8atong 8uhay Go|dm|nes Inc vs De |a Serna 312 SCkA 22 (1999

)
IAC1Sť
O 3 lebruary 1987 Ŵ Llsle 8osallnda 8Ŧ 1yţ AnLonla LŦ Mendelebarţ MaŦ Concepclon CŦ
8eyes and 1ţ247 oLhers flled a complalnL agalnsL 8aLong 8uhay Cold Mlnesţ lncŦ forť
1Ŧ nonŴpaymenL of Lhelr baslc pay and allowances for Lhe perlod of 6 !uly 1983 Lo 3
!uly 1984ţ lncluslveţ under Wage Crder noŦ 2
2Ŧ nonŴpaymenL of Lhelr baslc pay and allowances for Lhe perlod 16 !une 1984 Lo 3
CcLober 1986ţ lncluslve under Wage Crder noŦ 3
3Ŧ nonŴpaymenL of Lhelr salarles for Lhe perlod 16 March 1986 Lo Lhe presenL
4Ŧ nonŴpaymenL of Lhelr 13Lh monLh pay for 1983ţ 1986 and 1987
3Ŧ nonŴpaymenL of Lhelr vacaLlon and slck leaveţ and Lhe compensaLory leaves of
mlne slLe employees
6Ŧ nonŴpaymenL of Lhe salarles of employees who were placed on forced leaves
slnce novemberţ 1983 Lo Lhe presenLţ lf Lhls ls noL feaslbleţ Lhe affecLed
employees be awarded correspondlng separaLlon payŦ
O Cn 27 lebruary 1987ţ Lhe complalnanLs flled a MoLlon for Lhe lssuance of an lnspecLlon
auLhorlLyŦ
O Cn 13 !uly 1987ţ Lhe Labor SLandards and Welfare Cfflcers submlLLed Lhelr reporL
recommendlng LhaL an Crder of Compllance be lssued dlrecLlng respondenL 8aLong
8uhay Cold Mlnes lncŦ Lo pay complalnanLsƌ Llsle 8osallna 1yţ et olŦ (Þ4ţ818ţ746Ŧ40) by
way of unpald salarles of workers from March 16ţ 1987 Lo presenLţ unpald and LCCLA
dlfferenLlals under Wage Crder nosŦ 2 and 3 unpald 13Lh monLhs pay for 1983 and
1986ţ and unpald (slc) vacaLlon/slck/compensaLory leave beneflLsŦ And on 31 !uly 1987ţ
Lhe 8eglonal ulrecLor
1
adopLed Lhe recommendaLlon of Lhe LSWCs and lssued an order
dlrecLlng Lhe respondenL Lo pay Lhe complalnanLs of Lhe sald amounL
O Cn 31 !uly 1987ţ Lhe 8eglonal ulrecLor
1
adopLed Lhe recommendaLlon of Lhe LSWCs and
lssued an order dlrecLlng Lhe respondenL Lo pay Lhe complalnanLs
O When Lhe respondenL falled Lo posL a cash/sureLy bondţ and upon moLlon for Lhe
lssuance of a wrlL of execuLlon by Lhe complalnanLsţ Lhe 8eglonal ulrecLorţ on 14
SepLember 1987 lssued a wrlL of execuLlon appolnLlng MrŦ !ohn Lsplrldlon CŦ 8amos as
Speclal Sherlff and dlrecLlng hlm Lo collecL Lhe amounLţ oLherwlse he has Lo execuLe Lhls
wrlL by aLLachlng Lhe goods and chaLLels of 88CMl and noL exempL from execuLlon or ln
case of lnsufflclency Lhereof agalnsL Lhe real or lmmovable properLy of Lhe respondenLŦ
O 1he Speclal Sherlff proceeded Lo execuLe Lhe appealed Crder on 17 SepLember 1987
and selzed Lhree (3) unlLs of ÞeLerbullL Lrucks and Lhen sold Lhe same by publlc aucLlonŦ
varlous maLerlals and moLor vehlcles were also selzed on dlfferenL daLes and sold aL
publlc aucLlon by sald sherlffŦ
O 88CMl appealed Lhe Crder daLed !uly 31ţ 1987 of 8eglonal ulrecLor Luna CŦ Þlezas Lo
respondenL undersecreLary ulonlslo de la Sernaţ conLendlng LhaL Lhe 8eglonal ulrecLor
had no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe caseŦ
ISSULť WheLher 8eglonal ulrecLor has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe complalnL flled by Lhe employees of
88CMlŦ
nLLDť
1he 8eglonal ulrecLor has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe 88CMl employees who are Lhe complalnanLsŦ
1he sub[ecL labor sLandards case of Lhe peLlLlon arose from Lhe vlslLorlal and enforcemenL
powers by Lhe 8eglonal ulrecLor of ueparLmenL of Labor and LmploymenL (uCLL)Ŧ Labor
sLandards refers Lo Lhe mlnlmum requlremenLs prescrlbed by exlsLlng lawsţ rules and
regulaLlons relaLlng Lo wagesţ hours of workţ cosL of llvlng allowance and oLher moneLary and
welfare beneflLsţ lncludlng occupaLlonalţ safeLy and healLh sLandardsŦ
4
Labor sLandards cases
are governed by ArLlcle 128(b) of Lhe Labor CodeŦ
ArLŦ 128 (b) Ilsltotlol ooJ eofotcemeot powets Ÿ
(b) 1he MlnlsLer of Labor or hls duly auLhorlzed represenLaLlve shall have Lhe
power Lo order and admlnlsLerţ afLer due noLlce and hearlngţ compllance wlLh
Lhe labor sLandards provlslons of Lhls Code based on Lhe flndlngs of labor
regulaLlon offlcers or lndusLrlal safeLy englneers made ln Lhe course of
lnspecLlonţ and Lo lssue wrlLs of execuLlon Lo Lhe approprlaLe auLhorlLy for Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhelr orderţ excepL ln cases where Lhe employer conLesLs Lhe
flndlngs of Lhe labor regulaLlons offlcers and ralses lssues whlch cannoL be
resolved wlLhouL conslderlng evldenLlary maLLers LhaL are noL verlflable ln Lhe
ordlnary course of lnspecLlonŦ
8espondenL undersecreLary ulonlslo CŦ uela Sernaţ on Lhe oLher handţ upheld Lhe [urlsdlcLlon
of 8eglonal ulrecLor Luna CŦ Þlezas by relylng on LŦCŦ 111ţ Lo quoLeť
Conslderlng Lherefore LhaL Lhere sLlll exlsLs an employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp beLween
Lhe parLlesŤ LhaL Lhe case lnvolves vlolaLlons of Lhe labor sLandard provlslons of Lhe
labor codeŤ LhaL Lhe lssues Lhereln could be resolved wlLhouL conslderlng evldenLlary
maLLers LhaL are noL verlflable ln Lhe normal course of lnspecLlonŤ andţ lf only Lo glve
meanlng and noL render nugaLory and meanlngless Lhe vlslLorlal and enforcemenL
powers of Lhe SecreLary of Labor and LmploymenL as provlded by ArLlcle 128(b) of Lhe
Labor Codeţ as amended by SecLlon 2 of LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 111 whlch sLaLesť
1he provlslons of arLlcle 217 of Lhls code Lo Lhe conLrary noLwlLhsLandlng and ln
cases where Lhe relaLlonshlp of employerŴemployee sLlll exlsLsţ Lhe MlnlsLer of
Labor and LmploymenL or hls duly auLhorlzed represenLaLlve shall have Lhe
power Lo order and admlnlsLerţ afLer due noLlce and hearlngţ compllance wlLh
Lhe labor sLandards provlslon of Lhls Code based on Lhe flndlngs of Lhe flndlngs
of labor regulaLlon offlcers or lndusLrlal safeLy englneers made ln Lhe course of
lnspecLlonţ and Lo lssue wrlLs of execuLlon Lo Lhe approprlaLe auLhorlLy for Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhelr orderţ excepL ln cases where Lhe employer conLesLs Lhe
flndlngs of Lhe labor regulaLlons offlcers and ralses lssues whlch cannoL be
resolved wlLhouL conslderlng evldenLlary maLLers LhaL are noL verlflable ln Lhe
ordlnary course of lnspecLlonŦ
We agree wlLh Lhe complalnanLs LhaL Lhe reglonal offlce o poo has [urlsdlcLlon Lo hear and
declde Lhe lnsLanL labor sLandard caseŦ
1he CourL ln relnforclng lLs concluslon LhaL 8eglonal ulrecLor has [urlsdlcLlon over labor
sLandards casesţ LreaLed LŦCŦ 111 as a curaLlve sLaLuLeţ rullng as followsť
LŦCŦ noŦ 111 was lssued on uecember 24ţ 1986 or Lhree (3) monLhs afLer Lhe promulgaLlon of
Lhe SecreLary of Laborƌs declslon upholdlng prlvaLe respondenLsƌ salary dlfferenLlals and LCCLAs
on SepLember 24ţ 1986Ŧ 1he amendmenL of Lhe vlslLorlal and enforcemenL powers of Lhe
8eglonal ulrecLor (ArLlcle 128(b)) by sald LŦCŦ 111 reflecLs Lhe lnLenLlon enunclaLed ln Þollcy
lnsLrucLlons nosŦ 6 and 37 Lo empower Lhe 8eglonal ulrecLors Lo resolve unconLesLed money
clalms ln cases where an employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp sLlll exlsLsŦ 1hls lnLenLlon musL be
glven welghL and enLlLled Lo greaL respecL
8epubllc AcL 7730ţ Lhe law governlng Lhe vlslLorlal and enforcemenL powers of Lhe Labor
SecreLary and hls represenLaLlves readsť
ArLŦ 128 (b) noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslons of ArLlcles 129 and 217 of Lhls Code Lo Lhe
conLraryţ and ln cases where Lhe relaLlonshlp of employerŴemployee sLlll exlsLsţ Lhe
SecreLary of Labor and LmploymenL or hls duly auLhorlzed represenLaLlves shall have
Lhe power Lo lssue compllance orders Lo glve effecL Lo Lhe labor sLandards provlslons of
Lhls Code and oLher labor leglslaLlon based on Lhe flndlngs of labor employmenL and
enforcemenL offlcers or lndusLrlal safeLy englneers made ln Lhe course of lnspecLlonŦ
1he SecreLary or hls duly auLhorlzed represenLaLlve shall lssue wrlLs of execuLlon Lo Lhe
approprlaLe auLhorlLy for Lhe enforcemenL of Lhelr ordersţ excepL ln cases where Lhe
employer conLesLs Lhe flndlngs of Lhe labor employmenL and enforcemenL offlcer and
ralses lssues supporLed by documenLary proofs whlch were noL consldered ln Lhe course
of lnspecLlonŦ
1he presenL lawţ 8A 7730ţ can be consldered a curaLlve sLaLuLe Lo relnforce Lhe concluslon LhaL
Lhe 8eglonal ulrecLor has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe presenL labor sLandards caseŦ WellŴseLLled ls Lhe
rule LhaL [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe sub[ecL maLLer ls deLermlned by Lhe law ln force when Lhe acLlon
was commencedţ unless a subsequenL sLaLuLe provldes for lLs reLroacLlve appllcaLlonţ as when
lL ls a curaLlve leglslaLlonŦ

9LÑAkANDA vsŦ 8AGANGA 9L¥WCCD

IAC1Sť
Þenaranda alleges LhaL he was employed by respondenL as loreman/8oller Pead/ShlfL
LnglneerŤ LhaL he was lllegally dlsmlssedŤ Andţ hls overLlme payţ premlum pay for
worklng durlng holldays/resL daysţ nlghL shlfL dlfferenLlals were noL paldŦ
8espondenL allege LhaL complalnanL's separaLlon from servlce was done pursuanL Lo
ArLŦ 283 of Lhe Labor CodeŦ
8espondenL 8ÞC was on Lemporary closure due Lo repalr and had Lo dlsmlss employeesŦ
Þenaranda also goL hls separaLlon beneflLsŦ
ConsequenLlyţ when respondenL parLlally reopened ln !anuary 2001ţ Þenaranda falled
Lo reapplyŦ Penceţ he was noL LermlnaLed from employmenL lllegallyŦ
1he labor arblLer found LhaL peLlLloner ls enLlLled Lo overLlme payţ premlum pay for
worklng on resL days

ISSULť WCn Þenaranda ls enLlLled Lo overLlme pay and premlum pay for worklng on resL days?

kULINGť Managerlal employees and members of Lhe managerlal sLaff are exempLed from Lhe
provlslons of Lhe Labor Code on labor sLandardsŦ

Slnce peLlLloner belongs Lo managerlal sLaffţ he ls noL enLlLled Lo overLlme pay and premlum
pay for worklng on resL daysŦ

Þenaranda duLles and responslblllLles conform Lo Lhe deflnlLlon of a member of a managerlal
sLaff under Lhe lmplemenLlng 8ulesŦ

ÞeLlLloner supervlsed Lhe englneerlng secLlon of Lhe sLeam planL bollerŦ Pls work lnvolved
overseelng Lhe operaLlon of Lhe machlnes and Lhe performance of Lhe workers ln Lhe
englneerlng secLlonŦ

1hls work necessarlly requlred Lhe use of dlscreLlon and lndependenL [udgmenL Lo ensure Lhe
proper funcLlonlng of Lhe sLeam planL bollerŦ

As supervlsorţ peLlLloner ls deemed a member of Lhe managerlal sLaffŦ

noLeworLhyţ even peLlLloner admlLLed LhaL he was a supervlsorŦ ln hls ÞoslLlon Þaperţ he sLaLed
LhaL he was Lhe foreman responslble for Lhe operaLlon of Lhe bollerŦ

1he Lerm foreman lmplles LhaL he was Lhe represenLaLlve of managemenL over Lhe workers and
Lhe operaLlon of Lhe deparLmenLŦ

ÞeLlLloner's evldence also showed LhaL he was Lhe supervlsor of Lhe sLeam planLŦ

Pls classlflcaLlon as supervlsor ls furLher evldenL from Lhe manner hls salary was paldŦ Pe
belonged Lo Lhe 10Ʒ of respondenL's 334 employees who were pald on a monLhly baslsŤ Lhe
oLhers were pald only on a dally baslsŦ

Cn Lhe basls of Lhe foregolngţ Lhe CourL flnds no [usLlflcaLlon Lo award overLlme pay and
premlum pay for resL days Lo peLlLlonerŦ






































CMS LS1A1L INC VS SSS 132 SCkA 106 (1984)

ttŦ ll 5ec 18 (1987 coostltotloo)ť 1be 5tote offltms lobot os o ptlmoty soclol ecooomlc fotceŦ lt
sboll ptotect tbe tlqbts of wotkets ooJ ptomote tbelt welfote
ttŦ \lll 5ec 1ť 1be cooqtess sboll qlve blqbest ptlotlty to tbe eooctmeot of meosotes tbot
ptotect ooJ eobooce tbe tlqbt of oll tbe people to bomoo Jlqoltyţ teJoce soclolţ ecooomlc ooJ
polltlcol loepoolltlesţ ooJ temove coltotol loepoolltles by epoltobly Jlffosloq weoltb ooJ polltlcol
powet fot tbe commoo qooJŦ
1o tbls eoJţ tbe 5tote sboll teqolote tbe ocpolsltlooţ owoetsblpţ ose ooJ Jlsposltloo of ptopetty
ooJ lts loctemeotsŦ

IAC1Sť ÞeLlLloner CMS LsLaLe lnc ls a domesLlc corporaLlon engaged ln Lhe real esLaLe buslnessŦ
ln uecember 1932ţ lL began wlLh only 6 employeesŦ ln 1936ţ lL also engaged ln Lhe logglng
buslness and obLalned an ordlnary llcense from Lhe 8ureau of loresLry Lo operaLe foresL
concesslon (13ţ000 hecLares) ln 8agangaţ uavaoŦ

ln !anuary 1937ţ CMS LsLaLe enLered lnLo a conLracL of managemenL wlLh Lufraclo 8o[as for Lhe
operaLlon of Lhe logglng concesslon whlch began ln Aprll 1937 wlLh four employees earnlng
monLhly salarlesŦ 8y SepLember 1937ţ CMS LsLaLe had 89 employees ln Lhe logglng operaLlonŦ
8uL on uecember 1937ţ CMS LsLaLe revoked lLs conLracL wlLh 8o[asŦ

8y AugusL 1938ţ CMS Lstate became a member of SSS w|th respect to |ts rea| estate buslness
and remlLLed Lo Lhe SSS Þ203Ŧ13 represenLlng Lhe lnlLlal premlum of Lhe salarles of Lhe
employees ln Lhe logglng buslnessŦ 8ut on Cctober 19S8ţ pet|t|oner demanded the refund of
the amountţ a||eg|ng that |t |s not yet sub[ect to compu|sory coverage |n |ts |ogg|ng bus|nessŦ
kespondent SSS den|ed the pet|t|on on the ground that the |ogg|ng bus|ness |s on|y an
expans|on of the company's ex|st|ng act|v|t|es and that |t shou|d be cons|dered a member
s|nce December 19S2 when |t opened |ts bus|nessŦ

CMS LsLaLe conLends LhaL Lhe SSS conLrlbuLlons requlred of employees and employers under
Lhe SSS AcL of 1934 are noL ln Lhe naLure of exclse Laxes and Lhereforeţ noL compulsory of
employersŦ

ISSULť W/n ÞeLlLloner's logglng buslness ls sub[ecL Lo compulsory coverage ln Lhe SSS

nLLDť 1he Soclal SecurlLy Law was enacLed pursuanL Lo Lhe pollcy Lo ºdevelopţ esLabllsh
gradually and perfecL a soclal securlLy sysLem whlch shall be sulLable Lo Lhe needs of Lhe people
LhroughouL Lhe Þhlllpplnes and provlde proLecLlon agalnsL Lhe hazards of dlsablllLyţ slcknessţ
old age and deaLhŦ" lL ls clear Lhen LhaL Lhe |mp|ementat|on of the SSS Law |s |n ||ne w|th the
genera| we|fare mandate of the Const|tut|on and as suchţ |s a |eg|t|mate exerc|se of the po||ce
powerŦ As held ln Þhlllpplne 8loomlng Mllls CoŦ vsŦ SSSť membershlp ln Lhe SSS ls noL a
bllaLeralţ consensual agreemenL where obllgaLlons and rlghLs of Lhe parLles are sub[ecL Lo Lhelr
wlllŦ 8A 1161 requlres compulsory coverage of employees and employers under Lhe sysLemŦ As
suchţ Lhe prlnclple of nonŴlmpalrmenL of obllgaLlon of conLracL cannoL be ralsed as a defenseŦ
Mar|ve|es Sh|pyard CorpŦ v CA 41S SCkA S73 (2003)
IAC1Sť
O Cn CcLober 1993ţ peLlLloner Marlveles Shlpyard CorporaLlon engaged Lhe servlces of
LongesL lorce lnvesLlgaLlon and SecurlLy Agencyţ lncŦ (herelnafLerţ ºLongesL lorce") Lo
render securlLy servlces aL lLs premlsesŦ LongesL lorce deployed lLs securlLy guardsţ Lhe
prlvaLe respondenLs herelnţ aL Lhe peLlLloner's shlpyard ln Marlvelesţ 8aLaanŦ
O Marlveles Shlpyard Corp complled wlLh Lhe Lerms of Lhe securlLy conLracL wlLh LongesL
lorceţ prompLly paylng lLs bllls and Lhe conLracL raLes of Lhe laLLerŦ Poweverţ lL found
Lhe servlces belng rendered by Lhe asslgned guards unsaLlsfacLory and lnadequaLeţ
causlng lL Lo LermlnaLe lLs conLracL wlLh LongesL lorce on Aprll 1993Ŧ LongesL lorceţ ln
Lurnţ LermlnaLed Lhe employmenL of Lhe securlLy guards lL had deployed aL peLlLloner's
shlpyardŦ
O Cn SepLember 2ţ 1996ţ prlvaLe respondenLs flled a case for lllegal dlsmlssalţ
underpaymenL of wages pursuanL Lo Lhe ÞnÞSCSlAŴÞAuÞAC raLesţ nonŴpaymenL of
overLlme payţ premlum pay for hollday and resL dayţ servlce lncenLlve leave payţ 13
Lh

monLh pay and aLLorney's feesţ agalnsL boLh LongesL lorce and peLlLlonerţ before Lhe
Labor ArblLerţ Lhe case soughL Lhe guards' relnsLaLemenL wlLh full backwages and
wlLhouL loss of senlorlLy rlghLsŦ
O LongesL lorce flled a crossŴclalm agalnsL Lhe peLlLlonerŦ LongesL lorce admlLLed LhaL lL
employed prlvaLe respondenLs and asslgned Lhem as securlLy guards aL Lhe premlses of
peLlLloner from CcLober 16ţ 1993 Lo Aprll 30ţ 1993ţ renderlng a 12 hours duLy per shlfL
for Lhe sald perlodŦ lL llkewlse admlLLed lLs llablllLy as Lo Lhe nonŴpaymenL of Lhe alleged
wage dlfferenLlal ln Lhe LoLal amounL of Þ2ţ618ţ023 buL passed on Lhe llablllLy Lo
peLlLloner alleglng LhaL Lhe servlce fee pald by Lhe laLLer Lo lL was way below Lhe
ÞnÞSCSlA and ÞAuÞAC raLeţ Lhusţ ºconLrary Lo Lhe mandaLory and prohlblLlve laws
because Lhe rlghL Lo proper compensaLlon and beneflLs provlded under Lhe exlsLlng
labor laws cannoL be walved nor compromlsedŦ"
O 1he peLlLloner denled any llablllLy on accounL of Lhe alleged lllegal dlsmlssalţ sLresslng
LhaL no employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp exlsLed beLween lL and Lhe securlLy guardsŦ lL
furLher polnLed ouL LhaL lL would be Lhe helghL of ln[usLlce Lo make lL llable agaln for
moneLary clalms whlch lL had already paldŦ LongesL lorce flled a crossŴclalm agalnsL Lhe
peLlLlonerŦ
O Labor ArblLer declded LhaL Lhe respondenLs LongesL lorce lnvesLlgaLlon Ǝ SecurlLy
Agencyţ lncŦ and Marlveles Shlpyard CorporaLlon [olnLly and severally llable Lo pay Lhe
money clalms of complalnanLs represenLlng underpaymenL of wages and overLlme pay
ln Lhe LoLal amounLŦ
ISSULť WheLher or noL Marlveles Shlpyard Corp and LongesL lorce lnvesLlgaLlon Ǝ SecurlLy
Agencyţ lncŦ ls [olnLly and severally llable Lo pay money clalms of Lhe prlvaLe respondenLsŦ
nLLDť
ÞeLlLloner's llablllLy ls [olnL and several wlLh LhaL of LongesL lorceţ pursuanL Lo ArLlcles 106ţ 107
and 109 of Lhe Labor Code whlch provlde as followsť
4k1Ŧ 10õŦ cON1k4c1Ok Ok 5u8cON1k4c1Ok Ŷ Whenever an employer enLers lnLo a conLracL
wlLh anoLher person for Lhe performance of Lhe former's workţ Lhe employees of Lhe
conLracLor and of Lhe laLLer's subconLracLorţ lf anyţ shall be pald ln accordance wlLh Lhe
provlslons of Lhls CodeŦ
ln Lhe evenL LhaL Lhe conLracLor or subconLracLor falls Lo pay Lhe wages of hls employees ln
accordance wlLh Lhls Codeţ Lhe employer shall be [olnLly and severally llable wlLh hls conLracLor
or subconLracLor Lo such employees Lo Lhe exLenL of Lhe work performed under Lhe conLracLţ ln
Lhe same manner and exLenL LhaL he ls llable Lo employees dlrecLly employed by hlmŦ
4k1Ŧ 107Ŧ lNulk£c1 £MPLOY£kŦ Ŷ 1he provlslons of Lhe lmmedlaLely precedlng ArLlcle shall
llkewlse apply Lo any personţ parLnershlpţ assoclaLlon or corporaLlon whlchţ noL belng an
employerţ conLracLs wlLh an lndependenL conLracLor for Lhe performance of any workţ Laskţ [ob
or pro[ecLŦ
4k1Ŧ 109Ŧ 5OLlu4kY Ll48lLl1YŦ Ŷ 1he provlslons of exlsLlng laws Lo Lhe conLrary
noLwlLhsLandlngţ every employer or lndlrecL employer shall be held responslble wlLh hls
conLracLor or subconLracLor for any vlolaLlon of any provlslon of Lhls CodeŦ lor purposes of
deLermlnlng Lhe exLenL of Lhelr clvll llablllLy under Lhls ChapLerţ Lhey shall be consldered as
dlrecL employersŦ
ln Lhls caseţ when peLlLloner conLracLed for securlLy servlces wlLh LongesL lorce as Lhe securlLy
agency LhaL hlred prlvaLe respondenLs Lo work as guards for Lhe shlpyard corporaLlonţ
peLlLloner became an lndlrecL employer of prlvaLe respondenLs pursuanL Lo ArLlcle 107
aboveclLedŦ lollowlng ArLlcle 106ţ when Lhe agency as conLracLor falled Lo pay Lhe guardsţ Lhe
corporaLlon as prlnclpal becomes [olnLly and severally llable for Lhe guards' wagesŦ 1hls ls
mandaLed by Lhe Labor Code Lo ensure compllance wlLh lLs provlslonsţ lncludlng paymenL of
sLaLuLory mlnlmum wageŦ 1he securlLy agency ls held llable by vlrLue of lLs sLaLus as dlrecL
employerţ whlle Lhe corporaLlon ls deemed Lhe lndlrecL employer of Lhe guards for Lhe purpose
of paylng Lhelr wages ln Lhe evenL of fallure of Lhe agency Lo pay LhemŦ 1hls sLaLuLory scheme
glves Lhe workers Lhe ample proLecLlon consonanL wlLh labor and soclal [usLlce provlslons of Lhe
1987 ConsLlLuLlonŦ
ÞeLlLloner cannoL evade lLs llablllLy by clalmlng LhaL lL had rellglously pald Lhe compensaLlon of
guards as sLlpulaLed under Lhe conLracL wlLh Lhe securlLy agencyŦ Labor sLandards are enacLed
by Lhe leglslaLure Lo allevlaLe Lhe pllghL of workers whose wages barely meeL Lhe splrallng cosLs
of Lhelr baslc needsŦ Labor laws are consldered wrlLLen ln every conLracLŦ SLlpulaLlons ln
vlolaLlon Lhereof are consldered nullŦ Slmllarlyţ leglslaLed wage lncreases are deemed
amendmenLs Lo Lhe conLracLŦ 1husţ employers cannoL hlde behlnd Lhelr conLracLs ln order Lo
evade Lhelr (or Lhelr conLracLors' or subconLracLors') llablllLy for noncompllance wlLh Lhe
sLaLuLory mlnlmum wageŦ


ASA9IAN NG MALA¥ANG MANGGAGAWA SA CCCAŴCCLA vsŦ CA and CCCAŴCCLA 8C11LLkS' 9nILSŦţ

IAC1Sť

!une 1998ţ Lhe ConLracL 8argalnlng AgreemenL for Lhe years 1993Ŵ1998 execuLed beLween
peLlLloner unlon and prlvaLe respondenL company explredŦ
ÞeLlLloner Lhen submlLLed lLs demands Lo Lhe company for anoLher round of collecLlve
bargalnlng negoLlaLlonsŦ
AfLer havlng some labor dlspuLesţ on 26 uecember 1998ţ boLh parLles execuLed and slgned a
MCA provldlng for salary lncreases and oLher economlc and nonŴeconomlc beneflLsŦ
lL llkewlse conLalned a provlslon for Lhe regularlzaLlon of conLracLualţ casual and/or agency
workers who have been worklng wlLh prlvaLe respondenL for more Lhan one yearŦ
ÞursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe MCAţ boLh parLles ldenLlfled 64 vacanL regular poslLlons LhaL
may be occupled by Lhe exlsLlng casualţ conLracLual or agency employees who have been ln Lhe
company for more Lhan one yearŦ
1henţ 61 employees passed Lhe screenlng and exLended regular employmenL sLaLusŦ
ConsequenLlyţ peLlLloners demanded Lhe paymenL of salary and oLher beneflLs Lo Lhe newly
regularlzed employees reLroacLlve Lo 1 uecember 1998ţ ln accord wlLh Lhe MCAŦ
Poweverţ Lhe prlvaLe respondenL refused Lo yleld Lhe sald demands conLendlng LhaL Lhe daLe of
effecLlvlLy of Lhe regularlzaLlon of sald employees were 1 May 1999 and 1 CcLober 1999Ŧ
1husţ peLlLloner flled a complalnL before Lhe nL8C for Lhe alleged vlolaLlons of Lhe sub[ecL MCA
by Lhe prlvaLe respondenLŦ
Cn 9 uecember 1999ţ prlvaLe respondenL closed lLs Manlla and AnLlpolo planLsŦ
nL8C dlsmlssed Lhe complalnLŦ lL sLaLed LhaLť under MCAţ Lhe 61 regularlzed employees are noL
enLlLled Lo Lhelr clalms only Lhe employees who were regular ln !uly 1998 and conLlnued belng
such upon Lhe slgnlng of Lhe MCA on uecember 26ţ 1998 deserve reLroacLlve paymenLŦ Slnce
Lhe 61 regularlzed employees were regularlzed only on May 1ţ 1999 and CcLober 1ţ 1999ţ Lhey
have no rlghL Lo clalm enLlLlemenL Lo Lhe MCA beneflLsŦ

ISSULť
WCn CC8Þ vlolaLed Lhe Lerms and condlLlons conLalned ln Lhe MCA daLed 26 uecember 1998 when lL
dld noL recognlze Lhe regularlzaLlon of Lhe 61 employees as effecLlve on 1 uecember 1998?

kULINGť
ÞrlvaLe respondenL vlolaLed Lhe provlslon of Lhe MCA when lL dld noL conslder Lhe regularlzaLlon of Lhe
61 employees effecLlve 1 uecember 1998ţ and accorded Lo Lhem Lhe full beneflLs of Lhe MCAŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe perLlnenL provlslon of Lhe MCAť
1Ŧ nonŴregular employee (casualţ conLracLual or agency worker) who has already served Lhe company
and ls presenLly occupylng or has occupled Lhe poslLlon Lo be fllledŴup for aL leasL one (1) year shall be
glven prlorlLy ln fllllngŴup Lhe poslLlon by converLlng hls nonŴregular employmenL sLaLus Lo regular
employmenL sLaLusţ effecLlve 01 uecember 1998 wlLhouL need of undergolng Lhrough Lhe company's
regular recrulLmenL procedures such as lnLervlew and quallfylng examlnaLlonŦ

lL ls erroneous for Lhe nL8C Lo conclude LhaL Lhe regularlzaLlon of Lhe 61 employees does noL reLroacL Lo
uecember 1ţ 1998Ŧ

We hold LhaL Lhe effecLlvlLy daLe of Lhe regularlzaLlon of Lhe 61 employees was on uecember 1ţ 1998Ŧ

As sLaLed ln Lhe MCAţ only Lhose who have worked wlLh Lhe company for one year as of 1 uecember
1998 and are sLlll worklng for Lhe company as of Lhe slgnlng of Lhe MCAţ wlll be consldered for
regularlzaLlonŦ

LvldenLlyţ lL ls erroneous for Lhe nL8C Lo conclude LhaL exLendlng Lo Lhem Lhe beneflLs of Lhe MCA
would vlolaLe Lhe prlnclple of ƍnoŴworkŴnoŴpayƍ as Lhey are acLually renderlng servlce Lo Lhe company
even before uecember 1ţ 1998ţ and conLlnued Lo do soŦ 1hey were accorded Lhe sLaLus of regular
employees because Lhey were renderlng servlce Lo Lhe company for Lhe requlred perlodŦ

Penceţ even wlLhouL Lhe sub[ecL MCA provlslonţ Lhe 61 employees musL be exLended regular
employmenL sLaLus afLer Lhe lapse of one yearŦ All Lhose who have been wlLh Lhe company for one year
by sald daLe musL auLomaLlcally be consldered regular employees by operaLlon of lawŦ



































DCLL 9nILI99INLS VS 9AWISANG MAA8A¥ANG C8kLkC 39S SCkA 112 (2003)
ook llveţ kole lţ 5ecŦ 1(jj)ť collectlve botqololoq oqteemeot tefets to tbe oeqotloteJ coottoct
betweeo o leqltlmote lobot otqoolzotloo ooJ tbe employet coocetoloq woqesţ boots of wotkţ
ooJ oll otbet tetms ooJ cooJltloos of employmeot lo o botqololoq ooltţ locloJloq mooJototy
ptovlsloos fot qtlevooces ooJ otblttotloo mocbloetlesŦ

IAC1Sť Cn lebruary 22ţ 1996ţ a new flveŴyear collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenL (C8A) was
execuLed by peLlLloner uole Þhlllpplnes and Þawls ng Makabayang Cbrero (ÞAMAC)ţ coverlng
lebruary 1996 Lo lebruary 2001Ŧ Cne of Lhe provlslons ln Lhe new C8A readsť (SecLlon 3 of ArLŦ
xvlll) Do|e agrees to grant a mea| a||owance of 9hp 10Ŧ00 to a|| emp|oyees who render at
|east 2 hours or more of actua| overt|me work on a workdayţ and free mea|sţ as present|y
pract|ceţ not exceed|ng 9hp 2SŦ00 after 3 hours of actua| overt|me workŦ

ÞursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe C8Aţ some deparLmenLs reverLed Lo Lhe prevlous pracLlce of
granLlng free meals afLer exacLly 3 hours C1 buL oLher deparLmenLs granLed free meals only
after more than 3 hours C1Ŧ ÞAMAC Lhen flled a complalnL alleglng uole's nonŴcompllance Lo
Lhe C8AŦ

ISSULť PCW MAn? PCu8S Cl CvL81lML WC8k MuS1 A uCLL LMÞLC?LL 8LnuL8 1C 8L
Ln1l1LLu 1C 1PL l8LL MLAL unuL8 SLCŦ 3 Cl A81Ŧ xvlll Cl 1PL 1996Ŵ2001 C8A?

nLLDť lL ls clear from Lhe lnLenL of Lhe provlslonţ based on Lhe facL LhaL Lhe same provlslon
appeared ln earller C8As LhaL a Do|e emp|oyee |s ent|t|ed to a free mea| after render|ng
exact|y or no |ess thanţ 3 hours of C1 and not more than 3 hours of C1Ŧ

1he peLlLloner also cannoL lnvoke Lhe prlnclple of managemenL prerogaLlveţ LhaL Lhe employer
has Lhe power Lo granL beneflLs over and beyond Lhe mlnlmum sLandards of law or Lhe Labor
CodeŦ 1he exerclse of Lhls prlnclple ls noL unllmlLedŦ It |s sub[ect to the ||m|tat|ons found |n
|awţ a co||ect|ve barga|n|ng agreement or the genera| pr|nc|p|es of fa|r p|ay and [ust|ceŦ 1nL
C8A IS 1nL NCkM CI CCNDUC1 8L1WLLN 1nL 9L1I1ICNLk AND 9kIVA1L kLS9CNDLN1 AND
CCM9LIANCL 1nLkLWI1n IS MANDA1LD 8¥ Lk9kLSS 9CLIC¥ CI 1nL LAWŦ













Arco Meta| 9roducts CoŦ vs Samahan SS4 SCkA 111 (2008)
IAC1Sť
O uecember 2003ţ peLlLloner pald Lhe 13
Lh
monLh payţ bonusţ and leave encashmenL of
Lhree unlon members ln amounLs proporLlonal Lo Lhe servlce Lhey acLually rendered ln
a yearţ whlch ls less Lhan a full Lwelve (12) monLhsŦ
O 8espondenL proLesLed Lhe proraLed schemeţ clalmlng LhaL on several occaslons
peLlLloner dld noL proraLe Lhe paymenL of Lhe same beneflLs Lo seven (7) employees
who had noL served for Lhe full 12 monLhsŦ 1he paymenLs were made ln 1992ţ 1993ţ
1994ţ 1996ţ 1999ţ 2003ţ and 2004Ŧ Accordlng Lo respondenLţ Lhe proraLed paymenL
vlolaLes Lhe rule agalnsL dlmlnuLlon of beneflLs under ArLlcle 100 of Lhe Labor CodeŦ
1husţ Lhey flled a complalnL before Lhe naLlonal ConclllaLlon and MedlaLlon 8oard
(nCM8)Ŧ
O ÞeLlLloner clalms LhaL lLs full paymenL of beneflLs regardless of Lhe lengLh of servlce Lo
Lhe company does noL consLlLuLe volunLary employer pracLlceŦ lL polnLs ouL LhaL Lhe
paymenLs had been erroneously made and Lhey occurred ln lsolaLed cases ln Lhe years
1992ţ 1993ţ 1994ţ 1999ţ 2002 and 2003Ŧ Accordlng Lo peLlLlonerţ lL was only ln 2003
LhaL Lhe accounLlng deparLmenL dlscovered Lhe error ºwhen Lhere were already Lhree
(3) employees lnvolved wlLh prolonged absences and Lhe error was correcLed by
lmplemenLlng Lhe proŴraLa paymenL of beneflLs pursuanL Lo law and Lhelr exlsLlng C8AŦ"
lL adds LhaL Lhe seven earller cases of full paymenL of beneflLs wenL unnoLlced
conslderlng Lhe proporLlon of one employee concerned (per year) vls ò vls Lhe 170
employees of Lhe companyŦ ÞeLlLloner descrlbes Lhe slLuaLlon as a ºclear overslghL"
whlch should noL be Laken agalnsL lLŦ
O 1he appellaLe courL found LhaL peLlLlonerţ howeverţ had an exlsLlng volunLary pracLlce of
paylng Lhe aforesald beneflLs ln full Lo lLs employeesţ Lhereby re[ecLlng Lhe clalm LhaL
peLlLloner erred ln paylng full beneflLs Lo lLs seven employeesŦ 1he appellaLe courL
noLed LhaL aslde from Lhe affldavlL of peLlLloner's offlcerţ lL has noL presenLed any
evldence ln supporL of lLs poslLlon LhaL lL has no volunLary pracLlce of granLlng Lhe
conLesLed beneflLs ln full and wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe servlce acLually rendered wlLhln Lhe
yearŦ lL also quesLloned why lL Look peLlLloner eleven (11) years before lL was able Lo
dlscover Lhe alleged errorŦ
ISSULť WheLher or noL Lhe full paymenL of beneflLs regardless of Lhe lengLh of servlce Lo Lhe
company does consLlLuLe volunLary employer pracLlceŦ

nLLDť It was he|d that the fu|| payment of benef|ts regard|ess of the |ength of serv|ce to
the company const|tuted vo|untary emp|oyer pract|ceŦ
Any beneflL and supplemenL belng en[oyed by employees cannoL be reducedţ dlmlnlshedţ
dlsconLlnued or ellmlnaLed by Lhe employerŦ 1he prlnclple of nonŴdlmlnuLlon of beneflLs ls
founded on Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal mandaLe Lo ƍproLecL Lhe rlghLs of workers and promoLe Lhelr
welfareţ" and ºLo afford labor full proLecLlonŦ" Sald mandaLe ln Lurn ls Lhe basls of ArLlcle 4
of Lhe Labor Code whlch sLaLes LhaL ºall doubLs ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon and lnLerpreLaLlon of
Lhls Codeţ lncludlng lLs lmplemenLlng rules and regulaLlons shall be rendered ln favor of
laborŦ"
ln Lhe years 1992ţ 1993ţ 1994ţ 1999ţ 2002 and 2003ţ peLlLloner had adopLed a pollcy of
freelyţ volunLarlly and conslsLenLly granLlng full beneflLs Lo lLs employees regardless of Lhe
lengLh of servlce renderedŦ 1rueţ Lhere were only a LoLal of seven employees who beneflLed
from such a pracLlceţ buL lL was an esLabllshed pracLlce noneLhelessŦ !urlsprudence has noL
lald down any rule speclfylng a mlnlmum number of years wlLhln whlch a company pracLlce
musL be exerclsed ln order Lo consLlLuLe volunLary company pracLlceŦ 1husţ lL can be slx (6)
yearsţ Lhree (3) yearsţ or even as shorL as Lwo (2) yearsŦ ÞeLlLloner cannoL shlrk away from
lLs responslblllLy by merely clalmlng LhaL lL was a mlsLake or an errorţ supporLed only by an
affldavlL of lLs manufacLurlng groupŦ
lf peLlLloner wanLs Lo prove LhaL lL merely erred ln glvlng full beneflLsţ lL could have easlly
presenLed oLher proofsţ such as Lhe names of oLher employees who dld noL fully serve for
one year and Lhus were glven proraLed beneflLsŦ 1hls could have easlly bolsLered
peLlLloner's Lheory of mlsLake/errorţ buL sadlyţ no evldence Lo LhaL effecL was presenLedŦ
























Mc|eod vŦ NLkC

IAC1Sť
Mcleod was Lhe acLlng vlceŴpresldenL and general manager of Þeggy Mllls lncŦ (ÞMl)
from !un 1980Ŵ uecŦ1992 (12 years)Ŧ
When ÞMl's employees sLaged a sLrlkeţ ÞMl sLopped lLs operaLlons permanenLly sLarLlng
!uly 1992Ŧ
ÞMl lnformed lLs employees lncludlng Mcleod of lLs closure and pald lLs employeesţ
lncludlng managerlal employeesţ Lhelr unpald wagesţ slck and vacaLlon leaveţ proraLed
13
Lh
monLh pay and separaLlon pay excepL McleodŦ
ÞMl and Mcleod ended Lhelr employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp ln uecŦ 1992Ŧ
ÞMl asseLs Lransferred all lLs rlghLsţ LlLle and lnLeresLs ln Lhe AsseLs by way of daLlon ln
paymenL Lo SLaŦ 8osa 1exLlles lnc (S18l)Ŧ
1heţ S81l hlred Mcleod as consulLanL and noL as employee unLll uecŦ 1993Ŧ
ln lebŦ 1993ţ Mcleod flled a complalnL for reLlremenL beneflLsţ vacaLlon and slck leave
beneflLsţ nonŴpaymenL of unused alrllne LlckeLsţ hollday payţ underpaymenL of salary
and 13
Lh
monLh pay agalnsL ÞMl and S81l along wlLh Lhe oLher Lwo companles (llLS?nţ
lL1Ml) whlch use Lhe same address as ÞMl and S81l and ÞaLrlclo Llm (presldenL of ÞMl)Ŧ

ISSULť WCn Mcleod ls enLlLled for Lhe paymenL of vacaLlon and slck leaveţ hollday payţ
underpaymenL of salary and hls 13
Lh
monLh payţ nonŴpaymenL of unused alrllne LlckeLs?

kULINGť
Slnce Mcleod can'L presenL evldence llke appolnLmenL leLLers or employmenL conLracLsţ
payrollsţ organlzaLlon charLsţ SSS reglsLraLlonţ personnel llsL or even LesLlmony of hls coŴ
employees Lo supporL hls allegaLlon of employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp beLween hlm
and any of llLS?nţ S81lţ Anu lL1Ml Lhereforeţ he can'L have cause of acLlon agalnsL
Lhese corporaLlonsŦ
Mcleod cause of acLlon ls only agalnsL hls former employerţ ÞMlŦ
Cn ÞaLrlclo's personal llablllLyţ Lhere ls no evldence LhaL he acLed wlLh mallce or bad
falLh ln LermlnaLlng Mcleod's servlces Lo warranL hls personal llablllLyŦ ÞMl had no oLher
cholce buL Lo sLop planL operaLlons because of Lhe serlous buslness losses LhaL lL had
sufferedŦ 1he mere facL ÞaLrlclo was Lhe presldenL ÞMl ls noL a ground Lo conclude LhaL
he ls solldarlly llable wlLh ÞMl for Mcleod's money clalmŦ
Mcleod ls noL enLlLled Lo paymenL of vacaLlon leave and slck leave as well as Lo hollday
payŦ As presldenL/planL managerţ Mcleod ls a managerlal employee who ls excluded
from Lhe coverage of 1lLle lţ 8ook lll of Lhe labor codeŦ Mc|eod |s ent|t|ed to payment
of vacat|on and s|ck |eave on|y |f he and 9MI had agreed on |tŦ In th|s caseţ there |s no
show|ng that Mc|eod and 9MI had an agreement concern|ng payment of these
benef|tsŦ
Mcleod's underpaymenL of hls 13
Lh
monLh pay ln uecŦ 1993 ls unavalllngŦ Mcleod and
ÞMl employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp ended ln 1992Ŧ Slnce Mcleod was no longer an
employeeţ he was noL enLlLled Lo Lhe 13
Lh
monLh payŦ
Also unavalllng ls Mcleod's clalm LhaL he was enLlLled Lo Lhe nonŴpaymenL of unused
alrllne LlckeLs for Lhe perlod coverlng 1989Ŵ1992Ŧ ÞMl has no company pollcy granLlng
lLs offlcers and employees expenses for Lrlps abroadŦ ÞMl never promlsed Mcleod LhaL lL
would conLlnue Lo granL hlm Lhls beneflLŦ
8egardlng Lhe underpaymenL of salaryţ Mcleod can'L preLend LhaL hls monLhly salary of
Þ60ţ000 was reduced wlLhouL hls consenLŦ lL was explalned Lo hlm LhaL ÞMl was shorL ln
flnances LhaL hls salary would have reducedŦ Slnce Lhe lasL salary LhaL Mcleod recelved
form ÞMl was Þ30ţ493ţ Lhls ls now Lhe basls ln compuLlng hls reLlremenL beneflLsŦ
Slnce ÞMl has no reLlremenL planţ SecŦ 3 8ule ll of Lhe 8ules lmplemenLlng Lhe new
8eLlremenL Law would applyŦ WlLh Mcleod havlng worked wlLh ÞMl for 12 yearsţ he ls
enLlLled Lo a reLlremenL pay equlvalenL Lo Z monLh salary for every year of servlceŦ





















DAVAC IkUI1S CCk9 VS ASSCCIA1LD 22S SCkA S62 (1993)

IAC1Sť Cn uecember 28ţ 1982ţ AssoclaLed Labor unlons (ALu)ţ for and ln behalf of all Lhe rank
and flle workers and employees of peLlLloner uavao lrulLs Corpţ flled a complalnL agalnsL Lhe
company for nonŴpaymenL of Lhe 13
Lh
monLh pay dlfferenLlalsŦ ALu soughL Lo recover from
uavao lrulLs Corp Lhe 13
Lh
monLh pay dlfferenL for 1982 of lLs rank and flle employeesţ
equlvalenL Lo Lhelr slckţ vacaLlon and maLernlLy leavesţ premlum for work done on resL days
and speclal holldays and pay for regular holldays whlch Lhe peLlLlonerţ allegedly ln dlsregard of
company pracLlce slnce 1973ţ excluded from Lhe compuLaLlon of Lhe 13
Lh
monLh pay for 1982Ŧ

uavao lrulLs Corp clalmed LhaL lL erroneously lncluded lLems sub[ecL of Lhe complalnL ln Lhe
compuLaLlon of Lhe 13
Lh
monLh pay for Lhe years prlor Lo 1982 upon a doubLful and dlfflculL
quesLlon of lawŦ 1he mlsLake was only dlscovered ln 1982 afLer Lhe promulgaLlon of Lhe SC ln
San Mlguel Corp vs lnclongŦ

ISSULť W/n ln 1PL CCMÞu1A1lCn Cl 1PL 13
1P
MCn1P ÞA? ClvLn 8? LMÞLC?L8S 1C 1PLl8
LMÞLC?LLS unuL8 Þu nCŦ 831ţ ÞA?MLn1S lC8 SlCkţ vACA1lCn Anu MA1L8nl1? LLAvLSţ
Þ8LMluMS lC8 WC8k uCnL CnL 8LS1 uA?S Anu SÞLClAL PCLluA?Sţ Anu ÞA? lC8 8LCuLA8
PCLluA?S MA? 8L LxCLuuLu ln 1PL CCMÞu1A1lCn Anu ÞA?MLn1 1PL8LClţ 8LCA8uLLSS Cl
LCnC S1AnulnC CCMÞAn? Þ8AC1lCL

nLLDť 1he SupplemenLary 8ules and 8egulaLlons lmplemenLlng Þu noŦ 83ţ Lo resolve Lhe lssue
on Lhe compuLaLlon of Lhe 13
Lh
monLh payţ expressly sLaLed LhaL Lhe 13
Lh
monLh pay lncludes
only Lhe baslc salaryŦ lL does noL lnclude ºfrlnge beneflLsŦ" 1he same was lssued on !anuary 16ţ
1976ţ barely a monLh afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy of Þu noŦ 831Ŧ uesplLe Lhls Lhe peLlLloner conLlnued
lLs pracLlce ln uecember 1981ţ afLer promulgaLlon of Lhe San Mlguel declslon on lebruary 24ţ
1981ţ when lL purporLedly ºdlscovered" lLs mlsLakeŦ

lrom 1973 Lo 1981ţ the pet|t|oner had free|yţ vo|untar||yţ and cont|nuous|y |nc|uded |n the
computat|on of |ts emp|oyees' 13
th
month payţ Lhe paymenLs for slckţ vacaLlonţ and maLernlLy
leavesţ premlums for work done on resL days and speclal holldays and pay for regular holldaysŦ
1h|s seems to negate |ts c|a|m of m|stakeŦ

A company pract|ce favorab|e to the emp|oyees had |ndeed been estab||shed and the
payments made pursuant theretoţ r|pened |nto benef|ts en[oyed by themŦ Any benef|t and
supp|ement be|ng en[oyed by the emp|oyees cannot be reducedţ d|m|n|shedţ d|scont|nued or
e||m|nated by the emp|oyer pursuant to SecŦ 10 of the ku|es and kegu|at|ons Imp|ement|ng
9D noŦ 8S1 and ArtŦ 100 Labor Codeţ wh|ch proh|b|t the d|m|nut|on or e||m|nat|on by the
emp|oyer of the emp|oyees' ex|st|ng benef|tsŦ





Samahang Mangagawa etcŦ vs NLkC 29S SCkA 171 (1998)

IAC1Sť
O ÞeLlLloner Samahang Manggagawa sa 1op lorm ManufacLurlng unlLed Workers of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes (SM1lM) was Lhe cerLlfled collecLlve bargalnlng represenLaLlve of all regular
rank and flle employees of prlvaLe respondenL 1op lorm ManufacLurlng Þhlllpplnesţ lncŦ
Cn lebruary 27ţ 1990ţ Lhe parLles agreed Lo dlscuss unresolved economlc lssuesŦ Cn Lhe
mlnuLes of Lhe meeLlngţ Lhe unlon proposed LhaL any fuLure wage lncrease glven by Lhe
governmenL should be lmplemenLed by Lhe company acrossŴLheŴboard or nonŴ
condlLlonalŦ ManagemenL requesLed Lhe unlon Lo reLaln Lhls provlslon slnce Lhelr
slncerlLy was already proven when Lhe Þ23Ŧ00 wage lncrease was granLed acrossŴLheŴ
boardŦ 1he unlon declded Lo defer Lhls provlslonţ relylng on Lhe underLaklngs made by
Lhe offlclals of Lhe company who negoLlaLed wlLh Lhem and slnce Lhe company has
granLed Lo us governmenL mandaLed wage lncreases on acrossŴLheŴboard basls

O Cn CcLober 13ţ 1990ţ Lhe 81WÞ8ŴnC8 lssued Wage Crder lncreaslng Lhe salary of Lhe
workersŦ 1he unlon requesLed Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of sald wage ordersŦ Poweverţ Lhey
demanded LhaL Lhe lncrease be on an acrossŴLheŴboard baslsŦ ÞrlvaLe respondenL
refused Lo accede Lo LhaL demandŦ lnsLeadţ lL lmplemenLed a scheme of lncreases
purporLedly Lo avold wage dlsLorLlonŦ

O 1he unlon demanded LhaL lL should fulflll lLs pledge of slncerlLy Lo Lhe unlon by granLlng
an acrossŴLheŴboard wage lncreases (slc) Lo all employees under Lhe wage ordersŦ 1he
unlon relLeraLed LhaL lL had agreed Lo reLaln Lhe old provlslon of C8A on Lhe sLrengLh of
prlvaLe respondenLs promlse and assurance of an acrossŴLheŴboard salary lncrease
should Lhe governmenL mandaLe salary lncreasesŦ

O 1he unlon flled a complalnL wlLh Lhe nC8 nL8C alleglng LhaL prlvaLe respondenLs acL of
reneglng on lLs underLaklng/promlse clearly consLlLuLes an acL of unfalr labor pracLlce
Lhrough bargalnlng ln bad falLhŦ lL charged prlvaLe respondenL wlLh acLs of unfalr labor
pracLlces or vlolaLlon of ArLlcle 247 of Lhe Labor Codeţ as amendedţ speclflcally
bargalnlng ln bad falLhţ and prayed LhaL lL be awarded acLualţ moral and exemplary
damagesŦ 1he unlon added LhaL lL was charglng prlvaLe respondenL wlLh vlolaLlon of
ArLlcle 100 of Lhe Labor CodeