. alr.. s This Js usuallybut not neces8Sri]y.eof the llifter.agnlrudie.1. Thu s.9 .e~ress l-an~e to which N"'Irelabes. Inreality.ompalreo too the alillowable ram'ges iscussed im.llratliolrls due to tlil."f - equivalent number of constant ~mplitl.Tim e ~oli il deta ils n in thiis table im. Fatig'l.or time vaIlF~'OILJI$: Servlice CI(.cllWlde of the detaills$:moiwn im. The maximum stress l"allige'shall be that given In Table 3-4). s:ervice$:tr. Fig"" !llSvvell as addilliOllial detaills.esses forthe maXimlLJll'lrlIloal. 8' ~3 (. as discilJlssed.esand StiFieS$: Ca.s~ (ao MIP'a!) p!!rilllif[@.~valluated I. toed f.lentnumber of constant arnplrtude cycles can be determined U~5Jirl:lg eq.s OM!n~l'IgQS" 2.NOli! (1)] '1 ()O.4 (18S) 1(.$:tatic plllUs lmpact) were .lrlilflg service stress.lIi:vall.Ci1l'£. (1) Fl@XlJlan S(Fl!SS I"lIngi! (IF 12: k.e spectra ares:llliglhitly 1 .:.40) " (no) ss (2.~ t lilk~:. which ~s taken from AIST Technlcal R:epmt Nio. [3-56} glreatertharl the IreslLJllts tlilail alre obtalillleo by oomp(.Iss.exce$:$:ivelly b conservative. 6.ANSII! alii AWS IDlI4. the maximum stress l-a:n~e considered. Commentliry: Tihe maedmum sltres$ rrBlngeslPermii~. C 3·11./ - j~~! - S R! - SII. C.4 S~l\essCategories The Stre55 Cabegory can be de'~er:mlned from the joint details glvenin TaMe Iloadlimig calli be . om ifIfllent:aryfor lPalFal.le Iliife of 131 liif1tiingdevice ln whiielil.l l!CIadst. rhus.40) 28 (1S10) 22 (150) 16 (no) 15 (100) c I) 37 (25o~) 29 (2'00) 23 (1M) n (14~) Hi (110) 2. If sufJiidenl tifft data are known or .. actual use offthe'li:~ter :may differi possibly Significantly.e nJesiigln Para ifIflleters is taken from AIISC f200rn.3.elrl~nTalblle 3 of ANSI/AWS DM.1.ll IHe of al IImer may mlolFlnalllly pere he form eo u sli111 9 0 mil staltiic$'h."'<[I] be Chapter 2.e values gr.2 Uftem (las:sJ'nl':<ltlons: Ufuer d!'l:5t<iHcation5shall be <'lsgiven.eswere computed for time load dUle to Iratel. Anallys:e$i have been performed (.~ were derived ba$¢d on the assu mpti'olrl of CQ n· $:tamilampli~ude load cvcl.efaltiig'l.dl at (h!! we of s(IFl"!!n@1 w@ld.enbrV: 1i'ablle 3·5.g eq.ctra are not r. Table 3·4 W01lJllid e .Isilrlg eq..esse$: ca leu lated fro rn th e y rated Iload. d 3. snail not 'exceed the stress ranges for Sh:es~Category A. the 3~liI.\ {16S) Ul {1:i5} 15 {100~' n (90) 10< {JO) 2.v. ILiMimgdevice$:.Iylocations offatiglLJle CIFfl.l~llIg (. evaluation Qf tlil.iglrl. on timeotlil.. strass 'CatI!Wl'ry {Fr'llI'lllTllMi! 3·5) A B.elpresent:alive of the e. f3:·. where N" hand. {3·S'SI. Ternsi~es~11es:sesinthe base metal 01 all ]oad~bearing structural elements Including sh~fl5 and pins.are based.e cialcul' lated Illife dll.ll. !3~6}.Comrn emlialry'lor paIFa. the 'equlv~.56}.eresults showed that tlil.TIi1. T'aMe3.. that alFeof value iirl lifter cles. Tlmis table aliso has the added benefitof illlLJlstratlimlgim.l(:k$:.atlic loal.. as discussed Jn the Chap~e~ 3 Ccmmentary. which willi be of value to IIiifting device inspe~ors..Migl.e cycles a~ stress 11'lugeSI\:i>j number of cydes £01" the ith portion offa vazl~hle ampHnude loading spectrum ~*>e~rang:e fo~ the .M.te'glorie$:are based Olrl tlil. slLJ:ch as pilrllrled CDlrllllediom!s.eof a Hfti'ng device tlil'flltwHII be IUIs:ed iin a malllllller slLJchthat tlil. (no) n~ol' 10 (rOl' I.c. from the defined load! spectra.'1.) E E' F U (£10) 91 (60) 12 (&0) 8 'lS~) 6 {40} '£l {~O) 5 (34) 3 (20~ 8 (~5) N.eIrlormallv slLJIbj.ngesgiven in Table 34.\·350) 49 (3.

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threaded mdl' subjected 1:0.~ p .xi$~'il1lg liifting il161 1.eq.~qf AIISC (2000).57) a.4'e :B sastep maxlmem flLJl1Ic1tiiolli.eq.3~4.1'G7for Stre5s Categu'ryfl 0.arpter 2 is desired.ep~ F threshold value for Fsr as given in 'fable :h5 desil'ed design fatigue ]ifein.i 329 ro'r all S~[\ess.IIslrng eq. In Threaded F'a:s.s_ Alternately.gol'les eXi. eq.e 3·5. c:ydes of the d!e~ail b~!ing evaluated.Categories.~ 1_0 be parti¢:llJIll:Blrly u$efuillilll device for i~s rem !:Jliilll iing Ilife. as.. stresses are in ks~.~or Ct shi..] {48 Mli'a).lllfy: takenfrom Appenoiix Time provjslonaof para. :.~ .ni -.0 when stresses arein k. a qualified person should use the threshold values. except as fellows..IilOWIilIiln fur each Ll2 ~ i.e fatigue approach ILJltilli:dl1lg 0.~jffne~5' f the connected perts and o fasteners shall bepermittedjn determ:i!ne the tensile stress HIIlI..rangein.esi. exce-p~as. the .. Com men1tlilfy: rallnge values fOlra particular jOlil1ltdletadil1 1311110 :Bllso $.) .rs High streng:th ho]ts. f the fasteners are not pretensioned to at lea&t 1'0% I of thelr mininrumtensile s~relll. Category Fwhen stresses are in MPa. noted 1:]0. (3-56).06 + -'.e Clas$al1lo cOl1ls. Servie.ervi¢:e ClassalFe selected frorm a table such a.2 willlg:ive a more ralllgl€:.f.8!d.bll.4.q "" where F~ - allowsble stress range for the detail under oOllisideration .f the non welded Cf Cf(q) - ex FrH N use iln . due 1:0.:.-: + L2.. fati. the d irection 'of the thickness of the tensionloaded plate COllistant from Table 3·5for~h~' Stress Cabegory 1404 X 10]1 roT SI[e~ Categories C.ij:ame mag IIldit lJlcie.' s~an~ amplitude "ydel' can be calculated using eq_.ij: fable 3·4 that ill: '" treats the stre$$ ollll~he IFa.hen alltension shall t be assumed ~o be carried exclusively by the fasteners.range computed l..glllle. 3.esi'gn s. which the fasteners are pretenslcnedto at least 70% of theil" mlnimum tensile strength. N is the ~'Kpec~ed number of constant amplitude stress mlitge cydes and is to be pm. and C" when stresses are in MPa 0. !3llllowa b Iefatiig ue stress (ill) for Stress CategoryC'~V'helli. Ii: '" ()_n(~. 34. (3---57).. Fri'l'.n dlscus. SUess Cate.7) il1l lin para.lveel1lthe maximum of HII.9 x ~IO~.:2:.gth.. StreS5 range fs the algebraic difference between the maxfrnum stress and. except as noted thickness ·ofthe tension-loaded plate leg size of therelnforclng or oOIll~oudngflllet. 3·4.333 for all.e. Ip S para..the' allowable stress If no desired fal:iguelife is specified.. Ip iV - - I'oot face illi. H any. .6 'Culin ullative li''. . be for jO][1[ts. except F when stressesare in MPa. (:B·S.orere'finoo component faHgue' analysis than providedby the four Service Classes g:iJvenin Ch. (3. the' mtnlmum stress. "fl:ile threshold SIT:esS Fm sl:TiBJ]1 taken as 7kl.3.videdby the owner. an equivalentnumber 'of COlli. hese T values are based I1IlLJlmlberof cycll. (3·51') may be usedto obtain the allowable stress l'<lmge' any number of load cycles for 11"1e for S~re~ C:a~eg()des glvelll in Table 3---5. 1. ComITUIIIflt.allbe taken a~ 3. {3·S'BI :Blillowable stress eV:Blluatlilliglalill eq.tres.. 3~4.Iitigllil.. and.e Allila lvsis H am. C'.: U) .e for some- and m~nimum of a partiealflfllplli~ude.sed in Cernrnantarv ' para.Ht5awe values for 1K.161 (2~) (w) T .]restress caleulated on tIThe tensile stress area dueto the combh~ed applied load and prying forces do not exceed the d. fhe 2ill '" l'eng~h o. the stre~5. a ular Service Class :Blllld VOIF klillOWlil1 a valFying (:lLJllfiflIulaltiv.5 'ifensile.a]ys~s of llhielielaHve s. <11:1 <l1lI.gllledSQ that the~elltS.ideF evewycycle to be . common bolts. If Olile desilFes: a de$ignl oor 131umber n of cycles whelF€: Ibet'!.e IOl8Jding shall be d.S il1leolnjUincti(l:n refined witlhl .000 for Stress.0. the fasteners shall be assumed to be' equelto the stress on the net tensile area dueto 20% 'of the absolute value 'of the deo:~gn tensile IlI).gein the fasteners. in the direction of the thickness of the tension-loaded plate Typ lea Illy. Thiis can .de load spectrum. The fa. R "'" 1. For cumulative' damage analysls of a varying a:mplUu.

the n. 0111 upper hound vertica. 3·5.ConicentlraU01i11S 'Of SlIes5' conc.:: stresaescreated oy~ mes:e dli$Contiill1uiilies maly need to Ibe cOllliSideFed in the desig 1111 of a Ilifter. if the ulti Ii1fllate eloll1lgll:itiol1l I$: 5% OF Iless IYo'u111 l and ItllWlci.57} and the coefficients {1Iive 1111 para.pear.!::stresses due tID d iSCOll1ltinlWlitli.lI$efl!Jll desigln may he fur found Ii1111 .:on based on the nature 'of the detail and the' ]Jr(l!perUes of the matenalbelngused.<l!pterarebased em load spectra ]Ill which pe:1l!k il.elr $:Ipedf.elnt types of deviices is not pracliicall.Tih. of EquatiiOin {3:.. AISC ~200m Appendix 1<3. A quallfled per$:oln shalll evaluate time n eed for fatigue alnallY$:is beyoll1ld that provided by section 3·~ and apply such al1lalyses: as needed..lIlI1lclionmay r.The threshold strre$:$:IF:alnge FTH is the [evelat which a fatligue fallure wiin not Cl(lI(!Clloadsare equal to 50% of the maximum ]lfbed~oad for Design Cat:eg:cl'l:y A HFten.~p()[ijsiib]Utyof a qualified per$on~o determine when deflection limits should be applied and to estahllsh the magnitudes of those ]imlts for the design of the mechanisms and structnral elements of liftiJng devices.en~ra~]orh5' dueto holes.e desigln must IFecogl1lize stress 3"5.ecl the 1!J11I~lim<lte strength of a structural element unl'ess the material iis brittle.em elfll~s dlefiln ed iin this cha.. n is. Thst is. ifatiigll!Jl.e scope of this Standard.aSoll1l' ably be COli1fliIPl!Jl~ecl based on avere:ge stresses. Slill1lcevatiglue·. and other $:iimillalr sources. changes illl sectien.1 dleflleclioll1l Iliimiil$: f~F i.tfactor to aC. 3~1.:.lISoed I!Jlnder(lOlliclitlionsthat may re$:ult Ii n unusual I dynam i:c loadiil1l{1. The need to use peak stresses. tlmen ~Imedetail willi perforrn~hml!Jlglm a1111 unlimited 11II!JllTil0er Iload cycll.e very broad IFange of IIlifting devices that may fall under tln. (The Iloaids usedfnr the dev.3 Ipoovlides eq'l.ellopmelnt of this Standard are discussed i1111 depth Ii1111 melnU!IFY fur pa rei.0% of tlh:e lifted! Iloadfor I)esiign Ca1tegory A al1ld H)O%f~r Desiign Ca1tegory 13.~. ~me prlmarv fa~igue IlifecolnSoiderat~on$ of int. For example.e discnMi0ll11 of a q ua. 19971.ea. The won:lingl of this gell1ler· ally COin $:~dered brlttle.ptelF are based.Vor BvalllUl!iltiing otlm. similar details shall be accounted for when determining peak stressesIn load!"C'anying elements: subject: to 39 . a qualifled person shall include an addfflonal i:mpa.eed VOIF nsld eratio'n of deflection co in the d.$ .PeteI'$o. ~Ma~erlialls a.l!Jla.e$S rang. d.s:taltiic stFengtln.t[esses. iln part.edloes 11I0texceed o attelntiio:n~o the In. Ciomlllliilemt!llry: Tihe ah iIlityof a IIiiftil1lgl devi:ee to fl!JlIfiII its iln1tended ~l. a dampilngl d. In the event that a lifter is expected to be subjecbed~o impact b:lding greater than these COil'l1ce.n'$ Slre.eslign of Ilifitin 9 sectioll1l liS .evice wilill Mt beable to malill1taiin its 9 ri P if t me m em bers of 11m dev ~oene)! . ra~merthan dlucNlle.llati!.lI1Is. DIESl161N NSIIDIEIR:AJION (0 S cyclic loading. CQITllIfI'IElnttilry:: P.liffer.eres:t Ii111 liHlilng device design. The des~gn fac~ors: established in this dll. acer· hil1l mlnirn urn sHHl1Ie$:$: iill1addHliclln to strength.e)(c.ic details that IriMy o. COl1l1llllll:el1l1tary: ihedlesigln reqlUlir.2 $itres. e under lead.e$:. rnalY re. Due to tln.ed ]oad for Oes:i.l imp act factor$: of do lI1:otaff.llif.ediion pelFmlits the use otall1l Mdi~io:nall impa:ct factor <It tln.eql!Jlilrethat i~ possess.CQLlI]~for suchloads. iiln 3.: and 100% OFtl:ite maxsmum IH~. lhe iln1tl1:lnt f tln.ntr<9:tiQfi F:aqo.FeMedt:rach ilniliale at poill1ts: of stress com:ell1ltratliOI1l due tID eltner 'gleome~Fic OF me~a.f'$ ~Pillkiey.13 address. lif it lsantlelpated thatthe clevlioe willi be II. unless stated otherwise in thls chapter. if the servlce Iload $:tr. 3-5 onl ER.1 IIIiliI ad f"c~l'n$ p Tbe des:ign of below-the-hook liftlng devices doesnot normally requlrethe use of an impact faeter.yl1las.2002U g Time types of $:teel o:n whlich this Stalndardi is based are all ductiile 1i1n!1l1telFialls.ll· Il!Jlrgic:all d isco II1ltiil1lU itli.ied person. lime des:iglln of liiftiilng deviicle$: made in accordance with tlh:is St:andlaro willi Mt II110Fmalilly require time IWI$eof an lmpect factor. rather than average s. Stres$collIoelnbation factors II.3J ThereCOIi1n fore.efill1ding ac1. when calculating static strength shall be deteE' mined by a qualified$im ply to ca.eof use incertain Ca~ego[yB ]ifbers.

e vallriol.a II1ld set fl tme two parallllE:1 sydems ne.$:hea.. times the nOffiil].es tQ .cirn'gI.s or haza rdous movement of al lead. IfIfllecih.aM designed to the reg)uil'emen1ts be of th:is chapter. nonless than 12 times the w]re' [\(l·pediameter when usil]!g 6 X 37 class wire l"Qpe'N 15 timesthe wire ['ope dlameter when using 6 X 19 da.Jl. arid .$ desigrn c:riterial$. Onll slab IMlooks QntQ beams.entliJll'Y: lnspeettcn requires arid maintenance of be 9 fro rn ope rati II1g systems.:. the lifter's eran e'$ $.e lill1lSpecJ!ion ·or malilnten~mce of sn:e.4 Shaft: IReqLlmfellill.$:Qlitrlespecial liow·healo rOQmapplllicatiolns the sheave siize may ME:d 110 bs .e IExtlral precaluHon WQ'l. I!Jlnlllkl1l(lWIl1I.a!ve assemblies should be desigrl:ed based o III a removable shaft (:ollll'lm. an I!Jlllidue cornponent of Ncr. iii'll timeg.cles that the al$:s:elflfl:bllycain The COlflfllmiUee recognizes that in . She.EINIE.Qtbe less ~hB!1JJ. pi~ch diiannE:1De:r oVa sheave rope wear n:alS: a dlilrecl.lJ ire timat thesecorn p(menlS accessible.aves: !.at Ineed tID be en desig niln 9 aco mponent.RAL P.chiine ellements IfIflla. I'Qr cases tnleov'e:rhea:d .4 are the baiSis for many imtnl by CMAA #70. ChaIP'te:r:3 lis flFe·quel'll~ly used iin time design of rnechanjcal COmIPQI'II. be CO:llli'lm. crlteria for machine elements of a below-the-hook Hfting device. Cm1nn100ltarv: ilil:is sE:ctiioln appli.e vfillue maximum by~he sheaves a II1Jd Ibearirng $: req'l.e suspel'llded bui Ild.lJlldneed to be e$labllisnled sheavesare reeved into cases to OiIlliow fo r ilncl1El:!ll$:edw.1 SlileJ<lveM:at:e~I'al This chapter sets fOl"th design.e(s) created during theIiftor move' menr O'f the load shan be sized in accordance with this chapter and Chapter 3 Qfthis.ine ellelflfllentsal'lld Malny Iliiftiilng devlices ofllm~ framework. and ASME 1-181.e to perform Ilf tlM.$: struc1ilWlr.$:he:!llve shafts.anglle where betweell1l alliiglned to ensure corn- ilnclude.] E!q:III:a~bllllg SliIeJ<lve. thlis wnlil. When the ]ifting device's shea v es are reeved ]1lI:~O the sheaves on llhi.ed to be properoperati'on. am:l.$:mflll!er to accomlitrlocifite tnle limited space avalilablle.Standard. Irell!1lti'olnship wirth wire all1id vat~gue thai 4.v.e[atiloll1 to 'C~'<lpiter 31 Mechanical components of the' mUng device that are stressed by the fQll.ilre rope eq I!Jliprmlel'lltan: covered i 1111 cnlalpter.2 R. tnlalt ~oiln$ tM 1togelher. the Irequli rements of Cnla. The pitch diame~er oJ equalizing sheaves shall not be less than one-half of the diameter of therunning sheaves. tlM. (08) (:iDITUlill~l1I'tary: Chflpter 4 is focused on the desiign of mat:nill1.11 G. thatare block part of :!I1$:€lparate bottom or-crane system are nl)~ covered by tnlis Standard.Mechani. $:pa.nleave pad::agle.e load.1. mell1:(:e l'II. CiOmml~l1I'hmy: po:nell1il could Wiheinfai'lure ofa mecnalnlicall ~he number of c\!.cal Design 4~1 4·1. thet hold Ibe Exalitrlpl. ponent is iin meehanleal Ilocked rQtor t(lrrql!Jle. plFoduced by norm:!lll operatlion.eaves.lJII11irnteinded dfQPpilng 4·2. An other meehanleal cemponenrs sbi.tlme·mook: Ilifit· iil'llg device.efOrl.e desiig n factor sn:o'l1Ild be divided or aliter. the pitch diame~er <lindconfigll' h ration of the no]sl slllilM eonsldered illt the design. T me reio re.irllgcraln es alnd hoists. and operate other am:illlia:ry frOlitrl -4·2.Jldill1lg jams. Sh. drliV(l$:ys1telltrl$: 1lmere may held U. Rlmnlinng S~]le<llv>e:s COlflfllpOl'llel1l1iS. alndoverioadis. of a cOlflfllmercial(:Oitrl capacltyof that a:ppllicabl.evice 1I110t covered by Cnalp~er 3.lInd bea ri nlgs puts .a!ves shallbe fabrk-at~d of material specified by ~he ]ifting device manufacturer or qualified person.a] diameter of the' wire ['ope 16 used.e systems. to.alfliicalll components of Illiftlirng deviices should Ibe des iig ned hJ restst iirlFegul11ilrWes~hat iincll..'Ill>E! 4·2.ves tnl:!lrt are contained inthe envelope of ~me belil)w.ednlalflica! dri. The' ITI0\5t oorrservative de:.eeo tQ have 131 se·a rn less in ted ace w itlm th i s eq 'LlJ i P IfIflI rit.e oist.ell'lltarv:fhe determineS wilhswndl. chapter.ignshall be' selectedfor use'..s w]re'~ope" 4·2. ation of the A desigll1l~hat modiflcetlon lifiter'.pter 3 slil:aH be I!JI$:ed~o siize tlil:e component coup lied wlith the mechanjcal but I!lll1lgls~h:at requirements are II1lot Ilimited of Uii$ fasteners chapter.e elements andthese pants of a Iliftling d.. Aliol'llgwlith: tlm.eln1t$ toaddress the s1rel1lgltih: requlremsnts 4 .enlt requ irern e IfIIls in bolh followedwlhl Ch a pterS 3 an d 4 tlM. AIS1feclmnlica! Il'Iepol1 Nio. 'Ei.ectJIy resul~ linll~me '1. the th e fo rces are common resu Itiln She. palrts· of time dE:sigln clriteriia establlii$:heo lin Pi~dl diameter fur llUIlI:n]llIg sheaves should n.

