Development Plan for

Chennai Metropolitan Area

APRIL 2006

CDP Chennai

Abbreviations and Acronyms
ARV AUA CAA CBO CCRCP CDP CMA CMDA CMWSSB CoC CPT CPWD CRZ CTTS CWSAP DBOOT DLDP DSR DUA EPL ETB ETP EWS GIS GOI GoTN GTN HIG IT JnNURM KWMC LIG lpcd LRTS MATS MAWS MIG MIS ML MLD MMDA MRTS MTC NGO NRCD O&M ORR PCE PPP PWD RoW : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Annual Rateable Value Adjacent Urban Area Constitution Amendment Act Community Based Organization Chennai City River Conservation Project City Development Plan Chennai Metropolitan Area Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board Corporation of Chennai Chennai Port Trust Central Public Work Department Costal Regulation Zone Comprehensive Traffic and Transportation Study Chennai Water Supply Augmentation Project Design, Build, Own, Operate and Transfer Dual Loader Dumper Placer Deb Servicing Ratio Distant Urban Area Ennore Port Limited Electronic Trolley Bus Effluent Treatment Plant Economically Weaker Section Geographical Information System Government of India Government of Tamil Nadu Government of Tamil Nadu High Income Group Information Technology Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Koyambedu Wholesale Market Complex Lower Income Group Liter percapita per day Light Rail Transit System Madras Area Transport Study Municipal Administration and Water Supply Middle Income Group Municipal Information System Million Liter Million Liters per Day Madras Metropolitan Development Authority Mass Rapid Transit System Metropolitan Transport Corporation Non Governmental Organization National River Conservation Directorate Operation and Maintenance Outer Ring Road Passenger Car Equivalent Public Private Partnership Public Works Department Rights –of-Way

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SEZ SEZ SFC STP SUM SVP SWD TDM TNHB TNPCB TNSRTC TNUDP ULB UMTA

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Special Economic Zone Special Economic Zone State Finance Commission Sewage Treatment Plant Sustainable Urban Management Special Village Panchayats Storm Water Drainage Travel Demand Management Tamil Nadu Housing Board Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board Tamil Nadu State Road Transport Corporation Tamil Nadu Urban Development Project Urban Local Body Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority

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Contents
CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Chennai Metropolitan Area – A Profile .................................................................................. 1 Need for a City Development Plan ......................................................................................... 1 Objectives of the City Development Plan............................................................................... 2 Process .................................................................................................................................... 3 Institutional Arrangements in Development Planning ............................................................ 3

CHAPTER II – DEMOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................6
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Growth of Population.............................................................................................................. 6 Migration................................................................................................................................. 7 Birth & Death Rates................................................................................................................ 8 Sex Ratio................................................................................................................................. 9 Literacy ................................................................................................................................... 9 Population Projection.............................................................................................................. 9

CHAPTER III – ECONOMY ...............................................................................................10
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Economic Structure of CMA ................................................................................................ 10 Economic Gateways to Chennai ........................................................................................... 11 Economic Drivers ................................................................................................................. 12 Employment Projection......................................................................................................... 14

CHAPTER IV – LAND USE & STRUCTURE OF CHENNAI ........................................15
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 History................................................................................................................................... 15 Development Planning in Chennai Metropolitan Area ......................................................... 15 Structure of the Metropolis in 2005 ...................................................................................... 16 Density and FSI..................................................................................................................... 19 Hierarchy of Roads ............................................................................................................... 19

CHAPTER V – MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................22
5.1 Water Supply System............................................................................................................ 22 5.1.1 Analysis of Existing Situation ....................................................................................... 22 5.1.2 Source of Water Supply................................................................................................. 22 5.1.3 Supply Levels ................................................................................................................ 28 5.1.4 Treatment Capacities .................................................................................................... 28 5.1.5 Distribution System and Storage Capacity ................................................................... 28 5.1.6 Coverage and Supply Levels ......................................................................................... 30 5.1.7 Frequency of Supply...................................................................................................... 30 5.1.8 Coverage in Slums ........................................................................................................ 30 5.1.9 Rain Water Harvesting.................................................................................................. 31 5.1.10 Requirements for Future ............................................................................................... 33 5.1.11 Projects to meet the Future Demand ............................................................................ 34 5.2 Sewerage ............................................................................................................................... 36 5.2.1 Existing System ............................................................................................................. 36 5.2.2 Sewerage Distribution System ...................................................................................... 36 5.2.3 Sewage Treatment Plants.............................................................................................. 37 5.2.4 Sewerage System in CUA.............................................................................................. 38 5.2.5 Projects Implemented.................................................................................................... 38

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5.3 5.4

Solid Waste Management ..................................................................................................... 39 Storm Water Drainage System in CMA ............................................................................... 43

CHAPTER VI – ENVIRONMENT AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT........................49
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Overview............................................................................................................................... 49 Air Pollution.......................................................................................................................... 49 Water Pollution ..................................................................................................................... 50 Noise Pollution: .................................................................................................................... 54 Coastal Zone ......................................................................................................................... 54 Green Areas .......................................................................................................................... 55

CHAPTER VII – TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION.................................................56
7.1 The Existing Situation........................................................................................................... 56 7.1.1 Road Network................................................................................................................ 57 7.1.2 Bus Transport................................................................................................................ 57 7.1.3 Goods Transport ........................................................................................................... 58 7.1.4 Seaports......................................................................................................................... 58 7.1.5 Airport........................................................................................................................... 58 7.2 Vehicle and person trips in CMA ......................................................................................... 59 7.2.1 Road Network................................................................................................................ 60 7.2.2 Railways........................................................................................................................ 62 7.2.3 Bus Transport................................................................................................................ 62 7.2.4 Goods Transport ........................................................................................................... 62 7.2.5 Parking.......................................................................................................................... 62 7.2.6 Future Travel Trips....................................................................................................... 63 7.2.7 Proposals & Interventions ............................................................................................ 65

CHAPTER VIII – URBAN BASIC SERVICES FOR THE POOR .................................66
8.1 Slums..................................................................................................................................... 66 8.1.1 Slums on Objectionable Locations................................................................................ 66 8.1.2 Slums on Unobjectionable Locations............................................................................ 67 8.2 Schemes implemented by TNSCB in CMA.......................................................................... 73 8.3 Housing Scenario of LIG/EWS units in CMA...................................................................... 74

CHAPTER IX – SOCIAL FACILITIES .............................................................................78
9.1 9.2 9.3 Education .............................................................................................................................. 78 Health.................................................................................................................................... 79 Open Spaces & Green Areas................................................................................................. 80

CHAPTER X – MUNICIPAL FINANCES .........................................................................82
10.1 Background ........................................................................................................................... 82 10.2 Constituent Urban local bodies within Chennai Metropolitan Area ..................................... 82 10.3 Finances of Corporation of Chennai ..................................................................................... 83 10.3.1 Summary of Municipal Finances .................................................................................. 83 10.3.2 Revenue Account ........................................................................................................... 85 10.3.3 Revenue Receipts/Income - Summary ........................................................................... 85 10.3.4 Receipts/Income from Taxes ......................................................................................... 86 10.3.5 Receipts/Income from Non-Taxes ................................................................................. 87 10.3.6 Assigned Revenue and Grants & Contributions ........................................................... 88 10.3.7 Revenue Expenditure - Summary .................................................................................. 89 10.3.8 Personnel Cost .............................................................................................................. 90 10.3.9 Repairs and Maintenance ............................................................................................. 91

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10.3.10 Finance Expenses...................................................................................................... 92 10.3.11 Other Expenses and Payments & Contributions....................................................... 92 10.4 Capital Account .................................................................................................................... 93 10.4.1 Capital Receipts/Income - Sources ............................................................................... 93 10.4.2 Capital Expenditure - Items .......................................................................................... 94 10.5 Key Financial Indicators ....................................................................................................... 94 10.5.1 Resource Mobilization .................................................................................................. 95 10.5.2 Per Capita Income ........................................................................................................ 95 10.5.3 Expenditure Management ............................................................................................. 95 10.5.4 Per Capita Expenditure ................................................................................................ 96 10.5.5 Operating Ratio ............................................................................................................ 96 10.5.6 Debt Servicing Ratio ..................................................................................................... 96 10.5.7 Debt and Liability Management ................................................................................... 96 10.5.8 Total Outstanding Loan ................................................................................................ 96 10.5.9 Outstanding Loan Per Capita-Year 2004-05................................................................ 97 10.6 Finances of Other Urban Local Bodies................................................................................. 97 10.6.1 Municipal Finances - An Overview............................................................................... 97 10.6.2 Key Revenue Drivers..................................................................................................... 99 10.6.3 Receipts/Income from Taxes ....................................................................................... 100 10.6.3 Receipts/Income from Non-Taxes ............................................................................... 102 10.6.4 Assigned Revenue and Grants & Contributions ......................................................... 104 10.7 Key Expenditure Drivers .................................................................................................... 107 10.7.1 Personnel Cost ............................................................................................................ 108 10.7.2 Repairs and Maintenance ........................................................................................... 109 10.7.3 Finance Expenses........................................................................................................ 110 10.7.4 Other Expenses ........................................................................................................... 110 10.7.5 Key Financial Indicators ............................................................................................ 111 10.7.6 Resource Mobilization ................................................................................................ 111 10.7.7 Per Capita Income ...................................................................................................... 111 10.7.8 Expenditure Management ........................................................................................... 112 10.7.9 Per Capita Expenditure .............................................................................................. 112 10.7.10 Operating Ratio....................................................................................................... 112 10.8 Debt Servicing Ratio........................................................................................................... 112 10.8.1 Debt and Liability Management ................................................................................. 113 10.8.2 Total Outstanding Loan .............................................................................................. 113 10.8.3 Outstanding Loan Per Capita-Year 2004 ................................................................... 113 10.8.4 Non-Debt Liability ...................................................................................................... 113

CHAPTER XI – VISION & GOALS AND STRATEGIES.............................................115
11.1 Vision.................................................................................................................................. 115 11.1.1 Strategies for Spatial Development of CMA ............................................................... 115 11.1.2 Strategy and Action Plan for Economic Development................................................ 116 11.1.3 Goals and Strategies for Water Supply Sector............................................................ 116 11.1.4 Strategies for Sewerage Sector ................................................................................... 123 11.1.5 Strategies for Storm Water Drainage ......................................................................... 127 11.1.6 Strategies for Solid Waste Management ..................................................................... 132 11.1.7 Strategies for Traffic and Transportation .................................................................. 140 11.1.8 Strategies for Urban Poor and Action Plans .............................................................. 145 11.1.9 Strategies for Environmental Protection and Disaster Management ......................... 149

CHAPTER XII – CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN & FINANCING STRATEGY....150
12.1 12.2 12.3 Water Supply ...................................................................................................................... 150 Sewerage ............................................................................................................................. 150 Storm Water Drainage ........................................................................................................ 151

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12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9

Solid Waste Management ................................................................................................... 151 Traffic and Transportation .................................................................................................. 152 Heritage and Recreation...................................................................................................... 153 Urban Basic Services for Poor ............................................................................................ 153 Parking Lots and Spaces ..................................................................................................... 153 Summary ............................................................................................................................. 154

Tables
Table 1.1: The Details of Agencies and its Responsibilities................................................................... 4 Table 2.1: Growth of Population in CMA .............................................................................................. 6 Table 2.2: Growth of Population in Chennai City, 1901-2001 ............................................................... 7 Table 2.3: Migration to Chennai City, 1961-01 (in lakhs)...................................................................... 7 Table 2.4: Migration into CMA- 2001.................................................................................................... 8 Table 2.5: Sex Ratio in Chennai City & CMA ....................................................................................... 9 Table 2.6: Literacy Levels in CMA ........................................................................................................ 9 Table 2.7: Population for CMA and Chennai City ................................................................................. 9 Table 3.1: Occupational Structure CMA -2001 .................................................................................... 10 Table 3.2: Income Estimates – NDDP at current prices ....................................................................... 11 Table 3.3: Employment Projection for CMA-2026 .............................................................................. 14 Table 4.1: Land Use in 1973................................................................................................................. 16 Table 4.2: Land use break up in 1975 and in 2001 ............................................................................... 19 Table 5.1: Characteristics of Existing Surface Sources ........................................................................ 23 Table 5.2: Major Source Augmentation Projects.................................................................................. 25 Table 5.3: Details of Well Fields .......................................................................................................... 25 Table 5.4: Sources & Safe Yield........................................................................................................... 26 Table 5.5: Treatment Capacities ........................................................................................................... 28 Table 5.6: Population Projections for CMA ......................................................................................... 33 Table 5.7: Assumptions- Water Requirement....................................................................................... 33 Table 5.8: Total Water Requirement for CMA..................................................................................... 33 Table 5.9: Sources and availability of water for meeting demands ...................................................... 34 Table 5.10: Features of the Sewerage Macro System of Chennai City................................................. 36 Table 5.11: Salient Features of the Sewage Treatment Plants .............................................................. 37 Table 5.12: Sources of Solid Waste Generation ................................................................................... 39 Table 5.13: Composition of Waste ....................................................................................................... 39 Table 5.14: Chemical Analysis of Solid Waste .................................................................................... 40 Table 5.15: Chemical Analysis of Solid Waste .................................................................................... 41 Table 5.16: Future Garbage Generation Trends.................................................................................... 42 Table 5.17: Land Requirement for Land Fill Sites ............................................................................... 42 Table 5.18: Agencies responsible for Management of Storm Water. ................................................... 45 Table 5.19: Length of Major Waterways in CMA................................................................................ 45 Table 6.1: Pollution load from different sectors in Chennai City ......................................................... 49 Table 6.2: Pollution load from different sectors in Chennai City ......................................................... 50 Table 6.3: Waterways Basin wise Sewerage Generation (Year 2000) ................................................. 50 Table 6.4: Wastewater Outfall Details .................................................................................................. 51 Table 6.5: Estimates of Sludge Accumulated in Inner Chennai Waterways ........................................ 53 Table 7.1: Daily average person trip distribution by mode in CMA .................................................... 60 Table 7.2: Projected Daily Trips by Public Transport .......................................................................... 64 Table 7.3 : Mass Transport Trips 2004 & 2026 (in lakhs).................................................................... 64 Table 8.1: Growth of Slums in Chennai City........................................................................................ 66 Table 8.2: Location of Slums in Chennai City...................................................................................... 66 Table 8.3: Ownership of Lands occupied by Slums, 1971 ................................................................... 68 Table 8.4: Profile of Slums in CMA ..................................................................................................... 68

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Table 8.5: BPL Population.................................................................................................................... 72 Table 8.6: No. of Households and Housing Units in CMA .................................................................. 75 Table 8.7: Demand for LIG and EWS units in CMA ........................................................................... 77 Table 8.8: Proposed Projects for LIG/EWS.......................................................................................... 77 Table 9.1: Educational Institutions in CMA ......................................................................................... 78 Table 9.2: Number of Schools Required 2026...................................................................................... 79 Table 9.3: Total Number of Beds in Chennai, Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur Districts..................... 80 Table 10.1: List of Constituent Urban Local Bodies within Chennai Metropolitan Area .................... 82 Table 10.2: Summary of Municipal Finances of the Corporation of Chennai...................................... 84 Table 10.3: Summary of Revenue Receipts/Income of the CMC Rs. in Crores................................... 86 Table 10.4: Revenue Receipts from Taxes of Corporation of Chennai ................................................ 86 Table 10.5: Revenue Receipts from Non-Taxes of Corporation of Chennai ........................................ 88 Table 10.6: Revenue Receipts from Assigned Revenues of Corporation of Chennai .......................... 89 Table 10.7: Summary of Revenue Expenditure of the Corporation of Chennai Rs. in Crores ............. 90 Table 10.8: Revenue Expenditure on Personnel Cost of CMC............................................................. 91 Table 10.9: Revenue Expenditure on Repairs and Maintenance of the CMC ...................................... 92 Table 10.10: Revenue Expenditure on Finance Expenses of the Corporation of Chennai ................... 92 Table 10.11: RE on Payments & Contributions of the Corporation of Chennai................................... 93 Table 10.12: Capital Receipts of the Corporation of Chennai Rs. in Crores ........................................ 94 Table 10.13: Capital Expenditure of the Corporation of Chennai Rs. in Crores .................................. 94 Table 10.14: Performance of Key Financial Indicators in Corporation of Chennai ............................. 95 Table 10.15: Statement on Agency-wise Loan Outstanding of the CMC Amount in Rs. Crores......... 97 Table 10.16: Summary of Municipal Finances for Municipalities Rs. in Lakhs .................................. 98 Table 10.17: MF for Upgraded ULBs- Rs. in Lakhs ............................................................................ 99 Table 10.18: Revenue Receipts from Taxes of Municipalities ........................................................... 100 Table 10.19: Revenue Receipts from Taxes of ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) ......................... 101 Table 10.20: Revenue Receipts from Non-Taxes of Municipalities................................................... 103 Table 10.21: Revenue Receipts from Non-Taxes of other ULBs ....................................................... 104 Table 10.22: Revenue from Assigned Revenues and Grants from Municipalities ............................. 106 Table 10.23: Revenue from Assigned Revenues and Grant of Upgraded ULBs ................................ 106 Table 10.24: Expenditure of Municipalities and Upgraded ULBs ..................................................... 108 Table 10.25: Expenditure on Repairs and Maintenance of Municipalities Upgraded ULBs.............. 109 Table 10.26: Revenue Expenditure of Municipalities and Upgraded ULBs....................................... 110 Table 10.27: Revenue Expenditure on Other Expenses of ULBs and Upgraded ULBs ..................... 110 Table 10.28: Average Annual Per Capita Income and Expenditure ................................................... 111 Table 10.29: Average Operating Ratio and Debt Servicing Ratio...................................................... 112 Table 10.30: Total Outstanding Loan Agency Wise (as on 31/03/2004) Amount in Rs. Lakhs ........ 113 Table 10.31: Details on Non-Debt Liability (as on 31/03/2004) Amount in Rs. Lakhs ..................... 114 Table 11.1.: Existing Situation of Water Supply ................................................................................ 117 Table 11.2: Goals & Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years ................................................ 117 Table 11.3: Detailed Project Component............................................................................................ 120 Table 11.4: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Water Supply Project.................................. 121 Table 11.5: Year Wise investment Programme for Water Supply Project ......................................... 122 Table 11.6: Existing Situation -Sewerage........................................................................................... 123 Table 11.7 : Goals & Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years ............................................... 123 Table 11.8: Detailed Project Component............................................................................................ 125 Table 11.9: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Sewerage .................................................... 126 Table 11.10: Year Wise Investment Programme for Sewerage .......................................................... 126 Table 11.11: Goals and Service Outcomes – Storm water Drains and Water Bodies ........................ 127 Table 11.12: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Storm Water Drains.................................. 130 Table 11.13: Year Wise Investment Programme for Storm water drains ........................................... 131 Table 11.14: Goals, Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years ................................................. 132 Table 11.15: Proposed Primary Collection operation System ............................................................ 133 Table 11.16: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Solid Waste Management......................... 135 Table 11.17: Year Wise Investment Programme for Solid Waste Management ................................ 137

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Table 11.18: Goals, Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years ................................................. 140 Table 11.19: Project Implementation Programme for Traffic and Transportation ............................. 143 Table 11.20: Project Investment Programme for Traffic and Transportation..................................... 144 Table 11.21: Goals and Service Outcomes – Basic Services for Poor................................................ 145 Table 11.22: Year Wise Implementation Schedule – Basic Services for Poor ................................... 147 Table 11.23: Year Wise Investment plan for Basic Services for Poor................................................ 148 Table 12.1: Proposed Water Supply Investments in CMA ................................................................. 150 Table 12.2: Proposed Sewerage Investments in CMA........................................................................ 151 Table 12.3: Proposed Storm Water Drainage Investments in CMA ................................................... 151 Table 12.4: Proposed Solid Waste Management Investments in CMA.............................................. 152 Table 12.5: Proposed Transportation Investments in CMA................................................................ 152 Table 12.6: Proposed Heritage and Recreation Investments in CMA ................................................ 153 Table 12.7: Proposed Investment for Urban Poor in CMA ................................................................ 153 Table 12.8: Proposed Civic Amenities Investments in CMA ............................................................. 153 Table 12.9: Proposed Summary of investments in CMA ................................................................... 154 Table 12.10: Proposed year wise investments for planning period .................................................... 155

Figures
Figure 1.1: Process of City Development Plan ....................................................................................... 5 Figure 2.1: Growth of Population in CMA ............................................................................................. 6 Figure 2.2: Migration into CMA 2001.................................................................................................... 8 Figure 7.1: Vehicle Pop in Chennai City .............................................................................................. 59 Figure 7.2: Distribution of Vehicle type ............................................................................................... 59 Figure 7.3: Distribution of Person Trips By mode................................................................................ 60 Figure 7.4: Growth of Travel demand in CMA .................................................................................... 63 Figure 7.5: Mass Transport trips ........................................................................................................... 64 Figure 10.1: Trends in Revenue Account ............................................................................................. 83 Figure 10.2: Trends in Capital Account................................................................................................ 84 Figure 10.3: Linkage and connectivity ................................................................................................. 85 Figure 10.4: Composition of Revenue income ..................................................................................... 86 Figure 10.5: Composition of Non tax ................................................................................................... 87 Figure 10.6: Composition of Assigned Revenue .................................................................................. 88 Figure 10.7: Trends in Revenue Expenditure ....................................................................................... 90 Figure 10.8: Composition of Revenue expenditure .............................................................................. 90 Figure 10.9: Composition of Capital Receipts...................................................................................... 93 Figure 10.10: Composition of Capital expenditure............................................................................... 94 Figure 10.11: Trends in Revenue Receipts ........................................................................................... 98 Figure 10.12: Trend in Revenue receipts .............................................................................................. 99 Figure 10.13: Contribution of R/I Taxes............................................................................................. 101 Figure 10.14: Contribution of R/I Taxes............................................................................................. 102 Figure 10.15: Contribution of R/I from Non-Taxes............................................................................ 103 Figure 10.16: Contribution of R/I Non Taxes ULBS.......................................................................... 104 Figure 10.17: Contribution of R/I form Assigned Receipts/Grants .................................................... 105 Figure 10.18: Receipts from Assigned Revenue and Grants .............................................................. 107 Figure 10.19: Expenditure form Various Heads ................................................................................. 108 Figure 10.20: Expenditure from various Heads ULBs........................................................................ 109

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Maps
Map 1.1: Regional Setting of Chennai.................................................................................................... 2 Map 4.1: Chennai Metropolitan Region Existing Land use in 1973..................................................... 17 Map 4.2: Chennai Metropolitan Region Existing Land use in 2001..................................................... 18 Map 4.3: Chennai Metropolitan Region Proposed Land Use -2026 ..................................................... 21 Map 5.1: Water Source Surface and Sub Surface for Chennai Metropolitan Region........................... 27 Map 5.2: Water Supply Distribution Network & Storage Reservoirs in Chennai City ........................ 32 Map 5.3: Waterways in Chennai Metropolitan Region ........................................................................ 46 Map 6.1: Chennai Major water Bodies ................................................................................................. 52 Map 8.1: Location of TNHB Proposed Projects in CMA..................................................................... 76

Annexure
ANNEXURE 1 – Reform agenda of the ULB and State Government ............................................... 156 ANNEXURE 2 – Demography........................................................................................................... 171 ANNEXURE 3 – Detailed Traffic & Transportation Components for CMA..................................... 175 ANNEXURE 4 – Breakup of W/S, SS & SWM Investments for CMA............................................. 182 ANNEXURE 5 – Drainage & Water Bodies Investments for CMA .................................................. 182 ANNEXURE 6 – Investment Proposed in Urban Basic Services for Poor, Parking Lots, Heritage & Recreation for CMA ................................................................................................................... 183 ANNEXURE 7 – Investment Components in SWM for Corporation ................................................ 184 ANNEXURE 8 – Detailed Project Component wise Investment in Village Panchayats in CMA ..... 188 ANNEXURE 9 – Detailed Investments in Sewerage Component for AUA’s & DUA’s................... 189 ANNEXURE 10 – Project Population & Water Supply Demand for AUA’s & DUA’s.................... 190 ANNEXURE 11 – Details of Water supply investment proposed for Corporation............................ 191

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CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION

1.1

Chennai Metropolitan Area – A Profile

Chennai, the capital City of Tamil Nadu is the fourth largest Metropolitan City in India. The Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA) comprises the city of Chennai and its outlying urban and rural areas. The outlying area consists of one cantonment, 4 Townships, 16 Municipalities, 20 Special Village Panchayats and 213 Village Panchayats in 10 Panchayat Unions. The extent of CMA including St. Thomas Mount cantonment is 1172 Sq.km. The Chennai City area now covers 181.06 Sq.km. The urban units grouped under the title "Adjacent Urban Area (AUA)" and "Distant Urban Area (DUA)" covers 164.6 Sq.km. and 142.1 Sq.km. respectively. The setting of Chennai is presented in Figure 1.0. Chennai with its excellent linkages to major international and domestic destinations is the most preferred estimation for manufacturing and new economy industries. The City is home to major automobile majors and is also attracting substantial investments in this sector and other allied industries enhancing its competitive advantages in the region. The economic base of CMA is very strong and is poised to View of a IT firm at Siruseri grow at a rapid pace with the development of specialized economic zones such as the IT corridor, IT Park at Siruseri, Mahindra Industrial Park Limited etc. These developments would catapult Chennai as a major growth centre in this part of the world and are bound to attract substantial domestic and foreign direct investments.

1.2

Need for a City Development Plan
The growing metropolis of Chennai is unable to keep pace with the developments in the provision of sustainable infrastructure to its population. The emergence of new economy industry coupled with a sound manufacturing base warrants a comprehensive and approach from the traditional master planning efforts to enable sustainable and equitable growth of Chennai. Though the earlier efforts of master plan yielded results in giving a strategic direction to the growth of the City, the investments have not kept pace with the requirements. The current CDP provides a platform to adopt a consensus approach and collaboration with all planning partners. Accordingly, the City Development Plan taken cognizance of the earlier master planning efforts for Chennai and has integrated the same with a prioritized capital investment plan and a financing strategy.

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1.3

Objectives of the City Development Plan
The main objectives of the CDP are to have a plan for the sustainable and planned growth of the city with appropriate policy and strategic interventions. The CDP outlines the strategic policy and investment interventions to achieve the formulated vision for Chennai and comprises of the following:

Map 1.1: Regional Setting of Chennai

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• • • •

Assessment of the existing situation with regard to demographic and economic growth, infrastructure services, municipal finances, etc; Identification of gaps in service delivery including the issues faced by the urban poor; Vision and goal formulation for each sector to enable achieve the objectives enunciated above; Formulation of a city investment plan with appropriate financing strategies for the identified interventions.

In addition, the CDP also focuses on the reforms to be carried out at the state and local level in consonance with the vision and strategic plan outlined to sustain the planned interventions.

1.4

Process
The preparation of a City Development Plan (CDP) took cue from the earlier approach of Sustainable Cities Program sponsored by UN-Habitat for which Chennai is one of the beneficiary cities. The SCP primarily focused on a stakeholder consensus to arrive at sustainable solutions to manage the urban area of Chennai. The CDP is focused considering the uniqueness of Chennai and its position as the most preferred destination in attracting investments to guide the planning and investment decisions in future. The CDP is based on the inputs from various comprehensive studies viz., Master Plan for CMA, Comprehensive Traffic & Transportation Study for Chennai, Master Plan for Water Supply & Sewerage, etc. in addition to the other studies carried out for the Metropolitan Area. The plan provides a distinctive thrust for introducing enabling rather than restrictive regulatory mechanisms through realistic planning and management interventions within the overall regulatory and institutional framework. The development proposals are being designed within the context of the proposed Master Plan for CMA. The entire exercise was carried out through stakeholder participation at various stages. The CDP takes into account the existing situation including assessing the current status of municipal services, its fiscal status, operational and management procedures including the works and plans of other Government and quasi- Government agencies which contribute to the growth and development of the city and influence city development patterns. The process for City Development Plan is shown in Figure 1.1

1.5

Institutional Arrangements in Development Planning
The agencies involved in the infrastructure planning and development in Chennai Metropolitan Area are presented below. The details of Agencies and its responsibilities are presented in Table 1.1 and the process of City Development Plan is presented in Figure: 1.1.

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Table 1.1: The Details of Agencies and its Responsibilities Sl. No. Agency Responsibility Local Government Provision of Roads, streetlights, solid waste collection 1 Chennai Corporationand management, micro-drainage, parks and play grounds in their area of jurisdiction 2 Municipalities3 Special Village Panchayats 4 Village Panchayats Parastatal Agency 5 TNHB Neighbourhood development including provision of plots and ready built houses, Sites and Services schemes. 6 MTC Bus Transport 7 Traffic Police Traffic Management Schemes 8 TNEB Electricity generation and supply 9 PWD Implementation & Maintenance of macro drainage system 10 CMDA Urban planning, co -ordination of project implementation 11 CMWSSB Water Supply & Sewerage facilities for CMA 12 TNSCB Provision of housing, infrastructure and livelihood programs in slum areas

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Figure 1.1: Process of City Development Plan

City Development plan Process
Strategic Planning, Existing Situation Review & Defining City Vision and Goals

Agenda for the Future Sectoral Strategies
Master Plan Water Supply Augmentation Plan Sewerage Master Plan Storm Water Master Plan Comprehensive Traffic & Transport

• Review of current service delivery levels from the citizens’ perspective through consultation between councillors and technical staff of municipality • Agenda Note Preparation on Visions
and Goals of the Corporate Plan in Consultation with Planning Partners

Draft Corporate Plan
City Vision and Goals

Draft Plan Formulation and Identification of Capital Improvement Program

• Address issues and identify future requirement within Plan Period
City Development plan
Amendments

Annual Progress Report Plan Review

• Identify Tasks to address strategies formulated to cater to future requirement • Identify Institutions involved in erforming tasks • Define sustainability
City development Plan
Draft for Public Consultation

• Annual Report and Assessment of Progress • Identification of Shortcomings • Areas of focus for forthcoming
Final City Development Plan
For Implementation

Public Consultation, Plan Approval and Finalisation
Critical Review and Approval of Plan by Citizen Groups/ Public Representatives, Elected Councillors and Planning Partners

Plan Monitoring and Evaluation

• Review of Sustainability Indicators • Identification of • Key Areas of deficiencies

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CHAPTER II – DEMOGRAPHY

2.1

Growth of Population
Established in 1639, Chennai is the forth largest metropolitan city of the country and is experiencing rapid growth in population. The development of transport corridors and rail connectivity as early as 1900s had attracted industrial developments in the city resulting in increased growth of population. The Chennai Metropolitan Area comprising city of Chennai and contiguous area around was notified in 1974. It extends over 1189 Sq.km. and includes Chennai City Corporation area, 16 Municipalities, 20 Special Village Panchayats and 213 villages comprised in 10 Panchayat Unions. CMA with a population of 7 million in 2001 is experiencing a rapid growth. The growth of population in CMA from 1971 to 2001 is given in the Table 2.1. and Figure: 2.1 Table 2.1: Growth of Population in CMA Sl. Population (in lakhs) No . 1971 1981 1991 2001 1. Chennai City 26.42 32.85 38.43 43.43
2. Municipalities 3. SVPs 4. Village Panchayats 4.84 1.11 2.67 8.14 1.64 3.38 46.01 11.84 2.71 5.20 58.18 15.81 3.85 7.30 70.41

Annual Rate of growth (%) 71-81 81-91 91-01 2.20 1.58 1.23 5.24 4.43 2.40 2.76 3.80 4.94 4.38 2.37 2.91 3.62 3.58 1.93

Area Sq. Km. 176 240 156 617 1189

Density per Ha. in 2001 247 66 25 12 59

5. CMA Total 35.04 Source: Census of India

Figure 2.1: Growth of Population in CMA Growth of Population in CMA 1971-2001 The municipalities and special village panchayats have experienced higher growth than Chennai 45 City 40 that of the city. The density pattern indicate that 35 the city has the highest density of 247 Municipalit 30 25 y persons/ha, whereas the average density in 20 CMA is only 59 persons/ha. The density in the 15 SG Village 10 Panchayats municipal areas and special village panchayats 5 is very low, indicating that these areas offer 01960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Panchayat Year Unions tremendous potential for growth and would be the receiving residential nodes in future. The graph shown in Figure 2.1 is growth of population in CMA.

The city area recorded a growth of more than 2% per annum during the decades 1951-61 and 1961-71. The reasons for this rapid growth rate can be attributed to industrial development and increase in economic activities and employment opportunities in the city and its suburbs, attracting large migrant population. The negative growth during 1971-81 is due to the annexation of surrounding panchayat areas to the city. The population growth rate and densities of the City is presented in Table 2.2.
6

Population (in lakhs)

CDP Chennai

Table 2.2: Growth of Population in Chennai City, 1901-2001 Component City Area in Sq. % Annual population km. Growth Rate lakhs 1901 5.41 68.17 1911 5.56 68.17 0.26 1921 5.78 68.17 0.41 1931 7.13 68.17 2.12 1941 8.65 77.21 0.69 1951 14.27 128.83 0.22 1961 17.49 128.83 2.06 1971 26.42 128.83 3.93 1981 32.84 176 0.41 1991 38.43 176 1.58 2001 43.44 176 1.23 Source: Census of India.

Population density per/sq.km 8000 8200 8500 10500 11200 11100 13600 20000 18700 21800 24700

2.2

Migration
Chennai is a city of migrants like any other metropolitan city in India. According to 2001 Census, migrants to Chennai City from other parts of Tamil Nadu State constitute 74.5 %. The growth in migrant population shows a ward down trend from 37.24% in 1961 to 21.57% in 2001. Migrants from other parts of India constitute 23.8% and the remaining 1.71 % of the migrants is from other countries. The migration details for the city and CMA are presented in Tables 2.3 and 2.4. The migration into CMA are showed in Figure: 2.2 Table 2.3: Migration to Chennai City, 1961-01 (in lakhs) Year Total Total migrants to the city from Popul Other parts Other ation Other parts of Tamilnadu of India Countries No. % No. % No. % 1961 17.49 4.47 69.45 1.71 26.6 0.25 3.90 1971 2642 5.51 70.61 2.00 25.63 0.29 3.76 1981 32.84 7.19 71.28 2.55 25.31 0.34 3.41 1991 38.43 6.44 70.51 2.42 26.47 0.28 3.01 2001 43.43 6.98 74.49 2.23 23.80 0.16 1.71 Source: Census of India, Tamilnadu Migration Tables-2001.

Total

% of Total Migrants to the total population 36.80 29.52 30.70 23.90 21.57

6.44 7.80 10.08 9.18 9.37

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Table 2.4: Migration into CMA- 2001 Sl. No. Place Males Female 1. Total Migrants 8,55,103 7,53,196 2. Elsewhere in the district of 1,38,235 1,24,844 enumeration 3. Other Districts of the State 5,49,214 4,71,981 4. Outside the state 1,55,431 1,45,307 5. Outside India 25,360 22,360 Source: Census of India, Tamilnadu Migration Tables-2001. A study conducted by the Time Research Foundation in 1991 (sponsored by CMDA) showed that:
• • • •
19%

Total 16,08,299 2,63,079 1,021,195 3,00,738 23,287

% to Total 16.35 63.50 18.70 1.45

Figure 2.2: Migration into CMA 2001
Migration into CMA 2001
Else where in the District of Enumeration Other Districts of the State

1%

16%

Migrants from other urban areas constitute 63.4% and only 36.3% Outside the State are from rural areas. Among migrants from urban Outside India 64% areas, female migrants out number male migrants. Among rural migrants, male migrants out-number female migrants. Among total migrants there is near parity as between male and female migrants.

In respect of migrants from southern region of the state, the urban proportion (75%) is higher and the rural proportion being only 25%, and among migrants from other southern states of India, there are more female migrants than male migrants (with migrants from Kerala being an exception). The pictorial representation of migration into CMA is shown in Figure 2.2 An interesting and important fact found is the out migration from Chennai City to its suburbs and other areas within CMA. The population of the Chennai City in 1981 was 32.84 lakhs which includes 10.08 lakh migrant population and natural increase of 5.28 lakhs (for 1971-81) population; the net population excluding these works out to 17.48 lakhs whereas the 1971 population was 26.42 lakhs which shows that there was a net out migration of 8.94 lakhs (27%) resident population from City mostly to the rest of CMA (during 1971-1981). Similarly, an out migration of 10.41 lakhs (27% of the total population) is noted during 1981-91. Also, during 1991-2001, an out migration of 10.34 lakhs (24% of the 2001 population) is noted. Though there were large scale building construction activities noted during the above periods, the out migration of resident population from Chennai City proves that considerable conversion of residential premises into non-residential mostly for office, shopping, hotels and other commercial purposes took place; this trend continues in this metropolis.

2.3

Birth & Death Rates
The registered birth rates in Chennai City in 1971 were 38.6 and varied from 38.6 to 32.1 during 1971-76 and have reduced to 22.62 in the year 2003. Similarly the death rate also

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reduced to a considerable extent from 13.1 in 1975 to 8.01 in 2003. The rate of natural increase declined from 26.3 in 1971 to 14.61 in 2003.

2.4

Sex Ratio
Sex ratio is denoted by number of females per 1000 males. The sex ratio in CMA increased from 936 in 1991 to 956 in 2001. The sex ratio in Chennai city and CMA are presented in Table 2.5. Table 2.5: Sex Ratio in Chennai City & CMA Year Chennai City 1961 901 1971 904 1981 934 1991 930 2001 957 Source: Census of India

CMA 909 907 927 936 956

2.5

Literacy
The analysis of literacy level in CMA shows that the incidence of illiteracy is found to be higher in Chennai city and CMA than in the State. The literacy rate in CMA and Chennai city is more or less the same and has exhibited an increase during 1991-2001. The literacy rate in CMA is presented in Table 2.6. Table 2.6: Literacy Levels in CMA Unit 1961 1971
City 59.47 CMA 54.82 Source: Census of India 62.01 58.64

1981 % 68.68 66.56

1991 72.54 70.32

2001 76.81 76.09

2.6

Population Projection
Population projections have been carried out for CMA based on the past trends. It is estimated that CMA would house a population of 126 lakhs by 2026, of which Chennai city alone would account for 58 Lakhs. The population projection of CMA is presented in Table 2.7. Table 2.7: Population for CMA and Chennai City Sl. No. Description Actual Projection (Lakhs) 2001 2006 2011 2016 2021 1 CMA 70.41 78.96 88.71 99.66 11197 2 Chennai City 43.43 46.28 49.50 52.39 55.40 Source: Analysis

2026 125.82 58.56

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CDP Chennai

CHAPTER III – ECONOMY

3.1

Economic Structure of CMA
CMA comprises of Chennai City and areas to an extent of 376.58 Sq.Km. in Kancheepuram District and 639.39 sq.km. in Thiruvallur District. According to the 2001 Census, 38.6 percent of the population of Kancheepuram District and 57.5 percent of the population in Thiruvallur District live within CMA. The economic base of the Chennai City had shifted from trade and commerce to administration and services by the early part of the 20th Century. In the post-independence period, manufacturing became an important sector and CMA continues to be most important industrial center in the State. Recent trend shows that the economic structure of the city is tertiarised with growing contribution by Information Technology/Information Technology Enabling Service/Business Process Outsourcing Industries. Occupational Structure The comprehensive profile of employment in CMA indicates that the participation rate i.e. proportion of main workers to the population of CMA was 30.74 percent in 1991 and 30.96 percent in 2001. The corresponding figures for Chennai city was 30.50 percent in 1991 and 31.79 percent in 2001. The number of marginal workers both in the Chennai City and in CMA is negligible. Table 3.1 presents the occupational structure of City and CMA in 2001. Table 3.1: Occupational Structure CMA -2001 Component
Total Workers Main Workers Main Cultivators Main Agriculture Main House Hold Main Others Marginal workers Marginal Cultivators Marginal Agricultural Marginal House Hold Marginal Others Non Workers Source: Census of India

2001 Chennai City 14,88,364 13,80,757 15,149 5,849 25,836 13,33,923 1,07,607 2,026 1,233 5,156 99,192 28,55,281

CMA 25,19,278 22,84,457 33,170 33,390 43,394 21,74,503 2,34,821 5,728 22,681 10,511 1,95,901 4,85,9201

The workers in primary activity constitute 6.52 percent in CMA and 1.05 percent in City 1991. In 2001, it was 2.91 percent and 1.52 percent respectively in CMA and Chennai city indicating that the primary activities are on the decline in the peripheral areas due to the emergence of manufacturing and new economy industry. The workers in primary activity are dwindling and it is negligible compared to total, both in Chennai city and in CMA with more than 90 percent of the people engaged in the tertiary sector. The percentage of non10

CDP Chennai

workers was 65.73 percent in city and 69.14 percent in CMA during 2001. Income Estimates for CMA The following are the Income estimates for the Districts falling under CMA. The income estimates for districts in CMA is presented in Table 3.2 Table 3.2: Income Estimates – NDDP at current prices Sl. No. District At current prices 1999-2000 (Rs. Lakhs) 1. Chennai 12,48,833 2. Kancheepuram 8,24,702 3. Thiruvallur 4,96,671 4. Tamil Nadu State 1,14,30,943 Source: Department of Economics and Statistics Chennai City alone accounts for 10.94 percent of the State Income. Estimating the income in the areas of Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur District, which fall within CMA, based on proportion of population, it works out to 2.8 percent and 2.5 percent respectively. These show that CMA accounts for 16.21 percent of the State income from all sectors.

3.2

Economic Gateways to Chennai
Chennai is a major trade center and acts as a gateway to this part of India. The location of ports and international airport has catapulted Chennai as a prime destination for trade and commerce. The economic gateways of Chennai are outlined in the following sections. Chennai Port Chennai Port is one of the largest ports of India and comprises of well equipped shipping facilities (23 berths including 4 exclusive berths for containers), marine services and other associated facilities like warehouses and storages. The Port has full-fledged container terminals with road and rail connections which offer all the advantages that containerization could provide such as packaging, landing, pilferage prevention and speedy View of Ship at Chennai Port transportation of cargo. The Port measures a water-spread area of 170 hectares and a land extent of 238 hectares. The principal items of Imports are Petroleum, oil, Lubricants, Fertilizers, Food Grains and Fibers. The main items of export are Ores (mainly iron ores) granite stones, quartz, Barites, hides and skins, chemical and cotton goods. Chennai Port handles 60 percent of the total cargo handled by the State. The total number of containers handled during 2003 2004 was 5, 39,265 showing an increase of 67 percent in the last 5 years. The passenger traffic shows an increase of 22 percent in the last five years.

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Ennore Port The Port of Ennore is the first corporatised port in the country and handles bulk cargo. The Port measures a water-spread area of 220 Ha. and a land extent of 1336 Ha. Currently, Ennore Port comprises only two berths and is planning to expand its shipping facilities to handle large volumes of bulk cargo. A port specific Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is being planned to enhance the economic opportunities of the port as well as the region. International Airport The Chennai Airport is one of the largest airports of the country. It handled about 20.54 lakhs international passengers and 25.01 lakh domestic passengers during 200304. In addition, the airport handled cargo of about 1.50 lakh tones including 1.35 lakh tons of international cargo and has a significant share in total passengers as well as cargo handled in the four major View of Chennai Airport Airports. The international passengers handled by Chennai Air Port have increased 4 fold from 1991 to 2004 where as the domestic passengers have increased 2 fold in the same year. In addition, the existing airport is planned for a major expansion to make it a world class airport and accordingly, GoTN has provided for 1500 acres of land for the expansion purposes. The expansion and modernization of Airport would impact the economic competitiveness and will have a major impact on the economy of the CMA/the State.

Approach to Ennore Port

3.3

Economic Drivers
Manufacturing Sector The manufacturing sector of Chennai comprises large industries such as petrochemicals and chemical industry, electrical and automobile and related ancillary industries. Chennai is the automobile capital of India with the presence of international car manufactures. Some of the largest industrial estates such as Ambattur and Manali are located in CMA and house multi-product industries. Small industrial estates at Guindy, Thirumazhisai and

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Thirumudivakkam house medium and small scale industries. Chennai has a large base of leather industry and accounts for 50% of the total exports of the country. Tamil Nadu accounts for 70 percent of leather tanning companies in India and 38 percent of leather foot wear and components; most of the footwear industries are located within CMA. A cluster of chemical industries is located at Manali in CMA. An export processing zone (MEPZ) spreading over an area of 261 acres is located at Tambaram for apparel and other exports.

View of Manali Petrochemical

The metropolitan region comprises of large automobile engineering, glass and ceramic industries which are located at Marai Malai Nagar, Irungattukottai, Sriperumbudhur, Thiruvallore and Gummudipoondi. Tamil Nadu accounts for about 21 percent of passenger cars, 33 percent of commercial vehicles and 35 percent of automobile components produced in India. Chennai, the ‘Detroit of India’ is emerging as a major export hub for cars in South East Asia. International car manufactures such as Ford, Hyundai, and General Motors etc. have established their manufacturing bases to cater to domestic and international markets. Some of the major industrial developments having an impact on the economic development of CMA include:
• • • Saint Gobain Glass factory at Sriperumbudur. Mahindra Industrial Park developed over an area of 1300 acres. New testing and homologation centre for automobile sector with an investment of Rs. 1000 Crores.

New Economy Industries Chennai is a preferred destination for IT/ITES and houses all the top 10 IT Indian multi national Companies. The Tidal Park, with a combined area of 2.5 million sq.ft. is an established self contained IT park housing all the major players in the IT sector. In addition, an exclusive IT Park is being developed at Siruseri to promote IT investments in the region and a Knowledge Industrial Township is being planned in Sholinganallur along the IT Corridor to meet the growing demands of the sector. Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter in the country next to Karnataka

View of Tidal Park

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CDP Chennai

with more than 90% of the exports from Chennai alone. In addition, the initiatives that are planned/on-going that would catapult Chennai as the most preferred destination for new technology industries including:
• • Development of Bio-technology park or TICEL. Development of IT Corridor.

3.4

Employment Projection
The employment potential and projection for future is worked out based on the existing and envisaged economic developments and past trends. Based on the workers participation rate in 2001, it is estimated that by 2011, 87.5 % of the male and 30% of the female eligible working population will be willing to work and by 2021 about 92.5% of males and 36% of females would be willing to work necessitating creation of employment opportunities. The demand for employment is presented in Table 3.3. Table 3.3: Employment Projection for CMA-2026 Description 2011
Population Eligible Workers 15-60 (69.15%) Eligible Male Workers (52%) Eligible Female Workers (48%) Male Willing to Work Female Willing to Work Total Additional Jobs to be created Male Willing to Work %(assumed) Female Willing to Work %(assumed) 88.71 61.34 31.90 29.44 27.91 8.37 36.28 10.09 87.5 30

2016

2021 Lakhs 99.66 111.98 68.92 77.43 35.84 40.26 33.08 37.17 32.25 37.25 10.64 13.41 42.89 50.65 16.70 24.47 90 92.5 33 36

2026 125.82 87.01 45.24 41.76 42.98 17.19 60.17 33.99 95 40

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CHAPTER IV – LAND USE & STRUCTURE OF CHENNAI
This chapter describes the evolution of Chennai and the land use structure and outlines the future directions of growth taking into account of all the relevant panning aspects.

4.1

History
The foundation for the development of the Chennai was laid in 1639 as a British settlement and later expanded as a new town around Fort St. George. The population, which was 19,000 in 1646, expanded to 40,000 in 1669 and the surroundings of the Fort area covering 16 hamlets were constituted as the City of Madras in 1798. The introduction of the railway line gave development potential to the hitherto uninhabited places with new areas being developed. Before 1800, the roads were in a radial pattern, but after 1810 ring roads were developed inside the City. Mount Road was developed providing access to all the important arterials of Chennai. To facilitate trade a harbor was completed in 1896 just to the east of George Town. The principal roads leading out of the area in three directions connected the north, west and southern parts of the city and still remain the main transportation framework for the City. Railways were also built radiating from the centre in these three principal directions. The important developments during the period 1901 and 1941 were the commissioning of the electrified suburban meter-gauge railway between Beach and Tambaram in 1931 which gave a fillip for the development of the outlying suburban areas. The thirty years between 1941 and 1971 saw tremendous growth in population and economic activity in and around the City. This period also saw the growth of new residential as well as industrial suburbs particularly on the west and south. The setting up of Integral Coach Factory at Perambur, the Madras Refinery and Fertilizers at Ennore, the Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi and the expansion of the Harbour and development of automobile industries facilitated the rapid economic growth of Chennai.

4.2

Development Planning in Chennai Metropolitan Area
Structure of the City in 1971 The City is at the core of the metropolitan area and is the centre for all commercial and social activities as well as a living area for the population. Its structure approximates to a semi-circle with extensions in five main directions, the North, Northwest, West, Southwest and South. Naturally all communication lines led to this centre and these in turn were linked with each other producing a radial and ring pattern of development. It is observed that the economics of transportation has led to formation of development corridors the most important of which are on the west and southwest where physical conditions were more favorable for development.

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CDP Chennai

The industrial areas within the City were mainly in the northern and western parts, where they were closely mixed with residential developments but new industrial establishments were located outside the City limits and many important industries were on the outskirts. The main industrial areas are in Ennore and Manali on the north, in Ambattur and Avadi on the west, along Anna Salai and its extension on the southwest. Nearly 40 percent of the industrial work places were located on the north and northwestern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area and over 10 per cent along Anna Salai and its extensions. The structure of the city in 1973 is shown in the Figure 4.1 and the existing land use 1973 is presented in Table 4.1 and Map 4.1 Table 4.1: Land Use in 1973 Sl.No Description
Residential Commercial Industrial Institutional Open space and Recreational Agriculture Non Urban Others Total Source: CMDA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Chennai City Ha. % 7788 44.46 820 4.68 893 5.10 3045 17.38 920 5.25 4052.18 17518 23.13 100

Rest of CMA Ha. % 9144 8.67 68 0.06 2976 2.82 2260 2.14 4822 4.57 73689 69.88 1633 1.55 10865 10.3 105456 100.00

4.3

Structure of the Metropolis in 2005
The first Master Plan for CMA approved in 1976 proposed the structure of the Metropolis taking into account various factors. The structure proposed was of a radial pattern with the City as the hub. The main elements of the strategy were encouragement of growth along the major transport corridors and development of urban nodes at Manali, Minjur, Ambattur, Avadi, Alandur and Tambaram., dispersal of certain activities from CBD and development of satellite towns beyond CMA at Maraimalai Nagar, Gumidipoondi and Thiruvallur. The Master Plan included spatial plans for CMA with land use zoning and set the urban form during the plan period. The plan envisaged decongesting the core and accordingly relocation of mofussil bus terminal and wholesale vegetable, fruit and flower markets to Koyambedu; iron and steel market to Sathangadu were developed and a truck terminal at Madhavaram was made operational. The land use structure of CMA in 2001 is presented in Table 4.2 and in Map 4.2.

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Map 4.1: Chennai Metropolitan Region Existing Land use in 1973

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Map 4.2: Chennai Metropolitan Region Existing Land use in 2001

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Table 4.2: Land use break up in 1975 and in 2001 Sl.No Land Use Proposed in I Master Plan Chennai City Rest of CMA Extent % Extent % in Hec in Hec 1 Residential 8082 48.57 32256 30.48 2 Commercial 973 5.85 895 0.86 3 Industrial 1107 6.66 6362 6.11 4 Institutional 2746 16.51 4935 4.74 5 Open space 3254 14.55 7767 7.46 and Recreational 6 Agriculture 50924 48.91 7 Non Urban 476 2.86 979 0.44 8 Others Source: CMDA

In 2001 Chennai city Rest Of CMA Extent % Extent % in Hec in Hec 9293 52.94 20833 19.92 1238 7.05 378 0.36 890 5.07 6419 6.14 3180 18.11 2876 2.75 364 2.07 200 0.19 94 82 2413 0.53 0.47 13.75 12257 1689 59953 11.72 1.61 57.31

4.4

Density and FSI
Chennai is one of the high-density cities in India. Its density varies from 180 persons per ha. in Saidapet and Mylapore Corporation zones and 368 persons per ha. in Kodambakkam zone within the Corporation limits and the gross density for Chennai City is 247 persons per ha. The existing developments in Chennai can be categorized as High Dense Medium raised developments mostly of buildings up to 15 mts. heights. FSI allowed for such development up to 15 m height presently is maximum 1.5. Multistoried developments (High rise development) within CMA are very few; in order to encourage amalgamation of smaller plots into larger size and construction of buildings with large open space around, a higher FSI of 2.5/2.75 is allowed in Multistoried developments.

4.5

Hierarchy of Roads
The growing travel demand in the Metropolis has been dictating the need to increase the supply of road space. Implementation of the 1st Master Plan ensured enhancement of road space by way of provision of missing road links, widening of existing roads, removal of bottlenecks in the road network, construction of under passes/over passes, development of mini flyovers, etc. The focus in the regime of the 2nd Master Plan would not only be consolidating the efforts taken in the past to enhance the road and transport supply to cope with the increasing travel desires in the CMA but also establish a hierarchy of roads in the CMA, so as to ensure the road and transport supply is optimally utilized. As for other urban road systems, the hierarchy of roads in the CMA would comprise (a) arterial roads, (b) sub-arterial roads, (c) collector roads and (d) feeder roads/streets. Guided by the fact that the intra-zonal travel speed in the CMA is 15kmph (as per CTTS 1992-95), the hierarchy of roads in the CMA has been so proposed that a person is able to access either an arterial road or sub-arterial road in the space of 2.5 km or 10 minutes

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CDP Chennai

travel by any of the private travel modes, with a view to ensure an equity of mobility and accessibility across the entire CMA. This would mean that the entire road network in the CMA, both existing and proposed, would translate itself into the grids of arterial/subarterial roads, 5 km across with the collector roads within grids providing access to the arterial/ sub-arterial network. Further accessibility to public transport network within a distance of 1 to 1.5 km has also been considered optimally good. The arterial roads will have rights-of- way (RoW) of 45m to 61m, the sub-arterial roads will have RoW of 30.5m and the collector roads will have RoW of 18m.

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CDP Chennai

Map 4.3: Chennai Metropolitan Region Proposed Land Use -2026

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CHAPTER V – MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE

5.1

Water Supply System

5.1.1 Analysis of Existing Situation

Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) formed in 1978 as a statutory body is vested with the responsibility of planning, construction, operation and maintenance of water supply and sewerage system in Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA). Though its operation is limited to City Corporation’s area in general, the Board is also extending its services to the surrounding urban local bodies (with 7.88 sq.km. in extension areas and Manali new town) and has already initiated measures to provide services for the entire metropolitan area.
5.1.2 Source of Water Supply

The main sources of water supply in the metropolitan areas are both surface and ground water sources. Surface Water Sources The sources of surface water are the reservoirs at Poondi, Redhills, Cholavaram and Chembarambakkam, Porur Lake, Veeranam Lake and also from Kandaleru Reservoir in Andhra Pradesh under Telugu Ganga Project, which is fed by Srisailam - Somasila reservoir’s network. Chennai City water supply is drawn View of Poondi Reservoir from the Red Hills Lake located about 12 km. from city on the north-west side. The lake receives its supply from the rainfall in its catchment spread over an area 60 sq.km. and also from Kosasthalaiyar River across which a dam is constructed to create reservoir at Poondi. The scheme as it exists today consists of the surface storages at Poondi, Cholavaram and Redhills lakes with a total capacity of 210 million cubic metres fed by the Kosatalaiyar River. The lakes are mostly fed by North East Monsoon, which is active only for a few months in a year between October and December. A system of lakes connects and collects the catchment run-off on the northwest of CMA to the Red hills. In order to prevent / minimize the pollution to these water sources, the catchment of Red hills (about 60 sq.km.) is declared a no-development zone in 1991. Water from Red hills is conveyed through closed conduits to Kilpauk water works, treated therein and distributed to various parts of the city.

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CDP Chennai

In addition, Chembarambakkam tank (located about 12 km. from the city in the west) is also used as one of the main sources of water supply to the city. Veeranam tank (located about 230 km. from the city in the south) has been identified as an additional source of water supply to Chennai through which water is conveyed through a pipeline to Chennai. The characteristics of existing surface sources are presented in Table 1.0.

In addition, Chembarambakkam tank (located about 12 km. from the city in the west) is also used as one of the main sources of water supply to the city. Veeranam tank (located about 230 km. from the city in the south) has been identified as an additional source of water supply to Chennai through which water is conveyed through a pipeline to Chennai. The characteristics of existing surface View of Chembarambakkam Reservoir sources are presented in Table 5.1. The Water Source Surface and Sub Surface for CMR are furnished in Map: 5.1 Table 5.1: Characteristics of Existing Surface Sources Maximu Drawl Reservoir Maximu m Usable m Water off Elevation elevatio Volume (million n (Meter) (Meter) cu.m) Poondi 42.67 34.14 91.44 Cholavaram 19.66 14.22 24.93 Red hills 15.30 8.59 93.39 Chembarambakka 26.03 18.72 103.15 m Veeranam 14.48 12.34 41.46 Total 354.37 Source: CMWSSB Source Development-Surface Sources Telugu Ganga Project Considering the acute water scarcity faced by the Metropolitan Area during 1980s, it was proposed to draw 15 TMC from River Krishna through the Srisailam, Somasila and Kandaleru reservoirs in Andhra Pradesh. The Project envisages supply of water from Kandaleru reservoir in Andhra Pradesh through an open canal and conveyed to the lakes of Poondi, Redhills, Cholavaram and Chembarambakkam lakes for further treatment and distribution to the city. The Phase 1 of the project is completed and Phase-2 is under implementation and is expected to be completed by March 2007. It is expected that 930 MLD of water would be realized once the project is fully completed.

Full Area surface (millio n sq.ft) 376.74 55.76 195.15 711.18

Mean Depth (Metre ) 8.53 5.44 6.71 7.31 2.14

Catchment Area(Sq.Km )

1983 28.49 60.00 357.00 422.40 2850.89

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CDP Chennai

Chennai City Water Supply Augmentation Project-I Chennai Water Supply Augmentation Project-I (to add 180 MLD water to Chennai City water requirement) was taken up by CMWSSB in 2004 at a cost of Rs.720 crores. It is to draw 190 MLD of raw water from Veeranam Lake near Sethiathope, situated in Cuddalore District at about 230 km. from Chennai City, pump the raw water to about 20 km. through the pipeline to Vadakuthu for treatment, pump the treated water Veeranam Lake from Vadakuthu for a distance of about 8 km. to the Break pressure Tank at Kadampuliyur ridge point and then convey the water from this ridge point by gravity for about 200 km. to the Water Distribution Station at Porur in Chennai and finally distributed through the distribution network system. Chennai City Water Supply Augmentation Project-II The Chennai Water Supply Augmentation Project-II (CWSAPII) at an estimated cost of Rs.124.00 crores is being taken up in 2004 with an objective to augment water supply to the city by intercepting the rain water runoff by the construction / rehabilitation of check dams across Cooum, Adyar and Palar Rivers. About 20 MLD of water is proposed to be tapped from the above sources and the project is scheduled for completion by the end of 2007. Desalination Plant The acute water scarcity in CMA and frequent failure of the monsoons warranted a sustainable solution for source reliability and augmentation of water supplies to the Chennai Metropolitan Area. Accordingly CMWSSB envisaged setting up a 100 MLD desalination plant at Minjur. The plant is proposed on Design, Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (DBOOT) basis. CMWSSB has completed the procurement process and the developer has been selected. A project specific, SPV, Chennai Water Desalination Ltd. has been formed for implementing the project. The project is awaiting CRZ clearance from MoEF and is expected to be commissioned by 2007. The major source augmentation projects undertaken by CMWSSB are presented in Table 5.2.
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Adyar River

CDP Chennai

Table 5.2: Major Source Augmentation Projects Sl. No. Name of the Scheme
Chennai Water Supply Augmentation Project-I (Veeranam Lake as source) 2 Chennai Water Supply Augmentation Project-II (Proposed) 3 Sea Water Desalination Plant Total Source: CMWSSB Sub-Surface Water Sources 1

Cost (Rs. Crores) 720 124 DBOOT

Quantity MLD 180 20 100 300

Status Completed Dec’2007 July 2007

The ground water sources are ground water from well fields, coastal aquifer, brackish water based Reverse Osmosis Plants, Neyveli Acquifer etc. During 1960s & 70s three aquifers at Minjur, Panjetty and Tamaraipakkam located in the north and northwest of the city and the aquifers along the coastal belt from Thiruvanmiyur to Kovalam were identified and tapped. Studies in the area North West of the city have identified a ‘buried channel’- the course of Palar river thousands of years back comprising of a well field extending to a stretch of about a 50 km. length and 5 km. average width suitable for extraction of ground water. Accordingly the following well fields have been developed for ground water extraction. Table 5.3: Details of Well Fields
Well Fields Year of Commissioning No. of wells presently Yielding Water Yield MLD during design Average yield from Dept. wells in 2005.

Tamaraipakkam Panjetty Minjur Poondi Flood Plains Kannigaiper Total

1969 1969 1969 1987 1987 1987

2 out of 30 1 out of 13 5 out of 9 4 out of 12 0 out of 5 0 out 5 12 out of 74

50 41 34 27 14 14 180

1.60 0.08 3.10 1.20 0.00 0.01 5.99

Table 5.3 clearly brings out the depletion of ground water source during the last 30 years in that area due to increase in demand resulting in overdrawal of ground water. In addition, due to severe scarcity, CMWSSB has hired private agricultural wells from 2000 to augment water supplies. The average yield from such sources during 2005 is to the tune of 77 MLD. To regulate and control the extraction, use of transport of ground water and to conserve ground water, the Chennai Metropolitan Area Ground Water (Regulation) Act, 1987 was enacted. The Act is being enforced by the CMWSSB in the Chennai City and the District Collectors in the case of adjacent areas and it provides for grant of permit to sink wells in the scheduled areas, registration of existing wells and use of ground water in the area,

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CDP Chennai

license for extraction, use or transport of ground water etc. The entire area within the Chennai City has potential for restricted drawal through shallow open wells, and tube wells, and these types of wells are prominent in the premises within the city. Though unprotected, it helps to supplement the limited quantity of protected water available from the public system. Assuming a conservative figure of drawal of 50 lpcd of ground water, for the population of Chennai about 4.6 million in 2006, estimated drawal will be in the order of 230 MLD. Safe Yield and Supply Levels The estimated safe yield and average yield at various sources for water supply to Chennai in the year 2005 is presented in Table 5.4. Table 5.4: Sources & Safe Yield Sl.No.
1 2 3

Name of Source

Poondi-Cholavaram – Red Hills Lake system (including diversion of flood flow from Araniar to Kosasthalaiyar;iyar Ground Water from Northern Well Field Southern Coastal Aquifer Total

Safe Yield in MLD 200 100 5 305

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CDP Chennai

Map 5.1: Water Source Surface and Sub Surface for Chennai Metropolitan Region

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CDP Chennai

5.1.3 Supply Levels
The current water supply from all the sources is of the order of 550 MLD. However, during the summer season, in times of reduced storage, the supply levels would be as low as 300 MLD. In addition, CMWSSB also provides bulk water to the surrounding municipalities to supplement the other sources.

5.1.4 Treatment Capacities
The availability of treatment capacities at 750 MLD is much more than the current supply levels. The treatment capacity appears to be high as the current supply is lower than the anticipated levels and would suffice the current requirement if a full supply is envisaged. The location and capacities of treatment plants is presented in Table 5.5. Table 5.5: Treatment Capacities
Kilpauk Redhills Veeranam Total Source: CMWSSB Sl. No 1. 2 3 Location View of Redhills Reservoir Capacity-MLD 270 300 180 750

In addition, a 530 MLD capacity treatment plant at Chembaramkkam is currently under construction taking the total capacity to 1280 MLD. This is constructed in anticipation of full realization of Krishna Water to the city which would augment the existing the supply levels.

5.1.5 Distribution System and Storage Capacity
The distribution network in Chennai City covers a length of 2582 Km and is divided into 159 Divisions. About 98% of the population of the city is covered through piped supply and the balance is through water tankers. The water is distributed through 27 main and subsidiary water distribution stations comprising Over Head Tanks and Under Ground Tanks. The combined storage capacities are of the order of 322 ML. The ULBs manage their own storage capacity, which is adequate considering the present supply levels but would need augmentation in the future. Master Plan for Water Supply- Distribution System A Master plan for the management of the water supply and sewerage for the city, which

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CDP Chennai

was prepared in the year 1978, was revised in the year 1991 in order to receive and utilize the water for city supply under Telugu Ganga Project from Andhra Pradesh and later updated in 1997. The Master Plan contemplated the construction of additional water treatment plant, water distribution stations, laying of additional transmission mains and strengthening of the existing distribution system. The Master plan envisages re-organizing the existing distribution system network to the 16 zones and adequate infrastructure to ensure equitable distribution of water supply. The implementation of the Master Plan has been taken up in stages for water supply management in Chennai city to utilise the Krishna water received from Andhra Pradesh. The size of the pipes constituting the distribution system ranges from 100 mm to 1500 mm in diameter with a total length of about 2582 km. The existing system largely consists of C.I. pipes. In some specific areas PVC mains exist. Of the total length, 85% is estimated to be of diameter 200 mm and less. Also, about 50% of the smaller sized distribution pipelines are estimated to be of age 50 years or more. Ageing of pipeline, incrustation due to intermittent supply and other factors have contributed to the reduction in the capacity of the distribution system resulting in low pressure in the distribution system. More than 50% of the total system is estimated to have zero residual head. Chennai City has been expanding at a fast rate and because of this, it is found difficult to meet the demand, especially at the tail end areas. The 300 MLD capacity Water Treatment Plant was constructed at Redhills with World Bank assistance under the first Chennai Water Supply Project and 3 Nos. of transmission mains were also laid to facilitate the treated water to different water distribution stations located in the city. Second Chennai project The Second Chennai Water Supply Project was taken up by CMWSSB during February 1996 with World Bank Assistance at a cost of Rs.778.79 cores and most of the works contemplated under this project has been completed. Some of the major works such as construction of Water Distribution Stations (7 Nos.), Laying of Clear Water Transmission mains (36 km.), Strengthening of Water Distribution System in 11 zones (660 km.) out of 16 zones were taken up, including leak detection rectification works covering about 70% of Chennai City Area. The benefits accrued due to the implementation of the project include increased piped water supply and reduction in unaccounted water. An additional water treatment plant of 300 MLD capacities at Red Hills and refurbishment of the existing Kilpauk Water Treatment Plant of capacity 270 MLD was taken up and completed under this project. Construction of 530 MLD capacity Water Treatment Plant at Chembarambakkam The implementation of Telugu Ganga project necessitated augmenting the treatment capacities for supply of potable water to the city. Accordingly, a 530 MLD water treatment plant is under construction at Chembarambakkam at an estimated cost of Rs. 134.90 crores. About 70% of the work is completed and the project would be commissioned by May 2007. In addition, laying of transmission mains at a cost of Rs. 90 Crores to convey treated water from Chembarambakkam lake has been taken up.

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CDP Chennai

Third Chennai Project CMWSSB has proposed to take up further systemic improvement projects in water supply, both for Chennai city and adjacent Urbanised Local Bodies as “Third Chennai Project” at a cost of Rs.750 crores. The components envisaged in the proposed project include construction of check dam across Kortaraliar River and Refurbishment of Vallur anaicut, rehabilitation of Porur tank and introducing geographical information system for efficient operations and maintenance. Since most of the components are to be taken up urgently and as the appraisal of the project by World Bank is getting delayed, these components have now been posed under JN-NURM for approval.

5.1.6 Coverage and Supply Levels
The total water supplied in Chennai is to the tune of 550 MLD during normal season which gets reduced during summer and in drought years due to reduced source availability. The per capita supply levels are 90 lpcd which would also reduce during the scarce time. In addition, the per capita supply is inequitable in some zones where the supply levels would be only 30-40 lpcd. Comparing the per capita supply levels in other metropolitan cities, the supply levels in Chennai are the lowest at 90 lpcd indicating the seriousness of the situation. The acute scarcity of water in 2004 in the city due to failure of the monsoon resulted in discontinuation of piped supply. However, water was supplied through tankers and CMWSSB has taken initiatives to avoid such instances in future through source augmentation such as Veeranam Water Supply Scheme. The per capita supply levels in the municipalities of CMA are much lower than that of the City. It is estimated that the average per capita supply in the CMA is about 20-25 lpcd, which is much lower than the norm. Map 5.2 shows the water supply distribution network & Storage Reservoirs in the Chennai City.

5.1.7 Frequency of Supply
The frequency of water supply is currently on a daily basis. However in the CMA areas, the supply is on alternate days. The hours of supply varies from 2 hrs. to 6 hrs.

5.1.8 Coverage in Slums
About 3.5 lakh population of Chennai in slums comprising of 58,631 households are covered through piped supply, tankers and public fountains. CMWSSB supplies water through 8916 public fountains and 3542 mini tanks to augment the piped water supply. About 2/3rd of these facilities cater to low income and slum population. Ground water for supplementation purposes is also drawn through 7726 India Mark II pumps.

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CDP Chennai

5.1.9 Rain Water Harvesting
The importance for conservation of water and rainwater harvesting was understood and due consideration and thrust were given from early 90s itself in Chennai. Planning permission and completion certificates are issued only for developments with rain waterharvesting structures within the premises. Provision of rainwater structure in all types of developments-existing and new, irrespective of size or use has been made mandatory by amending DCR and Building Byelaws in 2001. After implementation of this scheme widely in CMA, a significant increase in the ground water levels and also quality of ground water was noted. In addition, as per amendments, in 2001, it is also mandatory for all centrally air-conditioned buildings to have their own wastewater reclamation plant for use in cooling plants.

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CDP Chennai

Map 5.2: Water Supply Distribution Network & Storage Reservoirs in Chennai City
FROM W E L L F IE L D S PANJETTY K A N N I G A IP E R FROM W E L L F IE L D S MAGARAL POONDI TAMARAPAKKAM F L O O D P L A IN S
600/500mmØ

600m m Ø R C C

F R O M M IN J U R W E L L F IE L D

600mmØ

750mmØ

8 0 0 m m Ø C .I

LO C AL D IS T R IB U T IO N (2 .6 M L D )
24"

M ANALI NEW TO W N (0 .9 M L D )

(P A N J E T T Y ) 7 5 0 m m Ø R C C

M FL
I N D U S T R IE S

750mmØ

600mmØ

JO NES TOW ER

R E D H IL L S LAKE

N E W IN T A K E TO W ER

300 M LD NO RTH 3 0 0 m ld C H E N N A I M A IN R E D H IL L S TREATM ENT ERATTAI PLANT ERI 300 M LD SO UTH C H E N N A I M A IN 300 M LD CENTRAL C H E N N A I M A IN
46 M LD )

600m m Ø
750m m Ø
MRL J U N C T IO N
T O T H IR U V O T T IY U R

TO INDU

1200m m Ø (2 N o s )

T O IN D U S T R IE S

STRI ES

RA W W ATER PUM PHOUSE

(M A G R A L ) 6 0 0 m m Ø R C C (M A G R A L ) 6 0 0 m m Ø R C C

M ANALI BOOSTER S T A T IO N

12"

MRL

N

M ADHAVARAM B O O S T E R S T A T IO N ( 9 .0 M L ) R .V .N A G A R M UTHAM ZH NAGAR K .K .D N G R T IR U V A L L U R NAGAR

TO SM ALL IN D U S T R IE S ( 1 .0 M L D )

S .R A I L W A Y DOG KENNEL (4 .0 M L D )

10
KO LATHUR (4 .0 M L D )
MKB NAGAR
TO K PS

PATEL NAGAR (1 2 .0 M L D )

11 2

C

C O N

O N

KO RATTUR LAKE

KO RATTUR H .W (1 .0 M L D )

C O N D U IT

D

D U IT -I (1 04 M 90 M LD ) LD ) I (1 - II

T .V .S GROUPS F A C T O R IE S

(2 .0 M L D )

U IT - II (1

9
V IL L IV A K K A M O .H .T (1 .5 M L D ) A G A T H IA R N A G A R O .H .T (1 .5 M L D ) A N .W E S T EXTN - I

VYASARPADI (6 .0 M L D )

ANNA POONGA (3 .0 M L D )

K IL P A U K

KANNAPAR T H ID A L
(1 8 .0 M L D )

(2 .0 M L D )
M O G A P P A IR W EST (0 .2 5 M L D ) A N .W E S T E X T N - II (1 .0 M L D ) M O G A P P A IR EAST (1 .2 5 M L D )

1
ANNA NAGAR E .W .S O H T (0 .5 M L D )
ANNA NAGAR H .W - O H T (1 1 .5 M L D ) ANNA NAGAR BULK SUPPLY (1 .5 M L D ) M .M .D .A O H T ( 3 .0 M L D )

KPS

3

SHAFT

R A IL NAGAR (1 .0 M L D )

T R IP L IC A N E
(1 7 .0 M L D )

8
C H O O L A IM E D U
(6 .0 / 4 5 .0
VADAPALANI (4 .0 M L D )

M LD)

15
VALLUVAR -K O T T A M
(1 8 .0 M L D )

4 14

Wa &Z
BAY OF BENGAL

PORUR LAKE

5
K .K .N A G A R
(1 4 M L D )

16
(5 2 .0 M L D ) (5 2 .0 M L D )

SHW

M YLAPORE

7
EKKADU THANGAL
(4 M L D )

13
NANDANAM
(5 M L D )

12
ALANDUR
(1 M L D )

6
VELACHE RY
(5 M L D )

P A L IP A T T U
( 1 0 M L D ) T H IR U V A N M IY U R
H .W (0 .9 M L D )

T O O K K IU M T H O R A IP A K K A M (0 .3 0 M L D ) T O A A V IN (0 .3 0 M L D )

FROM SOUTHERN C O A S T A L A C Q U IF E R

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CDP Chennai

5.1.10 Requirements for Future
The requirements of water supply for Chennai Metropolitan Area for the year 2026 are around 2,248 MLD. This includes 1,606 MLD for domestic purposes and the remaining for commercial and industrial purposes. The population projection for CMA is presented in Table 5.6. Table 5.6: Population Projections for CMA Sl. No Name of category 2011
Chennai city Municipalities in CMA Special Village panchayat Village Panchayats Total CMA Source: CMWSSB 1 2 3 4 49.5 21.75 5.89 10.59 88.71

2016 52.39 25.60 7.41 12.96 99.66

Year 2021 lakhs 55.4 30.20 9.45 15.99 111.97

2026 58.56 35.69 12.21 19.88 125.82

The following are the assumptions for estimating the water requirements for CMA which is presented in Tables 5.7 & 5.8. Table 5.7: Assumptions- Water Requirement Component Details Residential use 150 lpcd • Chennai city 125 lpcd • Municipalities 100 lpcd • Special Village Panchayats 80 lpcd • Village Panchayats Commercial uses 30% of resident population requirements industrial use 10% of resident population requirements Table 5.8: Total Water Requirement for CMA Sl. Name of category No
Water requirement for the resident population 2 Water requirement for office, commercial, industrial premises and other places of employment, education etc. 3 For industrial use Total Water requirement Source: CMWSSB 1

Year 2011 1165 349 2016 MLD 1284 385 2021 1431 429 2026 1606 482

116 1630

128 1797

143 2003

160 2248

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CDP Chennai

5.1.11 Projects to meet the Future Demand
Source Development The CMWSSB has completed the scheme to augment the source of water supply by implementing Chennai Water Supply Augmentation Project-I to supply 180 MLD. A project to construct a 100 MLD Reverse Osmosis based sea water desalination plant under DBOOT basis has also been taken up for implementation. Further the CWSAP II project at an estimated cost of Rs.124 crore is also under implementation to firm up source sustainability, in addition to augmenting the source. In addition, improvement works to enhance the storage capacity of Kandaleru, Somasila reservoirs and the lining of Telugu Ganga Project canal to improve the flow efficiency are in progress to enable supply of full quantity of 12 TMC (930 mld) of water to Chennai city. The sources and availability of water from each of the source is presented in Table 5.9. Table 5.9: Sources and availability of water for meeting demands Sl. No. Name of Source 1 Poondi-Cholavaram – Red Hills Lake system (including diversion of flood flow from Araniar to Korataiyar 2 Ground Water from Northern Well Field 3 Southern Coastal Aquifer Sub Total (A) 4 Krishna Water I Stage 5 Krishna Water II Stage 6 New Veeranam (CWSAP-I) 7 CWSAP-II (Proposed) 8 Sea Water Desalination (Proposed) Sub Total (B) Grand Total (A) + (B) Source: CMWSSB

Safe Yield in mld 200 100 5 305 400 530 180 20 100 1230 1535

The projections indicate that the overall water demand for the year 2026 is of the order of 2,248 MLD as against the full potential of the existing and presently ongoing source works totaling to 1,535 MLD, thus leaving a deficit of 713 MLD. Due to frequent and recurrent deficit monsoon in Chennai and in AP, there is uncertainty on the availability of water during such periods. Hence, it is pertinent to create additional reliable sources of water supply and accordingly the use of recycled wastewater and desalination of sea water are being considered. The reuse of wastewater, though desirable from the environmental point of view, is fraught with limitations till acceptability for drinking use is established. Until then, the utilization of recycled wastewater can be limited to industrial purposes only. Considering the above, desalination is one of the options being considered for reliable source of water supply. Accordingly 700 MLD is proposed in two phases, phase I comprising of 300 MLD and phase II of 400 MLD. The land required for establishing the additional desalination plants have already been identified, one at Kattupally near Minjur and the other near Thiruporur and Kelambakkam.

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Transmission Main and Distribution Network Based on the Master Plan already prepared by the CMWSSB action has been taken to integrate the requirements of the Adjacent and Distant Local Bodies and the network of transmission mains has been created with this objective in mind. Therefore, it would be possible for CMWSSB to cover the Adjacent Municipalities and Special Village Panchayats by drawing from the transmission main network system and creating appropriate separate distribution for these areas. Under the Phase I programme, extension of trunk mains from the CMWSSB system already available can be implemented with additional trunk mains to be established from the proposed desalination plants. Improvements to Water Distribution System All the source development interventions would result in increased water availability and hence warrants a systemic improvement projects in water distribution system in the City. Consequent to the systemic improvements carried out, the strengthening of the water distribution system has been improved in 11 zones. It is proposed to take up the strengthening of the water distribution system in the remaining 5 zones viz. Anna Poonga, Kilpauk, Triplicane, Southern Head works and K.K. Nagar also and providing valves in all the 16 zones towards isolation of zones, so that the entire service area would be benefited in supply eliminating defective streets of piped water supply. The pipelines will be laid to a total length of about 307 km. The existing distribution stations also needs strengthening to handle the water requirement of 2026 population. The total estimated cost of these works is Rs.338.36 crore. Unaccounted for Water in Left Out Areas Initial study by the NEERI in the 1970s revealed that leakage losses in the existing system were in the order of 35% to 40%. Hence, to increase the terminal pressure and to avoid leakage losses, it was decided to take up the leak detection programme in phases with the objective of saving water. Out of the 3.40 lakhs House Service Connections in Chennai city so far renewal and leak detection tests in 2.24 Lakhs House Service Connections have been completed. It is proposed to take a up further 30,000 House Service Connections under this project including renewal of corresponding water mains of about 100 Kms. which are aged and choked. Further works are programmed to be taken up in the coming years to minimize unaccounted for water. Rehabilitation of Existing Raw Water Conduits Three existing masonry conduits, used to draw raw water from Redhills constructed in the years 1914, 1955 and 1986 are brick masonry arched conduits need complete rehabilitation. The study carried out by international consultants M/s. Compagnie Generale des Eaux has examined the condition of these conduits in an extensive way and have recommended reconstruction of conduits I and III and repairs and rehabilitation of Conduit-II to transfer 359 MLD of water to Kilpauk Water Treatment Plant. The proposals envisage construction of 1300 mm x 1300 mm RCC conduit within the existing Conduit-I and Construction of 1700 mm x 1400 mm RCC conduit within the existing conduit in Conduit-III at an estimated cost of Rs.44.00 crores.

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CDP Chennai

5.2

Sewerage

5.2.1 Existing System
Chennai City’s sewerage system was designed in 1910 for 1961 population of 6.6 lakhs at the rate 114 lpcd. as a separate system. The City was divided as north, west and south independent drainage areas and sewage from each area was collected by relay pumping and conveyed to the pumping stations at Napier Park, Purasaiwalkam and Royapuram and finally discharged into the sea at Kasimedu out-fall. Kodungaiyur sewage farm was developed in 1956 and a portion (27 mld) of the sewage collected at Purasawalkam pumping station was discharged through force mains to Kodungaiyur farm. A comprehensive improvement to the city sewerage system was designed in 1958 for an estimated 1976 population of 25.5 lakhs and 1991 population of 27.2 lakhs at a sewage flow rate of 110 lpcd in 1976 and 180 mld in 1991.

5.2.2 Sewerage Distribution System
The coverage of the sewerage distribution system is almost 98% in Chennai City. With a total length of 2,583 Km of sewers comprising of 2,432 Km of gravity mains and 151 Km of pumping mains, the sewerage system covers about 15,460 streets of the Corporation covering an area of 174 Sq.Km. Features of the sewerage macro system in Chennai city is given in the Table 5.10. Table 5.10: Features of the Sewerage Macro System of Chennai City Zone Location Type of sewerage system Area of Length of Length of No. of Length of generation gravity pumping streets streets mains mains km km km sq. km I Tondiarpet, Washermenpet, 190.59 18.50 1131 206.92 16.61 Royapuram, George Town, Chintadripet 907.21 46.00 6395 995.96 64.43 II Nungambakkam, Chetpet, Kilpauk, Egmore, Purasawakkam, Ayanavaram, Perambur, Vyasarpadi, Sembium, Venkatesapuram, Periyar Nagar, Jawaharlal Nagger, North Cambium, Kodungaiyur-Phase I, II, Kolathur 583.24 28.50 3505 586.72 36.46 III T.Nagar, Kodambakkam, Arumbakkam, Anna Nagger, Koyembedu, Virugambakkam, Saligramam

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CDP Chennai

Zone

Location

IV V

Ashok Nagger, Saidapet, Jafferkhanpet, K.K.Nagar, Nesapakkam Ice House, Mylapore, Seethammal Colony, Adyar, Guindy, Velachery, Gandhi Nagger, Ekkattuthangal, Guindy Industrial Estate, Taramani.

Type of sewerage system Area of Length of Length of No. of Length of generation gravity pumping streets streets mains mains km km km sq. km 218.43 19.00 1188 226.33 10.56 532.90 39.00 3241 566.02 46.21

Total Source: CMWSSB

2432.37

151.00

15460

2581.95

174.27

The present sewerage network in Chennai city has covered 98% of its area. Apart from those zonal systems, other small systems developed by the TNHB in their neighbourhood scheme areas are also functioning and are connected to the nearest mains. As the capacity of sewers was limited, during rainy days they became surcharged due to ingress of storm water. Any surplus of sewage in excess of pumping stations capacity was drained into the nearby natural water courses of the city viz., Cooum River, Adyar River, Buckingham canal and Otteri Nullah.

5.2.3 Sewage Treatment Plants
Four STPs with a combined capacity of 481 MLD are currently in operation. The salient features of the STPs are presented in Table 5.11 Table 5.11: Salient Features of the Sewage Treatment Plants Zone Location Type Capacity (mld)
I Kodungaiyur II Kodungaiyur III Koyembedu IV Nesapakkam V Perungudi Total Source: CMWSSB Activated Sludge Plant Activated Sludge Plant Activated Sludge Plant Activated Sludge Plant Activated Sludge Plant

Land cultivated (acres) 270.00 100.00 94.00 63.00 54.00 481.00 45.00 18.00 163.00

The capacity of sewage treatment plants is about 87% of the total water supplied and needs augmentation. A comprehensive project for sewerage system improvement under the umbrella Chennai City River Conservation Project (CCRCP) is currently under implementation to cope up with the increased sewage flow resulting from water supply augmentation schemes under implementation, and to prevent the overflow of sewage into the city waterways. The Project, which has been taken up at a cost of Rs. 720.15 crores includes providing additional sewage interceptors, refurbishing the existing sewer mains and capacity

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CDP Chennai

augmentation of the existing pumping stations and force mains to cope with the flow in the year 2021. The works of interceptors, pumping mains, gravity mains, pumping stations and construction of 4 Sewage Treatment Plant units at Perungudi (54 MLD capacity), Koyambedu (60 MLD capacity), Nesapakkam (40 MLD capacity) and Kodungaiyur (110 mld capacity) have been completed.

5.2.4 Sewerage System in CUA
The majority of the ULBs in the Chennai Urban Agglomeration do not have under ground sewerage systems. Some Local Bodies like Alandur, Valasaravakkam and Thiruvottiyur have implemented the sewerage system in their municipal areas; others are in the process of providing a full-fledged sewerage system. The disposal and treatment is to the nearest STP, where further capacity augmentation can be taken up in subsequent years. A comprehensive sewerage system is in existence in (i) Alandur, (ii) Valasaravakkam, (iii) Thiruvottiyur (50% covered) and (iv) Ambattur (partially covered, adjoining city limits). In addition project preparation for provision of sewerage system for (i) Pallavaram, (ii) Tambaram, (iii) Madhavaram, (iv) Kathivakkam, (v) Porur, (vi) Ullagaram Puzhudhivakkam, (vii) Avadi, (viii) Maduravoyal and (ix) Thiruvottiyur (Rehabilitation and Extension) is completed and the work on sewerage scheme for Pallavaram has commenced and is in progress. The Local Bodies which are not covered presently with the provision of sewerage system include Ayanambakkam, (ii) Chinnasekkadu, (iii) Manali, (iv) Nandambakkam, (v) Pallikaranai, (vi) Perungudi, (vii) Kottivakkam, (viii) Nerkundram, (ix) Ramapuram and (x) St. Thomas Mount Cantonment, (xi) Minjur, (xii) Naravalkuppam, (xiii) Chitlapakkam, (xiv) Anakaputhur, (xv) Pammal, (xvi) Thiruverkadu, (xvii) Kunrathur, (xviii) Poonamallee and (xix) Mangadu.

5.2.5 Projects Implemented
Chennai City River Conservation Project A comprehensive project for sewerage system improvement under the umbrella Chennai City River Conservation Project (CCRCP) is currently under implementation to cope up with the increased sewage flow resulting from water supply augmentation schemes under implementation, and to prevent the overflow of sewage into the city waterways. The Project has been taken up at a cost of Rs. 720.15 crores includes providing additional sewage interceptors, refurbishing the existing sewer mains and capacity augmentation of the existing pumping stations and force mains to cope with the flow in the year 2021. The works of interceptors, pumping mains, gravity mains, pumping stations and construction of 4 Sewage Treatment Plant units at Perungudi (54 mld capacity), Koyambedu (60 mld capacity), Nesapakkam (40 mld capacity) and Kodungaiyur (110 mld capacity) have been completed.

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CDP Chennai

5.3

Solid Waste Management
Chennai Municipal Corporation and the respective ULBs are the responsible agency for solid waste management in their jurisdiction. According to Census 2001, the population of the City was 43.43 lakhs and the average per capita solid waste generated with in the City is estimated to be about 782 grams. It has been estimated that 3400 tonnes of solid waste is generated daily and in addition Chennai Corporation also handles about 500 tonnes of debris. Waste Generation A detailed "Municipal Solid Waste Management Study for Madras Metropolitan Area" with World Bank assistance during the year 1996 covered all aspects of solid waste management (existing situation and also the future requirements) and has identified the sources of generation as presented in Table 5.12. Table 5.12: Sources of Solid Waste Generation Sl. No Waste generation 1 Residence 2 Commercial 3 Restaurants / Hotels/ Kalyanamandapams / Schools and others 5 Markets 6 Hospitals and Clinics (collected separately) Total Source: M/S ERM, UK 1996

% to total 68 14 11 4 3 100

The composition and characteristics of solid waste is given in Table 5.13 and 5.14. Table 5.13: Composition of Waste Sl. No Composition 1 Paper 2 Rags 3 Organic Matter 4 Plastics 5 Metals 6 Rubber 7 Inert 8 Glass 9 Leather 10 Wood 11 Miscellaneous Source: M/S ERM, UK 1996

% to total by weight 4.45% 4.59% 59.06% 2.23% 0.04% 0.77% 26.69% 0.27% 0.33% 0.24% 1.33%

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CDP Chennai

Table 5.14: Chemical Analysis of Solid Waste Sl. No Items 1 Moisture content 2 Ph Value 3 Organic contents 4 Carbon 5 Nitrogen content 6 Phospherous as P2O3 7 Potassium as K2O 8 C / N Ratio 9 Calorific Value in Kj/kg Source: Mr.Ganesan & Dhanapal, 1990

% Value 27.61% 7.68% 39.06% 21.53% 0.73% 0.65% 0.63% 31.01 4595

From the above it is seen that Chennai Municipal Solid Waste contains high moisture content, small percentage of recyclable materials and more of compostable (organic matter) and inert materials. These characteristics show the low potential for applying refuse derived fuel and waste to energy (i.e. incineration) processing option due to the low combustibles, high moisture and high inert contents of the wastes. They also indicate high potential for composting of solid wastes. Collection & Transportation The Municipal Corporation and some NGOs are assisting communities to collect solid waste through Community Based arrangement in some areas of the City which are transferred to the dumper placers for further collection. The Municipal Corporation provides street sweepings and scientific collection through out the City. The Municipal Corporation has privatized about one-third of the collection and transfer to disposal sites in three zones to a private organization mounting to 1,000 tones per day. In Chennai Metropolitan area small, medium and large enterprises (secondary raw material) are involved in the recycling industry. They get the supplies from dealers who specialize in waste papers, glass, plastic, metals and other reusable material and are in turn supported by vast network of dealers and small traders. Rag pickers, including those at the landfill site, transfer stations and street level, together with itinerant buyers who collect, separate materials from door to door, provide dealers with regular supply of waste. It has been estimated that they recover about 400 tones per day of these material. At present the Chennai Corporation and ONYX are the two agencies are the responsible for entire solid waste collection and transportation. As per the corporation the collection efficiency is around 95% in the city and Door to Door collection reached up to 95% of the city area. Some salient future is shown in Table 5.15.

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Table 5.15: Chemical Analysis of Solid Waste Sl. No Items Chennai Municipal Corporation 1 Solid Waste Generation 2 Collection Efficiency 3 Door to Door Collection 4 Waste Separation 5 No of Try Cycles 6 Conservancy Staff 7 Number of Dust Bins Vehicles 8 HMV Capacity 12 Cumt 9 LMV Capacity 5 Cumt 10 DLDP 11 JCB Roller 12 Roll on -Roll off Tippers 13 Transfer Stations Dumping Yards 14 Kodungaiyur 15 Perungudi ONYX 1 Total Waste Collection 2 Number of Bins 3 Compactor Vehicles 4 Other Vehicles 5 Autos 6 Mechanical Sweepers 7 Transfer Stations Disposal

% Value 3,400.00 T 95% 95% 10% 1,684 10,130 1,480 191 120 8 15 10 6 182 Ha. 142 Ha. 1,180 T 5,500 17 32 117 2 2

Solid Waste is taken to the transfer stations and is finally disposed off at two designated disposal sites viz. Kodungaiyur located at Northern part of City and Perungudi in the south. The extent of the Kodungaiyur landfill site is 182 hectares and the Perungudi land site is 142 hectares. About 45% of the total solid waste generated is disposed at Kodungaiyur site and the remaining at Perungudi site. Within the Chennai Corporation there is a well established repair and maintenance system for vehicles. Chennai Corporation has taken action to modernize 7 transfer stations and machinery and also to improve basic infrastructure facilities at the landfill sites. It has also taken action to execute the project of making manure from solid waste on Design-Build-Operate- andTransfer basis. It has employed M/s National Productivity Council for preparation of a detailed report on the modernization of the Perungudi and Kodungaiyur Solid Waste Disposal sites and they have submitted their report, which is under consideration of the Corporation of Chennai. As a small scale measure, at Ward Level in 115 places, facilities have been created for making manure from community waste and the Corporation for the parks uses the manure.

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Bio – Methanation Plant A bio – methanation plant was been planned and implemented with the assistance of Government of India, Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources (67%) and from CMDA share (33%). The project is to generate electricity from vegetable waste at Koyambedu Wholesale Market Complex (KWMC) to dispose of 100 tons of organic waste at a total cost of Rs.5.07 Crores. The project would generate electricity to the tune of 230 kw per day and compost of 10 tones per day. Future Trends in Waste Generation The ERM Study conducted in 1996 estimated that the per capita waste requiring disposal in respect of Chennai City and municipalities was 0.782 gm, in town panchayats, 0.439 gm and 0.293 gm per capita per day in ULBs and panchayat unions respectively. Accordingly, the solid waste which would be generated in Chennai City, Municipalities and other local bodies within CMA in 2021 is as follows. The future garbage generation trends are presented in Table 5.16 Table 5.16: Future Garbage Generation Trends Administrative Areas Future Generation in 2021 (Tonnes) Chennai City 4332 Municipalities 1326 Special Village Panchayats 277 Village Panchayats 469 Total CMA 6403 Source: CMA Land Requirement In respect of Municipalities, most of them do not have any Transfer Stations and they directly dispose off the waste collected in the dump sites available within the local bodies. In most of the Village Panchayat areas the system of Solid Waste Collection and disposal is very limited. In respect of the Municipalities within CMA availability of land for disposal presently and requirement of land as per the estimates of the local bodies by 2005 are given in the Table 5.17 Table 5.17: Land Requirement for Land Fill Sites Sl. No. Municipality Available land (Acre) 1. Alandur 32.00 2. Pallavaram 31.00 3. Tambaram 36.25 4. Ambattur 18.00 5. Avadi 8.50 6. Kathivakkam 0 7. Thiruvotriyur 12.00 8. Madhavaram 3.66 9. Anakaputhur 0 10. Puzhithivakkam 2.00

Estimated requirement (Acre)
20 20 19 42 32 5 30 11 5 4
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Sl. No.
11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16

Municipality

Maduravoyal Manali Poonamallee Thiruverkkadu Valasaravakkam Pammal Total Source: CMA

Available land (Acre) 5.00 5.00 1.33 0 0 0 154.74

Estimated requirement (Acre)
6 4 6 4 4 0 212

All the municipal areas have identified disposal sites for scientific disposal of solid waste. A common land of extent 50 Acres has been purchased for Alandur, Pallavaram and Tambaram Municipalities at a cost of Rs.113.28 crore at Venkatamangalam village for developing the same as a modernized compost yard bringing the segregated wastes for the purpose. In addition, Tambaram Municipality has identified an extent of about 55 Acres at Nallur village in Sriperumbudur Taluk and 25 Acres in Punchai-Pothivakkam village, Chengalpattu Taluk. In respect of Ambattur Municipality 30 acres of land at Vengal village has been identified. For Kathivakkam Municipality, a site of an extent 5.5 Acre has been identified at Manali Village. Thiruvottiyur and Kathivakkam Municipalities are presently using the common disposal site of an extent 12 Acres at Sathangadu and Thiruvotriyur Municipality has taken action to alienate about 10 Acres from the sewage treatment plant site. Madhavaram Municipality has identified a site of an extent 4.70 Acres at Vadaperumbakkam and 4.93 Acres at Manali and taken action to acquire the same. Pammal Municipality has obtained 2.00 Acres of land for this purpose. Thiruverkadu Municipality has taken action to get 10.20 Acres of poromboke land at Koladi Village for this purpose. Valasarawakkam Municipality has also taken action to acquire lands. E-Waste Chennai Metropolis is one of the major destinations for I.T Industries and I.T Enabled Services. e-Waste generated by these industries is estimated to be considerable and disposal of the same in an environmentally acceptable manner requires attention. In the years to come these wastes generated by the I.T Industries will multiply and may pose environmental problems if not disposed scientifically in an acceptable manner.

5.4

Storm Water Drainage System in CMA
CMA is traversed by three major rivers namely Kosasthalaiyar River, Cooum River and Adyar River. Sholavaram Tank, Red Hills Tank and Chembarambakkam Tank are the major tanks in the CMA. Sholavaram Tank is the secondary storage tank receiving water from the Poondi Reservoir via Poondi Feeder Canal to supply Red Hills Tank. Red Hills Tank is the main source of water supply to the Chennai City and during storm events water is released to Red Hills Surplus Channel, which enters the Kosasthalaiyar River and discharges into the Sea. Its maximum storage capacity is 3285 Mft3 (93 Mm3). Chembarambakkam Tank has recently been developed as one of the sources for water supply to Chennai City and has maximum storage capacity of 103 Mft3.

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Kesavaram Anicut and regulator which are located in the uppermost catchment of the Poondi reservoir controls the discharge from upper catchment entering Poondi reservoir. Korattur Anicut and regulator control the discharge in the Cooum and direct the flow to the Chembarambakkam reservoir. Tamarapakkam Anicut located across Kosasthalaiyar River in the downstream of Poondi reservoir controls excess Tamarapakkam Anicut discharge in the Kosasthalaiyar. Vallur Anicut is a small check dam constructed near Minjur across the Kosasthalaiyar River to control water levels and feed irrigation channels in the area. CMA also has a network of lakes, canals and channels within its boundary. There are about 320 numbers of tanks /lakes that are earlier used as water source for irrigation and now serve as flood accommodators. Apart from these lakes there are a large number of ponds in CMA. Buckingham Canal traverses through CMA for a length of 40 Km. It runs in the North South direction and connects all the major three rivers in CMA and acts as flood accommodator. Otteri Nullah is a channel to accommodate flood, which originates from a place called Otteri near Padi, flows through the city at Anna Nagar, Kilpauk, Purasawalkam, and Perambur and joins Buckingham Canal near Basin Bridge. Buckingham Canal Virugambakkam-Arumbakkam Drain originates near Oragadam passes through Virugambakkam-Arumbakkam area of the city and joins into Cooum River. Mambalam Drain is also a flood accommodator, which originates from Mambalam area passes through T.Nagar, Nandanam and joins Adyar River. Captain Cotton Canal originates from the Vyasarpadi area of the city and joins Buckingham Canal near Tondiarpet. Velachery Drain is a flood accommodator originates from Velachery tank and joins Pallikkaranai Swamp. The agencies responsible for management of storm water drainage in CMA are presented in Table 5.18.

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Table 5.18: Agencies responsible for Management of Storm Water. Agency Responsibility Chennai Metropolitan Development Project Packaging and Management Monitoring Authority (CMDA) and co-ordination Public Works Department (PWD) Plan, Design and Implementation of Macro Drainage Works Chennai Municipal Corporation (CMC) Plan, Design and Implementation of Micro Drainage Works Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board Formulation and Implementation of TNSCB Rehabilitation and Resettlement Package Waterways in CMA The length of the major waterways passing through the City and their total length in CMA is given in Table 5.19 and are presented in Map 5.3 Table 5.19: Length of Major Waterways in CMA Waterway
River Cooum River Adyar North Buckingham Canal Central Buckingham Canal South Buckingham Canal Otteri Nullah Captain Cotton Canal Kosasthalaiyar Mambalam Drain Kodungaiyur Drain Virugambakkam-Arumbakkam Drain Total Length Source: CMDA

City Length in Km 18.0 15.0 7.1 7.2 4.2 10.2 2.9 9.4 6.9 6.9 23.2

CMA 40.0 24.0 17.1 7.2 16.1 10.2 4.0 16.0 9.4 6.9 6.9 157.8

MMFR / SWD Master Plan Study CMDA had engaged the services of the consultant M/s Mott MacDonald International, UK, to conduct the study titled 'Madras Metro Flood Relief/Storm Water Drainage Master Plan Study ' in 1992-93. The main objective of the study was to bring together the previous studies carried to assess the problem of flooding in Chennai and to identify using modern hydrological and hydraulic modeling techniques/measures to alleviate flooding in the North of the City. The study area comprised of two parts, (1) 90 sq.km strip north of the river Cooum and (2) 30 sq.km area south of the City named as Pallikkaranai. Both the macro drainage systems and the micro drainage system had been examined. The range of options examined included upstream storage (to be implemented under Krishna Water supply scheme), diversion of flood flows into tanks, canals, channel resection, structural improvements (including outfalls), provision of short cut canal between the Buckingham and the Sea, formalization of flood path and provision of flood defaces (walls, banks, etc.).

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Map 5.3: Waterways in Chennai Metropolitan Region

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Schemes have been outlined for the Cooum, the Kosasthalaiyar, the Red Hills Surplus Channel, the Buckingham Canal, the Otteri Nullah and the Captain Cotton Canal. Protection has been proposed on the Kosasthalaiyar on the south bank only, and a controlled floodway is proposed for the north bank upstream of Minjur. For the urban storm water (micro) system, existing coverage of drainage provision within the study area boundary was found to be 50%. However the drainage system was generally found to be in a poor state, with many blockages due to solid waste and services (water pipes, cables etc.) and repairs needed. The principal interventions envisaged are the repairs/rehabilitation of existing systems and improved maintenance. The Master Plan comprised of the following components:
• • • • • Structural works for major flood alleviation and for rehabilitation of the urban storm water system Non-structural measures required to support these investments; Capacity building, with particular emphasis on system maintenance and master plan implementation; Further studies required to progress the plan; Monitoring and evaluation requirements.

Non-structural measures recommendations include:
• • • • • • • Designated floodways on the North side of the Kosasthalaiyar with associated planning controls and flood warning/evacuation procedures Design guidelines for drainage systems Planning and regulatory controls to prevent development in old tank beds unless adequate flood defense measures are in place Planning and regulatory controls to prevent encroachment of squatter settlements in old tank beds and watercourses Provision of good facilities (vehicles, communications) for flood emergency management Public education (e.g. to prevent solid waste dumping in urban drains) Flood risk mapping

Drainage study for Pallikkaranai A separate study for Pallikkaranai area was carried out with the aim to provide protection to an area about 30 Sq.km. lying in and around Pallikkaranai from flooding as the swamp receives run-off from a catchment area of 235 Sq.kms. The study proposed diversion of substantial portion of run off from upstream catchments along a cut off drain linking the existing surplus channel close to a village called Karanai with the Kovalam Backwaters. Northern boundaries of Pallikkaranai Drainage Area cuts off the centre of the existing swamp area at Pallikkaranai. The area to the north will continue to be subject to inundation as run off enters the area from North and West. East West Flood Protection Bund protects this side of PDA. In order to provide internal drainage to the PDA two pumping stations have to be located in the East-West Flood Protection Bund to lift the water over the Bund. A balancing pond is also to be located near the pumping station. However, protection to the area is to be provided by three interceptor drains, which carry overland flows from local catchment around the boundary of the PDA. An arterial drain

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has to be constructed along the centre of the PDA, which will pick up drainage flows within the area. of the proposal are given in the sheets annexed. Tertiary Drainage System At present the total length of storm water drains are 769 km in Chennai Corporation area. The tertiary system is available for the entire major arterial road network. In the case of the municipalities and other ULBs in CMA, the network coverage is poor. The Storm Water Drainage Master Plan for the Madras city and Pre feasibility Study for the Madras Metropolitan Area prepared in 1994 provides for possible interventions to improve the functioning of the micro drainage system in Chennai city. For the urban storm water (micro system) existing system of drainage coverage within the study area is found to be 50% with additional areas draining overland in to the urban drainage network. The drainage system was generally found to be in a poor state, with many blockages due to solid waste and municipal waste and services (water pipes, cables, etc.) and repairs needed. The principal intervention is thus require repairs /resection of the existing system and improved maintenance which is seriously under funded. Capital works includes new works includes area of drainage in particular at Arumbakkam-Virugambakkam along with some investment in new drain or drain enlargement within the existing system and investment of new outfall facilities. Outside the City, there are currently few drainage facilities provided by the primary and secondary network of rivers and surplus channels. Improvements to this drainage network will be essential if development is to proceed within the CMA at the pace envisaged. A number of strategic initiatives had been identified for the development of CMA including flood banks on the South side of the Kosasthalaiyar, improvements to the Ambattur/Korattur/Madhavaram surplus channel system and improvements to drainage works in the Pallikkaranai area. In addition to this specific proposal there is a need to develop a strategic planning policy within CMA, which would focus on some of the important requirements for the continued functioning of the drainage system as development advances. These might include retention of tanks as open space, provision of river corridor, prevention of encroachment in tanks, the definition of secondary drainage system and development of tertiary and quaternary system and links between these and secondary/primary system.

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CHAPTER VI – ENVIRONMENT AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT

6.1

Overview
The metropolitan environment comprises of mainly two components viz. (i) environment per se, and (ii) the habitat. The environment per se relates to natural features and resources including the air, noise, water and land (open spaces, forests etc.). The habitat is related to built environment and infrastructures such as water supply, sewerage, and solid waste disposal. The conservation of natural resources includes management of air, noise, water & land.

6.2

Air Pollution
Under the Air (Preservation & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and in the Environment (Protection) Act 1986, the National Standards for ambient air quality have been notified. TNPCB in its Environment Management plan for Chennai city, 2003 has identified that the major pollutants generated in the city are particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, and ammonia gas. The major sources of air pollution are domestic (fuels for cooking), commercial (fuel consumed by commercial establishments, trade, industry, hotels etc.), industrial (due to wood, coke, furnace oil LPG, kerosene etc.) vehicular (petrol & diesel fuels), generator sets (diesel and kerosene fuels), natural sources (odour pollution due to gases emanated from polluted stretches, waterways – ‘B' Canal, Adyar, Cooum). The TNPCB estimation of the pollution load in different sectors in Chennai City is given in Table 6.1. Table 6.1: Pollution load from different sectors in Chennai City Sources Pollutant (T/day) NO2 HC CO Total Percentage SPM SO2 Domestic 0.032 0.170 1.049 0.101 0.243 1.865 2.65% Commercial 0.875 1.466 0.731 0.120 0.087 3.279 4.66% Gen Sets 0.296 0.509 0.268 0.039 0.026 1.138 1.61% Industrial 2.510 4.565 6.085 0.3119 0.4320 13.9039 19.78% Vehicular 9.3 0.20 10.25 10.24 20.10 50.09 71.28% Total (T/d) 13.28 6.91 18.38 10.81 20.88 70.26 100 Source: TNPCB The major contribution to Chennai air pollution load is vehicular sector (71.28%) followed by industrial sector (19.70%). TNPCB has mapped the air pollution impact areas and listed the impact areas are presented in Table 6.2:

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Table 6.2: Pollution load from different sectors in Chennai City Impact Areas Areas Impact Area I (high) T. Nagar, Part of Saidapet, Choolaimedu, Vadapalani, Royapettah, Egmore, Part of Adyar, Tenampet, some part of Tondiarpet, Koyambedu, Purasawalkam, Mandaveli, Mylapore, George Town Impact Area II (medium) Korattur, Anna Nagar, Velachery Impact Area III (low) Other than above areas Source: TNPCB

6.3

Water Pollution
Chennai is traversed by three rivers (viz. Kosasthalaiyar, Cooum and Adyar), B' canal and other natural and man-made canals & drains. The waterways of Chennai are not perennial in nature and receive flood discharge only during monsoon season; in the rest of the year it acts as a carrier of wastewater from sewage treatment plants and others. The TNPCB monitors, the discharge of sewage and trade effluents generated by local bodies and industries into the water bodies / waterways. The basin-wise sewage generation during the year 2000 is given in the Table 6.3. Chennai Major Water Bodies are represented in Map 6.1: Table 6.3: Waterways Basin wise Sewerage Generation (Year 2000) Sl. No. Waterways Basin Drainage Area
(Sq.km) Adyar River Cooum River Buckingham Canal North Buckingham canal Central Buckingham canal South Buckingham canal 4 Captain Cotton Canal 5 Otteri Nullah 6 Mambalam Drain Total Source: TNPCB 1 2 3 12 20 10 5 2 10 24 6 89

Sewerage Generation (MLD) 87 92 83 46 29 47 129 19 532

The study conducted by M/s Wardrop Engineering Inc. 1995 revealed that the waterways in Chennai convey treated and untreated sewage and receive debris and solid waste also though they were originally natural flood discharge channels. The addition of untreated liquid waste had lead to a very high level of pollutants and the disposal of the solid and the encroachment of slums had severely reduced flows particularly during Monsoon periods. However, the recent data collected by TNPCB, has shown that certain industries have plugged their outfalls and provided effluent treatment plants (ETP) and are recycling the waste water. TNPCB under the MINARS programme periodically monitors the water quality of the city waterways. Water samples are collected and analysed by TNPCB every month at ‘B'canal

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(at north, central and south stretches), Otteri Nallah, Adyar River and Cooum River. According to PCB, all these water bodies in the city are polluted and not suitable for any designated uses (viz. drinking, bathing, propagation of wild life like animal husbandry & fisheries, industrial, cooking and washing and agriculture); level of contamination is relatively high in ‘B' canal followed by Otteri Nullah and Cooum River. The nature of out fall is presented in Table 6.4. Table 6.4: Wastewater Outfall Details Waterway Sewage River Cooum 109 Adyar River 58 Otteri Nullah 42 South 'B' Canal 26 Central 'B' Canal 30 North 'B' Canal 58 Redhills Surplus Channel Mambalam Drain 14 Captain Cotton Canal 13 Kodungaiyur new Drain 2 Ambattur Surplus Tank 5 Total 357

Nature of Outfall Storm water Industrial Others 6 1 23 4 1 1 1 5 3 1 4 8 1 5 2 47 14 5

Total 116 81 47 27 31 67 4 23 13 2 12 423

The study on environmental improvement of watercourses in Greater Madras recommended for extension of sewerage system to unsewered areas and use of low cost sanitation wherever appropriate, purchase of jetting equipment and replacement of smaller pumps with submersible pumps, extension of storm water drainage system, resolution of interconnections between sewers and storm water drains, short term improvements at sewage works, extension and long term improvements at sewage works, equipment to clean storm water drains, equipment for street cleaning, sanitary waste disposal, dredging and grading of river Cooum, completion of river Adyar flood protection scheme, desludging of Buckingham Canal, North Ennore lock to the river Cooum, filling up of central portion of the Buckingham Canal between the rivers Cooum and Adyar, desludging of Buckingham Canal between the River Adyar and the City limit, pumping of Otteri Nullah for treatment, dredging and regrading of Otteri Nullah and construction of the groyne to improve the Cooum outfall to the sea, if needed.

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Map 6.1: Chennai Major water Bodies

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Chennai Waterway Conservation Programme The sludge disposal consultancy study conducted in 1994 by the consultant M/s MMI has revealed that contamination of water ways and anaerobic digestion of waste water flowing in the water ways had led to the accumulation of sludge causing hindrance to the hydraulic functioning of the water ways and also causing contamination of water ways in the eco system. The following are the estimates of the sludge accumulation in Chennai waterways is presented in Table 6.5. Table 6.5: Estimates of Sludge Accumulated in Inner Chennai Waterways Waterways Leng Typical width in Characteristi Sludge volume in 'ooo m th in dry season (m) cs Km Water Total Dura Acces Hydraulic Envtl.* Both bility s nuisance Nuisance Cooum 18.00 23-40 45-120 D O 1210 350-750 1280 Adyar 15.00 15-200 90-500 E,P O,O* 1880 340-200 1960 North B' Canal 7.10 15 20 D/E,P O/N 150 40-100 200 Central 'B' Canal 7.20 5 20 E O 200 30-50 200 South 'B' Canal 4.40 9 15 D,P C 10 20-50 20 Otteri Nullah 10.20 4-5 7-20 E/D O/C 100 30-60 110 Captain Cotton 2.90 5-40 25-45 E,P C 20 40-60 50 Total 64.80 3570 840-250 3820 Source: M/s MMI, Sludge Disposal Consultancy, 1994 Accordingly the Chennai City River Conservation Project (CCRCP) was conceived and CMWSSB had implemented a project at a cost of Rs. 720.15 Crores for prevention of sewage flow into waterways, treatment of sewage, construction of interceptor sewers and enhancement of pumping station capacity which as approved by the National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD), Government of India. Ground Water Chennai is underlain by various geological formations from ancient Archaeans to recent Alluviums. It can be grouped into three viz. (i) Archaean Crystalline Metamorphic rocks (ii) Upper Gondwanas comprised of sandstones, siltstones and shoals, tertiary (Eocene to Pliocene) sandstones and (iii) coastal and river Alluvium. The agencies have observed that the chemical quality of ground water in Chennai City is generally brackish and not suitable for drinking purposes. In general it is alkaline with pH value from 7.8 to 9.0 and many pockets have high chloride and sulphate; very few selected pockets have potable quality at Besant Nagar, Greenways Road, Nungambakkam, Kilpauk etc. and also good fresh water aquifer is found in the stretch between Thiruvanmiyur and Uthandi along the coast. In areas like K.K. Nagar, Ashok Nagar, Sastri Nagar, Mylapore,Anna Nagar etc. excess iron has been found resulting in reddish colour of water, chocking pipes with yellowish brown precipitate and also disagreeable taste. The quality changes due to seawater intrusion in the past are evident in Triplicane, Mandaveli and other areas along the coast. Mandatory provision of rainwater structures within the city has improved the recharging potential for the ground water and also the water quality and Ground Water table in the recent past.

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Bio-Medical Waste Bio-Medical wastes have become potentially hazardous because of its potential for infection, and also for its ingredients including antibiotics, cytotoxic drugs, corrosive chemicals and radioactive substances. TNPCB has estimated that in-patient hospital serves in Chennai generate about 1 to 2 kg of solid waster per person per day, and Chennai city has a bed strength of about 20,000 and the bio-medical waste generate per day is about 5000 kg. The hospital authorities themselves usually incinerate the infectious wastes and some of the major hospitals have double chamber incinerators. TNPCB has recently identified a site for location of common treatment and disposal of bio-medical wastes at Thenmelpakkam village to serve Chennai city and the adjoining Kancheepuram & Thiruvallur districts. Hazardous Industrial Wastes The hazardous wastes generated from the industries such as electroplating, chemical, petrochemical, service stations, textile processing and engineering type of industries are stored in the industries premises safely, recycled where possible and disposed at sites recommended by the TNPCB. Recently site at Melakottaiyur in the adjoining district has been identified for common treatment and disposal, to serve Chennai City and the adjoining Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts. In the recent past, one of the major level pollution problem identified is the one due to the non-degradable plastic wastes. The preventive, promotional and mitigative aspects considered to tackle this problem taken by the authorities concerned includes, source segregation of municipal wastes, raising consumer and public awareness, specifying plastics suitable for recycling, penalties for littering, specifying minimum thickness of plastic carry bags.

6.4

Noise Pollution:
The Noise level survey conducted by the TNPCB reveals that noise level exceeded the limits mostly in commercial areas, mainly due to vehicular movement. During festive seasons in Chennai, the noise levels were noted high and particularly during Diwali it exceeded 120 dB (A).

6.5

Coastal Zone
The coastal line of Bay of Bengal in the east throughout its length bound Chennai Metropolis. In CMA, developments in the coastal stretches are regulated as per the CRZ Management plan approved by the Government of India on 27.9.1996 and the CRZ regulations notified by the Government of India under the Environment (Protection)) Act.1986.

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6.6

Green Areas
Chennai city has only about 2% of the area as declared parks. In Chennai Metropolitan Area, the declared forest cover is about 24 sq. kms, which is about 2 percent of the CMA area. However, satellite imageries show that green cover over the city due to trees along roadside and within the sites is of considerable extent. There is ample scope for further development of this green cover within the city and also in the rest of CMA, particularly along roads drains, riverbanks etc. Increase in green cover in urban habitats becomes a necessity not only to alleviate the problems of pollution, but also to ensure ecological stability.

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CHAPTER VII – TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION
The need to take an integrated long term view of transport needs of CMA and to plan road development, public transport services and suburban rail transport as a part of the urban planning process have been well recognized as essential for the efficient functioning of the urban system. Many studies have been done in the past for development of transportation in CMA. These include Madras Area Transport study (MATS - 1968), Integrated Transport Plan (1977), Madras Route Rationalization study (1986), Traffic and Transportation study for MMA, Comprehensive Traffic and Transportation Study (CTTS 1992-95). Based on the recommendations of these studies several major projects such as formation of Inner Ring Road, addition of buses, improvements to Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC) infrastructure, Mass Rapid Transit system (MRTS) etc have been taken up for implementation. However, these efforts have not kept pace with the increase in travel demand.

7.1

The Existing Situation
The traffic and transportation schemes are presently implemented by several departments and agencies. While longterm planning and coordination is carried out by CMDA, individual schemes are executed by Railways, DHRW, CC, MTC; traffic enforcement by Traffic Police. The total length of road network in Chennai city is 2,780 km.
MRTS at Mylapore Station While the urban rail network development is carried out by the Southern Railway, the major arterial & sub-arterial road corridors and other roads are developed and maintained by Highways Department and the local bodies concerned respectively. The roads within the local body areas are improved and maintained by the Directorate of Municipal Administration, Directorate of Town Panchayats and Directorate of Rural Development through the local bodies concerned. As for the traffic management and enforcement are concerned, the same is looked after by the City Traffic Police in respect of Greater Chennai Area and District Police for the rest of the CMA. The public bus transport is currently vested with Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC).

There are a number of committees to coordinate the implementation of transport schemes in the CMA. They are:
• High Level Coordination Committee for MRTS (Chaired by Vice-Chairman, CMDA) for coordinating implementation of MRTS Phase-I&II

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• • •

Chennai Road Safety Council (Chaired by Commissioner of Police) for traffic enforcement Coordination Committee (Chaired by Superintending Engineer, Chennai Corporation) Indian Transport Road Development Association (Chaired by Rane Power Steering Ltd.).

Besides these agencies, there are agencies, which are concerned with licensing of vehicles and policy making such as Regional Transport Office etc.

7.1.1 Road Network
The road network of Chennai is dominated by a radial pattern converging at George Town, which is the main Central Business District (CBD) of the CMA. The road network is primarily based on the four National Highways, leading to Calcutta (NH5), Bangalore (NH4), Thiruvallur (NH 205) and Trichy (NH 45). In addition to these, Arcot Road, Kamarajar Salai, Thiruvottiyur High Road, Old Mahabalipuram Road and East Coast Road are the other important radial roads in CMA. Map 7.1 shows the aerial road and hierarchy of road network in Chennai Metropolitan Region Rail Network The commuter rail system in CMA operated by the Southern Railways consists of 3 lines:
• • • Chennai Beach - Tambaram BG line running south-west Chennai Central - Thiruvallur B.G.line running west and Chennai Central - Gummidipoondi BG line running north

Arcot Road

These lines radiate from the city-centre. These 3 lines together account for 300,000 commuter trips per day. While the first two corridors carry intercity passengers on separate dedicated lines, the third corridor carries both commuters and intercity passengers on the same lines. In addition, the Phase 1 & Phase 2 of MRTS are currently in operation traversing a length of more than 15 km covering the residential and IT corridor on the south eastern side of the city.

7.1.2 Bus Transport
The bus transport is being operated by Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC), which had a fleet strength of 2,773 buses in 2004. They operate 537 routes and carry 36 lakhs trips/day.

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There is acute overcrowding in buses during peak hours. The overloading is as high as 150% in certain routes as the supply is inadequate. As a result, overcrowding at the bus stops and spillover on the carriageways has become common. The waiting time at the bus stops has also increased.

7.1.3 Goods Transport
The number of goods vehicles in Chennai has increased from 6,671 in 1980 to 32629 in 2005. According to a study by MMDA (1985) the main items of movement are manufactured goods (15.5%), building materials (9.9%), industrial raw materials (9.2%), perishables (9.1%) and parcels (8.5%). CMDA had taken steps to shift some of the wholesale markets and create truck terminals on the periphery of the City. Of these Sattangadu steel market, Koyambedu perishables market and Madavaram truck terminal have been made operational.

7.1.4 Seaports
The Chennai Port Trust (CPT) located in the CBD handled 33.69 million tonnes in 2002-2003. Of the total import and export the foreign traffic handled accounts for 93% and the coastal traffic 7% for the year 2002-2003. While mineral oils and other POL account for 41% of the imports, iron-ore accounts for 56% of the exports in 2002-2003. CPT handled container traffic to the tune of 424,665 TEUs in 2002-2003, which is 23.3% more than that handled in the previous year.

Chennai Port

The Ennore Port Limited (EPL), developed as a satellite port to CPT, is the 12th major port in India and the first corporate port in India and presently handles around 10m tonnes of thermal coal per annum.

7.1.5 Airport
Chennai has a national air terminal viz. Kamarajar Domestic Terminal and an international terminal viz. Anna International Terminal located at Meenambakkam. Totally 20 international flights per day are operated from Chennai. While the growth of international traffic is 5%, that of the national air traffic is 7%. The AAI imports 44,000 to 51,000 tonnes of cargo per year and exports 63,000 to 68,000 tonnes per year. While the growth of international passenger movement is 17.8% for the period 1997-98 to 2003-2004, the growth of passenger traffic within the country is 42.5%. Similarly the growth of international cargo movement is 93% for the same period and that within the country is 167%. The Indian Airlines operate daily 140 flights, which result in 12,500 trips.

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7.2

Vehicle and person trips in CMA
Figure 7.1: Vehicle Pop in Chennai City The total number of motor vehicles in 1. Vehicle Population in Chennai City (as CMA has increased from 144,282 in 1984 on 1.1.2005) to 1,674,185 in 2005. The vehicle Car/Jeep population has grown at the rate of 50% per annum during this period. The number of T/W two-wheelers has grown enormously from 87,000 in 1984 to 1,266,114 in 2005, at the Total rate of about 65% per annum. Twowheelers constitute 76% of the total vehicle population (67% in Delhi, 41.5% in Mumbai and 43% in Calcutta). The number of motorcars has also increased significantly. Vehicle population in Chennai city is illustrated in Figure: 7.1
1800000 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000

Vehicles ( in nos.)

800000 600000 400000 200000

0

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

Year

Figure 7.2: Distribution of Vehicle type
3 . Dis trib ut io n o f Vehicles b y Typ e - 1 9 9 2

Bus Truck Other Car 1% 0% 4% A/R 21% 3%

2. Distribution of Vehicles by T ype - 1984
Bus Truck A/ R TW
Car 24% Ot her 0% Bus 1% Tr uck 10% A/ R 4% Bus Truck A/ R TW Car TW 61% Ot her

TW 71%

Car Ot her

4. Distribution of Vehicles by T ype 2005
Ot her Car 19% 1% Tr uck Bus 0% 2% A/ R 3% Bus Truck A/ R TW Car TW 75% Ot her

According to the CTTS (1992-95), the per capita trip rate is 1.30 per day and the trip rate per household is 5.88 per day. On a typical weekday, the residents of the metropolitan area perform about 7.45 million trips by a variety of travel modes for various purposes. The pie diagram of distribution of vehicle type (year wise) is shown in Figure: 7.2. In a group of 100, 38 travels by bus, 4 by train, and 30 by walk, 14 by cycle, 7 by two wheeler, 2 by car and 5 by other modes. The average person trips in CMA are presented in Table 7.1. The fatality rate is also high at 40 per 10,000 vehicles. Forty-two percent of accidents involve pedestrians and 10% cyclists.

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Table 7.1: Daily average person trip distribution by mode in CMA Sl. Mode No. & percent of total trips by mode (Trips in million) No. 1970 1984 1992 No. Percent No. Percent No. Percent 1 Bus 1.100 41.50 3.074 45.50 2.84 37.90 2 Train 0.303 11.50 0.610 9.00 0.31 4.10 3 Car/Taxi 0.084 3.20 0.103 1.50 0.11 1.50 4 Fast two wheeler 0.043 1.70 0.219 3.20 0.52 7.00 5 Auto rickshaw 0.024 0.40 0.16 2.20 6 Bicycle 0.565 21.30 0.720 10.70 1.06 14.20 7 Cycle rickshaw & 0.002 0.10 0.105 1.60 0.24 3.50 others 8 Walk 0.550 20.7 1.895 28.10 2.21 29.50 Total 2.647 100.0 6.750 100.00 7.45 100.00 Source: MATS (1968-69), Short-term Traffic Improvement Programme Report (MMDA & KCL, 1984) & CTTS (MMDA, RITES, KCL & PTCS, 1992-95). The diagrammatic Figure: 7.3 represent the distribution of person trips by mode of transport.
Figure 7.3: Distribution of Person Trips By mode
Distribution of P erson T rips by Mode - Bus 1992
Ot hers IPT 1% 5% Walk 29%

Distribution of P erson T rips by Mode 1970
Walk 21% A/ R 0% Bus 41%

Train Car TW
Bus 39%

Bus Train Car TW Cycle Walk A/R

Cycle Walk Others IPT
Cycle 21%

Cycle 14%

TW Car Train 7% 1% 4%

TW 2%

Car 3%

Train 12%

Distribution of P erson T rips by Mode - 2004 Others IPT Bus 1% 2% Walk 29% 28% Train 5%

Bus Train Car TW Cycle Walk Others IPT

Cycle 13%

TW 18%

Car 4%

7.2.1 Road Network
Arterial roads leading to CBD carrying heavy traffic due to concentration of commercial, industrial and other employment-related activities in the CBD are highly congested. Other major roads are also congested. A measure to indicate congestion is the number of registered vehicles per kilometer of road. When it is measured against this unit the congestion has increased sevenfold for

Layout of Koyambedu

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the period 1984 to 2004. Capacity of almost all roads in the present system is reduced due to poor quality of riding surface, inadequate pedestrian pavement, poor lighting conditions and lack of properly designed intersections. On an average, about 425 new vehicles are put on the roads every day without corresponding increase in memorable road space. The increase in road space accounts for only 3 to 4% of the total area, which is of very low order when compared with 11% in Bangkok and 20-25% in developed cities such as London, Paris or New York. The Problems
• Capacity of almost all roads in the present system is reduced due to poor quality of riding surface, inadequate pedestrian pavement, poor lighting conditions and lack of properly designed intersections. The volume capacity ratio (V/C ratio) on many of the links during the peak hour is more than one. In the CBD links the V/C ratio is more than 1.5. Establishment of multi-national car companies in the vicinity of the CMA (Mahindra Ford Company at MM Nagar, Hyundai Company at Sriperumbudur, Hindustan Motors at Thiruvallur) and establishment of Tidel Park and a large of number of IT (Infosys, Wipro, TCS) and IT enabling service establishments is bound to increase car ownership in the CMA thereby adversely affecting the traffic condition. With the mushrooming financial institutions making available easy finance to own motorized vehicles by individuals, the problems of the traffic congestion on city roads will escalate further. The phenomenal growth of vehicles coupled with minimal increase in road space has resulted in travel speeds as low as 15 kmph in CBD and 20 kmph in other major roads along with considerable hold-ups in junctions. Certain missing links especially in the orbital direction have also reduced the efficiency of movement. Ad hoc use of the carriageway and footpaths for utilities and inadequate and poorly maintained drainage system also affect the efficient use of the roads. The parking shortage is acute in the CBD area. The demand for parking in CBD is 1.5 to 2 times the supply and the acute shortage of parking supply is pronounced in the commercial areas of Anna Salai, T.Nagar, Purasawalkam and Mylapore. Parking is inadequate along the major arterial roads. Conflicts between fast moving vehicular traffic and bicycle and pedestrian traffic have reduced the capacity and safety. Lack of organised parking including loading/unloading facilities for trucks results in reduced capacity and safety of movement. Permanent and temporary encroachment of footpaths and carriageway has reduced the capacity of the road. Inadequate enforcement of traffic rules and lack of road sense among the road users and insufficient regulatory measures have resulted in inefficient use of the network system. Increase in air pollution levels with the suspended particulate matter (SPM) ranging from 264 to 451 against the permissible limit of 200, carbon monoxide (CO) was ranging from 1908 to 4198 µ g/m3 against the permissible limit of 2000. Bus and rail developing as competing modes rather than being complementary to each other and the sprawling suburban development without adequate transport facilities has placed considerable demand in favor of private vehicles and have emphasized the warrant for interchange facilities at mass transit stations.
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7.2.2 Railways
The most used commuter line is Chennai Beach – Tambaram rail line and its capacity is limited and restricted by a number of grade crossings. Inter-modal transfers from bus to rail and vice versa is generally absent or under-developed and there is no system integration of the rail and bus modes. The Southern Railway operates daily 180 arrivals and departures which amount to 2.25 lakhs trips.

7.2.3 Bus Transport
There is acute overcrowding in buses during peak hours in almost all the routes and in offpeak periods also in certain routes. The overloading is as high as 150% in certain routes. The supply is grossly inadequate leading to inhuman conditions of travel in buses. The State Transport Corporations similarly operate daily 4160 arrivals and departures, which result in another 1.66 lakhs trips

7.2.4 Goods Transport
The number of routes for goods movement is limited. There is acute shortage of parking for goods vehicles. All these add to the economic cost on the city.

7.2.5 Parking
CMDA has undertaken a two-stage parking study for the CMA. The first stage study has principally focused on the problems of parking across the CMA and drawn up a comprehensive parking policy for the CMA as a whole. The upshot of the study is outlined as follows: Based on field surveys covering 360 Parking Facilities at Koyambedu Bus critical stretches, the total peak parking stand demand in the city is in the order of 13,000 PCE against a supply of 5100 PCE. For example the supply in T. Nagar is 794 PCE against a demand of 2151 PCE and the supply in Parrys is 704 PCE against a demand of 4426 PCE. The haphazard parking has led to loss in the road capacity that ranges between 15% to 60%. After taking stock of the entire parking problems and issues in the CMA, the study recommended a parking policy for Chennai on the basis of best practices followed both inside and outside the country. The thrust of the recommended parking policy is as follows:

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CDP Chennai

• •

• • • •

• •

Short-stay parking is preferably located in proximity to trip destinations and protected from long-stay parkers; Institutions (e.g. education institutions), industrial establishments, commercial complexes, cinema theatres, kalyana mandapams, entertainment halls, hotels and restaurants should provide adequate off-street parking facilities for employees, visitors etc; Commuter parking should be provided at the railway stations and at the MTC bus terminals by the respective authorities to facilitate the commuters to adopt the park and ride concept; Multi level parking (ramp type and mechanical parking) facilities should be planned and developed at suitable locations; Considering the existing road network and the growth trend in the private vehicle population, it is necessary to bring down the demand on parking spaces, both on-street and off-street; Since transportation is a function of land-use, allocation of spaces for various landuses within the CMA could be done with a view on reducing the use of private motorised vehicles such as high dense developments, exclusive commercial neighbourhoods; Parking pricing should be judiciously devised to manage Parking problem on the demand side. Till the proposed Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority (UMTA), is formed the agencies / departments which are currently looking after parking related issues should be facilitated to perform their expected roles effectively and in a coordinated manner; An effective institutional structure is necessary to implement the various provisions of the parking policy discussed above. A critical element of the parking policy is to evolve off-street parking standards for various activities, which would become ultimately part of the Development Control Rules of the Master Plan for the CMA. With an objective of promoting transit rider ship, a special set of parking standards for the influence area of rail corridors have been suggested where lesser parking standards has been mooted. Separate set of standards has thus been evolved for (i) the areas falling within Corporation limits, Municipalities and IT corridor, (ii) Panchayat areas and (iii) transit corridors.

7.2.6 Future Travel Trips
Figure 7.4: Growth of Travel demand in CMA The travel demands in 2004, 2011, Grow th of T ravel demand in CMA 2016, 2021 & 2026 have been projected on the basis of increase in 30 per capita trips (from 1.32 in 2004 20 to 1.6 by 2016 and 1.65 by 2026). Tr ips in million 10 The modal split between public and private transport will change from 0 1984 2004 2016 2026 43:57 to 35:65 (2004), 55:45 (2011) and 60:40 (2016), 65:35 (2021) and 70:30 (2026) in line with the trend in share of public transport increasing with city size.

The sub modal split between bus and rail will have to change from 91:9 to 85:15 (2004), 75:25 (2011) and 70.30 (2016), 65:35 (2021) and 60:40 (2026) if the road transport system is not to break down in the context of increased commuter trips. The projected daily trips

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by public transport are presented in Table 7.2. Demand in growth travel of CMA is graphically presented in Figure: 7.4. Table 7.2: Projected Daily Trips by Public Transport Year 1991 2001 2004 2006 2011 2016 2021 Population in lakhs 58.07 70.41 75.61 78.96 88.71 99.62 111.98 Daily per capita trips 1.29 1.30 1.32 1.34 1.50 1.60 1.60 Total daily person 74.91 91.53 99.81 105.81 133.07 159.39 179.17 trips in lakhs Modal Split % Private 57.00 60.00 64.57 55.00 45.00 40.00 35.00 Public 43.00 40.00 35.43 45.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 Total daily person trips by public transport in lakhs 32.21 36.61 35.36 47.61 73.19 95.64 116.46 By rail % 9.25 12.00 14.54 16.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 By Road % 90.75 88.00 85.46 84.00 75.00 70.00 65.00 Daily trips in lakhs By rail 2.98 4.39 5.14 7.62 18.30 28.69 40.76 By Road 29.23 32.22 30.22 39.99 54.89 66.94 75.70 Source: CTTS (MMDA, RITES, KCL & PTCS, 1992-95) & Short term study to update CTTS (1992-95) (CMDA, RITES & PTCS, 2004)
Figure 7.5: Mass Transport trips

2026 125.82 1.65 207.60 30.00 70.00 145.32 40.00 60.00 58.13 87.19

It will be seen from the Table 7.2 that the number of trips carried by bus transport in 2004 would become nearly 2.8 times in the year 2026. Similarly the volume of passengers to be carried by rail transport will be nearly 11 times the present volume. The projected mass transport trips are presented in Table 7.3. and Figure: 7.5

Mass T rransport T rips 2004 & 2026

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2004 2026 Road Rail

Table 7.3 : Mass Transport Trips 2004 & 2026 (in lakhs) Mass Transport Trips (in lakhs) 2004 2026 Total Mass Transport Trips 35.36 145.32 Increase in 22 years 109.96 Total road (bus trips) 30.22 87.19 Increase in 22 years 56.97 Total rail trips 5.14 58.13 Increase in 22 years 52.99 Source: Short term study to update CTTS (1992-95)(CMDA, RITES & PTCS, 2004) The feasibility study on Densification of MRTS Corridor Development undertaken in 2001-03 indicated that the daily transit rider ship on the MRTS corridor could be increased to 3.86 lakh trips in 2006, 6.62 lakh trips in 2011 and 11.86 lakh trips in 2021 by allowing a modest density of 400 persons / ha and other minimal intervention. Map 7.4 presents the alignment of inner circle corridors.

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7.2.7 Proposals & Interventions
In order to facilitate the proposed development strategy and to meet the future travel demand, transport projects have been identified for implementation during the plan period. The projects identified include improvements to rail system, road network, bus system and goods transport. Map 7.5 shows traffic and transportation proposals in Chennai Metropolitan Region
• • Strengthening and expanding the urban rail network including MRTS; Completion and commissioning of other strategic transport developments such as the ongoing MRTS Ph.II, Gauge Conversion project, northern segment of NH bypass, missing links to Inner Ring Road (IRR) and grade separators on IRR would assist in improving the modal share of rail to increase by 10% and that of bus 16%. Improving the capacity of major arterial road corridors such as Anna Salai, Periyar EVR Salai, Jawaharlal Nehru Salai by exploiting the potentials of Area Traffic Control (ATC) measures in the initial years including promoting exclusive bus lanes where applicable; Augmenting the capacity of the major arterial road corridors such as Anna Salai, Periyar EVR Salai, Jawaharlal Nehru Salai as a whole by constructing elevated roadway / transit-way along the median of the road; Improving the road density in the peri-urban areas to match with the spatial strategy pursued; Removing bottlenecks in the road / rail corridors such as road-rail crossings, narrow bridges across rivers / canals etc. Increasing the transit options by development of busway, metro rail, mono-rail along street corridors. The Inner Circular Corridor (Rail) (ICC (Rail) from Velachery to Ennore. Connecting Chennai Central and Chennai Egmore Development of a Centralised Goods Terminal for Chennai Area at Korukkupet Construction of a new railway line between Athipattu and Puttur/ Thiruvallur to bypass northeast and south-west rail corridors to decongest freight movement in the CMA Augmenting the bus transport with an optimal fleet size of 4500-7000 buses to keep pace with the growing commuter travel demand. Additional truck parking at Adayalampattu Village along NH Bypass in an areas of 16 acres and a major truck terminal at the intersection of Thirumanam and Vayalanallur on ORR in an area of 160 Ha. Construction of well-designed grade separators at all the critical intersections of radial roads with IRR. Introduction of a hybrid monorail system for Chennai. Development of metro rail for Chennai for a length of 45 km (at a cost of Rs.5087 crores for implementation during 2006- 2011).

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

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CHAPTER VIII – URBAN BASIC SERVICES FOR THE POOR

8.1

Slums
Tamil Nadu is one among the most urbanized States in the Country and Chennai city is the fourth most populous Metropolitan city in India, next to Mumbai, Kolkatta and Delhi. Tamilnadu Slum Clearance Board is the agency responsible for planning and management of slums areas in CMA. The Census report of 2001 has revealed that 42.16 lakhs persons are living in Chennai and among them 7, 47,936 persons are living in slums. TNSCB estimates indicate that the slum families in undeveloped slums work out to 1.08 lakhs; out of which 72,827 families are living in objectionable slums. TNSCB has also estimated that there are about 37,000 families in unobjectionable areas and further there are 6150 families who live in slum conditions in the encroached parts of the tenement areas which have been reserved as parks, public purpose sites etc. The Location and growth of slums in Chennai City is presented in Table 8.1. Table 8.1: Growth of Slums in Chennai City Sl. No. Year No. of slums No. of the households Slum Population 1. 1956 306 57,436 2,87,180 2. 1961 548 97,851 4,12,168 3. 1971 1202 1,63,802 7,37,531 4. 1986 996* 1,27,181 6,50,859 5. 2001 1431 (incl.CMA). 1,62,950 7,47,936 Note: *Excluding the slums in 10 towns as per 1986 survey, and also improved/cleared ones.

8.1.1 Slums on Objectionable Locations

The slums situated on river margins, road margins, seashore and places required for public purposes are categorized as objectionable slums. As the areas occupied by them are to be retrieved and handed over to the land owning department and farther to implement programmes like road widening, desilting, strengthening of bunds etc. to be carried out. Hence the benefits of the various onsite programmes implemented by TNSCB could not be extended services to the slums located in objectionable areas unless until retrieve the lands occupied by them for implementing public welfare schemes and to prevent the pollution of waterways. The location of slums are presented in Table 8.2 Table 8.2: Location of Slums in Chennai City Sl. No. Description 1 River Margin 2 Feeder Canals 3 Road Margin 4 Seashore Total Source: TNSCB

No. of slum families 30,313 5,184 22,330 15,000 72,827

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Slums along the river Cooum The river cooum originates from Sattarai Village as a drainage course collecting surpluses from 78 tanks with a catchment area of about 140 sq.km. The length of the river is about 75km. The river enters the city near Arumbakkam and finds its way through the heart of the city and joins the sea South of Fort St.George through Napier Bridge. The river gets polluted within the city limits due to letting in of sullage from various locations either due to over flow or lack of proper underground sewerage system. Slums along The Buckingham Canal The Buckingham Canal is a salt water navigation canal linking the inter-state waterways between Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The total length of the canal is 470 km. At present the canal in the city area is being misused by the slum dwellers. Besides, sewage is being let into the canal encouraging rapid siltation in the canal and polluting the canal. Slums along The Adyar River The Adyar River is a small river of 40 km in length with a catchment area of 847 sq.km. The river enters the city near Nandambakkam. The river joins Bay of Bengal near Thiru.vi.ka. Bridge in Adyar. The river Adyar carries a heavy discharge for a few days during North East Monsoon. It serves as a drainage carrier in the remaining part of the year and receives sullage and sewage. Slums along Feeder Canals The feeder Channel like Mambalam - Nandanam canal, Otteri Nullah, Captain Cotton canal etc. are encroached on either side preventing the free flow of water and causes stagnation of water during rainy season in the nearby residential areas. It is identified that 5184 families are living on the margins of this channel. Slums on Road Margins Besides, the slum families are also squatting on road margins affecting free flow of traffic. It is identified that 22,330 slum families are squatting on the road margins and places required for public purposes. Seashore Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board has identified that 15000 slum families living on sea shore and affected by Tsunami disaster. These families are to be resettled in tenements immediately.
8.1.2 Slums on Unobjectionable Locations

Besides, Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board has identified that 35,251 families are living in slum situated on unobjectionable locations as per Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board Survey. These families are living in deplorable conditions and required to be developed

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through provision of housing and infrastructure. These slums are dense often subjected to fire accidents, flood etc. These slum families squatting on river margins are polluting the river courses in Chennai city and preventing the desilting operations weakening the bunds etc. The slum families living in hutments on road margins are causing accidents prevent the widening of the road and free flow of traffic. Besides, the slums situated on the alignment of the public welfare project like MRTS are preventing the implementation of the such time bound projects. Similarly the slums situated near the Marina are an eyesore for the visitors besides polluting such public places. A majority (36%) of the slums is located on government lands and about 32% are located on private lands. The ownership details are presented in Table 8.3 Table 8.3: Ownership of Lands occupied by Slums, 1971 Sl. No. Ownership of land 1. Private 2. Corporation 3. Government (State) 4. Housing Board / Slum Clearance Board 5. Port Trust 6. Hindu Religious Endowment / Wakf Board / other missions 7. Others Source : TNSCB Profile of Slums in CMA Under the World Bank funded TNUDP II , a study on ‘Identification of Environmental Infrastructure Requirement in Slums in Chennai Metropolitan Area” was carried out for TNSCB in 2005. The profile of slums in CMA is outlined in Table 8.4 and in the subsequent sections. Table 8.4: Profile of Slums in CMA Sl. Zone I No. Extended Areas
1. Slums Shelter units Families Families per shelter unit LAND OWNERSHIP Govt., % slums (% shelter units) Private, % slums (% shelter units) Religious Inst., % slums (% shelter units) Local Bodies, % slums 68 11289 15253 1.3 88 (91) 4 (2) 3 (1) -

% to the total slum families 31.96 08.11 35.69 13.09 0.03 09.01 02.12

Zone II 10 Towns 417 38570 43539 1.1 79 (81) 11 (10) 9 (8) 1

Zone III South Chennai 437 34570 50373 1.4 36 (41) 29 (29) 18 (19) 14

Zone IV North Chennai 491 43721 61555 14 27 (35) 44 (41) 15 (12) 11

CMA

1431 128150 170720 1.3 48 (56) 28 (25) 14 (11) 8

2.

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Sl. No. (% shelter units) TNSCB/TNHB, % slums (% shelter units) SIZE OF SLUMS (Shelter Units) 50 & below, % slums (% shelter units) 51 – 100, % slums (% shelter units) 101 – 250, % slums (% shelter units) 251 – 500, % slums (% shelter units) 501 – 1000, % slums (% shelter units) Over 1000, % slums (% shelter units) TYPE OF SHELTER UNITS Thatched, % shelter units Pucca, % shelter units Tiled, % shelter units Asbestos, % shelter units Tinned, % shelter units PUBLIC FACILITIES AVAILABLE Water supply, % slums Latrine, % slums Street lights, % slums DEMOGRAPHY Population Families Family size Sex ratio Upto 17 yrs., % population 18-45 yrs., % population Illiterates, % population Standard X or less, % population EARNER PROFILE Earners, % population Female, % earners Unskilled, % earners Earner per family

Zone I Extended Areas (-) 5 (6)

Zone II 10 Towns (1) (-)

Zone III South Chennai (9) 3 (2)

Zone IV North Chennai (8) 3 (4)

CMA

(5) 2 (3)

3.

19 (13) 20 (9) 40 (37) 15 (30) 6 (21) (-) 80 7 8 4 1 76 22 51 77790 15253 5.1 953 43 46 33 60

47 (13) 24 (19) 21 (34) 6 (24) 1 (6) 1 (4) 73 11 13 2 1 66 13 68 226403 43539 5.2 934 42 45 29 60

52 (17) 26 (23) 16 (29) 5 (20) 1 (11) (-) 72 12 9 5 2 83 35 83 246828 50373 4.9 953 42 45 39 53

49 (13) 22 (18) 22 (38) 6 (23) 1 (8) (-) 55 16 21 5 3 78 33 83 326242 61555 5.3 940 41 45 33 58

48 (13) 24 (19) 20 (35) 6 (23) 1 (9) 1 (1) 67 13 14 4 2 75 27 77 877262 170720 5.1 942 42 45 33 57

4.

5.

6.

7.

28 13 45 1.4

28 14 46 1.4

33 22 63 1.6

30 17 61 1.6

30 17 56 1.5

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Sl. No. Dependents per earner DEPENDENTS Dependents, % population Females, % dependents Unemployed 18-45 years, % population Women 18-45 years, % unemployed Children 6-17 years neither in school nor employed, % population 6-17 years Others

Zone I Extended Areas 2.5 72 63 48 88 36

Zone II 10 Towns 2.6 72 60 49 85 24

Zone III South Chennai 2.1 67 60 42 88 30

Zone IV North Chennai 2.3 70 62 46 84 30

CMA

2.4 70 63 46 86 28

8.

9.

Monthly family income, Rs. Monthly per capita Monthly family expenditure, Rs. Families in rented house,% Source : TNSCB

685 135 680 35

700 135 690 32

615 126 609 38

730 139 715 49

686 134 676 39

Salient Features of Slums in CMA
• • • • • • • • • • A total of 1473 slums were covered under the survey and this excludes the slums covered by MUDP and TNUDP Out of 1473 slums 1231 slums are classified as developed and 242 slums are classified as undeveloped in CMA. Out of 242 undeveloped slums, 122 slums are located in objectionable area such as river, road margin etc. 120 slums are located in the unobjectionable areas The total population and total number of families in 242 undeveloped slums are 71 840 and 3.29 lakhs. The total number of dwelling units are 46248 of which 6081, 22691 and 17548 units are pucca, semi pucca and kutcha structures respectively. The composition of semipucca and kutcha were of 52 percent and 26 percent respectively. The number of persons occupying each dwelling unit is also found to be higher with about 7 persons per house. About 78% of families owned the houses . Most of the house owners (about 85%) did not enjoy the patta for their houses. About 85% of the families were living below the poverty line.

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Water Supply
• • • • • • • • No piped water supply and the sources of water included open wells; bore wells and public water tanks. The number of persons sharing the public water tank/tap is very high with an average of about 620 persons per water tank/tap. The slums in Chennai City predominantly (about 90%) depend on supplies through municipal water tankers. 1% have own municipal connection. 3.7 % have access to public taps. 73.8% have access to daily water supply .About 24% enjoy water supply on alternate days.1.4% of households do not have regular frequency in water supply. 56% of the households had community water supply available within a distance of 50 metres and another 21% had within 50-100 metres. For the remaining 12.1 % the water sources were available beyond 100 metres. A majority of households (90%) had water storage facilities other than overhead tank, under ground tank or storage drums within their property. About 66.7% get more than 50 liters per day; with about 11.4% saying that they had more than 100 liters a day. 29.4 % of households received water supply less than 50 litres. About 71% of slum dwellers purchase the drinking water

Sanitation
• • • The number of persons sharing the public toilet seats and public urinals is very high with an average of about 1086 persons and 2817 persons per toilet seat and urinals respectively. 29.2% of the households are using individual latrine/pit another 48.3 percent household use community/public latrine. 22.5% use other means including open defecation. With regard to distance of public latrines, about 6% of the households have to walk more than 100, to use the community toilet/public latrines;1.8% of household have to go beyond 250 metres. A majority of households have access to community toilets /public latrine facilities within 50 m distance. 68.2 % of households do not have sewer connection Majority of the households who did not have sewer connection were willing to avail a new connection at a price. 12% of the households are incurring expenditure on sewerage and drainage.

• • •

Storm Water Drain
• 38.9% have access to SWD

Solid Waste Management
• • • Estimated solid waste generation in the surveyed slums would be about 198 MT. About 33 % of the households throw the waste in the municipal bins. About 55% of the households throw the waste on the road side/open spaces; 12% of the households throw the waste into the drains About 26% of the respondents reported that the temporary waste storage points/dust bins was available within 50 m of distance. 6% of the households responded that the bins were located more than 100 m distance.

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Roads, Streets and Pavements
• • • The surveyed 242 slums spread over an area of 1.72 sq.km. and were covered with about 83.53 km of road length, of which 59.18 km is surfaced 31% have black topped road; 19% have cement concrete roads; 12.5% have metal roads and 32 % have mud roads A majority (about 77%) have road width less than 3 m.

Street Lights About 32% of households reported that they have street lights in front of their houses. Poverty With regards to poverty, the number of Below Poverty Line population has come down from 31 % in Chennai during 1993-94 to 9 % during 1999-2000. Table 8.5 presents the BPL population in the districts of Chennai and Chennai Metropolitan area. Table 8.5: BPL Population
1993-94 1999-2000 BPL % of BPL % Of Population BPL Population BPL (in lakhs) (in lakhs) Chennai District 9.55 31.58 3.93 9.58 Sl. Name of Total No. of Total No. of BPL Percentage of families No. Municipality Families families BPL 1998 2004 1998 2004 1998 2004 1 Ambattur 52088 72506 19343 22213 37 31 2 Avadi 42090 53604 17447 16496 41 31 3 Kathivakkam 6471 7539 3172 3753 49 50 4 Madhavaram 11303 17700 4573 5319 40 30 5 Thiruvottiyur 38266 49801 14431 13986 38 28 6 Alandur 19513 31732 9067 5580 46 18 7 Pallavapuram 20342 32636 9820 7410 48 23 8 Tambaram 24316 30197 8906 9196 37 30 9 Anakaputhur 5922 7045 1520 1782 26 25 10 Manali 5385 5368 1616 1352 30 25 11 Pammal 10256 10884 2153 3994 21 37 12 Puzdhivakkam 5236 9300 274 441 5 5 13 Maduravayal 7708 12438 2329 5403 30 43 14 Poonamallee 6196 7398 1557 2120 25 29 15 Thiruverkadu 6296 10415 1824 3191 29 31 16 Valasaravakkam 5175 9251 1308 1228 25 13 Total 268561 369818 101338 105468 Source : Commissioner of Municipal Administration

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8.2

Schemes implemented by TNSCB in CMA
The following are the major schemes implemented by TNSCB in tackling the problems of slums and improving their conditions: Slum Clearance Scheme Under this scheme, the slum dwellers are rehabilitated in storeyed tenements either in situ or in a resettlement site. Tenements are allotted either on rental basis or on hire purchase basis. TNSCB has constructed 69594 No. of tenements from 1970 to 2004 in Chennai. In addition TNHB had constructed 10,423 slum tenements in Chennai. Slum Improvement Scheme under MUDP I and II and TNUDP-I The project comprised of provision of security of tenure, basic infrastructure services and community facilities. The infrastructure improvements include: New and improved roads, footpaths and drainage (storm and waste water), with vehicular access provided no more than 50 m from each hut and pedestrian access provided for each hut;
• • Water supply, with one public standpipe per 10 households; Public latrines and washing facilities, with one toilet and one bath facility per 10 households; and

Shelter for Shelter less Scheme Affordable houses for slum dwellers were constructed on serviced plots, using locally available materials and adopting low cost techniques. They were allotted to slum families on hire purchase basis. It was tried a pilot project in Chennai by TNSCB with GOI grant 20%, GTN grant 15% and HUDCO loan component 65%. 2982 No. of families were benefited under the scheme. TNSCB’s Sites & Services Scheme Land acquired under the TNULC Act and allotted to TNSCB was used for this scheme. Open plot developments with basic infrastructures made therein with loan assistance from HUDCO and the slum dwellers in objectionable areas resettled; the cost recovered from the resettlements over a period of 20 years. 1473 no. of families were benefited under the scheme. Pavement Dwellers Housing Scheme Under this scheme, serviced plots with core housing were allotted to the identified pavement dwellers. It was funded by the GOI (Rs.4, 000/- per household) GTN (Rs.1000/- per household) and HUDCO loan (Rs.8, 000/- per household) 7787 no. of families benefited under this scheme.

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Cash Loan Scheme Cash loan assistance for construction of house over the plot allotted by TNSCB under Lease-cum-Sale basis was given by TNSCB. It was financed by HUDCO as loan.15, 554 families were benefited under this scheme Mass Housing Scheme Apart from providing basic infrastructures in slum areas, grant to the slum family for conversion of thatched roof to tiled roof or mud walls to brick walls was given under the scheme 97650 families benefited under the scheme. Nehru Rozgor Yojana Loan assistance of Rs.4, 150/- per slum family was given for up gradation of their shelter. It was implemented by TNSCB with grant assistance from GOI & GTN and loan assistance from HUDCO.14, 000 No. of families benefited by this scheme Resettlement under Special Problem Grant of Eleventh Finance Commission Under this, TNSCB availing grant from GOI and resettled 3,252 families from objectionable areas in storeyed tenements in CMA. R&R under Flood Alleviation Programme TNSCB has identified that 33313 families are on the river margins and B'canal in the CMA. About 8164 tenements were constructed and a part of the above families (about 3000) were resettled. It is being implemented with Government of India’s VAMBAY Grant, TUFIDCO loan under Mega Cities programme apart from allocation in the budget. EWS Plots in Layouts Since 1989 CMDA, ensures that at least 10% of plots excluding roads are provided as EWS plots when according approval in cases of layouts exceeding one hect. By this way at least 10 % of the plotted out area in the layout is generated as EWS plots which can accommodate about one third of the population, which can be accommodated in the layout area. TNSCB has also estimated that the tenement construction to house slums dwellers from early 70's are reaching its life and in the next 10 years most of these tenements have to be reconstructed and estimated that about 46,500 tenements units have to be reconstructed.

8.3

Housing Scenario of LIG/EWS units in CMA
The delivery agencies in CMA can be broadly classified as public, co-operative and private sector. Under the public sector, the agencies operating mainly are TNHB and TNSCB. The agencies which provide housing to their own employees are TNPHC,

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Railways, P&T, CPWD, Port Trust, etc. The decadal growth of households and housing units is given in the Table 8.6. It shows that the housing requirement gap is not significant for the period 1971-91 and there is significant gap in the year 2001. Table 8.6: No. of Households and Housing Units in CMA (in Lakhs) 1971 1981 1991 2001 Households in the City 4.44 6.29 7.96 9.62 Households in the CMA 6.89 9.04 11.82 16.19 Housing Units in the City 4.80 6.37 7.98 9.57 Housing Units in the CMA 6.63 9.15 12.34 15.99 Source : TNSCB &TNHB

Growth rate in % 1981 1991 2001 41.7 26.55 20.85 31.2 30.95 36.97 32.7 25.22 20.55 38.00 34.90 29.50

The total number of houses in CMA during 1991 was 12.72 lakhs consisting of 9 lakhs units in the non-slum and 2.72 lakhs units in the slum categories respectively. Among the non-slum households 18% belong to EWS, 30% belong to LIG, 22% belong to MIG and 30% belong to HIG. Among the slum households 86% belong to EWS, 13% belong to LIG and 1% belongs to MIG and HIG. Tamil Nadu Housing Board had developed 3,93,684 units under three different programmes-, regular, MUDP and TNUDP comprising of 94,405 housing units for LIG and 1,28,122 units for EWS group of households, constituting 55% of the total units. TNHB was also involved in developing housing units for slum dwellers, about 20,060 units allotted to slum tenements and 3,046 units under Subsidized Industrial Housing Scheme. Projection of Housing Demand for LIG/EWS The demand for new housing stock for LIG/EWS in Chennai Metropolitan Area for the year 2011 is estimated at 2.78 Lakhs units. The LIG/EWS units demand is shown in Table 8.7.

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Map 8.1: Location of TNHB Proposed Projects in CMA

49 Ariyanvoyal 47 Kollati 50 Minjur

46 Nandiyambakkam

30 31 Sekkanjeri Nerkundram 25 Athur 26 Karanodai 29 Surapattu 27 Sothuperambedu

34 Nayar

40 Madiyur 39 Valuthigaimedu 35 Mahfushanpettai

41 Seemapuram

43 Athipattu 43 Ennore

32 Girudalapuram 33 Pudur

24 Erumaivettipalayam

22 Sholavaram

28 Orakkadu

18 Kandigai

38 37 Chinnamullavoyal Periamullavoyal 36 Pudupakkam 16 Kodipallam 15 Thirunilai

42 Vallur

NH-5

23 Palayaerumaivettipalayam Sholavaram Tank 4 Nallur

5 Sembilivaram

PONNERI TALUK 19 21
Ankadu 6 Siruniyam 9 7 Pannivakkam Sothupakkam 8 Padiyanallur

17 Arumandai

Marambedu 20 Kummanur

14 Vellivoyal

11 Perungayur

3 Vijayanallur 2 Attanthangal

10 Melsinglimedu 10 Palavoyal

13 Vichoor

12 Edayanchavadi

1 Kathivakkam

8 Sirugavoor

48 Pandeswaram 50 Karlapakkam 51 Keelakandaiyur 49 Kadavur 53 Velacheri

47 Arakkambakkam 43 Morai

1 Alamadi

46 Melpakkam 45 Tenambakkam 44 Pulikutti

39 Pammadukulam

52 Alathur

42 Vellanur 41 Pottur

7 11 Sendrambakkam 9 4 Thiruthakiriyampattu 2 Vilangadupakkam Kadapakkam 14 Ernavur 5 6 13/2 Athivakkam 3 Thiyambakkam Ariyalur Layon Sadayankuppam 25 18 12 17/2 Alinjivakkam 24 Elanthancheri NaravariKuppam 27/2 23 19 Amulavoyal Vaikkadu 22 Payasambakkam 15 17/1 20 Kosapur Vadakarai Chettimedu Layongrant 13/1 16 40 Tundakalani 21 Redhills Vadapurambakkam 35 26 27/1 Mathur Manali Thiruvottiyur

MOR Road

38 Puzhal Redhills Lake 37 Vilakkupatti 34 Madhavaram 28 Sathangadu

21 Nadukuttagai 19 Thandarai 20 Nemilicheri 5 Vilinjiambakkam

59/1 Oragadam 60 Menambedu 61 Korattur

B uc

TIRUVALLUR TALUK

55 Mukthapudupattu

59/2

62/2

57 Kovilpadagai

58 Thirumullaivoyal

64 Puttagaram

king ham

27 Pakkam

54 Palavedu

SAIDAPET TALUK

62/1 Surappattu

63 Kathirvedu

Can al

56 Mittanamalli

29 ChinnaSekkadu

22 Thiruninravur

Karunakaracheri 23 6/4 24 Annambedu Agraharam 17 Anaikattucheri6/2 Amudurmedu Sorancheri 23 26 Korattur 27 Nochimedu 25 Sittukadu

6/1 Sekkadu 4 Palaripattu

3 Paruthipattu

88 Pattravakkam 89 Ambattur Kakapallam 72 87 Mannur 86 Athipattu 91 Koladi 81 Mogappair 80 Padi

BAY OF BENGAL

90 Ayapakkam

16 Thirumanam

6/3 SRIPERUMBUDUR TALUK Ayalcheri 7 15 Vayalanallur Kannapalayam

CHENNAI CITY

2 8 SundaraSholavaram Melpakkam

85 14 39 Ayanambakkam Nolambur 9 Chokkanallur Thirukovilpattu 41 38 82 Veeraragavapuram 1 37 11 Kavalcheri 42 Melmanambedu Mothirambedu Panaveduthottam Thiruverkadu Ariyappancheri 84 83 13 40 10 Perumalagaram Adayalampattu 100 Kilmanambedu Kolappancheri 12 36 Nerkundram Pidarithangal Parivakkam 43 Vellavedu 49 59 Thirumazhisai 45 Thukkanampattu 93 Udayarkoil Senneerkuppam Sivabudam 99 92 50 31/2 31/1 Numbal Maduravoyal 44 35 Ariyamarundanallur 96 Thirumalarajapuram 48 Narasingapuram Neduncheri Vanagaram Varadharajapuram 94 51 60 34 Chettiyaragaram 46 Poonamallee 101 Goparasanallur Parvathirajapuram Valasaravakkam Madavilagam 95 47 Tandalam Nazarathpettai 32 61 58 52 97 Kuttambakkam 76 Katturpakkam Ayyappanthangal Karambakkam Agraharam 74 Chembarambakkam 73 Melagaram 53 57 102 Malayambakkam Srinivasapuram 62 98 Mangadu Ramapuram Thelliyaragaram Porur 75 56 112 72 Kulathuvancheri Meppur 122/2 Kulamanivakkam Chettipattu 64 33 55 63 MadanandapuramMugalivakkam 54 Paraniputhur Moulivakkam Palanjur Chinnapanicheri Kattirambakkam 65/1 109 69 Chikkarayapuram 65/2 122/1 Peripanicheri 71 Chembarambakkam Tank 66 Nandambakkam 70 Manapakkam Kovur 68 Gerugambakkam 67 79 85/2 120 Kollaicheri 82 Kulapakkam 81 123 Alandur Thandalam St.Thomas Mount Munnankattalai 78 122/3 84 Thirunageswaram 125 Rentankattalai 83 80 77 Minambakkam 86 Tharapakkam Manancheri Venkatapuram 126 124 Kavanur 127 87 Cowl Bazaar Palavanthangal Polichalur 108 Sirukulathur Daravur 30 Nemam

u Coo

iver mR

Ad

r ya

Riv

er

85/1 Kunrathur 88 Nandambakkam 91 Thirumudivakkam 90 Palanthandalam 92 Erumaiyur 94 Naduveerapattu

128 Anakaputhur

131 Minambakkam cum Pallavaram

134 Nanganallur 135 Ullagaram 133 Thalakkanancheri 156 157 Perundavakkam 154 Muvarasampattu Madipakkam 155 Keelakattalai 143 Perungudi

89 Poonthandalam R.F.

129 Pammal

132 Tirusulam

141 Kottivakkam 142 Palavakkam

130 Issa Pallavaram

158 Pallavaram(Zamin)

163 Thiruneermalai 164 Pulikoradu 159 Nemilicheri 160 Hasthinapuram 162 Chitlapakkam

144 Sivaram

165 Kadapperi

149 Pallikaranai

148 Okkiam Thuraipakkam

166 Tambaram 93 Varadharajapuram 167 Perungalathur 168 Mudichur 169 Peerkankaranai 170 Irumbuliyur

SAIDAPET TALUK
173 Selaiyur 175 Gowrivakkam 174 Rajakilpakkam 176 Vengavasal

161 Sembakkam

150 Medavakkam 188 Jaladampettai

Bucking ha

147 Karapakkam

BANNED AREA 172 171
Meppedu

Thiruvanjeri

177 Madambakkam

187 Perumbakkam

189 Sholinganallur

2 Vandalur 1 Mannivakkam

CHENGLEPUT 9 Nedunkundram TALUK
11 Kulapakkam

10 Puthur

178 Kaspapuram 180 Agaramten

182 Sithalapakkam 181 Kovilancheri 183 Madurapakkam 184 Mulacheri 186 Arasankalani 185 Ottiyambakkam 190 Semmancheri 191 Uthandi

m Cana l

152 Kovilambakkam 153 151 Kulathur Nanmangalam

145 Neelangarai

146 Injambakkam

LEGEND CHENNAI CITY LIMIT BOUNDARY CMA BOUNDARY EXISTING NATIONAL HIGHWAY INNER RING ROAD EXPRESS HIGHWAYS OUTER RING ROAD EXISTING ROADS EXISTING EAST COAST ROAD OLD MAHABALIPURAM ROAD LANDS ALREADY PROPOSED FOR ACQUISATION LANDS NOW IDENTIFIED FOR FUTURE HOUSING SCHEME ALONG MAJOR ROAD CORRIDORS

3 Kelambakkam

179 Vengambakkam

Vand alur R

oad

To Chengalpattu

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Table 8.7: Demand for LIG and EWS units in CMA CMA Population Housing need for EWS/LIG/MIG/HIG EWS (30%) LIG (35%) Source : TNHB

2011 88,71,228 4,27,798 1,28,339 1,49,729

Considering the future requirements of housing stock for LIG and EWS, Tamil Nadu Housing Board has identified land in the metropolitan area and is in the process of acquiring the same. TNHB proposes to acquire 10000 acres in total of which about 3000 acres have been identified. It is to be noted that the lands earmarked for housing development are located in close proximity to the proposed/potential industrial clusters in CMA. In the initial phase, TNHB proposes to construct 86,000 units for LIG/EWS in the identified 3000 acres at an estimated cost of Rs. 2,031.00 Crores. Proposed Projects TNHB has proposed to create new satellite towns and housing colonies with all infrastructure facilities along the major road corridors and arterial roads to meet the requirements of LIG/EWS. Accordingly, TNHB proposes the following projects for development which are presented in Table 8.8 and are shown in Map 8.2. Table 8.8: Proposed Projects for LIG/EWS Major Corridors and Areas arterial roads Old Mahabalipuram Road Thaiyur, Siruseri and Navalur Tharamani – Tambaram Perumbakkam, Vengaivasal, Gowriwakkam Road Sithalapakkam and Sembakkam Tambaram – Kanchipuram Mannivakkam, Padappai Road Proposed Outer Ring Road Thirumudivakkam, Thiruneermalai, Kundrathur Pazhanthandalam, Erumaiyur, Nandambakkam, Kavanur and Poonthandalam Chennai – Thiruvallur Karunakarancheri and Nemilichery High Road Grand Northern Trunk Meenjur Road Total Source : TNHB

Land in acre 100 200 800 1500

200 200 3000

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CHAPTER IX – SOCIAL FACILITIES

9.1

Education
Planning for educational facilities in a Metropolis like Chennai should take into account regional bearings as it caters, not only to the requirements within it, but also to the surrounding districts, and surrounding States in respect of specialized / higher education. In the CMA, most of the middle schools include primary classes, High Schools Anna University include middle and primary classes and the Higher Secondary Schools include primary, middle and high School classes. Educational institutes are both in the private and public sector (State and Central Governments, local bodies). The number of existing educational institutions, category-wise, in Chennai City and rest of CMA is given in the Table 9.1. Table 9.1: Educational Institutions in CMA Sl. Category of Chennai City No. institutions Govt. Private Total /Govt . aided 1 Schools (a) Primary 164 315 479 (b) Middle 125 127 252 (c) High School 55 171 226 (d) Higher 60 366 426 Secondary 2 Colleges (a) Arts and 22 11 33 Science (b) Training 5 1 6 Colleges (c) Physical 1 1 Education 25 13 38 (d) Others including Research Institutions 3 Technical Education

Rest of CMA Govt./Go vt. aided Private Total Grand Total

233 65 37 32 7

144 56 139 204 9

377 121 176 236 16

856 373 402 662 49

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Sl. No.

Category of institutions

Chennai City Govt. /Govt . aided 3 11 4 Private Total Govt./Go vt. aided 2 2 1

Rest of CMA Private Total Grand Total 118 33 44

(a) I.T.I’s 87 90 (b) Polytechnics 2 13 (c) Engineering 2 6 colleges 4 Medical Education (a) Medical 3 3 Education (b) Dental 1 0 1 Colleges (c) Siddha 1 0 1 (d) Homeo (e) Unani 1 1 (f) Ayurveda 1 1 (g) Pharmacy 1 2 3 (h) Nursing 1 1 5 Veterinary 1 1 College 6 Law College 1 1 Source: Statistical Hand Book of Tamil Nadu 2003

26 18 37

28 20 38

0 0 0 0

1 6 1 2 1 4 5

1 6 1 2 1 4 5

4 7 2 2 1 2 7 6 1 1

It is estimated that in the future years the school going age going children will stabilize at 7.5 % for primary school going age group, 5.19% for middle school going age group and 3.71% for High School going age group and 3.96% for the Higher Secondary going age group. Based on these estimates, the number of primary, high and higher secondary schools required for 2026 is given in Table 9.2. Table 9.2: Number of Schools Required 2026 2001 No. of Average No Average Schools of Students Strength 2001 assumed Primary 1427 370 500 Upper Primary 775 471 500 High School 998 261 400 HSC School 662 210 400 Source: Statistical Hand Book of Tamil Nadu 2003

2011

2016

2021 1677 1161 1037 553

2026 1885 1305 1165 621

1329 1493 920 1034 822 923 438 492

9.2

Health
Chennai has established itself by the health Capital of the country and is fast becoming the health destination of choice for people all over the world. In Chennai there are 3 major Government Hospitals comprising 12,678 beds. In adition about 3000 beds are available in major private hospitals in Chennai City

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Both government agencies and private sector are involved in the provision of health infrastructure in CMA. In Chennai city area, the Corporation of Chennai runs 169 health posts. According to the approved list by the government, there are 130 private hospitals in the city area itself. In the rest of CMA, there are 10 Primary Health centers functioning at Minjur, Naravarikuppam, Avadi, Medavakkam, Kilpauk Medical College Porur, Poonamallee, Manali New Town, Madhavaram, Pozhichalur and Pudur. The no. of beds available in Chennai City and Kancheepuram & Thiruvallur Districts which lie in CMA are given in Table 9.3. Table 9.3: Total Number of Beds in Chennai, Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur Districts Sl. No. District Population Total Beds Population per bed available 1 Chennai 4343645 10999 383 2 Kancheepuram 2869920 2735 1049 3 Thiruvallur 2738866 594 4611 Source: Statistical Hand Book of Tamil Nadu 2003 The above figures indicate the total number of beds in Government Hospitals. The bed availability in Private Hospitals may be about 100% more than the Government ones. Considering the longevity in life, improved health conditions predicted, it is assumed that the number of beds required in future may be at the rate of one in 500 populations. The number of beds required for the projected population, for the year 2006, 2011, 2016, 2021, and 2026 are 15,800, 17,700, 19,900, 22,400 and 25,100 respectively. A detailed study on the health infrastructure in CMA, delivery to poor, accessibility spatially, future requirements, contribution by private sector, future requirements, modernization requirements in govt. sector etc. has to be made which may be a basis for formulation of Master Plan for Health infrastructure in CMA.

9.3

Open Spaces & Green Areas
In Chennai city, there are about 195 parks with extent varying from 150 sq.m. to 3.5 hectares and totaling to more than 60 hectares. About 200 playgrounds are maintained by the Chennai Municipal Corporation with a total extent exceeding 50 hectares. In the rest of CMA, unlike the city, the parks & playfields are a very few.

Natesen Park

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CDP Chennai

In new layout developments, a proportion of the site (10% of site extent excluding roads in layouts exceeding 3000 m2) is earmarked and handed over to the local body concerned for maintenance as parks / playgrounds. By this account about 300 hectares of parks / playground have been reserved by the developers and taken over by the local bodies. However, these are not maintained for the intended purpose and hence CMA is devoid any major Chennai Corporation Playground green lung. Maintenance of existing parks / playgrounds and provision of new parks and playgrounds in the rest of CMA requires attention. Planning for public open spaces has become an important part of metropolitan planning, as a result of the intense demand for outdoor recreation and also the growing need for conservation. A database on the existing parks & playgrounds within CMA is to be created for planning and development of open spaces.

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CHAPTER X – MUNICIPAL FINANCES

10.1 Background
The 74th Constitution Amendment Act (CAA), 1992 of Government of India (GoI) has imparted constitutional status on the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and assigned appropriate functions to them. A constitutional backing is given to the relationship of the urban local bodies with the State Government with respect to their functions and powers, ensuring of timely and regular elections, arrangements for revenue sharing etc. urban local bodies are given additional powers including preparation of local development plans, programmes for ensuring social justice, environmental management making them responsive to the local needs. This is facilitated by Section 243 (W) of the 74th CAA, 1992. In conformity with the 74th CAA, the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) has amended respective Municipal Corporation Acts (for Municipal Corporations) and Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act, 1920 (for Municipalities) and the urban local bodies are entrusted with the functions listed in the Twelfth Schedule of the constitution or Section 243 (W) of the 74th CAA, 1992. The 74th CAA also provides for the constitution of a State Finance Commission (SFC) to review the financial position of the urban local bodies and make recommendation. The Second SFC of Tamil Nadu has already submitted its recommendations to improve the financial position of the urban local bodies while the Third SFC has been constituted about a year back and is currently working on its recommendations. Municipal Corporation Acts and the District Municipalities Act of the Tamil Nadu authorizes Urban local bodies to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accordance with the procedures subject to limits as specified by the legislature. Besides these, the urban local bodies are also empowered with certain other financial powers.

10.2 Constituent Urban local bodies within Chennai Metropolitan Area
The Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA) comprises of 17 (seventeen) Urban local bodies which includes 1 (one) Municipal Corporation (Chennai), 8 (eight) Municipalities and 8 (eight) Upgraded Urban local bodies (erstwhile Town Panchayats)1. The list of constituent urban local bodies is given below in Table: 10.1. Table 10.1: List of Constituent Urban Local Bodies within Chennai Metropolitan Area Sl. Municipal Municipalities Upgraded Urban local bodies No. Corporation (erstwhile Town Panchayats) * 1. Chennai Alandur Anakaputhur 2. Ambattur Chttlapakkam
1 The Government of Tamil Nadu issued Tamil Nadu District Municipalities (Amendment) Ordinance 2004, dated June 14, 2004 and Cancellation Notification under Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act and Constitution of Certain Town Panchayats as Village Panchayats under Tamil Nadu Panchayats Act, dated June 14, 2004. Accordingly, 8 (eight) Town Panchayats have been upgraded to Municipality status while the remaining have been constituted as Village Panchayats

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Sl. No. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Municipal Corporation

Municipalities Avadi Kathivakkam Madhavaram Pallavaram Tambaram Thiruvottiyur

Upgraded Urban local bodies (erstwhile Town Panchayats) * Maduravayal Manali Pammal Poonamallee Thiruverkedu Valasaravakkam

As stated above, the CMA has only one Municipal Corporation within its administrative jurisdiction, viz. Corporation of Chennai (CoC). The CoC was formed under the Chennai City Municipal Corporation Act, 1919 and is administered directly by the Municipal Administration and Water Supply (MAWS) Department of GoTN. The role of CMC till 1971 consisted of provision of full range of urban infrastructure and civic services, including basic educational and health services within the Chennai City. With the rapid growth of the city and within the urban population spilling beyond its limits and the inability of the CMC to raise adequate resources, several important development sectors have been transferred to specialized agencies created by GoTN. Currently, the CMC is mainly responsible for provision and maintenance of roads, streetlights, solid waste management and other civic services, as per the provisions of the 74th CAA, adopted by the GoTN. Other Urban local bodies located within the CMA (Municipalities and upgraded urban local bodies) get their statutory support from the Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act of 1920, as amended from time to time. These Urban local bodies are administered by the Office of Commissioner of Municipal Administration (CMA) of GoTN. This report on municipal (urban) finance assessment covers assessment of municipal finances of Corporation of Chennai in the first part while assessment of municipal finances of all 8 (eight) Municipalities and 6 (six) upgraded Urban local bodies (erstwhile Town Panchayats) are covered in the second part of the report. However, the assessment excludes 2 (two) upgraded Urban local bodies (erstwhile Town Panchayats), viz. Chittlapakkam and Manali, for which municipal finance data is not available

10.3 Finances of Corporation of Chennai 10.3.1 Summary of Municipal Finances
Figure 10.1: Trends in Revenue Account

The finances of the Corporation of Chennai (CoC) have been reviewed for the last four years, commencing from the financial year 2001-02 to financial year 2004-05. The CoC is maintaining its accounts under accrual based accounting system. Figure: 10.1 represents the trends of revenue account. For the purpose of analysis, the municipal accounts are

Trends in Revenue Account
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

F ina nc ia l Y e a r
Receipt s/Income Expenditure

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categorized under the following two major heads: Revenue Account: All recurring items of income and expenditure are included under this head. These include taxes, charges, salaries, maintenance expenditure, debt servicing (interest charges only), etc.; and Capital Account: Income and expenditure items under this account are primarily non-recurring in nature. Income items include loans, contributions by GoTN, other agencies and capital grants under various State and Central Government programmes and income from sale of assets. Expenditure items include expenses booked under developmental works and purchase of capital assets. Revenue income of the CoC has grown to a level of Rs. 523.52 crores in the FY 2004-05 from Rs. 382.15 crores in FY 2001-02, indicating compounded growth at a rate of 12.33 percent per annum during the four-year period. As a whole, the revenue income of the CoC has grown at an annual growth of 11.82 percent during the assessment period. During the same period, revenue expenditure also increased at an average annual rate of 12.73 percent. The CoC maintained revenue surplus consistently over the assessment period and average overall surplus is about Rs. 40.82 crores per annum. The table below presents the status of both revenue account and capital account of the CoC:
Figure 10.2: Trends in Capital Account Capital income comprises of loans, grants and contribution in the form of Trends in Capital Account sale proceeds of assets and contribution. 200 A major share of capital income is in the 180 160 form of transfer from revenue funds, 140 which is a healthy indicator. The capital 120 100 account has witnessed a deficit-during 80 60 FY 2001-02 and FY 2002-03 implying 40 20 utilization of revenue surpluses to fund 0 capital works. However, during FY 20032001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 F ina nc ia l Y e a r 04 and FY 2004-05, the capital account witnessed a surplus resulting due to Receipt s/ Income Expenditure excess drawal from revenue fund but not utilized to the full extent. Table: 10.2 tabulate the municipal finances of Chennai city. Figure: 10.2 show the trends in capital account.

Table 10.2: Summary of Municipal Finances of the Corporation of Chennai Sl. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 No. Actuals RE A. Account Summary (Rs. in Crores) 1. Revenue Account Receipts/Income 382.15 497.61 527.15 523.52 644.32 Expenditure 360.10 405.77 513.36 508.24 640.74 Surplus/Deficit 22.05 91.84 13.79 15.28 3.58 2. Capital Account Receipts/Income 87.13 68.50 181.66 162.39 215.40 Expenditure 102.91 71.93 169.11 135.40 215.09 Surplus/Deficit (15.78) (3.43) 12.55 26.99 0.31 B. Growth Trends (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average

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Sl. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 No. Actuals RE 1. Revenue Account Receipts/Income -30.21 5.94 (0.69) 11.82 Expenditure -12.68 26.52 (1.00) 12.73 2. Capital Account Receipts/Income -(21.38) 165.20 (10.61) 44.40 Expenditure -(30.10) 135.10 (19.93) 28.36 Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai; 2006

10.3.2 Revenue Account
The revenue account comprises of two components, revenue income and revenue expenditure. Revenue income comprises of internal resources in the form of tax and nontax items. External resources are in the form of shared taxes/ transfers and revenue grants from the GoTN. Revenue expenditure comprises of expenditure incurred on salaries, operation & maintenance and debt servicing.

10.3.3 Revenue Receipts/Income - Summary
In order to review the revenue income, the core revenue receipts of the CoC are broadly categorized under following heads depending on the source of receipts:
• Tax Revenues o Property Tax o Professional Tax o Other Taxes Non-Tax Revenues o Service Charges & Fees o Sale and Hire Charges o Miscellaneous Income Assigned Revenue o Duty on Transfer of Property o Entertainment Tax o Surcharge on Sales Tax o Assignment from Tax Revenue Revenue Grants and Contributions Figure 10.3: Linkage and connectivity
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

The source-wise income generated for the CoC during the review period is presented in the Table 10.3. The base and basis of each income source has been further elaborated in the subsequent section. Figure: 10.3 illustrate the linkage and connectivity.

F ina nc ia l Y e a r
Tax Revenues Assigned Revenues Non-Tax Revenues Revenue Grants and Cont ributions

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Table 10.3: Summary of Revenue Receipts/Income of the CMC Rs. in Crores Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Actual RE 1. Tax Revenues 198.18 194.55 236.89 267.42 316.40 2. Non-Tax Revenues 42.47 49.00 53.43 57.35 71.42 3. Assigned Revenues 132.52 223.02 219.35 178.99 191.00 4. Revenue Grants and 8.98 31.04 17.48 19.76 65.50 Contributions Total 382.15 497.61 527.15 523.52 644.32 Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai; 2006

10.3.4 Receipts/Income from Taxes
Receipts/income from taxes includes all taxes levied and collected directly by the CoC. These include property tax and professional tax, which are the more significant taxes and other taxes like pilgrim tax, tax on carriages & animals, tax on carts, servant tax, advertisement tax and others.
Figure 10.4: Composition of Revenue income

Property tax was the single largest Com position of Revenue Incom e (Avg. of source of revenue of the CoC and was Four Years from FY 2001-02 to 2004-05) Revenue levied as a percentage of the Annual Grants and Cont ribut ions Rateable Value (ARV) of all Real 4% Properties (including built-up and vacant Assigned land) within in the administrative Revenues Tax Revenues jurisdiction of the CoC. The other major 39% 47% tax item is the professional tax levied on all registered employed professionals Non-Tax and establishments in the organized Revenues 10% sector. Other taxes included pilgrim tax, tax on carriages & animals, tax on carts, servant tax, advertisement tax and others. Figure: 10.4 present the composition of revenue income. The following Table: 10.4 presents the year wise aggregate receipts/income of CoC along with sectoral contribution and growth trend in taxes Table 10.4: Revenue Receipts from Taxes of Corporation of Chennai Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Actuals RE 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Crores) Property Tax 169.50 163.76 206.61 220.55 260.00 Profession Tax 28.20 29.38 29.48 46.22 55.00 Other Taxes 0.48 1.41 0.80 0.65 1.40 Total Taxes 198.18 194.55 236.89 267.42 316.40 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Property Tax 44.35 32.91 39.19 42.13 39.65 Profession Tax 7.38 5.90 5.59 8.83 6.93 Other Taxes 0.13 0.28 0.15 0.12 0.17

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Sl. No. 3.

Particulars

2001-02

Total Taxes 51.86 Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Property Tax -(3.39) 26.17 6.75 9.84 Profession Tax -4.18 0.34 56.78 20.44 Other Taxes -193.75 (43.26) (18.75) 43.91 Total Taxes -(1.83) 21.76 12.89 10.94 Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai 2006

2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals 39.10 44.94 51.08

2005-06 RE 46.74

The total property tax assessments in the CoC were about 5.22 lakhs, resulting in a property tax demand of about Rs. 216.95 crores for the year 2004-05. The total collection of property tax (both current and arrears) have increased from 169.50 crores during 200102 to Rs. 220.54 crores during 2004-05, indicating an average annual growth of about 9.84 percent with an average contribution of 39.65 percent to the total revenue receipts. It may be noted that there was no tax revision during this period and the increase is only due to the increase in number of assessments during this period. During this period, the number of assessments has increased at about 8.78 percent on an average annually. During the same period, professional tax component has recorded an increase from Rs. 28.20 crores during the year 2001-02 to Rs. 46.22 crores during the year 2004-05, indicating an average annual increase of about 20.44 percent with average contribution of about 6.93 percent to the total revenue receipts/income of the CoC. The contribution of other taxes to the total revenue receipts was negligible. As a whole, the receipts / income from taxes alone has contributed an average of about 46.74 percent to the total revenue receipts/income of the CoC, with an average annual growth of about 10.94 percent.

10.3.5 Receipts/Income from Non-Taxes
Non-Tax resources include all non-tax revenues like fees and charges levied as per the legislation. Such revenue sources include income service charges & fees, sale and hire charges and other income from properties, interest on investment, etc. Composition of non tax is presented by graphically in figure: 10.5.
Figure 10.5: Composition of Non tax The following Table 10.5 presents the Com position of Non-Tax Revenue (Avg. year wise aggregate receipts/income of of Four Years from FY 2001-02 to 2004-05) the CoC along with sectoral contribution and growth trend in non-tax revenues. Service M iscellaneous From the table and the chart below, it Charges and Income Fees may be observed that all sub-heads under 56% 42% non-tax revenues have minimum contribution to the total revenue receipts of the CoC. As a whole, about 10.51 Sale and Hire percent of the total revenue Charges receipts/income was realized annually 2% through non-tax revenues. The non-tax revenues of the CoC have grown at about 10.58 percent per annum on an average during

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the assessment period. Table 10.5: Revenue Receipts from Non-Taxes of Corporation of Chennai Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Actuals RE 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Crores) Service Charges and Fees 17.41 23.52 21.52 22.54 28.15 Sale and Hire Charges 0.43 0.04 0.18 3.80 5.58 Miscellaneous Income 24.63 25.44 31.73 31.01 37.69 Total Non-Taxes 42.47 49.00 53.43 57.35 71.42 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Service Charges and Fees 4.56 4.73 4.08 4.31 4.42 Sale and Hire Charges 0.11 0.01 0.03 0.73 0.22 Miscellaneous Income 6.45 5.11 6.02 5.92 5.88 Total Non-Taxes 11.11 9.85 10.14 10.95 10.51 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Service Charges and Fees -35.09 (8.50) 4.74 10.44 Sale and Hire Charges -(90.70) 350.00 2011.11 756.80 Miscellaneous Income -3.29 24.72 (2.27) 8.58 Total Non-Taxes -15.38 9.04 7.34 10.58 Source: Corporation of Chennai; 2006

10.3.6 Assigned Revenue and Grants & Contributions
Assigned revenues include revenues transferred to the CoC by the GoTN under specific acts. These are transferred to the CoC as their share of taxes levied and collected by the GoTN. These include duty on transfer of property, entertainment tax, surcharge on sales tax, and other assigned revenues if any. Among all these, duty on transfer of property and entertainment tax is the most significant ones.
Figure 10.6: Composition of Assigned Revenue

The GoTN levies duty on transfer of Com position of Assigned Revenue (Avg. properties within the administrative limits of Four Years from FY 2001-02 to 2004-05) of the CoC and transfers part of the same Assignment to the CoC. Duty on transfer of properties Duty on from Tax Transfer of has grown at an average rate of about Revenue Propert y 38% 1.97 percent per annum during the 55% assessment period with an average contribution of about 21.27 percent to the Surcharge on total revenue receipts/income of the CoC. Sales Tax 0% Duty on transfer of property was forming Entertainment Tax about half of the assigned revenues of the 7% CoC on an average during the assessment period. The Table 10.6 below presents the receipts/income through assigned revenues along with growth trend and sectoral contribution to the total revenue. The composition of assigned revenue is pictorially represented in Figure: 10.6.

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Table 10.6: Revenue Receipts from Assigned Revenues of Corporation of Chennai Sl. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 No. Actuals RE 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Crores) Duty on Transfer of Property 85.84 118.02 127.45 77.01 95.00 Entertainment Tax 12.14 13.37 12.00 18.19 16.00 Surcharge on Sales Tax 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Assignment from Tax 34.54 91.63 79.90 83.79 80.00 Revenue Total Assigned Revenue 132.52 223.02 219.35 178.99 191.00 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Duty on Transfer of Property 22.46 23.72 24.18 14.71 21.27 Entertainment Tax 3.18 2.69 2.28 3.47 2.90 Surcharge on Sales Tax 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Assignment from Tax 9.04 18.41 15.16 16.01 14.65 Revenue Total Assigned Revenue 34.68 44.82 41.61 34.19 38.82 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Duty on Transfer of Property 37.49 7.99 (39.58) 1.97 Entertainment Tax 10.13 (10.25) 51.58 17.16 Surcharge on Sales Tax Assignment from Tax 165.29 (12.80) 4.87 52.45 Revenue Total Assigned Revenue 68.29 (1.65) (18.40) 16.08 Source: Corporation of Chennai 2006 Similarly, the GoTN also collects entertainment tax from cinemas and theatres within the limits of the CoC and transfer 90 percent of the total tax collection to the CoC, after retaining 10 percent as collection charges. Entertainment tax has also increased from Rs. 12.14 crores in FY 2001-02 to Rs. 18.19 crores during FY 2004-05, with an average annual growth of 17.16 percent during the assessment period. The entertainment tax contributed about 2.90 percent of the total revenue while it was 7.38 percent of the assigned revenue on an average during the assessment period. In addition, there may be other assigned revenues by the GoTN to the CoC. Assignment from other tax revenues had a contribution of about 14.65 percent on an average during the assessment period while there was no receipts/income from surcharge on sales tax during this period. The CoC received revenue grants from the GoTN to meet recurring expenses under various schemes. However, the sectoral contribution of revenue grants to the total revenue receipts was less than 4 percent per annum on average. Also, there was no consistency in flow of grants during the assessment period

10.3.7 Revenue Expenditure - Summary
In order to review the revenue expenditure, the core (revenue) expenditures of the CoC are broadly categorized under following heads depending on type of expenses:

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• • •

Figure 10.7: Trends in Revenue Expenditure Personnel Cost Trends in Revenue Expenditure o Salaries and Wages o Terminal and Retirement 250.00 Benefits 200.00 Repairs and Maintenance Finance Expenses 150.00 Other Expenses 100.00 o Operating Expenses 50.00 o Program Expenses 0.00 o Administrative Expenses 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Payments and Contributions F inancial Y ear o Payment to Elementary Education Fund Personnel cost Repairs and M aintenance Finance Expenses Other Expenses o Library Cess Payments and Contributions o Contribution to Capital Fund o Contribution to Mayor Special Devt. Fund.

Trends of revenue expenditure are presents in the figure: 10.7.

The type of revenue expenses during the review period are presented in the table below. The base and basis of each expenditure head has been further elaborated in the subsequent section. Summary of revenue expenditure of the Chennai is tabulated in Table: 10.7. Table 10.7: Summary of Revenue Expenditure of the Corporation of Chennai Rs. in Crores Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Actuals RE 1. Personnel cost 194.39 197.07 200.00 207.05 244.19 2. Repairs and Maintenance 16.60 27.64 42.00 39.28 122.77 3. Finance Expenses 18.65 25.18 11.53 6.82 10.64 4. Other Expenses 49.45 75.30 81.51 97.05 115.06 5. Payments and 81.01 80.58 178.32 158.04 148.08 Contributions Total 360.10 405.77 513.36 508.24 640.74 Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai; 2006

10.3.8 Personnel Cost
Figure 10.8: Composition of Revenue expenditure

The personnel cost includes salaries and other establishment expenses. The salaries include pay including personnel pay, special pay, DA, interim relief, HRA, CCA, allowances like cash, conveyance, medical and others and exgratia/bonus. Other establishment related expenses include travel allowance, LTC, supply of uniform, conveyance charges, hospital stoppages/reimbursement of medical

Com position of Revenue Expenditure (Avg. of Four Years from FY 2001-02 to 2004-05)
Payment s and Contribut ions 28% Personnel cost 45%

Other Expenses 17%

Finance Expenses 3%

Repairs and M aintenance 7%

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expenses, training programme expenses and staff welfare expenses. In addition, this also includes retirement and terminal benefits. The personnel cost of the CoC stood at Rs. 194.39 crores during the year 2001-02 and was Rs. 207.05 crores during the last financial year (2004-05) with little change. The average utilization was about 45.56 percent of the total revenue expenditure for the last four years, with little/no change in the growth pattern. The salaries and wages component of the personnel cost utilized about 32.99 percent of the total revenue expenditure while the terminal and retirement benefits component utilized 12.57 percent of the total revenue expenditure. The following table presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of the CoC along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in Personnel Cost. Composition and Expenditure on personnel cost of Revenue expenditure is graphically in Figure: 10.8 and tabulated in Table: 10.8. Table 10.8: Revenue Expenditure on Personnel Cost of CMC Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Actuals RE 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Crores) Salaries and Wages 142.69 143.13 142.59 148.91 167.01 Terminal and Retirement 51.70 53.94 57.41 58.14 77.18 Benefits Total Personnel Cost 194.39 197.07 200.00 207.05 244.19 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Salaries and Wages 39.63 35.27 27.78 29.30 32.99 Terminal and Retirement 14.36 13.29 11.18 11.44 12.57 Benefits Total Personnel Cost 53.98 48.57 38.96 40.74 45.56 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Salaries and Wages -0.31 (0.38) 4.43 1.45 Terminal and Retirement -4.33 6.43 1.27 4.01 Benefits Total Personnel Cost -1.38 1.49 3.53 2.13 Source: Corporation of Chennai; 2006 It is observed that about 45.56 percent of revenue income is spent on salaries and wages (excluding terminal & retirement benefits), which is above the average or threshold generally considered at 35 to 40 percent of revenue income. This high proportion of establishment expenditure is one of the factors, which would affect the credit rating of the CoC.

10.3.9 Repairs and Maintenance
Repairs and maintenance head include all repairs and maintenance related expenses like buildings, subways, plants & machineries, roads, drainage, etc. The repairs and maintenance cost of the CoC has increased from Rs. 16.60 crores during the year 2001-02 to Rs. 39.28 crores during the year 2004-05 with an average annual increase of about 37.33 percent. The expenses incurred on repairs and maintenance
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utilized about 6.83 percent of the total revenue expenditure on an average during period. The following Table 10.9 presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of the CoC along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in expenses incurred for repairs and maintenance. Table 10.9: Revenue Expenditure on Repairs and Maintenance of the CMC Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Crores) Repairs and Maintenance 16.60 27.64 42.00 39.28 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Repairs and Maintenance 4.61 6.81 8.18 7.73 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Repairs and Maintenance -66.51 51.95 (6.48) Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai; 2006

2005-06 RE 122.77 Average 6.83 Average 37.33

10.3.10

Finance Expenses

Finance expenses primarily include interest paid on the loans and other liabilities. Other components like interest charged by the bank, other bank charges, lapsed deposit refund, audit expenses, etc. are taken under administrative expenses. Table 10.10 presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of the CoC along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in finance expenses. Table 10.10: Revenue Expenditure on Finance Expenses of the Corporation of Chennai Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Actuals RE 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Crores) Finance Expenses 18.65 25.18 11.53 6.82 10.64 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Finance Expenses 5.18 6.21 2.25 1.34 3.74 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Finance Expenses -35.01 (54.21) (40.85) (20.02) Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai 2006 The above table reveals that the interest paid towards debt servicing was about 3.74 percent on an average during the assessment period. There has been a decline in interest paid towards debt servicing, indicating efforts on part of the CoC towards sustained debt servicing and improving capability towards leveraging additional debts for city services.

10.3.11

Other Expenses and Payments & Contributions

Other expenses include operating expenses, program expenses and administrative expenses. The CoC provides for payments and contributions to various funds within the CoC, which include payment to elementary education fund, library cess, contribution to
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capital fund and contribution to mayor special development fund. The following Table 10.11 presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of the CoC along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in other expenses and payments & contributions. Table 10.11: RE on Payments & Contributions of the Corporation of Chennai Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Actuals RE 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Crores) Other Expenses 49.45 75.30 81.51 97.05 115.06 Payments and 81.01 80.58 178.32 158.04 148.08 Contributions 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Other Expenses 13.73 18.56 15.88 19.10 16.82 Payments and 22.50 19.86 34.74 31.10 27.05 Contributions 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Other Expenses 52.28 8.25 19.07 26.53 Payments and (0.53) 121.30 (11.37) 36.46 Contributions Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai 2006 From the above table, it may be observed that other expenses had a utilization of about 16.82 percent of the total revenue expenditure while that of payments & contributions was about 27.05 percent on an average during the assessment period. The growth trends in both the cases were inconsistent and thus no specific trend pattern could be established.

10.4 Capital Account 10.4.1 Capital Receipts/Income - Sources
Figure 10.9: Composition of Capital Receipts Contributions and income from any sale Com position of Capital Receipts (Avg. of proceeds. The detailed components of Four Years from FY 2001-02 to 2004-05) capital income are enumerated in the table Loans 15% below. An analysis of this account over the past four years indicates that the loans Grant s 10% contributed 15 percent of the capital income against 10 percent grants and contributions. However, major proportion Transf er f rom CoC Funds (about three-fourth) of the capital receipts 75% was in the form of transfer from the CoC funds like Revenue Funds, Elementary Education Fund, and Improvement Charges for Private Streets and Mayor Special Development Fund. This pattern indicates right utilization by the CoC, its credit worthiness2 and taking up capital asset creation.
2 The Corporation of Chennai has been rated AA(so)/stable recently (January 16, 2006) by CRISIL Ratings

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Table: 10.12 and Figure 10.9 represents the capital receipts and composition of capital receipts. Table 10.12: Capital Receipts of the Corporation of Chennai Rs. in Crores Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Actuals 1. Loans 25.55 22.49 10.00 15.40 18.36 2. Grants 13.14 0.40 10.30 24.08 11.98 3. Transfer from CoC Funds 48.44 45.61 161.36 122.91 94.58 Total 87.13 68.50 181.66 162.39 124.92 Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai; 2006

10.4.2 Capital Expenditure - Items
Figure 10.10: Composition of Capital expenditure

Majority of capital expenditure has been Com position of Capital Expenditure (Avg. directed towards roads and buildings with of Four Years from FY 2001-02 to 2004-05) Basic Ot her Capit al about 78 percent utilization. As such, the Amenit ies Solid Waste Works 3% capital expenditure pattern is consistent M anagement 7% 1% with equal proportion of spending in each Storm Wat er Drains sector. The table below provides detailed 8% break-up year wise, for the capital St reet Light ing 3% expenditure pattern of the CoC. Analysis of capital income and capital expenditure Roads & indicates that the capital account has Buildings been in surplus during last two years (FY 78% 2003-04 &FY 2004-05) mainly due to excess transfer of funds from the funds of the CoC. The capital expenditure and composition is represented in Table: 10.13 and Figure: 10.10 Table 10.13: Capital Expenditure of the Corporation of Chennai Rs. in Crores Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Actuals 1. Roads & Buildings 81.11 58.32 133.64 99.35 93.11 2. Street Lighting 4.61 2.09 4.61 4.82 4.03 3. Storm Water Drains 5.64 1.85 16.02 15.65 9.79 4. Solid Waste Management 2.64 0.04 1.46 2.18 1.58 5. Basic Amenities 3.63 1.54 3.66 3.56 3.10 6. Other Capital Works 5.28 8.09 9.72 9.84 8.23 Total 102.91 71.93 169.11 135.40 119.84 Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai; 2006

10.5 Key Financial Indicators
To assess the financial situation and performance of the CoC, certain key financial indictors have been generated. Following are heads under which specific indicators of financial status and performance of the CoC has been assessed.

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• • •

Resource Mobilization; Expenditure Management; and Debt and Liability Management.

The following Table 10.14 provides performance of various key financial indicators in CoC during the assessment period Table 10.14: Performance of Key Financial Indicators in Corporation of Chennai Sl. No. Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Average Actuals 1. Operating Ratio 0.94 0.82 0.97 0.97 0.93 2. Capital Utilization Ratio 1.18 1.05 0.93 0.83 1.00 (Cap. Exp. to Cap. Inc.) 3. Debt Servicing Ratio (DS 9.93 11.84 35.45 12.36 17.40 Exp. to Rev. Inc.) 4. Share of Own Source in 62.97 48.94 55.07 62.04 57.26 Total Rev. Inc. 5. Establishment Exp. as % 50.87 39.60 37.94 39.55 41.99 of Total Rev. Inc. 6. Establishment Exp. to 53.98 48.57 38.96 40.74 45.56 Revenue Exp. 7. Outstanding Loan to 0.91 0.63 0.26 0.15 0.49 Revenue Income 8. Outstanding Loan to 1.81 1.57 0.68 0.37 1.11 Revenue PT Demand Source: Analysis based on the Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai; 2006

10.5.1 Resource Mobilization
Indicators related to resource mobilization comprise of specific financial indicators that reflect financial status of the CoC. The other financial indicators related to sources of finances, their contribution and growth trends are discussed in detail in previous section.

10.5.2 Per Capita Income
Annual per capita income is a quick indicator to assess the financial capacity of the local body. The per capita income of the CoC has been estimated as Rs. 1167. It has been arrived at based on the revenue receipts during the year 2004-05 and the estimated population during the year 2004/05.

10.5.3 Expenditure Management
Indicators pertaining to expenditure management comprise of specific indicators that reflect the utilization pattern of local body. The growth trends and utilization have been discussed in detail in the previous section. The other expenditure management indicators include per capita expenditure, operating ratio and debt servicing ratio, which give an indication of the financial performance/ management in the CoC.

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10.5.4 Per Capita Expenditure
Annual per capita expenditure has been arrived at based on the revenue expenditure during the year 2004-05 and the estimated population during the year 2004/05. The per capita expenditure of the CoC has been estimated as Rs. 1133. It may be observed that the per capital income is higher than the per capita expenditure, indicating operational efficiency of the CoC.

10.5.5 Operating Ratio
Operating Ratio is the ratio of revenue expenditure to revenue income and it indicates financial position in terms of surplus or deficit. If the ratio is below one it indicates the local body is in surplus. The average operating ratio of the CoC during the assessment period was 0.93. It is noteworthy that the CoC always had operating ratio less than unity during the assessment period.

10.5.6 Debt Servicing Ratio
Debt Servicing Ratio (DSR) is ratio (expressed in percentage) of debt payment (principal and interest paid out) to total revenue income. This indicator helps in assessing the implication of debt on the local body finances vis-à-vis expenditure for operation and maintenance. It has been observed that the CoC had an average DSR of about 17.40 percent, which is well below the desirable level of 30 percent.

10.5.7 Debt and Liability Management
Debt management is a significant issue that needs to be addressed, especially in the wake of urban local bodies having to approach the hitherto non-traditional sources of borrowings, viz. the Financial Institutions and the open market. The urban local bodies ought to plan their borrowings on the basis of their capacity to leverage operating revenues. Moreover, the local bodies will have to ensure prompt servicing of the debt in order to retain fair levels of credit-worthiness. This is one aspect where many urban local bodies have defaulted in the past, due to various reasons. As a result, they end up accumulating significant sums of overdue principal and interest.

10.5.8 Total Outstanding Loan
A review of the outstanding loan statement of the CoC, as on March 31st 2005, reveals that the net outstanding debt liabilities of the CoC are estimated at Rs. 80.14 crores. The Table 10.15 below presents the agency wise outstanding loans.

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Table 10.15: Statement on Agency-wise Loan Outstanding of the CMC Amount in Rs. Crores Sl. No. Name of the Agency Loan Outstanding as on March 31, 2005 Amount Percentage to Total Loan 1. Public Loan 10.65 13.29 2. IDA 3. ICDP 4. State Government 0.50 0.62 (Others) 5. Ways & Means Advance 4.00 4.99 6. MCP 63.03 78.65 7. ICICI Bank 8. State Government 1.96 2.45 (Revenue) Total 80.14 100.00 Source: Data Provided by the Corporation of Chennai 2006 It needs mention that the ratio of outstanding loans to current (FY 2004-05) demand of property tax is about 0.37, thereby indicating that the CoC is capable of leveraging additional debt to finance its projects as this is well below the threshold level of minimum 2 and maximum 3 (generally considered by Financial institutions). Debt servicing (including both principal repayment and interest charges) accounted for about 18.55 percent of revenue expenditure during the review period and the DSR (as percentage of revenue income) is around 17.40 percent, which is still below the threshold level of 25 percent, considered by financial institutions. The debt servicing during the FY 2004-05 was 12.36 percent and was about 35 percent during FY 2003-04 (this includes takeover loan of Rs. 56.20 crores), indicating the efforts on part of the CoC towards sustained debt servicing and improving the capability towards leveraging additional debts for city development.

10.5.9 Outstanding Loan Per Capita-Year 2004-05
The outstanding loan per capita however is not a performance or a status indicator, but it gives a measure to compare the extent of borrowings/ debt liability by the CoC. The analysis indicates that the outstanding debt per capita was about Rs. 179 per capita.

10.6 Finances of Other Urban Local Bodies 10.6.1 Municipal Finances - An Overview
As stated earlier, the first part of this report covered urban (municipal) financial assessment of the Corporation of Chennai while this part of the report covers all 8 (eight) Municipalities and 6 (six) upgraded Urban local bodies. The finances of the 14 (fourteen) Urban local bodies have been reviewed based on the financial information provided by the respective Urban local bodies for the financial years 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03 and 200304 including budget provision for year 2004-05. The analysis includes a time series

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analysis of the income and expenditure of the Urban local bodies to ascertain the trends and the major sources and uses. In addition to this, certain key financial indictors relating to property tax, water charges, per capita income, per capita expenditure and debt servicing, have been generated and analyzed to assess the financial performance of the Urban local bodies covered under this assessment. It may be noted that all the Municipalities were operating on accrual based accounting system, where as recently upgraded urban local bodies (erstwhile Town Panchayats) were operating on cash based accounting system. Accordingly, the financial analysis has been carried out separately based on the system of accounting practices. Following tables: 10.16 present summary of general accounts for different category of Urban local bodies covered under this assignment Municipalities For the 8 (eight) Municipalities located within the CMA, operating on accrual based accounting, it may be seen that the revenue account receipts excluding depreciation and prior year income/expenses of the Municipalities has increased from Rs. 77.32 crores in year 2000-01 to Rs. 90.98 crores during the year 2003-04, indicating a compounded growth at a rate of 5.89 percent per annum during the four-year period. From the table below, it may be observed that the revenue receipts have grown at an average increase of about 5.91 percent per annum. Table 10.16: Summary of Municipal Finances for Municipalities Rs. in Lakhs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Summary of General Accounts (excluding opening balances, depreciation and prior year income/expenses) Receipts/Income 7731.72 7403.77 8616.88 9097.62 10276.13 Expenditure 4177.78 5321.14 4767.88 5243.25 8401.77 Surplus/Deficit 3553.94 2082.63 3849.00 3854.37 1874.36 2. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Receipts/Income (4.24) 16.39 5.58 5.91 Expenditure 27.37 (10.40) 9.97 8.98 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies
Figure 10.11: Trends in Revenue Receipts

During the same period, the revenue expenditure has also increased from Rs. 41.78 crores to 52.43 crores, indicating an average compounded increase of about 8.50 percent per annum. The figures in the table above also indicate that the revenue expenditure have also registered an increase of about 8.98 percent per annum on an average. The Chart presents the trend in receipts and expenditure for all 8 Municipalities located within CMA.

Trend in Revenue Receipts and Expenditure for Municipalities
12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 F inancial Y ear 2003-04 2004-05

Receipts/ Income

Expenditure

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Upgraded Urban local bodies It may be seen that the revenue account receipts excluding opening balances and advances/deposits of the 6 (six) upgraded Urban local bodies (erstwhile Town Panchayats) has increased from Rs. 9.56 crores in year 2000-01 to Rs. 17.29 crores during the year 2003-04, indicating a compounded growth at a rate of 26.95 percent per annum during the four-year period. The table: 10.17 below also indicate that the revenue receipts/income of the 6 upgraded ULBs have increased at an average rate of about 41.40 percent per annum. Trends of Revenue receipts shows in Figure: 10.12. Table 10.17: MF for Upgraded ULBs- Rs. in Lakhs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Summary of General Accounts (excluding opening balances, advances and deposits) Receipts/Income 956.07 702.22 1781.40 1728.96 1817.72 Expenditure 814.13 628.65 1137.35 1269.44 1388.54 Surplus/Deficit 141.93 73.56 644.04 459.52 429.18 2. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Receipts/Income (26.55) 153.68 (2.94) 41.40 Expenditure (22.78) 80.92 11.61 23.25 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies
Figure 10.12: Trend in Revenue receipts

During the period FY 2000-01 to FY 2003-04, the revenue expenditure has also increased from Rs. 8.14 crores to 12.69 crores, indicating an average compounded increase of about 18.64 percent per annum (an average annual increase of about 23.25 percent). The figures in the table above indicate the accounts status at the aggregate level for 6 upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats). The Chart also presents the trend in receipts and expenditure for 6 upgraded ULBs.

Trend in Revenue Receipts and Expenditure for Upgraded ULBs
2000 1500 1000 500 0 2000-01

2001-02

2002-03 F inancial Y ear

2003-04

2004-05

Receipt s/Income

Expendit ure

10.6.2 Key Revenue Drivers
In order to review the revenue account, the core revenue drivers/receipts of the ULBs are broadly categorized under following heads depending on the source of receipts, viz.
• Tax Revenues o Property Tax o Professional Tax o Other Taxes Non-Tax Revenues
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o Water Charges o Service Charges and Fees (excluding Water Charges) o Sale and Hire Charges Other Income o Assigned Revenue o Grants and Contributions o Devolution Fund Other Grants and Contributions

However, the above categorization varies slightly with the upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) as the accounting practices vary.

10.6.3 Receipts/Income from Taxes
Receipts/income from taxes includes all taxes levied and collected directly by the ULBs. These include property tax and professional tax, which are the more significant taxes and other taxes like pilgrim tax, tax on carriages & animals, tax on carts, servant tax, advertisement tax and others. Property Tax was the single largest source of revenue of the ULBs and was levied as a percentage of the Annual Rateable Value (ARV) of all Real Properties (including built-up and vacant land) within in the administrative jurisdiction of the respective ULBs. The other major tax item is the profession tax levied on all registered employed professionals and establishments in the organized sector. Other taxes included pilgrim tax, tax on carriages & animals, tax on carts, servant tax, advertisement tax and others. Municipalities The following Table: 10.18 presents the year wise aggregate receipts/income of 8 Municipalities along with sectoral contribution and growth trend in taxes. Table 10.18: Revenue Receipts from Taxes of Municipalities Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actual Budget 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Lakhs) Property Tax 2476.83 2724.35 2791.90 2897.72 3337.91 Profession Tax 446.24 483.09 484.26 490.14 611.64 Other Taxes 0.00 0.00 0.28 0.06 0.01 Total Taxes 2923.07 3207.44 3276.44 3387.92 3949.56 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Property Tax 30.98 35.49 32.26 31.70 32.48 Profession Tax 5.58 6.29 5.60 5.36 5.95 Other Taxes 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Total Taxes 36.57 41.79 37.86 37.06 38.43 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Property Tax 9.99 2.48 3.79 5.42 Profession Tax 8.26 0.24 1.21 3.24 Other Taxes (77.41) (77.41)

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2001-02 2002-03 Actual Total Taxes 9.73 2.15 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

Sl. No.

Particulars

2000-01

2003-04 3.40

2004-05 Budget 5.09

Figure 10.13: Contribution of R/I Taxes The total property tax assessments in all Sectoral Contribution of Receipts/Incom e the Municipalities were summing up to from Taxes in Municipalities (Avg. of FY about 2.47 lakhs, resulting in a property 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) tax demand of about Rs. 32.75 crores for Grants and the year 2003-04. The total collection of Cont ribut ions Property Tax property tax (both current and arrears) 22% 33% have increased from 24.77 crores during 2000-01 to 28.98 crores during 2003-04, Prof ession Assigned indicating an average annual growth of Tax Revenue 6% 21% about 5.42 percent with an average Non-Tax contribution of 32.48 percent to the total Revenue 18% municipal revenue receipts. It may be noted that there was no tax revision during this period and the increase is only due to the increase in number of assessments during this period. During this period, the number of assessments has increased at about 6.11 percent on an average annually.

During the same period, Professional Tax component has recorded an increase from Rs. 4.46 crores during the year 2000-01 to Rs. 4.90 crores during the year 2003-04, indicating an average annual increase of about 3.24 percent with average contribution of about 5.95 percent to the total revenue receipts/income of the Municipalities. During this period, the number of assessments has increased at about 6.82 percent on an average annually. The contribution of other taxes to the total revenue receipts was negligible. As a whole, the receipts / income from taxes alone has contributed an average of about 38.43 percent to the total revenue receipts/income of the Municipalities, with an average annual growth of about 5.09 percent. Upgraded ULBs The following Table: 10.19 presents the year wise aggregate receipts/income of 6 upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) along with sectoral contribution and growth trend in taxes. Table 10.19: Revenue Receipts from Taxes of ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Lakhs) Property Tax 248.72 196.13 248.99 290.09 319.00 Profession Tax 30.83 29.47 27.73 18.20 19.68 Other Taxes 48.31 32.04 63.56 69.04 75.90 Total Taxes 327.86 257.64 340.28 377.33 414.58 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Property Tax 22.37 23.67 13.18 15.45 16.84 Profession Tax 2.77 3.56 1.47 0.97 1.04

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Sl. No.

Particulars

2000-01

Other Taxes 4.34 3.68 Total Taxes 29.48 20.09 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Property Tax (21.15) 26.95 16.51 7.44 Profession Tax (4.42) (5.90) (34.37) (14.90) Other Taxes (33.66) 98.35 8.63 24.44 Total Taxes (21.42) 32.07 10.89 7.18 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies Figure 10.14: Contribution of R/I Taxes

2001-02 2002-03 Actuals 3.87 3.37 31.10 18.02

2003-04

2004-05 Budget 4.01 21.89

The total property tax assessments in 6 Sectoral Contribution of Receipts/Incom e upgraded ULBs were summing up to from Taxes in Upgraded ULBs (Avg. of FY about 58,389, resulting in a property tax 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) Grants and demand of about Rs. 2.73 crores for the Assigned Contribut ions Property Tax Revenue year 2003-04. The total collection of 6% 19% 1% property tax (both current and arrears) Prof ession Tax have increased from 2.49 crores during 2% 2000-01 to 2.90 crores during 2003-04, Other Taxes indicating a average annual increase of 4% Non-Tax about 7.44 percent with an average Revenue 68% contribution of 16.84 percent to the total municipal revenue receipts. It may be noted that there was no tax revision during this period and the increase is only due to the increase in number of assessments during this period. During this period, the number of assessments has increased at about 5.77 percent on an average annually. Contribution of R/I Taxes are illustrated I Figure: 10.14 During the same period, professional tax component has recorded a decrease from Rs. 0.31 crores during the year 2000-01 to Rs. 0.18 crores during the year 2003-04, indicating an average annual decrease of about 14.90 percent with average contribution of just about 1 percent to the total revenue receipts/income of 6 upgraded ULBs. Other taxes have contributed about 4.01 percent to the total revenue receipts. As a whole, the receipts / income from taxes alone has contributed an average of about 21.89 percent to the total revenue receipts/income of 6 upgraded ULBs, with an annual average growth of about 7.18 percent.

10.6.3 Receipts/Income from Non-Taxes
Non-tax resources include all non-tax revenues like fees and charges levied as per the legislation. Such revenue sources include income service charges & fees, water charges, sale and hire charges and other income from properties, interest on investment, etc.

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Municipalities
Figure 10.15: Contribution of R/I from Non-Taxes

The following table: 10.20 presents the year wise aggregate receipts/income of 8 Sectoral Contribution of Receipts/Incom e from Non-Taxes in Municipalities (Avg. of Municipalities located within CMA along FY 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) with sectoral contribution and growth Grants and trend in non-tax revenues. From the table Contributions 22% Taxes and the chart below, it may be observed 39% that all sub-heads under non-tax revenues Assigned Revenue except water charges received for 21% supplying water, recorded negative Water Charges Sale and Hire 2% growth rate. The contribution of the water Charges Service 0% Ot her Income Charges and charges to municipal receipts remained 10% Fees almost constant during last two years and 6% recorded an annual average contribution of 4.39 percent to the total receipts. However, during the same period, number of connections has recorded an average annual growth of 3.39 percent. Among the non-taxes, other income has a contribution of about 10.33 percent to the total receipts and these primarily consists of income from properties, interest on investment, etc. and project overhead appropriation expenses. As a whole, about 17.27 percent of the total receipts comprised of non-tax revenues. Contribution of R/I from non taxes is presented I Figure: 10.15 Table 10.20: Revenue Receipts from Non-Taxes of Municipalities Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 Actuals 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Lakhs) Water Charges 113.71 167.53 215.50 Other Service Charges 636.36 424.70 417.92 and Fees Sale and Hire Charges 0.44 0.32 0.26 Other Income 1091.33 888.57 683.14 Total Non-Taxes 1841.85 1481.13 1316.83 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 Water Charges 1.42 2.18 2.49 Other Service Charges 7.96 5.53 4.83 and Fees Sale and Hire Charges 0.01 0.00 0.00 Other Income 13.65 11.58 7.89 Total Non-Taxes 23.04 19.30 15.22 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 Water Charges -47.33 28.63 Other Service Charges -(33.26) (1.60) and Fees Sale and Hire Charges (26.79) (18.63) Other Income (18.58) (23.12) Total Non-Taxes (19.58) (11.09) Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

2003-04 210.09 387.36 0.20 681.74 1279.39

2004-05 Budget 260.77 451.05 0.76 1062.10 1774.68

2003-04 Average 2.30 2.54 4.24 4.39 0.00 7.46 13.99 0.01 10.33 17.27

2003-04 Average (2.51) 24.48 (7.31) (14.06) (25.20) (0.20) (2.84) (23.54) (13.97) (11.17)

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Upgraded ULBs
Figure 10.16: Contribution of R/I Non Taxes ULBS The following Table: 10.21 presents the Sectoral Contribution of Receipts/Incom e year wise aggregate receipts/income of 6 from Non-Taxes in Upgraded ULBs (Avg. upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town of FY 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) Grants and Panchayats) located within the CMA Assigned Contribut ions Revenue along with sectoral contribution and 2% 0% Taxes growth trend in non-tax revenues. From 27% the table and the chart below, it may be observed that the receipts from non-tax Other Income Water Charges 63% revenues have been inconsistent and thus 2% a regular trend cannot be established. Service Among the non-taxes, other income has a Charges and Fees contribution of about 67.05 percent to the 6% total receipts and these primarily consist of income from properties, interest on investment, etc. As a whole, about 69.26 percent of the total receipts comprised of non-tax revenues of the upgraded ULBs of the CMA.

Table 10.21: Revenue Receipts from Non-Taxes of other ULBs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Lakhs) Water Charges 103.49 0.57 0.10 0.64 0.37 Other Service Charges 53.86 95.19 48.58 94.39 41.49 and Fees Other Income 320.66 328.89 1304.96 1165.47 1269.76 Total Non-Taxes 478.01 424.66 1353.64 1260.50 1311.62 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Water Charges 9.31 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.02 Other Service Charges 4.84 11.49 2.57 5.03 2.19 and Fees Other Income 28.83 39.70 69.10 62.06 67.05 Total Non-Taxes 42.98 51.26 71.67 67.12 69.26 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Water Charges -(99.45) (81.98) 517.15 111.91 Other Service Charges -76.73 (48.97) 94.31 40.69 and Fees Other Income -2.57 296.77 (10.69) 96.22 Total Non-Taxes -(11.16) 218.76 (6.88) 66.91 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

10.6.4 Assigned Revenue and Grants & Contributions
Assigned revenues include revenues transferred to the ULBs by the GoTN under special Acts. These are transferred to the ULBs as their share of taxes levied and collected by the GoTN. These include duty on transfer of property, entertainment tax, magisterial fines,

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compensation for toll and other assigned revenues if any. Among all these, duty on transfer of property and entertainment tax is the most significant ones. The GoTN levies duty on transfer of properties within the administrative limits of the ULBs and transfers part of the same to the ULBs. Similarly, the GoTN also collects entertainment tax from cinemas and theatres within the limits of the ULBs and transfer 90 percent of the total tax collection to the respective ULBs, after retaining 10 percent as collection charges. In addition, there may be other assigned revenues by the GoTN to the ULBs. The ULBs receive revenue grants from the GoTN to meet recurring expenses under various schemes. Prior to the SFC devolution (which began from FY 1997-98), revenue grants accounted for about 2 to 3 percent of the total revenue income of the ULBs. From FY 1997-98 on implementation of First and subsequently Second State Finance Commission recommendations to devolve funds to the local bodies from the State’s net revenue to all the local bodies, revenue grants’ share in total revenue went up considerably. The amount to be devolved as part of the SFC recommendation comprises of mainly revenues from Sales Tax, MV tax, State excise and others that are constituted as Pool B. Based on this recommendation the GoTN devolves 8 percent of the Pool B to all the local bodies based on a prescribed formula to various categories of local bodies and further, on a formula basis to individual local bodies. Municipalities
Figure 10.17: Contribution of R/I form Assigned Receipts/Grants It is observed that the assigned revenues Sectoral Contribution of Receipts/Incom e had a negative growth rate during the from Assigned Revenues and Grants & Contributions in Municipalities (Avg. of FY assessment period with a share of about 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) 2.54 percent to the total receipts. Grants & Similarly, devolution fund and other Co ntributio n Devo lutio n 3% grants & contributions also indicated Fund 1 9% negative growth trend. This indicates Taxes that the ULBs are less reliant on GoTN 39% fund allocation and generally managing with their own sources of funds. The A ssigned Revenue devolution fund had a contribution of 21 % No n-Taxes 4.39 percent to the total revenue 1 8% receipts/income on an average. The Entertainment Tax has contributed about 4 percent on an average to the total receipts. As a whole, about 6.93 percent of the total receipts comprised of Assigned Revenues and Grants & Contributions, which recorded a negative growth rate of 26.26 percent per annum on an average over the last four financial years. Figure 10.17 shows the Contribution of R/I form Assigned Receipts/Grants.

The following Table: 10.22 presents the year wise aggregate receipts/income of 8 Municipalities along with sectoral contribution and growth trend in Assigned Revenues and Grants & Contributions.

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Table 10.22: Revenue from Assigned Revenues and Grants from Municipalities Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Actuals 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Lakhs) Assigned Revenue 1888.52 167.53 215.50 210.09 Devolution Fund 888.08 424.70 417.92 387.36 Grants & Contributions 190.20 0.32 0.26 0.20 Total 2966.81 592.56 633.68 597.65 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Assigned Revenue 23.63 2.18 2.49 2.30 Devolution Fund 11.11 5.53 4.83 4.24 Grants & Contributions 2.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 Total 37.11 7.72 7.32 6.54 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Assigned Revenue (91.13) 28.63 (2.51) Devolution Fund (52.18) (1.60) (7.31) Grants & Contributions (99.83) (18.63) (25.20) Total (80.03) 6.94 (5.69) Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

2004-05 Budget 260.77 451.05 0.76 712.58 Average 2.54 4.39 0.01 6.93 Average (21.67) (20.36) (47.89) (26.26)

From the above table, it may be observed that the assigned revenues had a negative growth rate during the assessment period with a share of about 2.54 percent to the total receipts. Similarly, devolution fund and other grants & contributions also indicated negative growth trend. This indicates that the ULBs are less reliant on the GoTN fund allocation and generally managing with their own sources of funds. The devolution fund had a contribution of 4.39 percent to the total revenue receipts/income on an average. The Entertainment Tax has contributed about 4 percent on an average to the total receipts. As a whole, about 6.93 percent of the total receipts comprised of Assigned Revenues and Grants & Contributions, which recorded a negative growth rate of 26.26 percent per annum on an average over the last four financial years. Upgraded ULBs The following table: 10.23 presents the year wise aggregate receipts/income of all 6 upgraded ULBs along with sectoral contribution and growth trend in Assigned Revenues and Grant & Contributions. Table 10.23: Revenue from Assigned Revenues and Grant of Upgraded ULBs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Receipts/Income (Rs. in Lakhs) Assigned Revenue 12.81 7.41 10.68 11.73 12.63 Devolution Fund 137.38 12.50 76.18 78.71 78.16 Grants & Contributions 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.68 0.73 Total 150.19 19.92 87.48 91.12 91.53 2. Sectoral Contribution to Total Revenue Income (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Assigned Revenue 1.15 0.89 0.57 0.62 0.67 Devolution Fund 12.35 1.51 4.03 4.19 4.13

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Sl. No.

Particulars

2000-01

Grants & Contributions 0.00 0.04 Total 13.51 4.85 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Assigned Revenue -(42.15) 44.06 9.91 3.94 Devolution Fund -(90.90) 509.22 3.32 140.55 Grants & Contributions ---10.39 -Total -(86.74) 339.23 4.17 85.55 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies Figure 10.18: Receipts from Assigned Revenue and Grants From the above table, it may be observed Sectoral Contribution of Receipts/Incom e that the assigned revenues consisted of only from Assigned Revenues and Grants & entertainment tax, which has contributed Contributions in Upgraded ULBs (Avg. of FY 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) about 0.67 percent on an average to the Devolution total receipts, with an annual average Assigned Fund Revenue 6% growth rate of 3.94 percent. The total share 1% of 6 upgraded ULBs in the devolution Taxes during 2000-01 to 2003-04 remained 25% inconsistent due to the fact that they were net devolution figures excluding the Non-Taxes 68% deductions made at source by the GoTN towards recovery of various outstanding liabilities of the ULBs. In addition, these upgraded ULBs received an average of about 4.17 percent of their total receipts as other grants and contributions during the last four years period. Figure 10.18 graphically represents the receipts from assigned revenue and grants

2001-02 2002-03 Actuals 0.00 0.03 2.40 4.63

2003-04

2004-05 Budget 0.04 4.83

10.7 Key Expenditure Drivers
In order to review the revenue account, the core (revenue) expenditure drivers of the ULBs are broadly categorized under following heads depending on the type of expenses, viz.
• • • • • • • • • • Personnel Cost Repairs and Maintenance Finance Expenses Debt Servicing Other Finance Expenses Other Expenses Terminal and Retirement Benefits Operating Expenses Program Expenses Administrative Expenses

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However, the above categorization varies slightly with the upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) as the accounting practices vary.

10.7.1 Personnel Cost
The personnel cost includes salaries and other establishment expenses. The salaries include pay including personnel pay, special pay, DA, interim relief, HRA, CCA, allowances like cash, conveyance, medical and others and ex-gratia/bonus. Other establishment related expenses include travel allowance, LTC, supply of uniform, conveyance charges, hospital stoppages/reimbursement of medical expenses, training programme expenses and staff welfare expenses. The following Table: 10.24 presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of 8 Municipalities and 6 upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in personnel cost. Table 10.24: Expenditure of Municipalities and Upgraded ULBs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Lakhs) Municipalities 2020.86 2196.22 2069.04 1987.65 2427.47 Upgraded ULBs 178.80 158.39 177.73 204.57 229.40 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities 30.16 28.05 27.66 24.25 27.53 Upgraded ULBs 18.72 20.29 14.41 14.84 17.07 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities -8.68 (5.79) (3.93) (0.35) Upgraded ULBs -(11.41) 12.21 15.10 5.30 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies
Figure 10.19: Expenditure form Various Heads

The personnel cost of the Municipalities Sectoral Utilization in Expenditure from stood at Rs. 20.21 crores during the year Various Expenditure Heads in 2000-01 and was Rs. 19.88 crores Municipalities (Avg. of FY 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) during the last financial year (2003-04) with little change. The average Other utilization was about 27.53 percent of Expenses P erso nnel 28% the total revenue expenditure for the last Co st 43% four years, with little/no change in the growth pattern. However, on contrary, Finance the personnel cost of 6 upgraded ULBs Expenses 1 4% (erstwhile Town Panchayats) stood at Repairs and M aintenance Rs. 1.79 crores during the year 2000-01 1 5% and has increased to Rs. 2.05 crores during the last financial year (2003-04) with an average increase of 5.30 percent per annum. The average utilization was about 17

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percent of the total revenue expenditure for the last four years. Figure 10.19 represents the expenditure form various heads It is observed that about 28 percent of revenue income is spent on salaries (including terminal & retirement benefits) in case of Municipalities while about 14 percent of revenue income is spent on salaries in case of upgraded ULBs, which much below the average or threshold generally considered at 35 to 40 percent of revenue income.

10.7.2 Repairs and Maintenance
Repairs and Maintenance head include all repairs and maintenance related expenses like buildings, subways, plants & machineries, roads, drainage, etc. The following Table: 10.25 presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of 8 Municipalities and 6 upgraded ULBs along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in expenses incurred for Repairs and Maintenance. Table 10.25: Expenditure on Repairs and Maintenance of Municipalities Upgraded ULBs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Lakhs) Municipalities 512.39 1144.32 669.21 633.86 1127.61 Upgraded ULBs 517.92 373.54 698.02 787.08 957.86 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities 7.65 14.62 8.95 7.73 9.74 Upgraded ULBs 54.24 47.86 56.60 57.12 53.95 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities -123.33 (41.52) (5.28) 25.51 Upgraded ULBs -(27.88) 86.87 12.76 23.92 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies
Figure 10.20: Expenditure from various Heads ULBs The repairs and maintenance cost of the Sectoral Utilization in Expenditure from Municipalities has increased from Rs. Various Expenditure Heads in Upgraded 5.12 crores during the year 2000-01 to ULBs (Avg. of FY 2000-01 to FY 2003-04) Rs. 6.34 crores during the year 2003-04 Ot her with an average annual increase of about Expenses Personnel 13% Finance Cost 25.51 percent. The expenses incurred on Expenses 19% repairs and maintenance utilized about 6% 9.74 percent of the total revenue expenditure on an average during period. Repairs and In case of upgraded ULBs, the repairs M aint enance and maintenance cost has increased from 62% Rs. 5.18 crores during the year 2000-01 to Rs. 7.87 crores during the year 200304 with an average annual increase of about 24 percent. The expenses incurred on repairs and maintenance utilized about 54 percent of the total revenue expenditure on an average

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during period for the upgraded ULBs.

10.7.3 Finance Expenses
Finance expenses primarily include interest paid on the loans and other liabilities. Certain other components are also included as finance expenses like interest charged by the bank, other bank charges, lapsed deposit refund, audit expenses, etc. The Municipalities were paying about 5.79 percent of their total revenue expenditure as the interest on loans on an average for the four years period while total utilization of finance expenses was about 9.21 percent of total revenue expenditure. The upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) were paying about 5.96 percent of their total revenue expenditure as the interest on loans on an average for the four years period. Both Municipalities and upgraded ULBs were paying less than 5 percent of their total revenue income towards debt servicing, which is below the accepted threshold level of 25 percent. The following table; 10.26 presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of 8 Municipalities and 6 Upgraded ULBs along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in finance expenses. Table 10.26: Revenue Expenditure of Municipalities and Upgraded ULBs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Lakhs) Municipalities 645.53 1008.18 539.17 581.95 521.73 Upgraded ULBs 91.08 61.10 38.53 46.24 53.76 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities 9.64 12.88 7.21 7.10 9.21 Upgraded ULBs 9.54 7.83 3.12 3.36 5.96 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities -56.18 (46.52) 7.93 5.86 Upgraded ULBs -- (32.91) (36.93) 20.01 (16.61) Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

10.7.4 Other Expenses
These expenses include terminal and retirement benefits, operating expenses, program expenses and administrative expenses. The following table presents the year wise aggregate expenditure of 8 Municipalities and 6 upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) along with sectoral utilization and growth trend in other expenses. Table 10.27: Revenue Expenditure on Other Expenses of ULBs and Upgraded ULBs Sl. No. Particulars 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 1. Expenditure (Rs. in Lakhs) Municipalities 999.00 972.43 1490.46 2039.80 4324.96 Upgraded ULBs 26.34 35.63 223.06 231.54 147.52 2. Sectoral Utilization in Total Revenue Expenditure (in Percentage)
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2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Actuals Budget 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities 14.91 12.42 19.93 24.88 18.04 Upgraded ULBs 2.76 4.56 18.09 16.80 10.55 3. Growth Trend (in Percentage) 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Average Municipalities (2.66) 53.27 36.86 29.16 Upgraded ULBs 35.28 526.09 3.80 188.39 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

Sl. No.

Particulars

2000-01

The Municipalities were spending about 18.04 percent of their total revenue expenditure as other expenses on an average for the four years period. The upgraded ULBs (erstwhile Town Panchayats) were spending about 10.55 percent of their total revenue expenditure as other expenses on an average for the four years period. The growth trends in both the cases were inconsistent and thus no specific trend pattern could be established.

10.7.5 Key Financial Indicators
To assess the financial situation and performance of the ULBs, certain key financial indictors have been generated for each of the two category of ULBs covered under this assessment. Following are heads under which specific indicators of financial status and performance of the ULBs have been assessed.
• • • Resource Mobilization; Expenditure Management; and Debt and Liability Management.

10.7.6 Resource Mobilization
Indicators related to resource mobilization comprise of specific financial indicators that reflect financial status of the ULBs. The other financial indicators related to sources of finances, their contribution and growth trends are discussed in detail in previous section.

10.7.7 Per Capita Income
Annual per capita income is a quick indicator to assess the financial capacity of the local body. It has been arrived at based on the revenue receipts during the year 2003-04 (excluding prior year receipts/income) and the estimated population during the year 2003/04. The following table provides the average annual per capita as per the categories of ULBs, viz. Municipalities and upgraded ULBs. Table 10.28: Average Annual Per Capita Income and Expenditure Sl. No. Category of U L B Per Capita Income Per Capita Expenditure (Rupees) (Rupees) 1. Municipalities 688.08 775.82 2. Upgraded ULBs 812.57 603.47 Total/Average 750.33 689.65

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Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies Generally, the per capita receipts increase with the higher hierarchical status of the ULBs. On contrary, it is an opposite case here with upgraded ULBs having higher per capita income than the Municipalities. At an aggregate level, the per capita income of the ULBs was about Rs. 750.33.

10.7.8 Expenditure Management
Indicators pertaining to expenditure management comprise of specific indicators that reflect the utilization pattern of ULBs. The growth trends and utilization have been discussed in detail in the previous section. The other expenditure management indicators include per capita expenditure, operating ratio and debt servicing ratio, which give an indication of the financial performance/ management in the ULBs.

10.7.9 Per Capita Expenditure
Annual per capita expenditure has been arrived at based on the revenue expenditure during the year 2003-04 (excluding prior year expenses and depreciation) and the estimated population during the year 2003/04. From the above table, Municipalities had the highest per capita expenditure of Rs. 775.82 while that of upgraded ULBs was Rs. 603.47. At an aggregate level, the per capita expenditure of the ULBs was about Rs. 689.65, which is lower than that of per capita income.

10.7.10

Operating Ratio

Operating Ratio is the ratio of revenue expenditure to revenue income and it indicates financial position in terms of surplus or deficit. If the ratio is below one it indicates the ULB is in Surplus. The average operating ratio of all the ULBs covered under this assessment was about 0.76. upgraded ULBs had poor Operating Ratio with about 0.86 compared to Municipalities, which had an average Operating Ratio of about 0.65, as given in the table below. Table 10.29: Average Operating Ratio and Debt Servicing Ratio Sl. No. Category of U L B Operating Debt Servicing Ratio (Percentage of Ratio (Ratio) Revenue Income) 1. Municipalities 0.65 6.00 2. Upgraded ULBs 0.86 5.76 Total/Average 0.76 5.88 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

10.8 Debt Servicing Ratio
Debt Servicing Ratio (DSR) is ratio (expressed in percentage) of debt payment (principal and interest paid out) to total revenue income. This indicator helps in assessing the implication of debt on the ULB finances vis-à-vis expenditure for operation and maintenance. It has been observed that DSR was well below the desirable level of 30
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percent in both Municipalities and upgraded ULBs as indicated in the table above. Municipalities had an average DSR of about 6.00 percent while that of upgraded ULBs was about 5.76 percent.

10.8.1 Debt and Liability Management
Debt management is a significant issue that needs to be addressed, especially in the wake of ULBs having to approach the hitherto non-traditional sources of borrowings, viz. the Financial Institutions and the open market. The ULBs ought to plan their borrowings on the basis of their capacity to leverage operating revenues. Moreover, the ULBs will have to ensure prompt servicing of the debt in order to retain fair levels of credit-worthiness. This is one aspect where many ULBs have defaulted in the past, due to various reasons. As a result, they end up accumulating significant sums of overdue principal and interest.

10.8.2 Total Outstanding Loan
The agency-wise outstanding debt amounts for both category of ULBs is presented in the table below. The total outstanding loan of 8 Municipalities, including the over due principal and interest as on 31 March 2004 was Rs. 75.62 crores, while that of 6 upgraded ULBs was Rs. 16.28 crores. It may be noted that GoTN loan account for about 25 percent of the total outstanding loans of the all ULBs while that of other Financial Institutions (mainly TUFIDCO) was about 58.29 percent. Table 10.30: Total Outstanding Loan Agency Wise (as on 31/03/2004) Amount in Rs. Lakhs Sl. No. Category of Urban Local Body GoTN MUDF/ Other FIs Total TNUDF 1. Municipalities 2183.97 1305.82 4071.75 7561.54 2. Upgraded ULBs 124.46 218.98 1284.95 1628.39 Total 2308.43 1524.8 5356.7 9189.93 Share in Total (%) 25.12 16.59 58.29 100.00 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies

10.8.3 Outstanding Loan Per Capita-Year 2004
The outstanding loan per capita however is not a performance or a status indicator, but it gives a measure to compare the extent of borrowings/ debt liability by different category of ULBs. The analysis indicates that the outstanding debt per capita ranges from Rs. 675 for 6 upgraded ULBs while Rs. 557 for Municipalities. At an aggregate level, the ULBs had about Rs. 616 per capita.

10.8.4 Non-Debt Liability
The general items of non-debt liability of the ULBs are payment dues to Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board, Pension and Provident Fund Accounts, Salaries and Library Cess payable to the GoTN.

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Table 10.31: Details on Non-Debt Liability (as on 31/03/2004) Amount in Rs. Lakhs Sl. No Particulars Municipalities Upgraded ULBs 1. Library Cess 272.28 0.00 2. Provident Fund 191.54 0.00 3. Terminal Benefits 27.82 0.00 4. Group Insurance Schemes 69.68 0.43 5. Dues - TWAD Board 960.53 0.00 6. Dues - Electricity Board 71.01 0.00 7. Pay Commission Arrears 40.30 0.00 8. Others 0.00 0.73 Total Non-Debt Liability 1633.16 1.16 Source: Data Provided by the Urban Local Bodies It may be noted that the 8 Municipalities together had a non-debt liability of Rs. 16.33 crores, while that of upgraded ULBs was Rs. 1.16 lakhs reported by Valasaravakkam. The total non-debt liability of all the ULBs located within CMA was Rs. 16.34 crores.

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CHAPTER XI – VISION & GOALS AND STRATEGIES
Chennai Metropolis will become one of the few cities in the world with 10 plus million population in about 10 years (i.e. by 2016). The challenge of Chennai would be to sustain progress in development of physical infrastructure and social development in tandem with economic growth. Chennai remains as an attractive investment destination because of its conducive business environment, relatively better infrastructure facilities and skilled manpower. Perspective of physical planning in Chennai has to be multi-faceted encompassing economic, physical, environmental and social dimensions of urban development. The overall vision for the city and the prioritisation of the key sectors paved the way to formulate sector specific vision and strategies. This sector specific approach with year wise strategies and corresponding year wise investments will be instrumental in framing the action plan/ implementation plan. The sector specific reforms and investments are an integral part of the year wise strategies.

11.1 Vision
The Vision for Chennai in the next 20 years is to develop it as a Prime Metropolis, which will be:
• • • • Delivery of equitable services Economically vibrant, and Environmentally sustainable, and with Better assets for the future generations.

11.1.1 Strategies for Spatial Development of CMA
The spatial strategy for the development of CMA is outlined below:
• Earmarking space for various activities such as housing, commercial, institutional, industrial and recreational use with integrated transport planning – rail and road transport facilities and improvements to existing transport infrastructure to enhance the mobility and accessibility. Incentives for location and physical development of I.T. parks /buildings and develop the area along the I.T. Express Way as I.T.corridor Zone to allow I.T.and other related development. Development of a Digitech city to accommodate the requirements of I.T. sector including housing with all attendant infrastructure at international standards in an extent of about 5000 acres identified at Thaiyur and nearby villages, to the south of CMA, about 7 km from CMA limit (along IT corridor). Encouraging plotted – low – rise development with individual ownership with high rise developments along wider roads by allowing MSB's in the rest of CMA. Also, in order to have planned developments with large open spaces on ground which is

• •

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• • •

preferable than low rise - high dense developments. In the MRTS influence, areas a higher FSI is proposed to maximize the transport utility. In the aquifer recharge area in the south, restricted developments will be allowed to meet the demand for housing, particularly for I.T. sector along this area without reducing the recharge capacity in the area by rainwater harvesting methods etc. Considering its locational and other advantages, the I.T. corridor in south will grow; governmental actions to provide required infrastructure would continue. Development of Thiruvallur and Gummidipoondi as satellite towns would be encouraged to relieve congestion in the Metropolis.

11.1.2 Strategy and Action Plan for Economic Development
• • • • • • • • Formulation of appropriate policy framework to enhance CMA's competence in new economy industries such as Information Technology, Tourism and Bio-Technology. Development of SEZ for port based industries and a multi-product SEZ in CMA to attract foreign direct investments. Development of specialized industrial estates at Sholinganallur and Perumbakkam for IT sector- hardware and software industries. Encouraging development of small scale industries to achieve accelerated industrial growth and creating additional employment in CMA by facilitating a series of fiscal and infrastructure interventions. Up-gradation of industrial infrastructures in the existing industrial estates at Guindy, Ambattur, Vyasarpadi, Taramani etc. to enhance the competitive attraction and sustainability of these estates. Imparting vocational skills to enhance the capacities of unorganized sector and strengthening of institutions involved in capacity building. Encourage investments by private sector to achieve economic growth and generate substantial employment. Emphasis on development of infrastructure in social sectors such as health, education and recreational facilities to compliment infrastructure creation and also to improve standards of living.

11.1.3 Goals and Strategies for Water Supply Sector
Considering the current challenges the goals are identified. The city, especially the surrounding municipalities are in short of adequate water supply network and access to piped water supply. And moreover, the CMWSSB do not have adequate finances to mobilize capital for augmentation of new water supply schemes. There is a huge demand supply gap, which is likely to widen drastically in future. Detailed strategy is furnished below which covers policy level planning, reforms, institutional strengthening, source augmentation and service delivery aspects. The following are brief outline of the projects taken up in the year one. The existing situation is presented in Table 11.1.

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Table 11.1.: Existing Situation of Water Supply Sl. No. Components Chennai City Area Surrounding Municipalities 1 Access to Water Supply 98% 40% Network coverage 2 Per Capita supply 90 lpcd 25-30 lpcd 3 O&M Cost recovery 80 % 60 % 4 Non Revenue Water 30 % 40 % Vision “The vision is to enhance customer satisfaction by providing pressurized continuous quality water in an equitable, efficient, sustainable manner and create Chennai a worldclass city”. Considering the above challenges, the following goals for different horizon years have been identified in Table 11.2. The water supply coverage and access to piped water supply in CMC area and surrounding municipalities’ needs to be enhanced to 100% by the year 2016. The per capita water supply should be maintained at 150 lpcd by increasing hours of supply to 8 hours a day by 2011, 16 hours a day by 2016 and subsequently achieve 24 hours water supply daily by 2021. There is an urgent need to lower the Non revenue to 25% by the year 2011, 20% by the year 2016 and 15% by the year 2021 and 100% O&M cost recovery is achieved by the year 2011. Table 11.2: Goals & Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years
Chennai City Area Sl.No. Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Network cover for general households Network coverage for urban slum households Per capita supply Hours of supply 24x7 water supply Quality of water Non Revenue Water O&M Cost Recovery Collection Efficiency Customer Satisfaction 2011 100% 100% 150 lpcd 6 hours / daily Four zones Safe & Good 20% 100% 100 % Good Horizon Period 2016 100% 100% 150 lpcd 18 hours / daily Eight zones Safe & Good 15% 100% 100 % Good 2021 100% 100% 150 lpcd 24 hours / daily All 16 zones Safe & Good 12% 100% 100 % Good

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Surrounding Municipalities and Special Village Panchayats Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Component 2011 Network cover for general households Network coverage for slum households Per capita supply Hours of supply Quality of water Non Revenue Water Cost Recovery Collection Efficiency Customer Satisfaction 60% 60% 100 lpcd 6 hours / daily Safe & Good 25% 100% 100% Good 80% 80% 100 lpcd 12 hours / daily Safe & Good 20% 100% 100% Good Horizon Period 2016 2021 100% 100% 100 lpcd 18 hours / daily Safe & Good 15% 100% 100% Good

Other Village Panchayats in CMA Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Component 2011 Network cover for general households Network coverage for slum households Per capita supply Hours of supply Quality of water Non Revenue Water Cost Recovery Collection Efficiency Customer Satisfaction 60% 60% 80 lpcd 4 hours / daily Safe & Good 25% 100% 100% Good 80% 80% 80 lpcd 8 hours / daily Safe & Good 20% 100% 100% Good Horizon Period 2016 2021 100% 100% 80 lpcd 12 hours / daily Safe & Good 15% 100% 100% Good

Strategies and Action Plan Detailed strategy is furnished below which covers policy level planning, reforms, institutional strengthening, source augmentation and service delivery aspects. The following are brief outline of the projects taken up in the project duration of seven years: Comprehensive Water Sector Development Plan To meet the future projected water demand for Chennai Municipal Corporation and surrounding municipalities including the satellite towns, CMWSSB has proposed to carry out studies and prepare a comprehensive water sector development plan. The plan would identify the sources for future augmentation, which would be taken up as a priority. Unaccounted for water The water supply pipelines have an age of more than 30 years in the oldest areas of the city and the water supply system has extended to newer areas around when the city grew up. Though CMWSSB took up replacement of pipelines from time to time, due to

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financial crunch, it has not been possible to fully replace all the old pipelines. The board proposed to implement UFW reduction measures in all parts of the city as an immediate measure by conducting leak detection studies, rehabilitation of old pipe lines etc. Removal of public taps and legitimizing illegal connections By removing public stand posts and legitimizing illegal connections, water board can achieve a reduction in revenue loss. Taking this into consideration, water board has to made a proposal to remove public stand posts and legitimize illegal connections within a period of 2 – 5 years. Energy Audit Studies CMWSSB is operating high head pumping to provide water supply to the city leading to high power costs. The board proposed to carry out a detailed energy audit of all the water supply pumping and distribution system to address the problems associated with energy. Water Quality Studies and Monitoring The existing water analysis can be upgraded in phases. The board proposed to purchase latest equipments to upgrade the existing laboratories for analysis of chemicals and heavy metals. In further phase, water quality equipment may be installed online at storage reservoirs. Design and Implementation of Communication Strategy For successful implementation of any change management process, effective communication strategy among key stakeholders is proposed. The proposed strategy will draw upon a range of communication channels, from interpersonal and group communication to mass media and electronic forms. Human Resources Development Widespread investments in the water supply sector without sufficient attention to human resource development results in poor sustainability of system. Recognizing the urgent need for capacity building at different levels in water supply sector, water board proposed to develop human resources in their organization. Modernizing Financial Management and MIS The board proposed to modernize financial management by developing key performance indicators and identifying best practices to improve finances, organizations, and human capital practices. It is also proposed to take efforts on revising accounting, auditing, and internal control standards and computerizing customer databases. The detailed project component are presented in Table 11.3 and year wise implementation program is presented in Table 11.4 and investment flow and invest plans are presented in Table 11.5 & 11.6.

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Table 11.3: Detailed Project Component Sl. No. Component Chennai City Surrounding Municipalities 1 Source Completion and commissioning of ongoing Krishna Drinking Augmentation Water Supply Project Completion and Commissioning of Desalination Plants 2 Network Additional storage of 200 Additional storage capacity-150 Ml improvement ML capacity Distribution mains of 1200 Km Raw Water Conduits length. Distribution mains in 5 zones of 300 Km in length. 3 Refurbishment Replacement of old pipes Replacement of old pipes along 200 km works along 350 km Rehabilitation of existing Rehabilitation of existing service WTPs/ Storage reservoirs / Pumps service WTPs / Storage & Motors. reservoirs / Pumps & Motors. 4 Water supply Network expansion and Network expansion and improvements in refurbishments in refurbishments in notified slums – urban slums notified slums 200 Km 150-Km 5 Quality Quality Assurance and Quality Assurance and Surveillance upto Surveillance upto consumer consumer service point service point 6 User Satisfaction Customer care service to Customer care service to meet meet demand demand Implementation of Citizen Implementation of Charter Citizen Charter 7 O&M Cost recovery Outsourcing of bill Outsourcing of bill generation and generation and revenue revenue collection collection 8 Non Revenue Water Outsourcing of water & Outsourcing of water & energy energy audit, effective audit, effective metering and metering and billing billing 9 Affordability Based on consumers Based on consumers affordability, affordability, provision of provision of cross subsidy for poor cross subsidy for poor

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Table 11.4: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Water Supply Project Component Activity Year 1 Comprehensive Water Sector Development Master Plan √ Leak Detection Studies √ Energy Audit Studies √ Water Quality Studies and Monitoring √ Planning, Reforms Design and Implementation of Communication Strategy √ and Institutional Baseline Survey √ Strengthening Human Resources Development √ Establishment of Regulatory Authority GIS Mapping of Water and Sewerage Utility Mapping √ Community Initiatives Support √ Modernising Financial Management and MIS √ Source Augmentation √ Distribution Network Extension √ Rehabilitation and Modernisation of Existing Network √ Service Delivery Energy Conservation Measures √ Metering √ Piloting 24x7 zone by zone √ GIS Mapping & Refurbishment √ Citizens Relations Citizen feedback mechanisms established √ engagement

Year 2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 4 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 5 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 6 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 7 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

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Table 11.5: Year Wise investment Programme for Water Supply Project Component Activity Year 1 Year 2
Planning, Reforms and Institutional Strengthening Comprehensive Water Sector Development Master Plan Leak Detection Studies Energy Audit Studies Water Quality Studies and Monitoring Design and Implementation of Communication Strategy Baseline Survey Human Resources Development Establishment of Regulatory Authority GIS Mapping of Water and Sewerage Utility Mapping Community Initiatives Support Modernising Financial Management and MIS Source Augmentation Distribution Network Extension Rehabilitation and Modernisation of Existing Network Energy Conservation Measures Metering Piloting 24x7 zone by zone GIS Mapping & Refurbishment Citizen feedback mechanisms established 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 330.00 200.00 150.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 10.00 1.00 794.50 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 630.00 100.00 100.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 10.00 1.00 945.50

Year 3

Year 4 Year 5 Rs. Crores 1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 500.00 100.00 200.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 10.00 1.00 908.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 500.00 100.00 200.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 10.00 1.00 908.00

Year 6

Year 7

Total 4.00

1.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 640.00 100.00 100.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 10.00 1.00 949.00

1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 500.00 100.00 200.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 10.00 1.00 908.00

1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 500.00 100.00 200.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 10.00 1.00 908.00

9.00 10.00 4.50 7.00 2.00 7.00 1.00 9.00 3.50 7.00 3,600.00 800.00 1,150.00 70.00 210.00 350.00 70.00 7.00 6,321.00

Service Delivery

Citizens Relations Management Total

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11.1.4 Strategies for Sewerage Sector
Analysis from the sewerage sector reveals that sewerage network coverage is very low predominantly in surrounding municipalities. The poor and slum dwellers lack safe sanitation facilities and hence are prone to health related diseases. An enormous shortfall is noticed in the treatment of sewerage resulting in discharge of untreated sewage into water bodies thus polluting water bodies, classic case being River Cooum and Adyar river. In addition to that, wastewater recycling and reuse is quite negligible. The existing sewerage service levels are presented in Table 11.6. Table 11.6: Existing Situation -Sewerage Sl. No. Components Chennai City Area Surrounding Municipalities 1 Network Coverage (Access) 85% 20% 2 Treatment & Disposal 85% Septic tank disposal 3 Recycling / Reuse 3% --4 O&M Cost recovery 60% --Vision “The vision is to create a safe disposal facilities to the community by providing high quality sewerage services based on the principles of quality, equity, value and responsiveness”. Considering the above challenges, the following goals for different horizon years have been identified. The sewerage coverage and access in Chennai Corporation area needs to be enhanced to 80% by the year 2011, 90% by the year 2016 and 95% by the year 2021 and surrounding municipalities needs to be enhanced to 50% by the year 2011, 60% by the year 2016 and 70% by the year 2021. By the year 2021, 95% of the wastewater should be treated and disposed and 50% of the wastewater should be recycled and reused. In addition to that, 100% O&M cost recovery is achieved by the year 2011. To enhance the coverage of safe sanitation facilities, following goals have been identified and presented in Table 11.7 with different horizon periods. Table 11.7 : Goals & Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years
Chennai City Area Sl. No. Component 1 2 3 4 Coverage (Access) Treatment & Disposal Recycle & Reuse Customer Satisfaction 2011 100% 100% 25% Good Horizon Period 2016 2021 100% 100% 100% 100% 40% 50% Good Good

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Surrounding Municipalities/Special Village Panchayats Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 Component Network coverage (Access) Treatment & Disposal Recycle & Reuse Customer Satisfaction Horizon Period 2011 100% 100% 25% Good 2016 100% 100% 40% Good 2021 100% 100% 50% Good

Other Village Panchayats in CMA Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 Component 2011 Network coverage (Access) Treatment & Disposal Recycle & Reuse Customer Satisfaction 30% 30% 10% Good Horizon Period 2016 100% 100% 40% Good 2021 100% 100% 50% Good

Strategies and Action Plan Considering the current challenges and identified goals, a robust strategy for sewerage is adopted to achieve 100% sewerage system. Detailed strategy is presented which covers design and implementation of communication strategy and service delivery aspects. The following are brief outline of the projects taken up in the seven years: Comprehensive Sewerage Master Plan To meet the current gap and future requirements for Chennai city, surrounding municipalities and village panchayats, CMWSSB proposed to carry out studies and prepare a comprehensive Sewerage Master Plan. CMWSSB has taken action to conduct studies with the following main objectives;
• • • To prepare Plans and programmes to link the existing / ongoing sewerage system of the local bodies Integrating the system with CMWSSB sewer system and To provide feasibility studies for providing sewerage system to unserved local bodies.

The study will cover provision of sewerage system with treatment and disposal arrangements, including examining of reuse options with reference to the demand for such water, nearness to Sewage Treatment Plants etc. for the Adjacent Urbanised Areas and Distant Urbanised Areas in Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Phase-I study covers the provision of comprehensive sewerage schemes for all the AUAs and DUAs. The sewerage system includes the provision of sewage treatment plants for handling the sewage either a stand around basis or grouping in the local bodies. The outline proposal cost works out to Rs.1873.60 crores. The Phase-II study will cover preparation of feasibility proposals for providing sewerage system to the remaining CMA. The outline proposals cost for the sewerage scheme works out to Rs. 695.80 crores. The study will also address the options on the issue of treating the sewage generation in a
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locally identified site or to integrate with the STP of CMWSSB and recommend the best available option. While planning the sewerage system the existing additional capacity of 264 MLD sewage treatment created by CMWSSB will be fully utilised by collecting sewage from the Adjacent local bodies as far as possible and the remaining local bodies will be provided with stand alone treatment plants. Energy Audit Studies The board proposed to carry out a detailed energy audit of all the sewerage system to address the problems associated with energy. Sewerage Quality Studies and Monitoring The existing sewerage quality analysis needs to be upgraded. The board proposed to purchase latest equipments to upgrade the existing laboratories for analysis of chemicals and heavy metals. Design and Implementation of Communication strategy For successful implementation of any change management process, effective communication strategy among key stakeholders is proposed. The proposed strategy will draw upon a range of communication channels, from interpersonal and group communication to mass media and electronic forms. Human Resources Development Widespread investments in the sewerage sector without sufficient attention to human resource development results in poor sustainability of system. Recognizing the urgent need for capacity building at different levels in sewerage sector, board proposed to develop human resources in their organization. The detailed Project components, implementation schedule and investment plans are presented in Table 11.8 & 11.9 &11.10. Table 11.8: Detailed Project Component Sl. No. Component Chennai City Area
1 2 3 4 5 6 Network coverage Remodeling of old sewers Laying of Trunk sewers upto STPs Sewage Treatment Plants Recycle & Reuse Awareness Campaign Branch sewers & laterals 300 Km length. 300 Km 70 Km 264 MLD To achieve 25% reuse Sewer service utility

Surrounding Municipalities Branch sewers & laterals 1400 Km length. 280 Km 400 MLD To achieve 25% reuse Sewer service utility

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Table 11.9: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Sewerage Component Activity Design & Implementation Comprehensive Sewerage Master Plan of Communication Strategy Energy Audit Sewerage Quality Studies and Monitoring Design & Communication Strategy Human Resources Development Community Initiative Support Service Delivery Network coverage (Sewerage) Remodeling of old sewers Construction of STPs Recycling Plant & Reuse Energy Conservation Measures Table 11.10: Year Wise Investment Programme for Sewerage Component Activity Year 1
Design & Implementation of Communication Strategy Comprehensive Sewerage Master Plan Energy Audit Sewerage Quality Studies and Monitoring Design & Communication Strategy Human Resources Development Community Initiative Support Network coverage Remodeling of old sewers Construction of STPs Recycling Plant & Reuse Energy Conservation Measures Grand Total 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 25.00 5.00 187.00

Year 1 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 4 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 5 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 6 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 7 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 2 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 150.00 50.00 50.00 25.00 5.00 287.00

Year 3

Year 4 Year 5 Rs. Crores 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 150.00 100.00 100.00 25.00 5.00 385.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 150.00 100.00 100.00 25.00 5.00 385.00

Year 6

Year 7

Total 4.00

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 150.00 50.00 50.00 25.00 5.00 285.00

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 150.00 100.00 100.00 25.00 5.00 385.00

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 150.00 100.00 100.00 25.00 5.00 385.00

7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 950.00 550.00 550.00 175.00 35.00 2,299.00

Service Delivery (Sewerage)

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11.1.5 Strategies for Storm Water Drainage
The goals and service outcomes based on the proposed strategy for the horizon period is presented in Table 11.11. Table 11.11: Goals and Service Outcomes – Storm water Drains and Water Bodies Sl. No Goal 2011 2016 2026 Macro Drainage 1 Flood Alleviation Recommendation 100% 2 Macro Drainage Recommendations (Pallikarani area) 100% Micro Drainage 1 With in the City (Preparation and Implementation Plans) 100% 100 100 % % 2 With in ULBs (Preparation and Implementation Plans) 40% 60% 80% 3 Other Urban areas (Preparation and Implementation Plans) 25% 50% 80% Primary Drain Rehabilitation and Improvement Program The primary drains are inadequate to handle the flash floods as they are not systematically designed and are not fully constructed. A significant reduction in depth and width are noticed due to siltation and encroachment of drain bunds. To alleviate these, a rehabilitation and improvement program is recommended. The program would aim at the following:
• • • • Improvement measures such as widening and deepening; Construction of side walls to confirm to uniform cross-section in built up areas; Diversion of drains at critical sections; Construction of cross- drainage works.

Drainage Rehabilitation Program The flood prone areas identified are to be relieved of the problem in future by undertaking a drainage rehabilitation program. As a part of this program, the leading/connections between secondary and tertiary drains to primary drains have to be improved and strengthened. In addition, control of weed growth, limiting the dumping of solid and construction waste and controlling the encroachments would be given top priority. ULBs would desilt the primary drains and tertiary drains on a regular basis before the onset of the monsoon. The construction of new drains and connecting links would be taken up as a priority, along with strengthening of the existing drains with lining and sidewalls. Improvement Works and Construction of Tertiary Drains Construction of tertiary drains would be taken up on a priority basis. As the city comprises of only 769 Km. It is proposed to construct tertiary drains to all the major arterials and important roads to increase the coverage and also to convert the kutcha drains to pucca drains to facilitate proper draining of storm water into natural drains.

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Conservation of Water Bodies As discussed, conservation of water bodies is an immediate priority for Chennai Metropolitan area. Though initiatives are being undertaken, a large-scale program is pertinent to restore the water bodies to their original shape and conserve them as recharge structures. Protection of Environmental Resources The first and foremost intervention is the protection of environmental resources. Protection of water bodies, waterways and open spaces from further encroachments would be carried out in a co-ordinated way. Rehabilitation of Ecosystems Efforts would be made to develop an integrated catchments management plan suitably connecting all the existing water bodies. Further, hydraulic capacity of the nallahs and water bodies would be improved through widening and deepening and construction of sidewalls thereby limiting the risk of floods. Desilting would be carried out to increase the water holding capacity and to remove the toxic and hazardous materials stored in the tank beds. Monitoring and Quality Control Monitoring of water quality parameters would be conducted on a regular basis. Corporations and ULBs would take up the responsibility of monitoring the parameters in the water bodies within its jurisdiction and would take preventive measures, if the results were above the permissible limits. Regulatory Framework Efforts would be directed at enforcing appropriate water pollution related laws, ordinances, regulations, and corresponding enforcement responsibilities and procedures at the local level. In addition the conservation measures would include
• • • • • Dredging and desilting Widening & strengthening of lake bunds Setting up sewage treatment plants Bund formation Regulation of inlet and outlet channels

Action Plans All the structural and non-structural measures recommended in the MMFR/SWD Master Plan Study Report should be implemented to alleviate the existing flood problems and also to ensure prevention in future during the plan period (considering more than 50% of the 2026 population is proposed to be accommodated in the rest of CMA, and the City will also get densified additionally by 35%). The lakes / water bodies should be protected from encroachments and existing
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encroachments should be evicted by the departments/agency concerned bringing the water bodies to its original state. The lakes may be developed not only as a flood accommodator and for ground water recharge, but also as open space with trees as wooded areas. In respect of the Pallikkaranai Drainage Area and areas around, the recommendations made in respect of protection of the marshy land in Pallikaranai village, development of areas south of road connecting Sholinganallur with Medavakkam for electronic industries (after provision of proper drainage system by PWD) to be implemented. The costs estimated for flood alleviation measures and improvements to storm water drainage systems in Chennai Metropolitan Area are presented in Table 11.12 and implementation plan is presented in Table 11.13.

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Table 11.12: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Storm Water Drains Component Activity Institution Year 1 Capacity Identification of Problem Areas CMDA √ Building R& R Planning CMDA √ Comprehensive Drainage Master CMDA √ Plan Primary Drains Desilting & Removal of Weeds √ Rehabilitation Widening & Deepening √ CMA & ULB Construction of side walls & Lining √ Diversion of drains Construction of cross-drainage √ works Construction of Drains on major arterial roads √ Secondary & Tertiary Drains Drains on interior roads √ PWD & Conversion from kutcha to Pucca √ CMWSSB Rehabilitation of flood prone areas Rehabilitation of Nallas & Cooum √ and Adyar Riverbed Improvement Conservation of Lakes √

Year 2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 4 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 5 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 6 √

Year 7 √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

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Table 11.13: Year Wise Investment Programme for Storm water drains Component Activity Year 1 Year 2
Capacity Building Identification of Problem Areas R& R Planning Comprehensive Drainage Master Plan Desilting & Removal of Weeds Widening & Deepening Construction of side walls & Lining Diversion of drains Construction of cross-drainage works Drains on major arterial roads Drains on interior roads Conversion from kutcha to Pucca Rehabilitation of flood prone areas Rehabilitation of Nallas & Cooum and Adyar Riverbed Improvement Conservation of Lakes Culverts Total 1.00 1.00 1.00 34.08 42.60 24.34 24.34 14.55 14.55 14.55 1.00 1.00 1.00 34.08 42.60 24.34 28.40 24.34 14.55 14.55 14.55 16.97 14.55 2.12 14.82 248.88

Year 3 1.00 1.00 1.00 34.08 42.60 24.34 28.40 24.34 14.55 14.55 14.55 16.97 14.55 2.12 234.06

Year 4 Year 5 Rs. Crores 1.00 34.08 42.60 24.34 28.40 24.34 14.55 14.55 14.55 16.97 14.55 2.12 232.06 1.00 34.08 24.34 28.40 24.34 14.55 14.55 14.55 16.97 14.55 2.12 189.46

Year 6

Year 7

Total 3.00 7.00 3.00 170.40

1.00

1.00

Primary Drains Rehabilitation

24.34 28.40 24.34 14.55 14.55 14.55 16.97 14.55 2.12 155.38

24.34 28.40 24.34 14.55 14.55 14.55 16.97 14.55 2.12

170.40 170.40 170.40 170.40 101.84 101.84 101.84 101.84 101.84

Construction of Secondary & Tertiary Drains

2.12 20.00 208.68

14.85 34.82 155.38 1,423.88

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11.1.6 Strategies for Solid Waste Management
The local governments would effectively involve the private sector in delivering the solid waste management service. The rationale for private sector participation includes attracting project funding, new technology, cost savings and service delivery improvements. Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan A Comprehensive Solid waste management Strategic Plan has been evolved which outlines the vision, goals and strategies to achieve the same. The vision of Chennai is to “Provide to its citizens an environmentally friendly and sustainable waste management system with complete safe disposal facilities by putting in place waste reduction and recovery mechanisms. The goals and service outcomes are presented in Table 11.14. Table 11.14: Goals, Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years Goal Time Frame 2011 2016 Collection with in the city 100% 100% Collection with in the ULBs 75% 100% Collection in other urban 50% 100% agglomeration areas Door to Door Collection -% 50% 75% Source Segregation -% 50% 75% Collection- % 90% 100% Scientific Disposal 80% 100% Waste to Energy Generation 40% 70% Cost Recovery of O & M-% 50% 75% Private Sector Participation Modest protocols in Complete in the place Disposal Strategies for Improvement of Storage Capacity Highest priority has to be accorded for Segregation & Storage at source irrespective of the area of generation so as to facilitate an organized and environmentally acceptable waste collection, processing and disposal. Source segregation of Recyclables and biodegradable (organic waste) will not only provide an efficient way for resource recovery, but will also substantially reduce the pressure and pollution in Landfill sites. In order to achieve the above objective, ‘Two Bin system of Solid Waste Storage’ at source is being recommended. As per this system, each of the households would be directed to keep separate Bins/containers for Biodegradable and non-bio degradable waste generated within their premises. Strategies for Improvement of Collection Deficiencies The following measures have been recommended for improving the primary collection practices of Chennai City, Surrounding Municipalities and Village Panchayats.

2021 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Complete in the Disposal

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• • • • •

Phased implementation of ‘Door to Door collection System’ through community organisations and CMC and surrounding ULBs by mobilising, facilitating, organising and supporting community activities with the help of local NGOs; Installation of ‘Community Storage Bins’ in areas where house-house collection cannot be implemented; Expanding the ‘Voluntary Garbage Disposal Scheme’ for more number of restaurants/hotels and commercial establishments and collecting user charges; Placement of dumper containers sufficient in number at markets for ensuring that all the vendors place the waste in the containers; Persuading the hospitals to be part of the existing bio-medical waste management facility in the suburbs of the city.

It is recommended to collect Non-bio degradable waste separately from premises where door-to-door /kerb side collections are organised. Present system of primary collection should be phased out by introducing Multi-bin carts (Push carts / Tricycles), semi mechanized systems like refuse collectors. Separate collection vehicles should collect the non-biodegradable waste stored in separate bin. The details of proposed primary collection system are tabulated in Table 11.12. Requirements of the Proposed Primary Collection System Presently the city has 6,980 (which including ONYX collection bins also) dustbins spaced at 398 m. The Chennai Corporation is being implementing “Door to Door collection” with 1,684 try cycles. Currently Corporation has a manpower of 10,130 sanitary workers, which works out 274 m road length for each worker. Table 11.15: Proposed Primary Collection operation System Mode of Area of collection Primary Collection collection Vehicle Door to Door 1. Residential Multi-bin cart/Tricyclecolonies of High & with 6 of 40 lit capacity middle income bins-4 for Biodegradable group waste, 2 for recyclables
2. Hotels/restaurants Mixed Residential, Commercial Areas Fruit & Vegetable Market/ transfer stations Slums/urban poor colonies Closed vehicle to collect biodegradable Tri-cycle- with Six bins of 40 litre Carrying bins to transfer point Carrying bins to Transfer point

Secondary storage 1.Bio-degradable in Skips/wheel containers 2. Non-biodegradableSell or hand over to waste collector Direct transport to Disposal site Bins emptied to skips kept for the waste. Skip / Dumper Placer Transfer contents of biodegradable to community bins

Combination of Kerb-side &bell system Large Community bin system Small community bin system

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Strategies for Collection and Transportation To improve the key information on vehicle movement and deployment of manpower in Corporation, surrounding ULBs and village panchayats, it is recommended that a standard register at the disposal site and transfer station be maintained. The register should contain information on each of the vehicle trips at both the locations and the origin of waste collection. A summary of this information would be prepared at the end of the day, to be verified by respective heads of the department. In order to address the collection gap, it is recommend procuring new vehicles of 5.5 tons. In addition to the above sufficient Dual Loader Dumper Placers (DLDPs) are proposed. Strategies for Improvement of Processing and Disposal The characteristics and quantity of solid waste generated in the city primarily influence the disposal options. A review of the available solid waste sample analysis results indicates that nearly 60% of the waste generated in Chennai is organic nature. Considering these aspects, it is recommended to develop a landfill site for safe disposal of solid waste for the Corporation, surrounding ULBs and village panchayats. The disposal strategies for CMA will be as follows:
• • • Compost the organic fraction of the waste; Sanitary land filling of inorganic fraction of waste and the compost rejects; Encouraging local level aerobic vermi composting.

Action Plan: The consultants after conducting a detailed study in 1996 had given the recommendations for a sustainable waste management system for Chennai Metropolitan Areas. The study recommended a new CMA-Wide disposal organization “Metro Waste” be set up to develop and manage sanitary land fill and transfer/haulage facilities through out the area. ‘Metro Waste’ should be structured in a manner, which distinguishes the ‘client’ function (raising finances and controlling operational performance) from the ‘contractor’ function (carrying out the services on a day-to-day basis). The structuring of metro waste in such a manner will allow greater control over the environmental, operational and financial performance of services. The year wise implementation and investment plan is presented in Table 11.16 and 11.17.

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Table 11.16: Year Wise Implementation Programme for Solid Waste Management Sl. Project Components Institution 1 Year 2 Year No 1 Replacements of 500 No's of Tricycles for Door √ √ - Step Collection
2 3 4 Purchase of 12000 No's of Plastic Bins for Tricycles CMC & Recruitment of Man Power 3000 S.W's for ULBs & privatised Zones for Sweeping Collection and SVP & VP Transportation Purchase of 1000 No's of Roto Molded Wheeled & CMA Bins Secondary Collection & Transportation Purchase of 20 No's of HMV Vehicle for transportation of Garbage from Modernised Transfer Station at Zone III Purchase of 30 No's of HMV for Collection debris and Tree-Cuttings at 10 Zones Purchase of 5 No's of prime movers for dumper places bins Replacement of 50 No's of HMV for collection of Garbage Replacement of 30 No's of LMV for collection of Garbage Purchase of 80 No's of HMV and 60 No's of LMV for attending Conservancy in Zone VI, VIII & X Privatisation of Conservancy in Arterial roads Providing Conveyer system facility at Transfer Stations for Sorting Garbage Purchase of 2 No's of Heavy Duty Capacitors for KDG & PDG √ √ √ √

3 Year √ √

4 Year √ √

5 Year √ √

6 Year √ √

7 Year √ √

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

CMC & ULBs & SVP & VP & CMA

√ √ √ √

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Sl. No 14 15

Project Components Disposal & Treatment Setting up of Compost Plant of 500MT Capacity at Kodungaiyur Dumping Ground Construction of Maintenance Shed for Bulldozers at KDG & PDG, Setting up of Plant for Manufacturing Refuse Derived Fuel at KDG Construction of Office Room, Toilet, Security Room at KDG & PDG, Construction of culverts and Drainage System for Leachet Treatment at KDG & PDG Formation of interior roads for movement of vehicles at KDG & PDG, Construction of Compound Wall all around at KDG Erection of High Mast lighting 2 No's each at KDG & PDG Setting up of Compost Plant of 500 MT Capacity at PDG O & M Cost for compost plant at KDG & PDG Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Construction of Modern - Transfer Station at Zone - V Acquisition of New Landfill Site of 200 acres for future Deposal Development of land for Scientific Engineered Landfill Land fill Improvements To KDG & PDG Slaughter House

Institution 1 Year

2 Year

3 Year

4 Year

5 Year

6 Year

7 Year

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

16

17

18 19 20 21 22

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

23 24 25 26

√ √

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Sl. No 27 ULBS 28 SVP 289 VP

Project Components

Institution 1 Year √ √ √

2 Year √ √ √

3 Year √ √ √

4 Year √ √ √

5 Year √ √ √

6 Year √

7 Year √

Table 11.17: Year Wise Investment Programme for Solid Waste Management Project Components 1 Year 2 Year
Primary Collection Replacements of 500 No's of Tricycles for Door Step Collection Purchase of 12000 No's of Plastic Bins for Tri-cycles Recruitment of Man Power 3000 S.W's for privatised Zones for Sweeping Collection and Transportation Purchase of 1000 No's of Roto Molded Wheeled Bins Secondary Collection & Transportation Purchase of 20No's of HMV Vehicle for transportation of Garbage from Modernised Transfer Station at Zone III Purchase of 30 No's of HMV for Collection debris and Tree-Cuttings at 10 Zones Purchase of 5 No's of prime movers for dumper places bins Replacement of 50 No's of HMV for collection of Garbage Replacement of 30 No's of LMV for collection of Garbage Purchase of 80 No's of HMV and 60 No's of LMV for attending Conservancy in Zone VI, VIII & X 0.50 0.36 21.60 0.30 0.36

3 Year

4 Year 5 Year Rs. Crores 0.30 0.36 0.30 0.48

6 Year

7 Year

Total

0.30 0.36

0.30 0.54

0.30 0.36

2.30 2.82 21.60 0.56

0.11

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.12

0.12

2.60 3.80 0.40 6.00 3.00 14.40 7.00 4.00 7.00 4.00 7.00 4.00 7.00 4.00 7.00 4.00

2.60 3.80 0.40 41.00 23.00 14.40

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Project Components Privatisation of Conservancy in Arterial roads Providing Conveyer system facility at Transfer Stations for Sorting Garbage Purchase of 2 No's of Heavy Duty Capacitors for KDG & PDG Disposal & Treatment Setting up of Compost Plant of 500MT Capacity at Kodungaiyur Dumping Ground Construction of Maintenance Shed for Bulldozers at KDG & PDG, Setting up of Plant for Manufacturing Refuse Derived Fuel at KDG Construction of Office Room, Toilet, Security Room at KDG & PDG, Construction of culverts and Drainage System for Leachet Treatment at KDG & PDG Formation of interior roads for movement of vehicles at KDG & PDG, Construction of Compound Wall all around at KDG Erection of High Mast lighting 2 No's each at KDG & PDG Setting up of Compost Plant of 500 MT Capacity at PDG O & M Cost for compost plant at KDG & PDG Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Construction of Modern - Transfer Station at Zone – V Acquisition of New Landfill Site of 200 acres for future Deposal Development of land for Scientific Engineered Landfill Land fill Improvements To KDG & PDG

1 Year 4.00 4.00

2 Year

3 Year

4 Year 5 Year Rs. Crores

6 Year

7 Year

Total 4.00 4.00

3.00

4.00

7.00

12.00 0.72 0.40 20.00 2.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00

12.00 44.72 2.40

0.72 0.40

2.50

2.50

5.72 0.40

12.00 6.00 10.00 3.00

20.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 13.00 13.00

32.00 62.00 10.00 3.00 99.01 25.00 124.01 0.00

50.15

71.68

100.34

32.22

40.43

25.91

64.24

384.97

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Project Components Slaughter House ULBs SVP Village Panchayats Total

1 Year 20.07 1.46 0.93 1.10 148.60

2 Year 1.46 1.02 1.71 135.13

3 Year 1.46 0.30 1.07 151.38

4 Year 5 Year Rs. Crores 1.46 0.20 0.90 161.51 1.46 0.74 0.89 96.37

6 Year 1.46

7 Year 1.46

Total 20.07 10.20 3.18 5.66 847.80

58.33

96.48

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11.1.7 Strategies for Traffic and Transportation
Based on the present and future developments in CMA the following strategies would be adopted for a sustainable transportation solution in CMA. Most of the above actions necessitate a high degree of co-ordination between various agencies and hence a framework for an integrated planning was recommended in the form of a Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority in pursuance of National Transport Policy, which was accepted in principle by Government of Tamilnadu (GoTN) in 1994. The transportation strategy incorporated in the present Plan for CMA is in tune with the draft NUTP and is centered on strengthening and promoting mass urban transportation from economic, environment and energy consideration. Vision The vision of the ‘Traffic and Transportation’ for Chennai city is to provide with the safe and reliable transport system that is sustainable, environmental friendly and to significantly improve the share and quality of public transport service that would improve the quality of life in the metropolitan area. Table 11.18: Goals, Service Outcomes for Different Horizon Years Sl. No Goal 2011 2016 2026 1 Road Network as % of Total Area 12% 15% 15% 2 Share of Public Transport 45% 55% 75% 3 Rail transport as share of total public transport 10% 30% 40% 4 Average Speed -km/’h 20 30 35 5 Sidewalks length to Total road length Half of 75% of 95% the the of the require require require ment ment ment 6 Road accidents Reduce Reduc Reduc d by ed by ed by 25% 50% 70% Bus Route Roads 1 Improvement to Bus route road network in CMA 100% 100% 100% Other Roads Coverage 1 Chennai city 100% 100% 100% 2 Municipalities 60% 80% 100% 3 Special village Panchayat and village Panchayat 50% 70% 80% Flyovers and Grade separators at all major road intersections 1 Road/Rail crossings 100% 100% 100% 2 Removing bottlenecks at the locations where 100% 100% 100% Railways have issued warrant and also where traffic warrants River Bridges 1 To improve connectivity, construction of river 75% 100% 100% bridges at six locations where traffic warrants Bus Transport Increase the modal share of public transport by 1 Replacing existing bus fleet 100% 100% 100% 2 Augmenting Bus fleet 100% 100% 100%

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Sl. No Goal 3 Provide bus- stop shelters 4 Coverage in the city area 5 Coverage in the rest of the metropolis Road Safety 1 To reduce traffic accidents by traffic management measures With in the City 2 To reduce traffic accidents by traffic management measures within the CMA Parking 1 Construction of multilevel parking complexes in atleast 6 locations 2 Improving on-street parking at about 100 locations Rail Transit 1 Metropolitan public transport by construction of new routes for a length of about 25 km. (extension of MRTS) Decongestion 1 Shifting of Food grains market from CBD to Koyambedu. 2 Development of truck terminal along western and southern corridors. 3 Development of Outer Ring Road CNG System 1 Introduction of CNG Gas as fuel for all vehicles

2011 2016 2026 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 50% 70% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

100% 100% 100% 100%

Strategies and Action Plan Comprehensive Traffic and Transport Study for the entire CMA A CCTS is aimed to come out with sustained solutions for the entire CMA as a unit that has financial and environmental viability. This also includes the current institutional analysis, policy, financial and service delivery issues. The other strategies to promote sustainable transport solution to the metropolis of Chennai include the following:
• • • Decentralisation of certain traffic- intensive activities from the CBD to the peripheral areas. Continuance of mixed land use zoning concept Achieving an optimum modal split should be the basic thrust of the transport policy for CMA. More new trips have to be attracted by and accommodated in public transport to increase the share of public transport from the present 43%. The bus system should act as a feeder for the rail system. Introduction of alternate transport systems - Bus-way, Light Rail Transit System (LRTS), Electric Trolley Bus (ETB), Metro Rail, Mono-Rail, SKY BUS etc. Inter-model transfer facilities at bus and rail stations. Integration of the public transport systems by reorganisation of bus routes, pricing and common ticketing arrangements and provision of inter-modal transfer facilities at railheads; and Use of non-motorised modes to be encouraged. Concreting of city roads. Establishment of Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority (UMTA). Emphasis on telecommunication to reduce travel.

• • • • • • •

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• • • • • • •

• •

The concept of sustainable urban management (SUM) with an objective is to improve the modal share of public transport systems from the current 43% to 70%. Pollution free transportation system by introducing innovative technologies for motorised vehicles such as gas based engines, electric operated cars, etc. Travel Demand Management (TDM) to minimise peak traffic flows congesting the city road network staggering the opening times of schools and colleges, weekly closure of market centres, traffic calming, etc. Reservation of land for development of a rail transit at grade has also been proposed in the case of the outer circular corridor (Outer Ring Road); Alternate transit options comprising either a bus transit option or a rail-based transit option such as electrical trolley bus (ETB) or exclusive bus lanes, sharing the road space, light rail transit system, Monorail, SKYBUS etc. A spatial strategy to permit high density development along transport corridors and in peri-urban areas viz., higher FSI within the influence area of the MRTS corridor, ORR etc. The current thrust in telecommunication, which has already improved the tele-density appreciably in the last decade, should be kept up given the positive impact telecommunications have on travel by way of reducing or eliminating the unwanted travel; In view of the long gestation period required in conceiving and commissioning of transport facilities, advance action should be initiated for block acquisition of lands especially around major road intersections, road/rail and grade crossings; Implementation of recommendations and strategies suggested in Parking Policy study for the metropolitan area.

The year wise implementation and Investment plan is presented in Table 11.19 and 11.20.

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Table 11.19: Project Implementation Programme for Traffic and Transportation Componen Activity Institutio Year 1 t n Widening Strengthening and resurfacing of √ arterial, sub arterial and collect of roads to at least 4 lane width Elevated and highway and Flyovers √ Road/Rail crossings - ROB/RUB √ River bridges √ Link Roads √ Concreting of Major roads √ Junction improvements with white topping √ and Lands capping Pedestrian Sub-ways √ CMC, Bus lay-byes & Shelters √ ULBs, Utility Duct and Storm Water Drains along √ CMA, Major Roads CMDA, Peripheral Road Improvements √ TNSRTC, Construction of mini fly over √ SCR, Concreting of City Roads √ SPV,VP Multi level car parking √ Road/Rail Crossings - ROB/RUB √ Improving Bus Route Roads (300 km.) √ Nesapakkam Road Widening √ Road works including bridges/culverts √ Road works √ MRTS extension from Velachery and √ Villivakkam (about 25 km) Metropolitan Public Transport (Bus) √ √ Traffic Management Basic Infrastructure Needs
Monorail (about 300 km) SCR

Year 2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 4 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Year 5 √ √ √ √ √

Year 6 √ √ √ √ √

Year 7 √ √ √ √

√ √ √

√ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √

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Table 11.20: Project Investment Programme for Traffic and Transportation Component Activity Year 1 Year 2
Widening Strengthening and resurfacing of arterial, sub arterial and collect of roads to at least 4 lane width Elevated and highway and Flyovers Road/Rail crossings - ROB/RUB River bridges Link Roads Concreting of Major roads Junction improvements with white topping and Lands capping Pedestrian Sub-ways Bus lay-byes & Shelters Utility Duct and Storm Water Drains along Major Roads Peripheral Road Improvements Construction of mini fly over Concreting of City Roads Multi level car parking Road/Rail Crossings - ROB/RUB Improving Bus Route Roads (300 km.) Nesapakkam Road Widening Road works including bridges/culverts Road works MRTS extension from Velachery and Villivakkam (about 25 km) Metropolitan Public Transport (Bus) Traffic Management Basic Infrastructure Needs Street Lighting Total 242.86 665.00 21.43 20 235.71 39.71 45 30 25 28.57 28.14 20 20 48.33 30 60.00 7 96.45 68.62 321.43 185.71 711.72 242.86 665.00 21.43 20 235.71 39.71 30 30 33.35 28.57 28.14 28 20 48.33 30 60.00 7 96.45 68.62 321.43 185.71 711.72

Year 3 242.86 665.00 21.43 5 235.71 39.71 30 28.57 28.14 20 48.33 36 60.00 96.45 68.62 321.43 185.71 711.72

Year 4 Year 5 Rs. Crores 242.86 242.86 665.00 21.43 235.71 39.71 12 28.57 28.14 20 28.57 28.14 15 665.00 21.43 235.71 39.71

Year 6 242.86 665.00 21.43 235.71 39.71

Year 7 242.86 665.00 21.43 235.71 39.71

Total 1,700.00 4,655.00 150.00 45.00 1,650.00 278.00 75.00 102.00 58.35 200.00 197.00 48.00 95.00 145.00 96.00 300.00 14.00 675.15 480.32 2,250.00 1,300.00 4,982.04

28.57 28.14

28.57 28.14

60.00 96.45 68.62 321.43 185.71 711.72

60.00 96.45 68.62 321.43 185.71 711.72 96.45 68.62 321.43 185.71 711.72 96.45 68.62 321.43 185.71 711.72

1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 8.22 2,951.85 2,953.22 2,845.87 2,738.53 2,721.53 2,646.53 2,646.53 19,504.08

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11.1.8 Strategies for Urban Poor and Action Plans
The goals and service outcomes based on the proposed strategy for the horizon period is presented in Table 11.21. Table 11.21: Goals and Service Outcomes – Basic Services for Poor Sl. No Goal 2011 1 Network Coverage for slum households 90% 2 UGD coverage for slum households 90% 3 Adequately lit slums 100% 4 Adequate road link for the slums 100% 5 Pucca houses for all slum households 80% 6 Education for all in slums 100% 7 Slum Networking 100% 8 Primary Health 100% 9 Tendril Security and Affordable Housing 100% 10 Lively Hood for Urban Poor 100% 11 At least 20,000 LIG/EWS plots to be developed 80% and allotted by TNHB & TNSCB 12 About one lakh house holds in slums to be 70% covered by slum improvement, rehabilitation programmes

2016 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

2026 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

100% 100%

100% 100%

The strategy formulated for reducing poverty in Chennai Metropolitan area includes:
• • • • • • Provision of land tenure security Community empowerment Linking livelihoods to city’s economy Development of housing through partnerships - PPP Relocation of slums located in objectionable and vulnerable Areas Provision of basic infrastructure - both physical (water, roads, sanitation and sewerage) and social infrastructure (clinics, schools, training facilities, etc).

The slums where lands are already available, the areas need only to be improved by providing in-situ developments, whereas in the instant case it is proposed to rehabilitate the families in multi storeyed tenements /individual houses in alternative locations with all infrastructures like water supply, storm water drain, road, streetlights, sewerage, etc. Apart from the tenements, spaces will be reserved for community facilities and other neighbourhood facilities. These families cannot be shifted far away from their existing places of living unless a viable alternative solution is found. To make the rehabilitation programme viable and successful it is imperative to construct shelter units well in advance and within the Metropolitan Area to ensure trouble free and smooth rehabilitation, as otherwise their sudden displacement would throw them out of gear. The construction of good storied shelter units with adequate infrastructure will make the resettlement programme more attractive and successful and stimulate the slum families to move to shelter units in alternate places.

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In order to complete its mission, to ameliorate the conditions of the slums in Chennai within a time frame, TNSCB, has programmed to create a slum free Chennai by 2013, by implementing the following programmes during 2006-2013 for the holistic development of Chennai.
• • Accelerated programme for the construction of tenements in alternate places to resettle all the slum families living in objectionable locations such as river margin, road margins, and places required for public purposes. Construction of tenements in the alternate places depending on the density of the slums and availability of lands and construction of tenements in the existing unobjectionable locations in Chennai.

The slum demography for the different categories of slums in Chennai, strategy for the objectionable and unobjectionable slums, funds required for the housing programmes proposed under Chennai Metropolitan Development Plan for holistic development of the slums in Chennai during 2006-2013. Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board has programmed to construct 79,039 tenements in Chennai city at a total cost of Rs. 1,319.96 crore during 2006-2013 to resettle the slum families living in objectionable and unobjectionable locations in Chennai. The lands required for this programme is under investigation. The year wise implementation plan and Investment plan is presented in Table 11.22 and 11.23.

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Table 11.22: Year Wise Implementation Schedule – Basic Services for Poor Component Activities Institution Year 1 Planning, Development of Comprehensive data base √ Reforms and Governance Conferring Tenural Rights Evolving a policy on Notification and √ Denotification Institutional Strengthening and Capacity √ Building Providing Access to Social Infrastructure √ (Health and Education) Evolving a comprehensive Livelihood Policy √ IEC √ Strengthening CBOs √ CMC, Service Relocations of Slums located in Hazardous ULBs delivery and vulnerable Areas CMA Identification of Infrastructure and Housing √ TNSCB Deficiencies TNHB Improvement in Infrastructure √ Development of Basic Services to the Poor √ Water Supply & Sewerage Roads √ Street Lights √ Community Toilets √ Construction of Storm Water Drains √ including primary drains Environmental Improvement of Slums √ Solid Waste Management √ Civic Amenities, Community Halls, Child √ Care Centers Rehabilitation of existing assets √ √ Housing Infrastructure

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

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Table 11.23: Year Wise Investment plan for Basic Services for Poor Component Activities Year 1
Planning, Reforms and Governance Development of Comprehensive data base Conferring Tenural Rights Evolving a policy on Notification and Denotification Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building Providing Access to Social Infrastructure (Health and Education) Evolving a comprehensive Livelihood Policy IEC Strengthening CBOs Relocations of Slums located in Hazardous and vulnerable Areas Identification of Infrastructure and Housing Deficiencies Improvement in Infrastructure Development of Basic Services to the Poor Water Supply & Sewerage Roads Street Lights Community Toilets Construction of Storm Water Drains including primary drains Environmental Improvement of Slums Solid Waste Management Civic Amenities, Community Halls, Child Care Centers Rehabilitation of existing assets Housing Infrastructure Total 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 20.00 10.00 28.57 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 71.43 71.43 136.75 498.18

Year 2 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 20.00 10.00 28.57 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 71.43 71.43 136.75 498.18

Year 3 10.00 10.00 10.00

Year 4 Year 5 Rs. Crores

Year 6

Year 7

Total 10.00 20.00 20.00 30.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

70.00 20.00

Service delivery

10.00 20.00 100.00

10.00 20.00 100.00

10.00 100.00

10.00 100.00

60.00 80.00 400.00 20.00

28.57 14.29 60.00 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 71.43 71.43 136.75 628.18

28.57 14.29 60.00 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 71.43 71.43 136.75 608.18

28.57 14.29 60.00 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 71.43 71.43 136.75 588.18

28.57 14.29 60.00 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 71.43 71.43 136.75 588.18

28.57 14.29 60.00 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 14.29 71.43 71.43 136.75 478.18

200.00 100.00 300.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 500.00 500.00 957.23 3,887.23

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11.1.9 Strategies for Environmental Protection and Disaster Management
A detailed study of the hot spots in Chennai Metropolitan Area would be carried out identifying the problem areas, hotspots, and proposing solutions for improving the urban environment of CMA. Action Plan • Awareness generation, development of techno-legal regime, earthquake preparedness and response plans, training and capacity building would be carried out covering natural hazards. • Increase in green cover in CMA through afforestation and implementation of tree planting programmes with stakeholder participation. • Conservation programmes to abate pollution to the waterways in CMA would be carried out. • Pre-disasters preparedness and pre-disaster management plans would be periodically reviewed and up dated. • Amendments to the building bye-laws of local bodies to include special provisions for hazard prone areas and enforcement in Chennai Metropolitan Area as the area falls in Seismic Zone-III and is tsunami prone.

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CHAPTER XII – CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN & FINANCING STRATEGY

12.1 Water Supply
The proposed investments for water supply projects for CMA is of the order of Rs. 6,321.00 Crores and the break up is presented in Table 12.1. Table 12.1: Proposed Water Supply Investments in CMA Component Activity
Comprehensive Water Sector Development Master Plan Leak Detection Studies Energy Audit Studies Water Quality Studies and Monitoring Planning, Reforms and Institutional Strengthening Design and Implementation of Communication Strategy Baseline Survey Human Resources Development Establishment of Regulatory Authority GIS Mapping of Water and Sewerage Utility Mapping Modernizing Financial Management and MIS Community Initiatives Support Sub-total Source Augmentation Distribution Network Extension Rehabilitation and Modernisation of Existing Network Energy Conservation Measures Metering Piloting 24x7 zone by zone GIS Mapping & Refurbishment Sub-total Citizen feedback mechanisms established Sub-total Grand Total

Institution Total Rs. In Crores 4.00 9.00 10.00 4.50 7.00 2.00 7.00 1.00 9.00 7.00 3.50 64.00 3,600.00 800.00 1,150.00 70.00 210.00 350.00 70.00 6,250.00 7.00 7.00 6,321.00

CMWSSB

Service Delivery

Citizens Relations Management

12.2 Sewerage
The proposed investments for Sewerage projects for entire CMA is of the order of Rs. 2,299.00 Crores and the break up is presented in Table 12.2.

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Table 12.2: Proposed Sewerage Investments in CMA Component Activity
Design & Implementation of Communication Strategy Service Delivery (Sewerage) Comprehensive Sewerage Master Plan Energy Audit Sewerage Quality Studies and Monitoring Design & Communication Strategy Human Resources Development Sub-Total Network coverage Remodeling of old sewers Construction of STPs Recycling Plant & Reuse Energy Conservation Measures Sub-Total Grand Total

Institution

CMWSSB

CMWSSB

Total Rs In Crores 4.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 39.00 950.00 550.00 550.00 175.00 35.00 2,260.00 2,299.00

12.3 Storm Water Drainage
The proposed investments for Storm Water Drainage, Macro Drainage for CMA and renovation of lakes is estimated Rs. 1,423.84 Crores and the break up is presented in Table 12.3. Table 12.3: Proposed Storm Water Drainage Investments in CMA Item Rs. In Crores Macro Drainage Micro Drainage Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Renovation of Lakes Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Culvers Total

865.00 252.00 72.34 38.05 146.80 9.91 3.36 1.57 34.81 1,423.84

12.4 Solid Waste Management
The proposed investments towards Solid Waste Management sector for CMA is of the order of Rs. 847.81 Crores. The break up is presented in Table 12.4.

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Table 12.4: Proposed Solid Waste Management Investments in CMA Sl. No. Solid Waste Management Rs. in Crores Chennai Municipal Corporation 808.70 1 Surrounding ULBs 10.20 2 Special Village Panchayats 3.18 3 Village Panchayats 5.66 4 Slaughter Houses 20.07 5 847.81 Total

12.5 Traffic and Transportation
The proposed investments for traffic and transportation for CMA is of the order of Rs. 19,504.08 Crores. However, Monorail Project is not included in this component and is being taken up separately. The break up is presented in Table 12.5. Table 12.5: Proposed Transportation Investments in CMA Sl. No. Traffic & Transportation 1 Urban Transport Components 2 Widening Strengthening and resurfacing of arterial, sub arterial and collector roads to at least 4 lane width 3 Elevated and highway and Flyovers 4 Road/Rail crossings - ROB/RUB 5 River bridges 6 Link Roads 7 Concreting of Major roads 8 Junction improvements with white topping and Landscaping 9 Pedestrian Sub-ways 10 Bus lay-byes & Shelters 11 Utility Duct and Storm Water Drains along Major Roads 12 Peripheral Road Improvements 13 Construction of mini flyovers 14 Concreting of City Roads 15 Multi level car parking 16 Road/Rail Crossings - ROB/RUB 17 Nesapakkam Road Widening 18 Road works including bridges/culverts 19 Road works 20 Rapid Transit System 21 Metropolitan Public Transport (Bus) 22 Traffic Management Basic Infrastructure Needs 23 Street Lighting Total 24 Monorail (about 300 km)

Rs. in Crore 1,700.00 4,655.00 150.00 45.00 1,650.00 278.00 75.00 102.00 58.35 200.00 197.00 48.00 95.00 145.00 396.00 14.00 675.15 480.32 2,250.00 1,300.00 4,982.04 8.22 19,504.08 15,000.00

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12.6 Heritage and Recreation
The proposed investment towards Heritage and recreation projects is estimated Rs. 103.08 Crores and the break up is presented in Table 12.6. Table 12.6: Proposed Heritage and Recreation Investments in CMA Sl. No. Heritage Rs. Crores Renovation/Development of Ripon buildings 18.00 1 Renovation/Development of V.P. Hall Building 5.00 2 Recreation Developments in City area 60.00 3 Recreation Developments in ULBs 8.46 4 Recreation Developments in SVP 3.24 5 Recreation Developments in Village Panchayats 8.37 6 Total 103.08

12.7 Urban Basic Services for Poor
The proposed investments for urban poor population for entire CMA is estimated Rs. 3,887.23 for the next seven years and break up is illustrated in Table 12.7. Table 12.7: Proposed Investment for Urban Poor in CMA Sl. No. Basic Services for Poor Chennai Municipal Corporation CMA (Except Chennai City) Housing for LIG/EWS groups Total

Rs. in Crore 1,319.96 536.27 2031.00 3,887.23

12.8 Parking Lots and Spaces
The proposed investment for civic amenities in CMA is estimated Rs. 43.85 Crores and the break up is presented in Table 12.8 Table 12.8: Proposed Civic Amenities Investments in CMA Sl. No. Parking lots / Spaces Parking Lots / Spaces Parking Lots / Spaces for SVP Parking Lots / Spaces for VP
Total

Rs. In Crores 15.38 28.47
43.85

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12.9 Summary
The total estimated cost of seven years projects for all the sector is Rs. 34,429.92 Crores the summary of investments are in the following Table 12.9. Summary of capital investments year wise phasing is presented in Table 12.10. Table 12.9: Proposed Summary of investments in CMA Sl. No. Component Total Cost
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Water Supply Sewerage Solid Waste Management Storm Water Drainage Transportation Mass Rapid Transit System Urban Basic Services for Poor Parking Lots and Spaces Heritage and Recreation Total 6,321.00 2,299.00 847.80 1,423.88 17,254.08 2,250.00 3,887.23 43.85 103.08 34,429.92

JNNURM GoI GoTN IR/IF Rs. Crores 2,212.35 948.15 3,160.50 804.65 344.85 1,149.50 296.73 127.17 423.90 498.36 213.58 711.94 6,038.93 2,588.11 8,627.04 787.50 337.50 1,125.00 1,360.53 583.08 1,943.62 15.35 6.58 21.92 36.08 15.46 51.54 12,050.48 5,164.48 17,214.96

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Table 12.10: Proposed year wise investments for planning period Sl. No. Component Year 1 Year 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Water Supply Sewerage Solid Waste Management Storm Water Drainage Transportation Mass Rapid Transit System Urban Basic Services for Poor Parking Lots and Spaces Heritage and Recreation Total 794.50 187.00 148.60 208.68 2630.42 321.43 498.18 6.26 51.54 4,846.61 945.50 287.00 135.13 248.88 2631.77 321.43 498.18 6.26 51.54 5,125.69

Year 3 949.00 285.00 151.38 234.06 2524.42 321.43 628.18 6.26 5,099.73

Year 4 Year 5 Rs. Crores 908.00 908.00 385.00 385.00 161.51 96.37 232.06 189.46 2417.09 2400.09 321.43 321.43 608.18 588.18 6.26 6.26 5,039.53 4,894.79

Year 6 908.00 385.00 58.33 155.38 2325.09 321.43 588.18 6.26 4,747.67

Year 7 908.00 385.00 96.48 155.38 2325.10 321.43 478.18 6.26 4,675.83

Total 6,321.00 2,299.00 847.80 1,423.88 17254.08 2250.00 3,887.23 43.85 103.08 34,429.92

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ANNEXURE 1 – Reform agenda of the ULB and State Government

Reform Agenda at the Level of the Urban Local Body (ULB)
1. Accounting Reform Chennai Corporation has been following the double entry system of accounting from 01.04.1982 onwards. The Double Entry System includes Financial Accounting, Property Tax Accounting, Material Accounting and Project Accounting. It has been computerised since 1985. Presently Chennai Corporation is in the process of converting this stand-alone computerised accounting system into online real time accounting system. 2. E-Governance Application (using IT, GIS and MIS) The Corporation of Chennai is using e-governance applications for the following :
• • • • • • • • • • Property tax Profession tax Company Tax Trade licence Birth and Death Certificate Town Planning Application Pay Roll Accounting Financial Accounting Inventory Management Project Accounting

3. Property Tax Reform, 2004/05 What are the total number of properties in the city?
5,40,000

What are the number of properties assessed for purpose of taxation?
5,15,000

What are the number of properties, which paid taxes in the fiscal year 2003/04?
3,87,000

What is the basis of taxation?

Annual rateable value (ARV) √

Unit area values to determine ARV

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Unit area values to directly determine property values of property tax

Capital valuation

What is the amount of tax demanded? (Rs. in Crore) 2003/2004 2004/05
201.88 216.95

What is the amount of tax collected? (Rs. in Crore) 2003/2004 2004/05
206.61 220.55

(Including arrears) (Including arrears) Achieving the target of 85% tax collection to tax demanded Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
√ • • • • • • • • • • •

Year 6

Year 7

The Chennai Corporation has taken many steps to reform the property tax administration. The Corporation is following Annual Rateable Value (ARV) based on the selfdeclaration. All the properties have been assigned unique bill number and the database is fully computerized. In order to make the system transparent the method of assessment is made known to the public by publishing the procedure for assessment of Property tax through booklets which any one can buy and it is also published in the Chennai Corporation web site. The assesses are issued demand notices based on the revenue collection information available in the database. All these exercises are done using I.T. A number of options are given to the assesses to pay their taxes. The property tax can be paid on-line. The property tax can be paid in Corporation Zonal Offices. The property tax can be paid through ECS. The property tax can be done through Internet using their credit cards. The property tax can be paid through a network of nearly 150 bank branches spread over the city.

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4. Levy of User Charges (Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board) Water Supply 583 mld.

i) Percentage of households covered by municipal/parasitical water supply
98%

ii) Per capital domestic water supply (70 to 100 lpcd in normal years).
70 to 100 lpcd

iii) Average number of hours of water supply
3 hrs.

iv) Percentage of non-revenue water to total water released (including free supply and leakages) 15%

v) Percentage of water supplied free
5%

vi) Percentage of water lost due to leakages and thefts
10%

Total cost (Operation & Maintenance and debt repayment) incurred in delivering water? (Rs. in Crore) 2003/2004 2004/05
349.54 476.42

Total recoveries from the sale of water? (Rs. in Crore) 2003/2004 2004/05
351.45 481.60

Other services There are no user charges for services other than water supply and sewerage disposal. Achieving cost recovery target (full O & M recovery)

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Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

5. Services to the Urban Poor Percentage of households living in unauthorised tenements / temporary structures 13% Percentage of households living in unauthorised
NIL

tenements/temporary structures without access to
0%

Municipal Water Supply

Sanitation

0%

Primary education

0%

Primary health

0%

Reaching the services to the urban poor Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

Internal earmarking of budgets for the urban poor Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

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Reform Agenda at the level of the State Government 1. Implementation of the Constitution (Seventy-Fourth) Amendment Act,1992 What is the status of implementation of the following as per the Act ? Specify: (a) & (b) Constitution and Composition of municipalities
• • • In Tamil Nadu there are 102 Municipalities and 50 Third Grade Municipalities (erstwhile Town Panchayats have been renamed as Third Grade Municipalities) The norm for constitution of Third Grade Municipalities is minimum population of 30,000. Based on the minimum annual income, the Municipalities have been classified as follows: Grade Special Selection First Second • 500 200 100 50 Minimum Annual Income (Rs. Lakhs)

As per section 7 of the Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act,1920, the Municipal Council shall consist of such number of councillors as may be determined by the State Government, by notification which shall not be more than fifty-two and shall not be less than twenty In G.O.(Ms).No.135, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, dated 11.6.1996, the Government have prescribed a population norm for determining the number of councillors (exclusive of Chairman) of a Municipal Council. In respect of the Municipal Corporations of Chennai, Madurai and Coimbatore, the strength of the Councillors to be elected has been prescribed in the respective Acts itself, as follows: Chennai Corporation – 155, Madurai Corporation – 72, Coimbatore Corporation – 72 In G.O.(Ms).No. 134, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, dated 10.6.1996, the Government have fixed the strength of the Councillors to be elected in the other Corporations as follows: Tiruchirappalli Corporation – 60, Tirunelveli Corporation – 55, Salem Corporation – 60. Further, the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative Assembly representing the constituency comprising the whole or any part of the municipality and the members of the council of States who are registered as electors within the area of the municipality shall also be represented in the council. Similar provisions are available in the Corporation Acts.

( c) Reservation of seats for Women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

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• • • •

• • •

According to section 3-I and section 7 of the Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act, 1920, certain offices of the Chairmen, Members / Councillors of the Third Grade Municipalities and Municipalities shall be reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Among the offices reserved for Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes, not less than one third of the Offices shall be reserved for women belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes. Further, not less than one third of the total number of offices of Chairmen / Members / Councillors of Third Grade Municipalities and Municipalities in the State (including those reserved for S.C./S.T. women) shall be reserved for Women. The Offices of Chairmen and Councillors shall be reserved by rotation for future elections. Orders regarding reservation in the offices of Chairmen and Members/Councillors of Third Grade Municipalities, Municipalities have been issued in G.O.(Ms).No.196, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, dated 27.8.1996 and G.O.(Ms).No.189, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, dated 20.8.1996, respectively. Similar provisions for reservation in case of Councillors of Municipal Corporations are available in the Acts governing the Municipal Corporations. The Government have delegated the power of reservation to the Commissioners of respective Municipal Corporations. As regards reservation in the offices of Mayor, according to the Special provision made in the Tamil Nadu Municipal Corporation Laws (Amendment and Special Provision) Act, 1994, out of the total number of offices of Mayor in this State, one shall be reserved for the members belonging to the Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes, as the case may be and two shall be reserved for women and reservation shall be allotted by rotation to different Municipal Corporations in the State in such manner as may be prescribed. Orders regarding reservation in offices of Mayor for the Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes have been issued in G.O.(Ms).No.195, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, dated 27.8.1996.

(d) Constitution of District Planning Committees (DPCs) District Planning Committees as per Article 243 ZD have been constituted in Tamil Nadu. The DPCs have been operationalised fully and made functional. The first meeting of the DPCs was held on 4.2.2002 and subsequent meetings have been held once in three months to discuss the developmental issues relating to the district. (e) Constitution of Metropolitan Planning Committees: It is proposed to amend the provisions of Chennai City Municipal Corporation Act,1919 and Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act, 1971 so as to set up the Metropolitan Planning Committee. The Draft Bill has been finalized. The Metropolitan Planning Committee will be constituted in 2006-07. (f) Incorporation of Schedule 12 into the State Municipal Act This Government have enacted the conformity legislations in keeping with the spirit of the Constitution (74th Amendment) Act. By the conformity legislations (Tamil Nadu Acts 25 and 26 of 1994) the functions which had been available in various sections in the enactments governing the Urban Local Bodies of this State, have been consolidated and

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incorporated in a separate Schedule in the Acts governing the Urban Local Bodies. Which of the functions of Schedule 12 have been incorporated into the State Municipal Act and transferred to ULBs? With the exception of Fire Services, other functions listed in Scheduled 12 are being performed by the Urban Local Bodies. The details of the powers and functions entrusted to the Urban Local Bodies are given below:i) Urban Planning including Town Planning (Function 1):- Urban Planning including Town Planning is governed under the provisions of the Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act, 1971. When the Local Planning Authorities are constituted under Section 11 of the Act in respect of a single Urban Local Body, the Local Body itself is declared as the Local Planning Authority. However, where there are two or more local bodies, four members of the Local Bodies are appointed as representatives in the Composite Local Planning Authority. According to Section 12 of the Act, the functions of the Local Planning Authority shall be, to carryout a survey of the local Planning area, to prepare a land use map, to prepare a Master Plan and Detailed Development Plan and to carryout work as contemplated in the Master Plan and Detailed Development Plan. ii) Regulation of land use and construction of Building (Function-2):- Regulation of land use is governed under the provisions of the Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act, 1971. In G.O.Ms.No.134, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, dated 20.9.2002 orders have been issued for the approval of layouts by the Local Bodies. Construction of buildings in Urban Local Body Areas is regulated by the provisions in the Corporations and Municipal Acts and the Building Rules issued there under. The Commissioner of the Local Body has been empowered to grant or refuse permission. Provision to appeal to the Standing Committee (in the case of Corporation) or to Council (in the case of Municipalities / Town Panchayats) if the Commissioner fails to pass orders within the prescribed period, is also available in the Acts. iii) Planning for Economic and Social Development (Function-3):- For welfare schemes like widows rehabilitation scheme, Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana etc. the selection of beneficiaries under the programmes is done by the local body. iv) Roads and Bridges (Function-4):- Small roads within the Urban Local Bodies fall under the term “Public Streets” in the Corporation Acts and in the Municipal Act. All public streets, not reserved under the control of the Central and State Governments are vested in the Local body. The Local Bodies shall maintain and repair the public streets and make all improvements for the public safety or convenience. v) Water Supply for Domestic, Industrial and Commercial purposes (Function-5):Provisions for water supply were earlier available in the Chennai City Municipal Corporation Act. These provisions were omitted when the Chennai Metropolitan water Supply and Sewerage Act, 1978, was enacted for the constitution of the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board to perform the functions relating to water supply and sewerage in the Chennai Metropolitan Area. In the Acts applicable to other Municipal Corporations and in the Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act, 1920, provisions are available for water supply for domestic consumption. The Commissioner is

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also empowered to supply water for non-domestic purposes. vi) Public Health, Sanitation, Conservancy and Solid Waste Management (Function-6):According to the provisions in the Corporations Acts and in the District Municipalities Act, the Local Body shall provide and maintain a sufficient system of public drains. The Local Body shall also provide and maintain in proper and convenient places sufficient number of public latrines in clean and proper order. The Local Body shall make arrangements for regular cleaning of streets and dustbins. The Commissioner should make arrangements for the prevention and control of dangerous diseases and small pox. vii) Urban Forestry, protection of the Environment and promotion of ecological aspects (Function-8):- According to the Financial Rules contained in the Corporations Acts and in the District Municipalities Act, the object of expenditure connected with public convenience, amenities and education include the planting and preservation of trees in public streets and places. In the Urban Forestry Scheme implemented by the Environment & Forests Department, the Urban Local Bodies are also involved in protecting the saplings of trees in Urban areas. viii) Safeguarding the interest of weaker sections of society including the handicapped and mentally retarded (Function-9):- For Welfare Schemes like widows rehabilitation scheme, Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana etc., the selection of beneficiaries under the programmes is done by the local body. According to the Financial Rules, the object of expenditure connected with the public convenience, amenities and education include the provision and maintenance of rescue homes. ix) Slum Improvement and upgradation (Function-10):- All Urban Local Bodies are implementing schemes and measures for slum improvement and upgradation. x) Urban Poverty Alleviation (Function-11):- No statutory provisions are available in the Urban Local Body Acts. However, Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), an Urban Poverty Alleviation Programme is being implemented through the Urban Local Bodies. xi) Provision of Urban Amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds (Function-12):- According to the provisions in the Corporations Acts and in the District Municipalities Act, the Council may make bye-laws to provide for the regulation of the use of parks, gardens and other public municipal places. Further according to the Financial Rules, the object of expenditure connected with public convenience, amenities and education include the construction and maintenance of recreation grounds, playing grounds and promenades. xii) Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects (Function-13):- According to the Financial Rules, the object of expenditure connected with public convenience, amenities and education include construction of Public Halls, recreation grounds, playing grounds, Zoological and Horticultural Gardens, Public libraries, Reading rooms, Museum, Art Galleries, provision of music for the public, holding of exhibitions or fairs etc. xiii) Burial and Burial grounds, cremation, cremation grounds and electric crematorium (Function 14):- Provisions are available in the Corporations Acts and in the District

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Municipalities Act for registration and control of burial or burning grounds, proper burial or burning of the corpses and issue of grave diggers license. xiv) Cattle Pounds, Prevention of cruelty to animals (Function-15):- According to the Financial Rules, the object of the expenditure connected with the public convenience, amenities and education include the provision of places for the treatment of sick animals and the prevention of cruelty to animals. Further in G.O.Ms.No.s. 13, 14 and 15, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, dated 3.2.1998, orders have been issued for the constitution of a Joint Committee in Corporations to prevent cruelty to animals with the Mayor as Chairman and Officers of the Corporation, Animal Husbandry Department, Animal Welfare Board and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as members. xv) Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths (Function 16):- According to the provisions in the Corporation Acts and District Municipalities Act, the Council shall register all births and deaths occurring in its limits. Information of births and deaths shall be given and their registration shall be made and enforced in the prescribed manner. xvi) Public amenities including street lights, parking lots, bus stops and other public convenience (Function 17):- According to the provisions in the Corporations Acts and in the District Municipalities Act, Public Streets shall be provided with lights. Further, landing places, cart stands (including Bus stands) etc. shall be provided by the Local Bodies and licences shall also be issued to the private cart stands. xvii) Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries (Funcion-18):- According to the provisions in the Corporations Acts and Municipal Act, the local bodies shall provide slaughter houses and levy fees for their use. Licences shall also be issued for slaughter houses. 1. Has the transfer of functions been accompanied by transfer of staff? If no, has the ULB been given the powers to recruit staff for managing the transferred functions? The Urban Local bodies of this State have an adequate sanctioned strength of staff for effectively discharging their functions. This Government, adopting a cautious approach towards appointment of staff in Urban Local Bodies, has allowed the same wherever they are really needed. In transition towns, there was a problem of inadequate strength of technical functionaries and hence, a separate engineering wing was created with adequate number of engineering personnel separately for transition towns, reducing external clearance and ensuring speedy execution of development works. Further, in Municipalities where there are no planning staff, a policy decision was taken to create minimum strength, ensuring that all the Municipalities have in their rolls at least a basic level planning staff. As part of the computerization effort, qualified staff were recruited both on deputation and from the open market which has helped the successful implementation of computerization of Municipal functions. 2. Repealment of Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976 The Tamil Nadu Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act,1978 has been repealed by the Tamil Nadu Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Repeal Act,1999 (Tamil Nadu Act 20 of

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1999) 3. Rent Control Reforms, 2004/05 At present only 69 buildings are under the control of Accommodation Controller of Chennai and Coimbatore (52 and 17 respectively) for occupation by the Government servants. There are no such buildings in other districts. It is proposed to amend the Tamil Nadu Buildings (Lease and Rent Control) Act,1960. The process of drafting the legislation has been commenced. It is expected to amend this Act by 2007-08. 4. Stamp Duty Rationalisation, 2005
• In 2004, orders have been issued by the Government of Tamil Nadu for reducing the stamp duty to 6% and transfer duty to 2% from the earlier levels of 8% and 5% respectively charged on the conveyance of properties in this State. During 2004, the Stamp duty on settlement and release between family members and general partition between family members, and partition on the dissolution of partnership between family members has been reduced to 1% on the market value of the property subject to a ceiling of Rs.10,000/-. The registration fee is 1% with a ceiling of Rs.2,000/-. Orders have also been issued in February, 2004 to the following effect: (iii) Reduction of Stamp duty on simple mortgage without possession from 4% to 1%. Reduction of Stamp duty in the case of mortgage deed with possession from 6% on the loan amount to 3% on the loan amount. Reduction of transfer duty from 3% to 1% on the loan amount. The total rate will thus be 4% on the loan amount. In the case of deposit of title deeds, a ceiling of Rs.5,000/- for stamp duty and Rs.10,000/- for registration fee has been introduced. Stamp duty on powers of attorney has been reduced from the level of 6% to 4%.

• •

• •

Having already reduced the stamp duty from 8% to 6% in 2004, the Government of Tamil Nadu will make efforts to further reduce the stamp duty to 5% by 2012-13. 5. Public Disclosure Law There are already various existing provisions under which ULBs in Tamil Nadu are required to make public disclosure of various types of information. Section 33 of the Tamil Nadu District Municipal Act, 1920 provides that each local body shall publish an annual administration report in which various information pertaining to the activities of the local bodies is contained. This provision is also available in the relevant acts governing the Municipal Corporations. Further, the budget document of the local bodies which contains all financial details pertaining to the receipts and expenditure of the local body are also made published by

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each local body. The existing laws pertaining to ULBs also provide that before imposing or increasing any taxes, the local body is required to give advance notice of the same and invite the objections of the public. In addition to the above, each local body in the State has published a Citizens Charter in which all relevant information pertaining to the local body is provided. The second edition of the Citizens Charter has been published by all local bodies in 2004. Finally, under Section 4(1)(d) of the Right to Information Act, every local body is required to publish various particulars pertaining to its activities and expenses, which has been done by all local bodies in the State. With regard to the proposed reform agenda pertaining to enactment of a public disclosure law, the State Government will take the following action:
• • • Identification of matters of public importance not covered under existing public disclosure provision Consultation with urban local bodies and framing to provisions to incorporate necessary provisions in the existing municipal laws and rules. Passing of legislation and notification of rules

Action in this regard will be completed by 2008-09. 6. Community Participation Law Is there any provision in the State Municipal Acts regarding the involvement of civil society, industry and business in municipal affairs – e.g., in setting priorities, budgeting provisions, etc., There is no such provision in the State Municipality Acts. The inclusion of suitable provision to this effect will be considered by year 2009-10, after following the required process of consulting the local bodies and other stake- holders. 7. City Planning Function Who is responsible for city planning for the city? Currently, the planning function of the ULBs falling in the Chennai Metropolitan Area is under the jurisdiction of the Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. However, the approval of layouts, building plans and other clearances for developmental activities are partly vested in the Chennai Corporation and other local bodies. Which agency is responsible for provision of the following services 8. Water Supply & Sewerage The Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) is responsible for the provision of water supply and sewerage services within Chennai Corporation area.

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In the other Municipalities in the Chennai Metropolitan Area, the concerned local bodies are providing such services.

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Optional Reforms
During year I of the Mission, the following two optional reforms will be implemented: 1. Introduction of computerization in the process of registration of land and property: To facilitate faster processing of applications submitted by the public, the Registration Department has embarked upon the project STAR (Simplified and Transparent Administration of Registration) and I.T. enabled services. Under the project, so far, out of the 600 Sub-Registrar Offices and 50 District Offices, 300 Sub-Registrar Offices and all the 50 District Registrar Offices have been computerized. The process of computerization of remaining 300 Sub-Registrar Offices has been kept in abeyance in view of the reorganization of jurisdiction of remaining Sub-Registrars’ Offices. It is proposed to merge the remaining offices with the existing ones. The computerization initiatives have enabled the following:
• • • • • • • • • Statewide Guideline values of properties available on the website (www.tnreginet.net) Issue of Encumbrance Certificates across the counter in 5 minutes Apply on line for Encumbrance Certificates – door delivery within 24 hours on payment of fees and courier charges. Online property valuation Apply online for host of other services, e.g. Certified copies Extract of Hindu Marriage Certificates Bye-laws, etc. of Societies registered Details of chit groups

The process of computerization in the registrars’ offices will be further pursued during 2006- 07 and 2007- 08. Revision of bye-laws to make rain water harvesting mandatory in all buildings to come up and for adoption of water conservation measures. To make Rain Water Harvesting mandatory, the Tamil Nadu Government promulgated the Tamil Nadu Municipal Laws (Second Amendment) Ordinance in 2003. This was repealed by the Tamil Nadu Municipal Laws (Second Amendment) Act 2003, by which Chennai City Municipal Corporation Act 1919, the Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act 1920, the Madurai City Municipal Corporation Act, 1971 and the Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation Act, 1981 were amended to include provisions making rainwater harvesting mandatory. 2. The relevant provision in the ULB Acts pertaining to Rain Water Harvesting reads as follows: “ (1) In every building owned or occupied by the Government or a statutory body or company or an institution owned or controlled by the Government, rain water harvesting

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structure shall be provided by the Government or by such statutory body or company or other institution, as the case may be, in such manner and within such time as may be prescribed. (2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), every owner or occupier of a building shall provide rain water harvesting structure in the building in such manner and within such period as may be prescribed. Explanation:- Where a building is owned or occupied by more than one person, every such person shall be liable under this sub-section. (3) Where the rain water harvesting structure is not provided as required under sub-section (2), the Commissioner or any person authorized by him in this behalf may, after giving notice to the owner or occupier of the building, cause rain water harvesting structure to be provided in such building and recover the cost of such provision along with the incidental expense thereof in the same manner as property tax. (4) Notwithstanding any action taken under sub-section (3), where the owner or occupier of the building fails to provide the rain water harvesting structure in the building before the date as may be prescribed, the water supply connection provided to such building shall be disconnected till rain water harvesting structure is provided”. The relevant building rules under the above said Acts have also been suitably amended making Rain Water Harvesting compulsory for approval of Building Plans.

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Reforms undertaken by CMWSSB Accounting

CMWSSB adopted the modern accrual-based double entry system ever since its incepting in 1978 and the entire accounts are computerized.
E-Governance and IT CMWSS Board has opened Electronic Delivery of Services (EDS) for payment by the citizens at 10 TNEB counters in Chennai City to avail the benefit of utility payment services. Payment will be undertaken anytime/anywhere in single roof at the EDS Centres to pay the dues by way of cash/cheque/demand draft. The Board has undertaken complete computerization of billing and collection and is currently collecting water and sewerage tax / water supply charges through computerised collection centres of the Board located at 10 Area Offices, 70 Depot Offices and at the Head Office. In addition to the above, 22 specified branches of Canara Bank are also authrosied to collect tax/charges on behalf of the Board. Board has also introduced online payment of water tax and water supply charges through internet which is assigned to M/s. ICICI Bank through ICICI Bank A/c. or credit card. Discussion with other commercial Banks are on to extend this facility to more number of assesses and consumers. A digital base map has been created for the entire city and complete GIS were implemented in 9 Depot Offices in one Area by updating the underground asset and visible asset details as a pilot measure. The linking of this data base with the property data base is also being planned.

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ANNEXURE 2 – Demography
Table 1: Population Growth in Municipalities - 1971-2001
ULBs Area in Sq.km. Population in thousands Annual Rate of growth in percent 2001 71-81 81-91 91-01 Avg. Density per Hect.2001

1971

1981

1991

Kathivakkam Thiruvottiyur Madhavaram Ambattur Avadi Poonamallee Thiruverkkadu Maduravoyal Valasaravakkam Alandur UllagaramPuzhithivakkam Anakaputhur Pammal Pallavaram Tambaram Manali Total

4.75 21.35 17.41 37.77 61.57 6.55 18.63 4.78 2.97 8.08 3.64 2.98 5.19 16.10 20.72 7.49 239.99

16.14 82.85 21.05 45.59 77.41 18.72 13.08 6.46 2.41 65.04 2.38 10.88 9.05 51.37 58.81 3.34 484.58

22.10 134.01 29.46 115.90 124.70 23.67 17.23 7.45 7.58 97.45 8.58 15.30 27.82 83.90 86.92 11.96 814.02

27.17 168.64 49.26 215.42 183.22 28.83 27.84 14.88 21.95 125.24 16.13 24.35 36.51 111.87 113.29 19.09 1183.6 8

32.59 212.28 76.09 310.97 229.40 42.60 32.20 43.61 30.98 146.29 30.42 31.92 50.00 144.62 137.93 28.60 1580.5

3.19 4.93 3.41 9.78 4.88 2.37 2.79 1.44 12.1 2 4.13 13.69 3.46 11.89 5.03 3.99 13.61 5.32

2.09 2.32 5.28 6.39 3.92 1.99 4.92 7.17 11.22 2.54 6.52 4.76 2.75 2.92 2.69 4.79 3.82

1.84 2.33 4.45 3.74 2.27 3.98 1.47 11.35 3.50 1.57 6.55 2.75 3.20 2.60 1.99 4.12 2.93

2.37 3.19 4.38 6.64 3.69 2.78 3.06 6.65 8.95 2.74 8.92 3.66 5.95 3.52 2.89 7.51 4.02

69 99 44 82 38 65 17 91 104 181 84 107 96 90 66 38 66

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Table 2: Population Growth in Special Village Panchayat - 1971-2001 S. Village Area Population (in thousands) Annual Rate of growth 1971 1981 1991 2001 71-81 81-91 91-01 Ave. Panchayat in Sq.Km .
Minjur
Chinnasekkadu Puzhal Naravarikuppam Thiruninravur Porur Thirumazhisai Mangadu Nandambakkam Minambakkam Kundrathur Thiruneermalai Perungalathur Peerkankaranai Chitlapakkam Sembakkam Madambakkam Perungudi Pallikkaranai Sholinganallur

8.63
1.67 6.74 20.76 14.56 3.72 7.25 5.63 2.61 3.03 12.16 5.87 7.04 1.76 2.90 6.35 7.92 4.64 17.43 15.35 156.02

Total

7.24 2.21 6.94 9.96 6.94 3.54 9.56 10.98 4.72 2.51 14.45 6.31 3.71 3.58 5.32 2.60 2.32 1.74 2.32 4.23 111.18

13.62 2.68 9.26 14.67 9.13 8.63 11.01 11.23 7.68 3.09 16.42 9.95 6.29 5.28 11.72 6.10 3.49 4.28 3.93 5.75 164.19

19.49 8.42 15.87 17.41 16.31 19.51 14.54 16.06 10.56 3.80 22.79 17.94 11.24 10.74 15.90 13.50 8.21 9.71 7.82 8.53 271.35

23.74 9.74 20.64 18.33 29.33 28.92 16.29 19.42 9.34 3.61 25.07 19.23 19.59 17.51 25.31 21.50 17.00 23.58 22.07 15.56 385.72

6.52 1.95 2.93 3.95 2.78 9.33 1.42 0.22 4.98 2.13 1.29 4.66 5.40 3.96 8.22 8.86 4.14 9.40 5.40 3.12 4.40

3.64 12.13 5.53 1.72 7.78 8.49 2.82 3.64 3.24 2.09 3.33 6.07 5.98 7.37 3.10 8.32 8.94 8.54 7.13 4.02 5.13

2.00 1.46 2.66 0.52 4.27 4.02 1.14 1.92 -1.22 -0.52 0.93 0.70 5.72 5.01 4.76 4.75 7.55 9.28 10.93 6.20 3.62

4.05 5.18 3.71 2.06 4.94 7.28 1.79 1.93 2.33 1.23 1.85 3.81 5.70 5.45 5.36 7.31 6.88 9.08 7.82 4.45 4.38

Densi ty per Hect. 2001 28 58 31 9 20 78 22 35 36 12 21 33 28 99 88 34 22 51 13 10 25

Table 3: Population Growth in Panchayat Union - 1971-2001
Panchayat Union Area in Sq.km 1971 Population 1981 1991 2001 71-81 Annual Rate of growth in % 81-91 91-01 Ave. Density per Hect. 2001

Minjur (4 Villages) Sholavaram (41 Villages) Puzhal (28 Villages) Villivakkam (25 Villages) Thiruvallur (1 village) Poonamallee (42 villages) Kundrathur (30 villages) Sriperumbudur (4 villages)

40.02 131.58 46.87 84.53 11.39 75.44 80.36 20.16

11015 44069 23739 37712 4409 56439 44050 1647

13900 59286 30493 46787 5505 60435 50552 757

17032 82773 41661 91488 7789 60742 68435 0

23368 97038 51081

2.35 3.01 2.54

2.05 3.39 3.17 6.94 3.53 1.00 3.08 -100

3.21 1.61 2.06 4.57 1.13 0.74 4.46 --

2.54 2.67 2.59 4.56 2.30 0.81 2.97 --

6 7 11 17 8 10 13 4

143070 2.18 8719 71866 2.24 0.69

105625 1.39 0 -7.48

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St.Thomas Mount (33 Villages) Kattankulathur (6 Villages) Total

98.39 28.26 617.00

34773 9490

56118 14905

122435 199235 21891 30695

4.90 4.62

8.11 3.92 2.67

4.99 3.44 5.18

6.00 3.99 4.37

20 11 12

267303 338738 514246 730727 12

Table 4: Projection for Municipalities within CMA (In Lakhs) Sl. Description Actual Annual Projection No. rate of 2006 2011 2016 2021 2001 growth assumed in % 1 Kathivakkam 0.33 2.0 0.36 0.40 0.43 0.49 2 Thiruvottiyur 2.12 2.5 2.41 2.73 3.09 3.50 3 Madhavaram 0.76 4.0 0.93 1.14 1.39 1.69 4 Ambattur 3.11 4.5 3.89 4.88 6.11 7.65 5 Avadi 2.3 3.0 2.67 3.10 3.60 4.18 6 Poonamallee 0.42 4.0 0.52 0.64 0.78 0.95 7 Thiruverkadu 0.32 3.0 0.37 0.43 0.51 0.59 8 Maduravoyal 0.43 3.5 0.52 0.62 0.74 0.88 9 Valasarawakkam 0.31 3.5 0.37 0.44 0.52 0.62 10 Alandur 1.46 1.5 157 1.70 1.83 1.97 11 Ullagaram0.30 4.0 0.37 0.46 0.55 0.68 Puzhudhivakkam 12 Anakaputhur 0.32 2.7 0.36 0.42 0.48 0.55 13 Pammal 0.50 3.0 0.58 0.67 0.78 0.91 14 Pallavaram 1.45 3.0 1.68 1.95 2.27 2.64 15 Tambaram 1.38 2.5 1.56 1.77 2.01 2.27 16 Manali 0.29 4.0 0.35 0.43 0.52 0.64 Total 15.80 3.98 18.52 21.75 25.60 30.20

Density 2026

0.54 3.97 2.07 9.58 4.86 1.16 0.68 1.05 0.74 2.13 0.83 0.63 1.05 3.06 2.58 0.78 35.69

113 186 119 254 79 177 37 219 250 263 227 210 204 190 124 104 149

Table 5: Population projection for Panchayat Unions within CMA (In Lakhs) Annual rate Projection of growth Description assumed in %
Minjur (4 Villages) Sholavaram (41 Villages) Puzhal (28 Villages) Villivakkam (25 Villages) Thiruvallur (1 2001 0.27 0.97 0.51 1.43 0.09 1.8 1.6 1.4 2.2 3.5 2006 0.28 1.12 0.60 1.73 0.10 2011 0.33 1.30 0.75 2.12 0.12 2016 0.38 1.51 0.95 2.64 0.15 2021 0.45 1.76 1.23 3.32 0.18 2026 0.54 2.06 1.60 4.27 0.21

Density

13 16 34 51 18

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Description

Annual rate of growth assumed in % 2001 2006 1.3 1.9 -2.6 2.7 3.45 0.73 1.25 0 2.50 0.39 8.70 2011 0.82 1.49 0 3.15 0.49 10.59

Projection

Density

2016 0.93 1.79 0 3.98 0.63 12.96

2021 1.06 2.15 0 5.03 0.81 15.99

2026 1.21 2.59 0 6.38 1.04 19.88 16 32 0 65 37 32

village) Poonamallee (42 villages) Kundrathur (30 villages) Sriperumbudur (4 villages) St.Thomas Mount (33 Villages) Kattankulathur (6 villages) Total

0.72 1.06 -1.84 0.31 7.39

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ANNEXURE 3 – Detailed Traffic & Transportation Components for CMA
Sl. No. Project Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate)

I Urban Transport Widening Strengthening and resurfacing of arterial, subarterial and collect of roads to at least 4 lane width in city (100 Km.) in CMA (400 Km.) Sub total Elevated and highway and Flyovers Elevated Highway along G.W.T Road from Chennai Port to Maduravoyal Elevated Highway along G.S.T Road from Chennai Port to Tambaram Elevated Highway along Inner Ring Road from Sidco Junction (km0/6) to Koyambedu Kaliamman Koil Street Junction (km8/1) Elevated Highway along Sardar Patel road (Halda to Madhya Kailash Junction) km 0/0-3/6 Trumphet Fly over at Madhyakailash Junction Elevated Highway along Rajaji Salai from Paris Corner to Tollgate at Thiruvottiyur Flyover at Thiruvanmiyur LB Road Junction Flyover at Annanagar Roundtana Flyover at Poonamallee Town at the Junction of M.P.road & Poonamallee Kundrathur Road. Elevated Highway along Nungambakkam High Road, Vallur Kottam High Road, Mcnicoles Road, College Road and Haddows Road Flyover at Mount Madipakkam Road with Pallavaram Thorapakkam Road Junction Flyover at the Junction of Taramani Link and M.B.I.Road at Vijayanagaram Flyover at Ayanavaram Road Junction with Medavakkam tank and Konnur High Road Flyover at New Avadi Road Junction with Kilpauk Garden Road Elevated Highway along Arcot Road from Vadapalani up to Porur Elevated Highway along Thiruvottiyur High Road from Tollgate to Ernavur Bridge. IRR intersection, Thirumangalam junction IRR intersection at Vadapalani At Vyasarpadi (GNT Road) At Moolakadai (GNT Road) At Porur (Mount-Poonamallee Road) Sub Total Road/Rail crossings - ROB/RUB Villivakkam - Ambattur 11/31A - 12/1 Tambaram - Vandallur 32/11-12

100.00 1,600.00 1,700.00 800.00 1,400.00 600.00 100.00 150.00 350.00 30.00 30.00 60.00 300.00 30.00 60.00 30.00 15.00 300.00 250.00 30.00 30.00 50.00 25.00 15.00 4,655.00 15.00 15.00

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Sl. No.

Project

Pattabiram Military siding 1042 - 1043 Villivakkam - Ambattur 13/4 - 6 Ambattur - Avadi 17/34 - 18/2 Avadi - Pattabiram East 23/12-14 Tondiarpet - Tiruvottiyur 7/22-24 Tambaram - Perungalathur 32/8-9 Vandaloor - Oorapakkam 36/6-7 At Minjur Sub Total River bridges Across Adyar river (additional two lanes to Thiru-vi-ka Bridge) Sardar Patel Road Bridge (across B'canal) Across Cooum river at Mogappair Across Cooum river at Nolambur Across Cooum river along Karumariamman koil Road Across Ennore creek Sub Total Link Roads Old Mahabalipuram Road - East Coast Road (Prarthana Theatre to Pallavan Kudiruppu) (3 km length) Ambattur estate to ORR (via Paruthipattu) ( 15 km length) Puzhal to IRR (4 km length) Nandambakkam to west K.K.Nagar and on to Koyambedu Bus Terminus via, Kaliamman Koil Street.( 7.5 km length) Link Road between Thiru Vika Bridge and Kotturpuram Bridge along South Bank of Adyar river and extending upto Marai Adigal bridge (4.4 km length) Developing a link road between Madhayakailash and Muthiramlinga Thevar Salai along west canal Bank Road (1.8 km length) Developing a new link from Kotturpuram - Gandhi Mandapam Road and west Canal Bank Road (Utilising the approach road to Birla Planetarium and existing road behind CLRI) (1.16 km length) Developing a link road along Ponniyamman Koil Street connecting Gandhi Mandapam road and West Canal Bank Road (I km in length) Construction of an elevated link from Light House and on to ECR to Besant Nagar across Adyar Estuary (10 km length) Tambaram Eastern Byepass (9 km length) Outer Ring Road 0/00 - 62/0 (62 km length) byepass road to Tirumaghizai & Tiruvallur town (12 km length) Sub Total Concreting of Major roads Kamarajar Salai - Santhome High Road - km 2/7-7/5 (4.8 km length) G.S.T road to 0/0 - 28/0 (28 km length) Nungambakkam High Road ( 1.4 km length)

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 150.00 9.00 1.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 20.00 45.00 30.00 150.00 20.00 80.00 50.00 40.00 25.00

30.00 500.00 45.00 500.00 180.00 1,650.00 20.00 150.00 5.00

176

CDP Chennai

Sl. No.

Project Radhakrishna Road and Cathedral Road (3.3 km length) College Road and Haddows Road (1.5 km length) Rajaji Salai (2.5 km length) Lattice Bridge Road (3.5 km length) G.N.T.Road (Walltax Road) 0/8-3/2 (2.5 km length) Venkatnarayana Road and North Usman Road (3 km length)

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 17.00 5.00 10.00 14.00 10.00 12.00 12.00 13.00 10.00 278.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 75.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

Muthuramalinga Thevar Salai (Chamiers Road and Greens Road) (3 km length) Purasawakkam High Road (1.5 km length) Millers Road, Gangadeeswar Koil st. Alagappa Road (1.5 km length) Sub Total Junction improvements with white topping and Land scapping Adyar Junction Thiruvnmiyur Junction TTK Road awith Radhakrishnan Road Junction Turnbulls Road Junction Canal Bank Road with Mandhaveli Junction I.R.R Sidco Junction I.R.R Kasi Theatre Pillayar Koil street Junction Udhayam theatre - K.K.Nagar Junction Ashok Pillar Junction I.R.R - Ambedkar road junction I.R.R. - P.T. Rajan Salai junction I.R.R. - Anna Denumpathai junction I.R.R.- PeriyarPadai junction I.R.R.- Vinayagapuram junction I.R.R - Kaliamman Koil Street junction I.R.R - Thirumangalam Mogappair Road junction I.R.R - School Road junction Parrys Corner - Rajaji Salai junction Kellys junction Purasavakkam High Road - Millers Road junction Kilpauk Garden Road - Anna Nagar Chinthamani junction Anna Nagar Roundtana junction Anna Nagar II Avenue - I.R.R. junction Ayanavaram - Konnur High road - Medavakkam Tank road junction Perambur High Road - Lucas Road junction Sub Total Pedestrian Sub-ways Annasalai @ GP Road junction Annasalai @ Nandanam Chamiers Road junction Annasalai @ Thodhunter Nagar Annasalai @ Saidapet Bazaar Road junction Annasalai @ Little Mount A.G. Church Annasalai @ TNPL Office G.S.T.Road @ Guindy M.K.N. Road junction

177

CDP Chennai

Sl. No.

Project

G.S.T. Road @ Chrompet E.V.R. Salai @ Dasaprakash E.V.R. Salai @ Pachaiappas College E.V.R. Salai @ Aminjikarai Market E.V.R. Salai @ Anna Arch E.V.R. Salai @ N.S.K. Nagar junction E.V.R. Salai @ Vaishanava college Inner Ring Road @ Ekkadu Thangal (near Malladi company) Inner Ring Road @ 14th Avenue junction Inner Ring Road @ Ashok Pillar Inner Ring Road @ Arcot Road junction Inner Ring Road @ C.M.B.T. Inner Ring Road @ Kaliamman Koil junction Inner Ring Road @ Thirumangalam Moogappair Nungambakkam High Road @ IOC junction Radhakrishnan Salai @ Q.M.C. Sardar Patel Road @ Anna University Sardar Patel Road @ C.L.R.I. Kamarajar Salai in front of PWD Complex College Road - Meterological Office point Thiruvanmiyur ECR - Marundeeswarar koil point N.S.K. Salai - Vadapalani Depot N.S.K. Salai - Meenakshi College Porur - M.P. Road junction Greenways Road near Sathya Studio Thiruvanmiyur - LB Road junction Valasaravakkam - Arcot Road junction Sub Total Bus lay-byes & Shelters Construction of Bus lay-byes and Bus Shelters (200 Nos.) Bus Stand Improvement ULBs Bus Stand Improvement SVP Bus Stand Improvement VP Sub Total Utility Duct and Storm Water Drains along Major Roads City Roads in Corporation limit (80 km length) NH Urban and IRR (70 km length) Sub Total Peripheral Road Improvements Vadaperumbakkam Chettimedu Nayariu Road and on to Minjur, km 0/0-24/0 (our lane) length 24 km Widening the link road connecting Kaliamman koil street with NH 4 through Nerkundram road to act as a parrallel road to Inner Ring Road behind the Koyambedu whole sale market. Km 0/0-2/4 (four lane) 2.4 km length Sub Total Construction of mini flyovers @ UsmanRoad X Duraisamy road junction

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 102.00 50.00 2.70 0.75 4.90 58.35 110.00 90.00 200.00 150.00 47.00

197.00 20.00

178

CDP Chennai

Sl. No.

Project

@ North UsmanRoad X Kodambaj\kkam High road junction @ G.N.Chetty Road X Thirumalai Road junction Sub Total Concreting of City Roads Cockrane Basin Road Tondiarpet High road Konnur High Road Anna Nagar III Avenue Anna Nagar IV Avenue MGR Salai Ashok Nagar IVth Avenue Ashokpillar Road Anna Main road Velachery Main Road (To a length of about 20 km) Sub Total Multi level car parking Near Panagal Park, T.Nagar Broadway Bus Stand MUC ground Govt. Estate Anna Salai Near Pattulos Road MTC Bus Stand at T.Nagar Sub Total Road/Rail Crossings - ROB/RUB At M.C. Road At Korukkupet (near Railway Station) At Bojaraja Nagar At Kathivakkam High Road At Villivakkam (LC2) At Rangarajapuram Sub Total Improving Bus Route Roads (300 kms.) Sub Total Nesapakkam Road Widening Sub Total Road works including bridges/culverts Ambattur - 933 works - 270.7 km Avadi - 506 works - 475.68 km Kathivakkam - 142 works - 37.77 km Madhavaram - 1288 works - 328.40 km Thiruvottiyur - 689 works - 482 km Alandur - 848 works - 187.19 km Pallavapuram - 1396 works - 374 km Tambaram - 187 works - 178.25 km Anakaputhur - 153 works - 56.57 km Pammal - 626 works - 121.6 km Puzhuthivakkam - 398 works - 120.94 km Madhuravoyal - 321 works - 102.72 km

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 10.00 18.00 48.00

95.00

95.00 25.00 45.00 15.00 30.00 15.00 15.00 145.00 14.00 22.00 5.00 25.00 15.00 15.00 96.00 300.00 300.00 14.00 14.00 151.17 79.24 5.12 66.05 105.20 39.71 83.74 43.87 8.26 15.80 22.92 15.95

179

CDP Chennai

Sl. No.

Project

Poonamallee - 256 works - 105.01 km Thiruverkadu - 150 works - 91 km Valasaravakkam - 115 works - 82.22 km Manali - 90 works - 26.50 km Sub Total Road works Cement concreting - 939 works - 170.52 km Black Topping - 1637 works - 438.45 km Sub Total Surrounding ULBs Roads SVP Roads VP Roads Cement concreting of Pachayat roads- 66 km Black Topping of roads 312 km Sub Total Rapid Transit System MRTS extention from Velachery and Villivakkam (about 25 km) Sub Total Monorail (about 300 km) Sub Total Metropolitan Public Transport (Bus) Condemnation of about 500 to 600 buses per year and its replacement, and augmentation of about 500 to 600 buses per year Construction of 26 new depots Construction of 10 new Bus Stations Renewation of existing depots and bus terminus Depot machinery and equipments for the new depots Computerisation & networking Electronic route boards Electronic ticketing system On-line GPS for vehicle tracking PIS, IVRS system Sub Total Traffic Management Basic Infrastructure Needs Heavy Recovery Vehicle Light Recovery Vehicle Two wheeler Recovery vehicle Jeep Trafic Propaganda Van Traffic Marshal - Motor cycle with extra fittings Interceptor Vehicle Mortuary Van Ambulance Vehicle with emission Machine Automatic Traffic Signal Jn. Montoring System (CCTV with speed dome camera with monitroing facility at control room

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 10.39 11.93 12.54 3.26 675.15 22.69 38.61 61.30 175.12 61.30 145.10 10.00 27.50 419.02 2,250.00 2,250.00 15,000.00 15,000.00 733.00 212.00 30.00 100.00 50.00 5.00 15.00 40.00 35.00 80.00 1,300.00 55.00 135.00 144.00 250.00 72.00 250.00 108.00 40.00 90.00 24.00 200.00 900.00

180

CDP Chennai

Sl. No.

Project

Localized CCTV Plasma Screen TV (50 inches) Vehicle Activated Signal variable Messages Sub Total Red light Enforcement Pelican Signals Electronic Display Board walkie Talkies Mobile PA system PA System Speed Radar gun Power Saw operatd with Petrol Engine Xerox Machine Computer with Printer & U.P.S CD Writer Video Cameara Digtial Camera Emergency Light (Inflated Light) Reflective Iron Barricades Sand Filled Palstic Barricades (1 M) Traffic Flexi Cones Batons (Rechargable) Sub Total Rubberised Spee Breaker (1/2 M) Solar Cats Eye Semi Circular Plastic Drum with handle Flexible Delineators Reflective Jackets Reflective Sign Boards Cautionary Sign Boards Mandatory Sigh Boards Traffic Education Park Offset Printing Machine Mobile Two Wheeller Parking Lot Mobile Back Scatter (fir light vehicle check) Traffic Management Center Thermo Plastic Paint Sub Total Street Lighting Special Village Panchayat Village Panchayat Total

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 250.00 30.00 75.00 90.00 2,713.00 175.00 30.00 200.00 80.00 3.00 5.00 90.00 1.80 8.40 18.00 0.60 8.00 7.20 60.00 200.00 22.50 9.74 9.50 928.74 22.00 20.00 6.80 20.00 9.50 48.00 84.00 200.00 50.00 100.00 100.00 500.00 180.00 1,340.30 3.99 4.24 19,504.08

181

CDP Chennai

ANNEXURE 4 – Breakup of W/S, SS & SWM Investments for CMA

Project

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate)

Water Supply Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Total (For entire CMA, CMWSSB Cost Estimation) Comprehensive Under Ground Sewerage Scheme Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Total (For entire CMA, CMWSSB Cost Estimation) Solid Waste Management Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Slater House Total

6,321.00

2,299.00 808.70 10.20 3.18 5.66 20.07 847.80

ANNEXURE 5 – Drainage & Water Bodies Investments for CMA

Components

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 70.00 40.00 20.00 35.00 70.00 60.00 20.00 15.00 20.00 50.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 20.00

Macro Drainage Straight Cut in south Buckingham Canal Enlarging Buckingham Canal a) North b) Central c) South Cooum river Rehabilitation of banks and laying of souble lan road Retrieval of river Pandugai, river training and developing it as inland waterway Cooum corridor improvement upto Kotattur Anicut Sustainable Opening of Adyar mouth Adyar estuary development and Kotturpuram protection Road linking over left flank of Adyar upto Thiruneermalai bridge and intern to Chembarambakkam tank by enlarging the left bank Sustainable Opening of Muttukadu Mouth Improving to Otteri Nullah and linking it at u/s with Cooum Improvement to virugambakkam Arumbakkam Canal Improvement to surplus course of North Chennai City affecting Tanks and linking with Cooum river

182

CDP Chennai

Components Improvement to surplus course of southern tanks surplus and linking with Adyar river Tambaram to Thiruneermalai tank surplus feeding Pallikaranai and improvement to Pallikaranai swamp and okkiam maduvu Creek Development at Ennore Kosasthalayar river protection at Nappalayam Formation of artificial recharging structures in Adyar, Cooum and Pallikarani basins Formation of road and improvement to K.P.Canal, link canal and feeder canal Comprehensive Anti sea eroding protection to North Chennai Coast Protection and preservation of Chennai city water supply Reservoirs and tanks in and around Chennai Metropolitan area. Sub Total Micro Drainage Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Sub Total Renovation of Ooranis Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Sub Total Culvers Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Sub Total Total

Cost Rs. in Crores (Broad Cost Estimate) 25.00 60.00 10.00 10.00 60.00 50.00 120.00 50.00 865.00 252.00 72.35 38.05 146.81 509.21

9.91 3.37 1.58 14.85 3.65 31.17 34.82 1,423.88

ANNEXURE 6 – Investment Proposed in Urban Basic Services for Poor, Parking Lots, Heritage & Recreation for CMA
Components Cost Rs.in Crores (Rough Cost Estimate) 1,319.96 536.27 2,031.00 3,887.23 15.38 15.38 28.47 28.47

Urban Basic Services for Poor Chennai Municipal Corporation CMA (Except Chennai City) TNHB Proposals for LIG/EWS groups Total Parking Lots / Spaces Special Village Panchayats Sub Total Village Panchayats Sub Total

183

CDP Chennai

Components

Total Heritage and Recreation Renovation/Development of Ripon buildings Renovation/Development of V.P. Hall Building Chennai Municipal Corporation Surrounding ULBs Special Village Panchayats Village Panchayats Total

Cost Rs.in Crores (Rough Cost Estimate) 43.85 18.00 5.00 60.00 8.47 3.24 8.38 103.08

ANNEXURE 7 – Investment Components in SWM for Corporation

Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Solid Waste Management Projects Setting up of Compost Plant of 500MT Capacity at Kodungaiyur Dumping Ground Purchase of 20No's of HMV Vehicle for transportation of Garbage from Modernized Transfer Station at Zone III Purchase of 30No's of HMV for Collection debris and Tree-Cuttings at 10 Zones Purchase of 5 No's of prime movers for dumper places bins Replacements of 500 No's of Tricycles for Door - Step Collection Purchase of 12000 No's of Plastic Bins for Tri-cycles Construction of Maintenance Shed for Buuldozers at KDG & PDG Construction of Office Room, Toilet, Security Room at KDG & PDG Formation of interior roads for movement of vehicles at KDG & PDG Erection of High Mast lighting 2 No's each at KDG & PDG Replacement of 50 No's of HMV for collection of Garbage Replacement of 30 No's of LMV for collection of Garbage Recruitment of Man Power 3000 S.W's for privatized Zones for Sweeping Collection and Transportation Purchase of 80 No's of HMV and 60 No's of LMV for attending Conservancy in Zone VI, VIII & X Privatisation of Conservancy in Arterial roads Providing Conveyer system facility at Transfer Stations for Sorting Garbage

Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year 1st Year

Expenditure(Rs. Crores) 12.00 2.60 3.80 0.40 0.50 0.36 0.72 0.40 0.72 0.40 6.00 3.00 21.60 14.40 4.00 4.00

184

CDP Chennai

Sl. No

Solid Waste Management Projects

Year

Expenditure(Rs. Crores) 74.90

Sub Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Setting up of Compost Plant of 500 MT Capacity at PDG O & M Cost for compost plant at KDG Replacement of 300 No's of Tri-cycles for Door slip collection Purchase of 12000 No's of Plastic Bins for Tri-cycles Purchase of 1000 No's of Roto Molded Wheeled Bins Purchase of 2 No's of Heavy Duty Capacitors for KDG & PDG Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Construction of culverts and Drainage System for Leachet Treatment at KDG & PDG Construction of Modern - Transfer Station at Zone - V Setting up of Plant for Manufacturing Refuse Derived Fuel at KDG Construction of Compound Wall all around at KDG Sub Total

2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year 2nd Year

12.00 6.00 0.30 0.36 0.11 3.00 10.00 2.00 3.00 20.00 2.50 59.27

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Operation & Maintenance cost for compost plant at KDG & PDG Replacement of 300 No's Tricycles for Door Step Collection Purchase of 12000 No's of plastic Bins for Tricycles Purchase of 500 No's of Roto Molded Wheeled Bins Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Purchase of 4 No's Heavy Duty Bull Dozers at KDG & PDG Setting up of Plant for Manufacturing Refuse Derived Fuel at PDG Operation & Maintenance of Refuse Derived Fuel plant at PDG Construction of Compound Wall all around at PDG Sub Total

3rd Year 3rd Year 3rd Year 3rd Year 3rd Year 3rd Year 3rd Year 3rd Year 3rd Year

13.00 0.30 0.36 0.06 11.00 4.00 20.00 3.00 2.50 54.22

1

Operation & Maintenance cost for compost plant at KDG & PDG

4th Year

13.00

185

CDP Chennai

Sl. No 2 3 4 5 6 7

Solid Waste Management Projects Replacement of 300 No's Tricycles for Door Step Collection Purchase of 12000 No's of plastic Bins for Tricycles Purchase of 500 No's of Roto Moulded Wheeled Bins Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Operation & Maintenance of Refuse Derived Fuel plant at KDG & PDG Acquisition of New Landfill Site of 200 acres for future Disposal Sub Total Operation & Maintenance cost for compost plant at KDG & PDG Replacement of 300 No's Tricycles for Door Step Collection Purchase of 15000 No's of plastic Bins for Tricycles Purchase of 750 No's of Roto Molded Wheeled Bins Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Operation & Maintenance of Refuse Derived Fuel plant at KDG & PDG Development of land for Scientific Engineered Landfill Sub Total

Year 4th Year 4th Year 4th Year 4th Year 4th Year 4th Year

Expenditure(Rs. Crores) 0.30 0.36 0.07 11.00 6.00 120.00 150.73

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5th Year 5th Year 5th Year 5th Year 5th Year 5th Year 5th Year

13.00 0.30 0.48 0.08 11.00 6.00 35.00 65.86

1 2 3 4 5 6

Operation & Maintenance cost for compost plant at KDG & PDG Replacement of 300 No's Tricycles for Door Step Collection Purchase of 18000 No's of plastic Bins for Tricycles Purchase of 1000 No's of Roto Molded Wheeled Bins Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Operation & Maintenance of Refuse Derived Fuel plant at KDG & PDG Sub Total Operation & Maintenance cost for compost plant at KDG & PDG Replacement of 300 No's Tricycles for Door Step Collection Purchase of 12000 No's of plastic Bins for Tricycles

6th Year 6th Year 6th Year 6th Year 6th Year 6th Year

13.00 0.30 0.54 0.12 11.00 6.00 30.96

1 2 3

7th Year 7th Year 7th Year

13.00 0.30 0.36

186

CDP Chennai

Sl. No 4 5 6

Solid Waste Management Projects Purchase of 1000 No's of Roto Molded Wheeled Bins Replacement of 50 No's of HMV and 30 No's of LMV Operation & Maintenance of Refuse Derived Fuel plant at KDG & PDG Sub Total

Year 7th Year 7th Year 7th Year

Expenditure(Rs. Crores) 0.12 11.00 6.00 30.78

Year

Primary Collection Storage , Sorting & Transportation to Landfill

Improvements to Landfills PDG KDG

Total

1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year 6th Year 7th Year Total

59.06 55.87 49.22 25.73 26.11 146.46 61.28 423.7

50.15 71.68 100.34 32.22 40.43 25.91 21.79 238.62 42.45 146.35

109.21 127.55 149.56 57.95 66.54 172.37 125.52 808.70

187

CDP Chennai

ANNEXURE 8 – Detailed Project Component wise Investment in Village Panchayats in CMA

188

CDP Chennai

ANNEXURE 9 – Detailed Investments in Sewerage Component for AUA’s & DUA’s

189

CDP Chennai

ANNEXURE 10 – Project Population & Water Supply Demand for AUA’s & DUA’s

190

CDP Chennai

ANNEXURE 11 – Details of Water supply investment proposed for Corporation
Details of Strengthening of Water Distribution System to be taken up Chennai City Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of Water Distribution zone Kilpauk Anna Poonga Southern Head Works K.K. Nagar Triplicane Total Length of pipelines proposed to be laid (in km) (D.I.) (M.S.) 162.65 29.75 24.18 60.33 23.07 299.98

4.30 0.14 0.00 1.03 1.00 6.47

The details of the command area, population and water allocation for the five zones for which works are now proposed to be taken up are detailed below: Command area (sq.km.) 41.37 5.40 7.79 9.48 5.67 Population 1991 886337 314220 134152 249716 221543 Population 2011 1411172 374150 222636 423116 272075 Water allocation (MLD) Phase I 161 49 25 47 36 Phase II 197 52 31 59 38

Water Supply zone Kilpauk Anna Poonga Southern Head Works K.K.Nagar Triplicane

The existing distribution network is analysed and needs strengthening to handle the water requirement of 2021 population. The following are the components of works envisaged in the project costing Rs.338.36 crore: Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Component Improvements to Water Distribution Station in Kilpauk Improvements to Water Distribution Station in Anna Poonga Improvements to Water Distribution Station in Southern Headworks Improvements to Water Distribution Station in K.K. Nagar Strengthening of water distribution system in Kilpauk zone Strengthening of water distribution system in Anna Poonga zone Strengthening of water distribution system in Southern Head Works zone Strengthening of water distribution system in K.K. Nagar zone Strengthening of water distribution system in Triplicane zone Providing valves in all 16 zones towards isolation of zones Leak Detection and Rectification programme in Phase-VI Proposals for extending basic amenities in unserved and unsewered areas to benefit urban poor population Reconstruction of raw water transfer conduits I & III and repairs and rehabilitation of conduit II from Redhills to Kilpauk Water Treatment Plant (each conduit 10 kms) Total Cost (Rs.in Crore) 48.25 12.32 1.92 23.96 84.18 13.03 10.35 23.01 13.20 16.00 34.00 12.04 46.10

338.36

191

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