.mded~()preventinadvertent wire' l\Ope jllll'l[ITI:ing '0]" OOl1n:ing out 'of llhi.llliremelll.!\eradi~us "" mile radiius x ].'s purpose iis to pr€Ment Ih.c.esize of the wire rope used. The glJl. 4-3 WIRIE IROPE COrrlillll:~l'Iitar'f: ASME HSi~· and ASME 1330.ent:ary: The i.ollfli'lilfli'l.:e betv!leelllilhe wlire rope andthe sheave hag 131 direct reialiolilishipon the II0111 glev.nage..l..Uon Means For lubricating p~ovlded!. The gl!Jlalro.ewiilre rope glFIDov.<J\.aMbe a minimum of of 6% larger UlHIl1 theradfus 'of lhew:irel'ope as shownin Fig. . <15 shown in Pig.2 previde tlh.euser aIIlla Carl deter plroper care of time equipment. Tlm. shall be' g:l].lIVe a niCI th e 1:3 uard.slily . C.earing of the wilFe mpe.e'ct to the wlilFe rope to allllOw for a proper sealing surface.. (3 ITIm) or a distance OF ~ times the wire' mpe diameter. and rims !. 3rd ed i~io'n.hardsh iipon tlM. COITIllfli'lentary: Users (If tlh. shall be placedwithin ~in.eshi€.6 Sh.nterfJ:u. l!te~aiti~'nt>o Other Stan.The cross-sectionalradfus olff the groove should! form a close-fitting saddle for ll:il.e .elect 10 reference tlM. ~'3.sllip into and seat il1l tlm. which DOVerSthe wiire rope applicalions ~mat area wholly attached OFIinleg raIIcornponerrtof a below~~hie~lhloolk li1Tl!illlgdlev1ice.houH runtrue around theaxis ofrotation.entary: "Ii' 1M'lisectio na d d ressesw iilF. to' the sheave. Table t2. To prevent prelrnlatl!Jlrew.$lilr$ . and file' sides of the grooves should betapered outwardly to' assist enrrance off the' wirerope tnto the' groove.1 Rope rad i us N01FE= (1) Gwo!!.ave.or oil"impreglnaH:d beanings alre alii methods thai willi ensure the krbrlcatianed the bealriings .dards: WI['e"[opereeved lIuough thelifHng device and the hoist shall conform to therequdrements of the hoist.iOmllrrl... 'l".e:~edlalit Wi['e"rope shall be off a recomenended consteucfion for lifting service.ebasiis ofth iis seeticn. device.) that affect the wirerope SIT:englh to ensure the' 5:1 .. FI<I!l:llge' comers. J(3 mm) or II dl.eClting wire rope.llmpingl frnmlhe sh.II'l.e rope. sheavebe<ll"ings shall be Commentlilry: Lubrlcatlon sys1ems. C. 4-2.olist rope 0'1 the craine {holi·sU is reevsd through the liiH.lI bricatlon method since some typeili of ·iliellf~ Iu:tllFli n·glloealFiin Cia (III witlM. sheave .e s rope req'l.tan(!~ of wh~chever Is smlll~~I. Did ratio.ealveDesign Slltellvegrooves· shall be smo~)lh and free from surface ineg:u..ts for time rare alPlplicaltklln whenlme a new sheave sl:il.lIm.entary: GI!Jlad S th alt w ra p a rOu n d a 11:(11 rg e r po rtio 1111 of theslmeave nee d to be placed dose ICI the flalilige (lflhe sM.the sheave sm1Talce~ need to be smooth 01 niCI tapersdtn dow the wilFle rope to ea.!.eav. wMclhiever Is smaller..esheave.The guard needs to loe placed dose to time mrmilng sheave to ensure that ~mewire ropecarmct get jammedor lodiged betw..e Ilines.0>6. The qualifled person shall considerother factors (i. type of end connectlon. N01iE= (1) .s1allnsevelFe 11001 d ~In cati gs nn d 9 environ ments..~~ in. The groove rad!iLU!.e Wire Rope UserS Manu~J. greOls.. provides Iinformationon siillil1lg as a gUlidellil1l€ for properlly sel... % tlmas Ih~ wP@ d~lIm~ter. ~'2. should bereundert.eWk~ ru)p~l).ewiith reilip. bearing frictlon.ea:ve 'Gula~d Slltellve.lIbricatingl Ibealringl:S.een tlhi. ~'2. ~~2.e ropeglroove.ewlire rope from jl.~ariHes that could cause' wire l'ope' dal.eshealv.afe'ty factor 1:.5 lliubn]c.2 l!tape S. 4~.Il'alrticiL1llalr care should be tahnl whenl evaluating the 1111. sellf.ollfli'lilfli' S~:!3lnlldalrd may . ~·].7 Sh.e.ity of time wir.. e'f..

(e)lieduce the likelihood of perso:nalinjury due 00' hreahge of component parts (!> be de. Malleable cast Iron dips shallnot be used..v. should have' pro.em:e accelerilltedwea.. Alter the iuitial load is apP]l. orahnorrnal industrial envi FOn ments.oil these req IJJlirements. Additionall desigln cOlnsiidelrtltiolns include. refer to the clip manufacfurers.fems.ightened evenly to' the' recommended torque. and clutches. a.1 ID'rlve .nd abnormal scenarios ILlJ$ed in the oesiigl1l of lime struetural compmllents. .all be . and torque values. chadns.clvkl. ble teansmission devices.C!!Imp!!In.m ent Wire rope materlal selection shall be appropriate the' environment inwhich it is. they were liln.e safely equ ipm enll. Ibut are net Ilimi~eci 10. .e .e manufacturer i~ not exceeded under worst case loadings" Cioml1l1lentalry: The Uise(If ecmmereial ~off'lh. or otherflexl.$iveorques.C!!Imm eKI<I~ . 4. of the bud!y Into a poirmt of hazard by rea. the chpmsts shall beretightened to the recommended torque 00 compen' sate for any de<. loose chains OIFhe.eolrpm3~ediintD this desiigl1l standard . SYSliEMS Means for lubricating shall be pr'(}vkiled. fingers. or other parts.vlsiol:1s for adjustment. OIF tiiolns tlil:at OC1CLlJlr iilnImazaroous.hU ~bol~.eave!l' shouldbe li!rn:i~ed to a 1in :n slope {4 d. drive system. 45 min].ionalhaz<l!ld~5"i:f 'openings are provided.]b (91 kg) person without permanent deforrnatfon. spmcket~.e~oensure that 13100esult il1lpremahllre faill!Jlre of tihewstem.iDmII'l1U~l1Iitalry:1he Gom mlii:1teeIleft:openl tim use of e syntim.2.ys.3$ IRape E.e'sh:elf) comp.tow Ipe:rfQlrffi to to these lillispectiiClIrl$ a. For All mohOIll hazards associated with the operation of mecbanieal power transmdssion components shall he elimina ted by design of the .ing spedfiedby th.ulipment ar.nticalloompolner1ll~ of the liftiingclevi:ce ~hataFe stressed Iby the rorcehd created dl!Jriinglhe Ilift!)r movernent of time Iload d.nd nlot creat. fih.5~gned to hold thewei.3 IEnviro n. pulleys. Tlm.$tl1l'l ent Dd.nci persollnlell Plrotective etl..20 re quirement tmal~the otPerallOlr !perform i'nslPectliQl1Is pWiOFtOeaeh 11)I·~e.2 'C(li1IIIlm(lnt:ary:: Sect~Oln~·COV€rS generl1c re'Cluire' rnents f'Or a drive system.Allilgme The wire ropefleet anglel'or sbi. Comll'l1lentliry: Anladjustilnenl rlfllechal1lii$m"such as 131imalinlor belt tiiglmteIMr.5 'lhrOl!Jlglm 48 proviid. All motion hazard gl.onenlts iis en.ra. numberof dips.under.nng in the dip saddle.ed sited 'of the' sing]e"--5addl:e(U~b(}lt)Of double-saddle Iype. ANSI 18115. shall have the U-belt overthe dead end of the wire rope and ]hrer{l(pe ~.etJic other nonm eta IIIlk: IFOpefor . ~'J.~ Ifllee:t .il1l c the deili~glill tellJiliio:n in flleldlblle transmdsalan devlces.eo ~n accor:diancewitnl !p1iIlral. cernponents used in.]ards shaH (a) prervent entry of hands.edific reqUlliremellits for mechanllk:all cOlilnpo~ nents Qlf a. iis recommended tID malinlla. inldl)ldinlg elrlvimnmen.eo"LlJragediiln order to pr.3 .eguan. l1I. r ilI"4." 3. for 4"4.Adi u..speciall applica. the drIv. adjius.era~!!Ilu Plu!!Itedie. 4~4 DIRIIViE.1 !pffivi'des the basts .2: ID'rlve IDeslgnl 'TIle HlUrng device manufacture» or (jlJ18J]lfied erson p shall ~pedfy d!rirve system components such as CQU· pUngs.:-Te8J&ein wire rope diameter caused hy the load.d!eviQe. or around the guard (~) not create addifional motion hazards between the gU8Jrdand the' mo'v:ing P8J1:t (c) utilize J8JSlellers.e G. ~ iMecha. (l'ver.6 IRope 'CI~]p$ Wire [ope clips sh8J1]bedl' and! inspecting drIve sysne:ms 4·4. attached w:it.eeo aIllow the ojpe. ~'. 0'1' safeJocatlon. if used .ing device shta]] be sized so fhe maximum. erson Ine. jlams.e .tmell1t.ill.eqllilprnent or protection by a gU8Jrd.e more fllexibilliity to the user .ommlittee beliieves tihe$e issues need tIDbe !3iddressed iln timed. whlille seetlcns 4. belts.$ameoperatiing hazerds wihenl the ~nslPectrolls are be1ing performed. Altmo'l)lglhgluards a. for luhrication. smock anlo oper1iltilng cY'cles"wnlelli inecrporating eommercial GOlilnponlenllsinto the Iliiftiil1lgl at contain belts" chains. load rat.1 (.enlt$ Commercial.erinspecticn.t.5 Op.not readily removable by people other than authorized perwns_ (d) not cause' any 8Jd!dit.e:>!ceS. Wilier-ope di~.nid:s Wire rope ends shall be attached 10 the IHting device in <I manner to prevent cliO/engagement during operatlon 01 the Hft]mg device" ilI· errd protective devlices.' d:islalllce.e system of a H~t..A ql!Jlallifi.lts willi e)(perli.esi'gll1l phil3ill..'IS a step Com~:~l'I'tary: Tnle qualffled person needs 10 cansider the ASME Et3'O.ed to' the .$iiz.$p.cflirmgth:o::l1:ugh. CHps SM]~ be t. to be used.ecisto Coni' p siderlhe .gllin of a 200. .ed. ~"4.

[4-2} .ing device Service Class.16 S.idemticl'O shall be gi.Mi7)(..L](I' For a radial bearing is gilven ''"~B "" .lnspectlomand mlaintenl.g die'vic.e~hod$ to lubrleete gea Fiing i n:clud[e.Qmle$:from acompjlation QfTable:2: of Mlt·HDBK·l0. 3~ 1.!)\.1 Gear [Ule.nta] Rating Factors and!'t8Iry: The Lewlis Equatlion. witihl the design factor No provides eonservatlve o€siign$.7 1LL~lb rh1:aUI!lIIil Means shallbeprovided to allow for the Iubricatlon andinspecl:ion of gea.evel a~dWo~m. 4·6.1).ocess provisions for lubric.3) Lewis OOTm fado[ as definedin '[ab]e.e.9 [!ted UI(ElIU5 Geal" reducer cases shall (Ii) be oi14ight and sealed with compound or gaskets.ce width.Ullgaworm g:earratio to esteblish lock-up. the qualifled person needs tID !prov~de :!I. ~~5.ellowable too~h 1000d bending.s[gnl The lifHng device manufacturer shall . 'of spur and! a in.3 oft IM.vellllo 5eIec.erllt:tilry= lM. ~·5. The-bask. [but a re Inot I[imiited ~o. As :!Ilnl alternative..l Gea( [Ll!ladillilg TITi. lit 4"6.2 6ear Matemial~ Gear~ and. (b) have an accessible drain plug (c)l:ilave a means fur checking o]~level "yher. pirnion~ shallbe fabricated of material havlng adequate sll)erngthanddurab]]ityto meet the requirements for the intended Service Class and! manufactured toA:GMA qualHy class 5 or better. 4·6. Cr)H -. SU n da rd.e'9learrs fur maintenance. (16.¢¢es.e(. by eq" (4-2)" . due' cO'Ds. :!'II$: denned by Shigley and Misr:lhi[(e CHID PFovlide$: tlm.hal1 e guarded per paEa" 44"5 wUh b a.Ut 'G. 1n"-1 (1'11101-1) fa.. Bevel and worm g:earing 51:ii. LG.1 Bea~llliIlg: lle5ig:1iI1 TIle!ype of It>:e. of snrailer gear.N berated OJ' the g:ea~ manufacturerwlth service factors appr'Opriate for the' specified Service Class OF the ]if[in.2 11..anc.. [If manual aPlpliic:atioln lis used. 4·5..e ~~5.eld stress andthe B'iH·1 o eSlig In fa cto I' Nr:f from pa r:!ll. fOIFlfrlIeowhil€ :!Ilssuring tlhiatop. 3-1.4 [ (N) design facto]" (pe~ pam.ea rs n. time qU:!lllllif. 'C'OITIYIIIII.8as..quatliol1coll..ied p.eratOiF s:!Ifety lis main~:!Iiineo.-'. #70~o v€Fify tlM':!IiI: d Des nlot sig nlifi c:!lln~ly devia~e.iOlTImleIllit8Iry: The Committee declided 10 provioe L11) bearing life fur romng element bearlngs shall equal or exceed the values given in. autem atlic II!!JIb ic>8Jtion F sys~ terns and man!!JI:!Illaplpliication.l specHied minimum yield stress.ea ring Loadillilgs "-2 the Lewis fornnnuia 00 the q!!Jlal[ifned P8iF$:Olnas. of gearing.shall not be used.aclm wherethe 0'8si9l11 Ipari1!3lme~erS tlhie I[ifiler are of more constra lned.. the ILewi.e tH31SIisof eq. 4·5 •. Table 4-2 for the li~t.iiblil[i~y to tlM. {4·n The !Lewlis Equatliclln has beelll moo if. heheal g:earsis [4-1) 4·5.ommodaie rnatertal yii. 'G.peo:.ianl Exro~dgearullig .0 the li~ting U~e ~·5.8 Opeluilitl!lr [Plul!lted.$: [E.ied to :!Ilc¢.r.ify type. the or qualified person SplU gear. psi (MPa) (. ~pur and he Ileal gears may be based upon A[\~S[IAGMA C95.ed Din :!II lrII~viiew of a 1[8IF'9Ie numberof 9.eS from OSHA ~29 C[FR 11m o.ation and inspec... Flmd!al'ITle..erson C:!Ilnl !!Jls.$. 4·. eg" (41. (mm) allowable tooth load ]1] bend!illlg.ement oor~he 2DO·lb {91 [kg) person Dom.38aml several bearing cornpanles.3.e DI _ F- LG Nil Y fl'y - diarnetral pit'~l.ears.ulaUon Methods for Involute Spur and Hellcel Gear Teeth" (. iis Tabl€ ~·lt:()m€s from Aval[lonl€alnd Baunneiis~€r (1987t n.. CO:lMlm'lIll1il:tarv= Tahle ¢. 17~9t 4"5 •. a siimpler metlhioo to sjze ge:!lIlFling. [B.3!l·irng~ shallbe specifiedby device manufacturer or CJ!ua~ined person.5.rating ]ife.tion. The resuUinlg table was crosS referenced to CIMM.5 [B..e ANiSllfAGMA e9G to provlde a more r.efilneci analytical :!Ilppro.ecan be adequ:!Iltelly per. O!liIe~St:all1da~t!ls As an alternative 00' the Lewis formula in.When back-driving coukibe a preblem.

e·msllion revolutions. M·2H. hr rotational speed.r.4 0"~71 0"~77 0"~83 O"~OO 1IliIi!slnmgtlil facton .. pe~ bearing 1:><15]<.k dynamic load rating C. ai!g 1iu~1..a~ity (AImelfii[.O()() 20. W!~ d!~g !>lumber <lif'lri!!!1:h (omposl~~ lind !~"o~UJ~e 0". manufactures.!ynamic. lb {N) radial compouent of the actual bea.24 U~O 0_4l7 0_446 0_456 0_46. fQ~ a bearing with LID bea.equhrale1f1tradial load. is cl!e~e~mil].ing ]ilfe from 'fable 4-.atlng to t:he(}re~i~<lny e:ncl!ulieon.) 20.2.6 0"~52 0"%8 O"l71 0". Lm.83 0"~9\6 0"4UIEl 0"4.4 o"no 0"n7 o"~~n O"~UIEl 0""314 0"~20 0-~27 O_~~O 0"n6 0"M.. F~ lb (N) '" F...000 40.~Il>o. Y .000 dynamfcIcadr.DeiPtlh ~n"o~I!JJ~~ systel'l1l 0"245 O"2£il 0"27·6 0"2:8:)1 0"29'5 20 deg S!IiJb·iI'o(l~h In\!.". 0""·6 0"~46 0"~52 0"~5·EI 0"~6.. "" .(Lj~N)i'i t.. conltlllnlngdlam(!tm~ IlHch" 1IliIese fact:OIS . iiiji based 0111the baslc Ilo<Jdira~ingl .:dlllg manufacturer C. 1 N P./mill1l The ba.21 0"4.l>[lltg load.6 0"4·5£1 0"471 0"4M 3$ 43 :.(I~w~ systel'l1l 0_311 0_324 0_3~9' 0_348 0_36:1 0_367 0_377 0_386 0_39'3 0-399' 0_40'5 0_415 0_4.s· for Cab::ulatimg Loadl Cili.o.e usad in f()nl:lula~.iI 0"44. "" 2. lb {N) 3 for baMbearing5.3) load bc~or per b~·aTi[jjg manufacturer CQIIIIiIIITI¢llflttarv: lhe equaticn for be<Jrrillig life [eq..StlleHgtlill Factor.4-3} b { and (44).:210 0".ed y eq~. axia] (4-.500 U~.:242 0"251 0"261 0"273 0":283 0_29:9 0_292 0"295 0"~07 0":H.~m ll~e 3"141 ~ tfiooestlilosl! usedl In t<:J~mul~s based on (~I'(lJil~~IlHch" whe:re C.220 0":22·6 0"236 0". H LI(I "" '" axial component of the actual bearing load.0 60 7~ 100 15·0 300 Read {JI:NERAL NOTe:. P..lible 4-! .. X - cl!ynamic.2 0_474 0_4:84 U96 U06 OSl:8 0_~~4 0_%0.000 30.equ13ltiolll 16F~'7i7 (4-4) 44 .tih IFj)~ms.anStili~ldardl To. :](1/3 for roller bearing5 bask rat:iJlllg me exceeded by 90% efbearlngs tested.MME 8'UII·1-2006 l.. ]b ~N) d!ynamk radial ]oad factor pe'r bea.~.

bearings. leakage (l~ 0]] or fits.¢lrtrlS. Bearing· enclosures should be designeil~(I exclude dirt and Plievent. Simft ona.l'1'lil'1'li ()1jJ~r '110 15 s 10 12 17 :1 x: .in. 4·7ii S liI'aft lJietai Is SD:7tait:illlg. evaluof self111.0 1.-alion:.":7 10 >.e Ilin.In.:.1!.12: when using U $. !l0.UI oricatiiQlrl of the bealriings. [)na.1 iiln9 ad NiolflilTnal.greas. otlhier drlve components.pec:ifi1..2 ~~7. tion The shaft diameter and method! of support slhiaM be spedfiedby the li~ting device manufac..':.~ V. 14 5 .IIsing units $[ norninal shaft diameter ol"bem·illl.1 $liIla~'I:D'eslglill Sh<lfHng shall be' fabricated o:~material having adequale s:tliengtlhiand durability suitable ~()r the appli~a. Ib (N} ~·6S Iliubl'i]caUon Means shall be providedto lubricate B Sleeve or journal beO'lr.5w:ith shall access pr"vi~illJ(nsfor lubrication and inspection.i3lntiCll)lllar are needs to o~lak~rlwln~1Il1 C withs1!3lln dsevere tine lubrleatlon method silll:ee some types lillb~e 4-3b Key Size V:e:l'su:s S·IiII.6 .<lililiH~:te:r (IDm 6885-1) I~omr~all<i!y 5~2i!. 'T. !l8 44 ~O ~8 50 5$ 65 75 65 as 75 x9 16 x 10 1$ x 11 2'0 x 12 s n >.2 17 3 x: 3 . Commenhi. shall meet or exceed the component manufacturer's s.000 vs hen 1. 5 2.ingsshall not exceed pressure and velod~y raHngs a" defined by eq".lhrough ~/.. 4. sellf. (mm) average pressure.l0nl and Baurnelster (1987).n]Fe!r (lr quaMfi:ed pers(l1] and satisfy ~he~o]1ditionS(lfparas. Shaft.for Ibeallriil1lg$fo'LlIlrld and Avallone in ANSIVABMA 9. (4-5} lh:rough (4. or oil"'impre'g'na~.<l~t element shall not exceed the foUowing values: (Ii) axlal o'r bending stress ..ry: Lubrlcatlon SYS1.60.l'l'lli!~e:r.1) ~omr~all<i!y 5~2. Exposed slhiaJfti[lJ:g be :guaro.4 S~eevealild J~Hlllmal~ . '[he manufacturers' values 'o.. IfIiIIftl I ubirli eatl ngl Ibealriilll gs ca nnot envirQn ments.. atiing P. IV7'.Ihi(lle:..7). keys.5 SIiI'aft Stalk Stres:s: (4-6) The nominal key size used to transmittorque through a shaft/bore mterfece shall be determined fl'om Tables 4·3a and 4~3b based onfhe nomtnal shaft diameter. andfillets shall be desig[llied for the forces encountered lilt actual operation under the worst: caseloading. 44.3 Ope~3itl!lr IP~l!Ited. I filiClrnTnal. (mm) bearing Ieng:th. ~. h/min (mls) bearing ]oad.ed beaningis alre alII Irtrl etlhlod $i th3~Wl[]l!Jlld elillSulre tlh.e I. CU$:l:omary units t1 L p V W - .earin. and. 8 12 >..7.II'Ulbricatingl Ibe!3Iringls. in.:: 6 8.6.tbb~ 4~3a where IIG!W Size V@'rSiJI:!iSh<lJfi IOiarnlete'r (. and P'V shall be used.e$.l'l'lli!~ew. 4·1'.'l. psi.... (MPa} surface veiodty of shaft.A:5ME B 17 . 8 1.f .n.. 14 ~'7. ANSI/AEMA tt.ed pel"para. Statk stresson a slil..4 X 4 22 30 38 44 .2 Sh'an: A~]gliltmletnt AligrlimeDit of the shafting ~()g:ealiooxes" Q()uplings.gin5kle dlameter.2. '110 c .tftIDii.

6. . ks~ {MP<I) wrsioml] shear stn.D. n. ll'5l So".. T!3lb11.~mfic3l~il!l F'adl!l r.) Fatigue She~5'Ampliflcatien Pactnr. lihe static and Smle1lIFtress eq!JJlatiolrl$:rrepre$enlt modis fiicatiorl~ to tlmose eq!JJl1ltiiolrlsfuulrld iin eMAA #7n.5 at po:ints of geomehic d:l~OOOltinllily here stress by W.e is based on CIMM.~reooalnp1iFkationfa~to. CDITIll1I1Ientliry: S~Fe$$:¢:onlcen~W!iltrorn f!il~ors need to bE: clonsewvativelydlete~1trl iin.c.f.aM determined! by the ]]fting be device manufacturer or quallfled person From a re'fel"'" ence such as Peters(m:'s Stn:'S$ CQJ~~t-ellh. based ClaS$ snail be selected hom Table 44. The corrected endurance limit.6.liti!i'J'i FaCt!i.$5't ksi (lVllPa) transverse shear stress. key~.tigue. Si!£'for the s. Onlly the conditliorn.t.) cnerected Fatigue [endurance) limit o:t sbtaf~in reversed bending. computed axial stress.ih.haft materialis bending Sha:tt e']emenis ~'L1bjec~ to combined axial/bending and shear stresses shall be propoifl:ioned such that the combined stress does not exceed the following value: {c} {4-11) when' where Se "" f<ltigue unnotched (endumn~e) spechnenIn So "" computed combined ~lre~. 4.tHgul! Str. hi (MPa} 4·7.3 F~tigrme Stress. (a) Direct axial allidlorbend~llIg fat:igue stress shll]1 not exceed {4-12) 4"7.1 IFatls U. hil (MlPa) and shear faHgue shall rIOI exceed {4-14) (c) Combined axial/bemding stresses whielie all a[efl.ation fac~or. bend!i!]g.$ IM. Service Fa. and pl'eSs.glllle tress on a sl:iiaf~ s elemeut shall no~ exceed the (o]]owlng values.PiJlkey.k:i<i {MP<I) computed .~r-eS8mp1ifkat:ionfa~rorfor a bending s.Amipillll~c. F<lti.when' 4" 7 .A11ln1~. Slin.e Stres!'.3:aalrll.Appropriate goomelric stress eoncenfrafiorr factors for ~he discontinultles sl:il.. thie stIFE:'SS amphtudes seen dUlring 11I0r~ mal op. ksi {MPa) Sb . fillets.t LOiS lJI3. ksi (MPa) 4"7.tresse$ wes!JJlltlinlg from the stDppiing and slalrliing of time drive syslem.¢falig!JJle lsthe pdmary concern iin this~ectioln.rfo[ direct tension computed faUglJe s.enl rnodifled to IfIflI'OIFe dosely follow Chaptelr3 ofth iis Sta nldard. ~eak stresses lr.t~~. ksi (MFa.<ll:stress..4:Pa) S.O LOM L12S L25.0 when' 'f' - 1'r '7'f.4 where KTII - Km Sf St - s.l 4.6 Shaft fatigue Sbi<lft~ng subjected to fluctuating stresses such as bendfngIn ro~at:ion or tors:lon ~1lI lieversing drives shi. #71Qi.3b provi:cle minimU11trl:Blilowa ble keysiizJe vgrSus shaft diam grew req uireIfIfllenlt$:and eornes diilFeclly froml ASIME ~17 _i and [HN 16a8:5~1.ature has be.sped.edionllly to he gV:Blhll!31Ied..computedbendtng stress. - {MPa. 0[11 The S .aIFe notapplicable inl the faUglue C!llicu Iialli0111 .uduating . .II]1Cenw ~mnOI1l5 exk. ll'5l (MlPO'I) SrI .2 Enlduralill(e Limit.lIltilrlgnmm kicked rctnror ~almming iin¢:!idenlts (.ed to account fur time fI uctuatilrlg $. ksi {MP.s" ksi (MIPa) CDITIll1I1Ienta ry: Tables 4. ksi (t\.u)< (b) Combined! shear fatigue stress shallnot exceed (4-U) where Ksr 1] - stress amplification factor for torsional shear computed comhined fangue she. This check :isin ad!d!:ition~o the static checks :1111 p>811"<1_ and needonly be pel"formed 4-7.!> .computed combined axi<ll/belJlding stress.enld.<lU be checked lOT fa.albnor1ltrl·all c>ondi~ionlsl.! - competed computed computed combined Sheal"stres~.e$ll. such as! minanum ultim~~e' tensile strength. .uxia]~en$i]e stress.6. 1 reversed l:im:it of polished.

f.coefficient sbikrrrktlOIll (4-17) where Eli 10l1lJd minimum g:rippil]g force O]]j each side of load.illl .Vs· sh. 4'7 . lifting devices. '01" equivalents. TI11s.bolts.ethod as determined by the' lilf!l:n:g device' manufacturer or 8J fasienecrs qualifled person.a qllJlali. cap[p.alll!Jl.enHficatlon m. ('340) through (343) <lindpam. is not covered ilI..[.l VA:Cl!J1IJMun.S. IbutalF8 not Ilimited to.atio alli1d MinlilililUlm 'Gl'itppmng Force The coeff:idel1ltof static {]"i:ct.51J~gripping f lffters (fricliOl1·type). or other noncrltleal component's shall be selected by lhelHtilrng device manufacturer or a qualified person to meet the' needs of the applicatlon .ers wher. ilI.ionilllg of mechanisms orto F'revenl excessive We1l!I' 'of Qomponenb.lrtion4ype in this $ectliorn . and cap screl.'5] (MPa.e Kj S. opelll:ing for'Ce) that shouM be eonsldered. fied personto determine wlm'en adlte~IIlI(il~. M· 116) IBilll 0111 ~he ]uclgmeillt and expedeliliceof~he Cornmittee 1I1Mlflfllibe'Fs. or pre(. Pactors suI.ark:i:ngs..j (MFa) Shla~t Dis[pb.) porHOI] of the computed shear stress due 10 fluctuaringloade. panels.e.~l!) Slit S~ 'iJ1ti - ]a:rge1" of either Km and KTI'! pNl~ol] of tlhi.ity a Fe IIllot pirolpeTlly torqu ed. and product temperature can affect the required gl"ip ratio and..ev.hed data.p. chernlcal methods.eq.Any 10<'8 of streng~h in the fastener caused by~he lockilng method shallbe accounted for ]1] the d. double nuts. kl.s Bolt stress shall not exceedthe a]~ow8Jhle stress values established by eqs. section sets forth regju:i:rements for the grip ratio...20..·.SF.) portlon of the oompubedbem.e stress due to fluci:L]alingload~.esare re'Cj.ulirred allidi the 1:llppmpri!lrte v!lllues linl such 'C!llSe'S. SAlE Grade' 5.g.vide little vallue if m.eptable pm.5s.l:em.. as defined in ASME 133<0'. 34"5.S. qualified person.ion.VI[CE DESiHlN Pad (.e based 2.ed shear stress not due to fll]CIT1at:iilllg loads.~ TR ilI~7.e illl$. shall beinstalled by an accepted ii$!the re$:poll$ibility l of .Ihias type and condition of gripping surfaces..8 bolts.7 specified l1ilinilmlilm yield srr:e:ngth.. 4·9.opre· vent the fastener from 100:.]~. ksi {MFa. 4·8. 4 . mined by 8J qualified pers-on through testing or (l'Ol1ll pub]i. 11:. torque WF..S. In addiHon.elller iiji iimporhmt. Com mentIilry: they ~.lif~ers such a~.[Nti 'V<!I(UlIlIin [D[E.etih'ods 4-11 4·llm. such aiji indienll. 4-9 IG 1[1 RAllO P ~D8.s~e!njler In s. ('H$).ening dueto v lbra Horn. coefficients of frictlon. (4-16) where ilI.enit Sl:it8Jfts hall be sizedor supported so asto li!mit d]s' s placements under load when necessary hi)]E pr"::lpe1"funct. mlnlmumgrip ratlo of P.lulrl'n.1t[h. vertical axis coil grabs have other spe~ cialload Iltandling conditions (e.. environmental condftions.4 Ifas~enjler Inl~eg:~ity locknuts.all havereql]hed ASTM or SAlE grade ld. CCI!llfnmentlllrV: Desiign!(lf Qtlmerlypes!(lf lifters.or SAE Grade . 1(1~k washers. GR"".5 f. and €leClirOlillic sensors. Ib (N) we~ght of lifted load.~ip longs and.taUaUon.e.esign.65andi of COMl1I1Ientalry: !:lr.ers...1 [f3Js~enjler M.16 INo:li1c(itmca~ fasten.. ksl (MFa) podkm O'fthe comput.pilli1g Ufter (i.eomputedtenslle stress nut due' c t{) fll]CIT1at:iilllg loads. or oth.l IfOl!s~e!njlerStre. .S.. shall be deter.tallla1tiiOIIlof 1tlh:€ faslillistallatiioin (Ii) The ultlrnate pad cap8Jcity {UPq shall be de~e:rmlned oy eq.lIllu1t method.arking:s AI~. ksi (MFa) Fasteners f01"c1Oy. shou~d be considered dUl"lmgthe design by a.1 1'lr£!\ssu.(d) Comblnedtenslle and sheaf faHgue stresseswhere olllly part of the stresses arefluctuating shall not 'exceed include. Ib {N) 1he valll!Jle<$! O. AS"fM A 4190.ellll(:he$!. nuL.S.l IfOl!s~enjler Seledionl f1a~nenecrs for machine drives or other opera tfonal critlcal components sha]l use ASTM A 325. Si IIlICefasitellle:rs AClc.e1"means deteemined by the IH~]l1Ig device manufacturer O'ra qualified person "h8Jll be used t.

sured frorn horizontal A vacuum Indicator shall be \{i!sible 1:0 the operator during use and shall continue to fl1ll1.NOTE. flat.e.~Vp shall consider fhe alHl:ude whe~ the lifHng device wiHbe used.R). and~e(j.surface tern" peratures. .2. torsion andbeli'l<::Iingload:ing 'Of ~he' vacuum pad.inst the material surface ~obe ]ifted 111' "" minimum vac. of power shaUnot discrmnect the' pads from the vacuumreservoir s. {b) The UPC shall bereduced to a maximum vacuum pad rating (VP."n. It sha]]i:nrlkate' the presence of the' minimum vacuum required for the ratedload of the vacuumlifHrng device. sin (I angle' oi vacuum pad interface surface mea.1. <llThd nonporous surface a~ the rated load. contaminatlon.c~]on during an unintended 1055 of power.2 V:"CUlIllIiIiI IRes.y. dry. qualified pe~on. and shall be increased as 48 .HiI. ee required due to the surface conditions of i!rn~e!rfadlllg materials as de~erm:inedby 11.Ili.ystel. (4-19) i~ for' dean. {4-1S) where eHective ar~a of t:ruevaCI1UITI pad enclosed between the pad andthe materlajwhen the pad is fu]ly compreseed ag):l.ted vactnrm pad performance. dry. Consideratlon should be g:iven~o condhiens such as.5~em'Of sufficient size ~oprevent the' vacuum level under the pads fmm deClieas:ing mere than :m}%in 4 min with power 'Of~ 0111 11 de<l!n. The Nt? value calculated In eg. Unintended loss. where Nt? (J "" 2.rvoitr System The value o. nonporous surfaces.uum specifled at the pad A. VPR '" UPC! N~ {4-19) The vacuum ]:iftl:ng device shall Incorporate a vacuum reservoir !j. + .

5 E.qlllllrelil'lelill~S p{lwer ~upply and concre l pow'er requfrements for' ope:raHng a lifting device shall he detadledin the specific<li:ions.Chapter . tlil.% vallue equalls.e eleclrii· c!ilil r. C'Dll1I1Imellrllt:lI. 5·2 EILE(TlR:IICMOrORS AINIIDElRAKIES 'Ihe electrjcal 'Iemperature rlse in.ctlLJlringl.eqlWliIF€ments it moves thir. the require ment for hOlist brakes as defilrled in CMAA #70 and AIIS1T. The 15!(J.TIh.ev:ice'.e machiine tool industry.of (4ijD.Tirn!l:refore.NEMA $t\'llllc!.2.erlly sized for time lITi. and! number of start.1 Purpe"se This chapter SeT.2.l.with tlhe type of lifter and ii$ IIllot speclflsd ln this .motors.ntermlttenr duty.other m"tQirs. Relatlonl to Other $tan.eoog'rlizes tnlat Class A illl$lLJillMiion is IrlO longer 'used ln C!lLJlali~V etor IfIfI mallllLJlfl. of 5·2. shall bein accordance with NEMA Standard MG 1 for the class of Jnsulation and enclosure used. Natinnal Electrical Code" 5·1.5" C.$ectiiolrl.NERAIL locked m'liOwtorq ILJleequ iired.ecirnlillicaIIFl. and other Iliiftingl eqUJliplflfllent. 5~2. Tlrn.eportNo.t shal! be contlmrous the method of horsed powercaliculatJiolli vari.C) ambient temperature.. MobolS shall have torque characteristics suitable f01" the ]ifHng device application andbe capable of operating at the specified speed.Q. cause the gea.:TIil.lIsed en tlrn. Motoes usedto opel'"te hydraulic and vacuum eguipmen.ry: A llift!l:r may have varyingl horsepow€r r.dl<lil\dls Components of electrical equipment used to operate a below-the-hook li~ting device shall conform IQ the applicable sections of AN$[/NFPA 70'.e and is stated to emplillasiiz:e iit:Simpcrtanee.Itoward li1TteIF:Strnat are aRa. 5·1.Mo~orsshallibe reversible and have anli-'frldim beaeings <lnd.O!I'· dance with.axlimllJlilflIeffort req uired.3 PIlIW'er R!e.5.elrlt$of ANSIVNFIPA 79 if specified.ttar. the lUting device manufacturer shall assume' ]ij4.1 Mlot.I3![akeIQyque shall .lltthe stalrldard Iliifter iis:not iint¢ndled tIDmeet tlil.llS (If th liS cha pter iis diilFecte.usedto operate a li~ting device 11I1ay be' Jij min or 60' mirT!.' Vetta!.e Iliiliters is Co mpenents 5·1 6E. ranng o~ ITIOtQl:S brakes and. MOltar $Iz[ng: Mzy~ors shall be sized so the rated motor turque isnol exceeded within the speclfled workingral'lg:e and /0]" rated load of the mUng device. 5~2.r.rled Iby AINSIIJNFPA 70" Sometlime$ a lifter ceuld be a colflflPO'" nent part of a machine tool sy$telflfll and could be sUJibjeeted tothe mC!Ulirem.i. COimllll'l:elfltary: This provisjon r.l3irakes shallbe electricrelease ~pring~l)etly:pe.J 'ife'lililpelrratu:lre Rffis'e 5·1. to everyolrl..: drivin g rn (.alrld theg:e.ack drive and a]]ow unintended movement of the ~oa:d. onto cranrles. The mlnimuminsulatlon shdl be Class ]3.ilrement:S.edri¢:all eq'LllilPm.elilllrtellll~ofthis provli$liiolrl ii$ toelrlsure thatthe motor is prop.omml¢lfI'tllry: [)'UJI€ the variety andcorn plexily of to bello\i\f·thie~hoolk lil1Ttlil1l9elllic.e Riliting Mzy~ol"andbrake na:mep]a:le vo]l:8Jgeshallbe ill!a. load.ors .the maximum ' Electric brakes shallbe furnished whenever thefifted load could.l!h(l!ul overheating. hoists.€ !pr1i mary 'IOCiI. . 5=2.ough iit~ operatlinlg as ralrlge. CQl1I1Irrlollrl.h selection criterla for electrical components ofa below-the-hoek li~ting(l. bl. provided jhey i CBJI] meet the required duty cycle of the lifter "v:i.$halll be specified bya qu::'lllified person giving full conslder1iI~iollilio the fri:ction!ilII lossesoV the lifter. Unless otherwlse specified.Iy present a s(ilifety (01$)' pmMem IIllotobvio'us.~d a minimum of ]50% rated motor l:Q'rqueor ']50% of back drivmgtorque. fOlt.~"taMyenclosed frames.el.te'ctri. .ometFY ofthe r speed torquecurve of the motor appllied.eqlLJ.whicheverJs greater. Conlin ¢ntitilry: Bad.amMG 1 for the specified 49 .~mt '

Mbit nintentlonal u operatien offthe li~ter. optiQI].agnet vacumn !. uch as CMAA #70 s and CMAA #7~. andare Ilisted in thls Stalilicaird tID mainand d.ry: lhese provlelnns parallelrequlrements found lin the electrlcelsecticns of other established crane and Ihoi$.S. 5·c4 (ONlROI!. e:xC'ep~~h<lt these fmcelec~[\oITI.NSOR.hhuUQrt..RS IFOR ILIRIIMIG DEVIU MOIDRS.~ P'ulslii But~etn Maril. Conltrel CI~r:ulnt$ 5·] lIIM11if SWIIIifCHES. such as CMAA #70 and GMAA #7~" and are Ilisted iln this Stamlalrd tiD'malinl" ta iin co mpatJibil iily betrw'~¢n'lg'and con" tIQlling the direction. hoists. as w~111 seurrent ca rryi'ng calPaci~y. in series wilth.3 OiP'eratmngLe:ve~$ Limit swjtches. AINID PlJI.ches shall be sprlngretum ~oneufral (off) PQsHiol1~ype. and other lifting equipment.ll sections (If other estabA qua IWed person shallchoose a.ry: lhese provisiolils paralleillreqll.arded..s" such as limit switches. bil 5·3.o open.-:onJIirm load is lifted or suspended.ll~ectlions (If other established crane and Ihois'I slPeciifica~iClns.e and li1Tter. lh. and other control devices l. controllever.dngs Each push button.ter sw][.~iz. SIE. (b) Use' ollie or mgre' limit switches a!nd/or sensors to !. an:dar€ Ilisted in thiis Stalilicaird tn mainta iin co mlpati bil iily betrw'een tlhiecrarn. 5<1. and master switch shan be dearly marked with appmpr.1 ConitreI Considerat[o n$ This section covers.1Il Lo![. or other opeml][1Ig devioes. dJ'QP.f used.2 l!In.edIperSolil wi~h due com:id erartio 1111 for .:.iate legend pla~es descrlbing resulting motion or function of the lifbel" CQ.llir~" ments foulilid lin the el~ctrica. or release push button iln order toinhilhit opel1l.. an:dar€ Ili$. such as ollie Qffhe fol]()w~ t ing shouldbe considered: (h) U~ two push buttons ][11 serles spaced such that they require hVQ~handed. gu.ERS AMID RIEHIFIIE.inteliided Ope~atlolil Agualified person s.such a~ CMAA J170 c ator interface in order to produce a safe' and f1:UllI:c~ilQlJLa] GMAA #7~.haH choose the lecation and guarding of pushbuttens.g of lilfting: device motors.aIi1Y lifter shall nO't exceed 150' volts AC lOr300 volts DC specifieafions shall state theJocation of the operator inter[a:oe chosenhy a quallfied peirsO'nfrom the fuUow]lllg Op'~ilon\'il:: (h) push bUUQl1c. (c) Use a mechanical guard or ClOVer lOverthe' actuatlon device that requires hVQspedfk opem~i!olJL\'il' activate to the device_ (08)1 5'3. attached to the hQil~t or crane (d) pusbi. master switches andlpush buttons are eovered in ~ection 5~3" Cab O'perated mas. a Commen1t!l.1ltare used to open. the resulting electrical system must be COOrdlilillatedhy a ql!Jlallifi.'5ta]le!r/l]Ser shall ensure the volt<lge delivered tn the terminals Qf the lifting device Js witni!l]' the telerance set ~y NEMA COiI'li'lIAII:enary: The wilrilngl betvveelill the crane hoist and the Htftel" must be .e and lifter. or releaee <I lead from a Ilfter.atlng Ope:r<lto~ Inl~erfa![. dan1Lageresulting from collisiO'n with other objlects. . ]11 order to 11ll.e 5~3.power supply.ed w'inhibit inadverbelll~ opeearlen and. The HFnlltgdevice ta iin co IfIfllpatli iily between tmlecran.Yhen pressure is released by the Qpeirat(lri except for eledmmag:net or vacuum !.mmen1t!l.5 P'ulsh But~e~ Type Push buttons and control levers shall retum to the "o:ff'"positionl. accelelration.'ontrQI which should be maintained typeCommen1t!l. and. speed.ry: lhese provisions paralleillreqll. or-release motien while the' load is lifted. drop.requirements for se]ect. The ]11I.tslpedrfica~ions.llir~" ments foulild lin ths el~ctricalll~ectiions of other established crane and Ihoist slPedrfica~ions" such 8~ CMlAA #70 and GMAA #7~. CO'ntIQl dr-cuit voltage gf .sarf. or release a load From a lifler.edto lirnlt voltalge drops. and pmbect.etyand pem:mrnante.the a open. Whelill attalclhed to al lifting apparatus.SIHI ElI!JIiflifOINS. 5~~. drop..opelratiO'n in order t.e and lifter.mmen1t!l. sw'ppi!llJ.1.i[Jntro1 or shall be madntalned type" .S. Other control requhem:en1r.location fur the'opel"~ lish!. buttons or master switches loca~ed ][11 the crane cab Co. sensors.e and lifter.ry:: lhese provlslons parallel requirements foulilid lin the el~ctrica.ted in this Stalilicaird tn malillll" ta iin co mpatli bil iily bem~¢n tlhiecran.!:1rane and Ihoist sIP~drfica~ions. 5~3. dmp. master swi[c11es.ey are iillllIelillded to be used wli~nl cranes.[IJ!$) (d handheld if) automated radio control or infrared transmitter control Sy5tem C'Omlllilllel1l'talry: Bellow-tnle-nlook lifters alre IIli0tstand" alone machines" flh. (08)! 5·3.II.ecll'kal]y powered lifting device. shall be located.Ol" lever att ached to the lifter (b) pendant station push buttons atlached to the lifter (c) pendant l'tatio:n pus.

Special wiring.. s. ~htk. may incorporate <I single-phase full wave bridge rectifi·er fur diode logic.s:pecifiicatio:n s. C(lmmenttlilry:: Tlilrese prcvlslons paraUeIIIF>e:Cj'l1Ilir€.1 IPOWIEIR:DIISCONNECTS DiSClon nlectfotr Pawe.2 . acceleratCMAA #74. and 2. in. Si. If 11J].l'IIIV: t8. orin combmation. Enclosure types shall be ill accordance w]t:hi NlEMA les 6 classificatiens. and s.ry: lthiese provisklllrs parailiell require€l1Ib fo 1!JIlilidi th e ell ectrlca II sectli 0 111sof estallbll ish ed iin crane alnd lhiolist spe(:if..a~iClns for tlille type a 11110 s:iz:e of dliodes: to be 111Is:edl.eoait tnle Iliifter when eleetronic contro I~ are ennrplloye<d. 5·11i. suchas GMAA#7Dalnd GMAA #7~. drive' iequlrements.Clrulil Ove:ul!ment ProlecUon rated for crane and hoist duty service or me contactors may be used for Service Classes 0'. they slil.5 Stalk an. and alF€ listed 1'111 tlillis Stalndalrd!IQ lIlflailliitalilill cern p!:ltib ility betweenllhe era ne 8 ml IIiitter. or may beincerporated as part of the lifting Commentary: llhiese provlslons parallel requiredevice. llfrers s. IIlflI el1lt:sfo 1!JIIIllcl the ell ectrica II s·eetli Q 111sof estallbll ish eel iin crane ."e. and other forms O! emisslons.edwith due consideration O! motor.~opping~he lifter.htas specified In 51 . 5~(!. Control sys:tenltS.s:rned Control s. The rectlfler shall be C(lI'rHnelflt. and desi:gned f01" the' environment and impacts expected.d I nIVetr~e'r C:0nl~M. 1[01$) 5~(!.agnelk Ci!JInt<lCUJ:rs areincluded within the static a$~embly.~yitc.]z.m as speciturer's pUlbHsl:1ledal]IlI'g. filters.€.ls 5~S.c. su:ch as CMAA #70 a 11110 have sufficient size and quantity for ~tarting. shi:idding. and <lppH~ cation in the cootrol. HI:i:zing ~natk Ol"inve~r~e!r u assembhes shall be g.l1iaU the application does mot exceed the' COllilador rna![]Iufal:" Include branch dl'l.1 GlMlun!dmng: Metliladl Speda] desigJ:1consideretlons shall be taken f01"Hf~ers with electronlc equipment.ystems uti.lizing magnetic. elec~]'k/ electrenic. purchasee.IlIlililltended albus:e Blind harsh enviiml1l· transiem suppressor~ to pr(lltec~the rectifier from voinage IIlflI€nts" oepel1ldilng on condltionsof U$.8 E~e[tri:ti:al~ Enldosu. 811110 alF€ listeo 1'111 tnlis Stalndalrd!lo Ifmaillitalilill com patib ility belweelilithe era nre a 11110 IIiifter. service class.ected to I. gua:rded. 5--4. These devices may be ]J<l1't f o interlocked. IfIflr '5·.J . comaetors sbam eran ean d M i$1 .6 LmfUIiIIg:.d UR:er Control syste"nsfor motor powered Ilft ei-s s. acccrdancewlth ANS[!NFPA Electrically operated ]j~ting devices shall be gr"ullld:ed 70. the hoisting eC)1Jipmenltfrom which the ]ifte~ 1:>· pended. reversh1g.nding may need no be considered to accoum f01"the effects (l'f electremagneticinterfesenee {EM[).4 M<liglille~h: Cotli1l. (l'r user 'of a motor driven device sbta~~determine the type and size O! controlto be used withU:ll'eHf~e!r for p~opel" and safe operaHC)I]_ Confro l ~y5Iem~ may be' manual.~uir.iltaU lnchrde a power disconnect s. sized to withstand the' stalled ~l1Itend€d tID' be s'l1Ispendied fmnn !:IIIhgist hook !:lInd may current O! the' mgb[JIr. Reversing contacters shall be r Bed in ANSI/NFPA 70. NEMA rated Ci!JIn(:o:mpatibi'llity hetween tlhie erraln¢ and IlinteL tactors shall be sized in accm-dance with NlEMA Standard ICS 2_DefirnHe purpose confaetors specifically 5·4-'9 8~<lin(hl . magneti.el!CI:w~th€-·lrnQok liftilng devices flIIF>e: selenhrm or silicon type'.aM rated in aceor· he dance w]t.res: (:cmh"l panels shall be ellidosed and shallbe suitable fur the envjrenment and type of controls. 1[01$) 5~(!.e 109lie is alppllied 8111 0 I il$ts: siPecillic.Conltm l lLe[aUo nl Centmls In01JIlIted on ihe lifting device shaH be located. ~hi C:omlMlel1talY: Tlhiiis:provision reooglnizes thai a IDC motor cain be reversed vial a two. CQ.!ablli. I. CO:li1la:ti:I:01'S merits found ilill the ellectricall seetliol1ls of es.i(:atiiolns. These provispikes" sion S! are inte nded to elillSUIFeprO<t€C1tiiotil ofthe el'eC1trie:al dieviir:es mo !JJll1It:eOOIli e IIifter. radio fre·C)uency interference (RH). such as GMAA#7D arid GMAA #7~.h paya. circuitry IQ reduce the number of conductorerequlred between the lifter and the control. and gl'OlJl.u:lt overcuerent probect:h.5~(!.anti lhioli$t speci1ii(:atiiolns. 5"lli.mmenta. duty cycle. provided Control systems for motor powered.Conltml $etectl~'1iI1 A qU<I]Ui:ed person des:i:gn<lted by the' manufacturer <lnd/or 'Owner. rating. inverter :(vari<lMe frequency).wlirlll): dml1lit when olioo.HoOI1l rectifiees shall employ type tie sulbj.2!Q:.6 5~1l:. 5·6. CO:lMlnfI:elfltary: This provisi'OIli r€oogln izes that a Iilrigh ql1lallity gmulntl may be IFe".J R:ecUflers Direct current powered lifters.rol~.Mag'nlet (:O'IiII~mller5 Controllers for ]j~ting magnets: sl:1l<ll1 in accordance be' with ASME B3{1. a 11110 are Iiisited il1l thlis Sta IIlldard tID mainta iin ing.

ali!IJIg exi~t:ing battery conditions.iI. for equi!pment wUh an external]y powered electromagne~ shall have a separate magne~ circui!t switch oftheenclosed type with provlsien forl:.4 :(j.l lBaUeryA~ilrml Battery backup syol'..we'red source the connected to the generator.ten.Icling.h of the enclosed ~ype with provisiolJi. or by pr(l<v:idin_g clrcuit a switch that disconnects excitatjon power to the' genera· t(lorand removes all power to the' magnet 5~" 5·7.m n.Magilile'l Ba~tery operated lifters· or H~ting magne~ shall contain a device i:nd:ic. S~6..]de (powe~r supply s.erata~Su. 52 . Me:alJls di:.1 IBAJlERIIIES lBattery CD nld itmOlli11111 dh!:atolr (Oi!) Hoist.cl1Larg. Ol'~aggj![llg the open (off) pmlil]on. Hoist.ion.gnlets: !Power supplied ~omaglJl:etsfrom DC geli'lera~ors can be disconnected by cHsab]i!llIg external equi.g equipment hom whkh the lifter i. '1O. in for ing the mduc tlve elJl.AN$:[! NFFf\.u.f}posjJt.ide) of the hoisHllIg equipment disconnect ~wHch_.filagging. ]ifters or lifting magnets.l IDI$I'JI'.ary 'be incorporated as part of the li~ting device. or to warn the' operator whenthe primary powe[~Q tIhi:e lifter or magnet i5. or tagging in the ope[ll (of. suspended. TI1e vaeuumHfter disccrmect switch shaf be connected O[lL the' line s. 5·7. This device niLaybe p~ut of the hoi"lilll. bei![lLg supplied.p~Ued M.pmeTit u"illlg an extemally powered vacilium llfter shalfheve a separate' vacuum lifter circuit s·witc.:2 IEnd~!51l res Ba~tery enclosures or hou~ings for wet cell batteries shall be vented to prevent accumulatlon of ga~es.ide) of the hoisHlJIgequipment discennect ~wikh. filagging. by the 'baUery(ies). 5·7. fur shell have an audible' and vi~iibl:e "i'gn..en. 5· far .ergyof~he magnet shall 'be provided" '[he magnet dlsconnect switch shan be connected on th:e line skile (powe~r supply s.

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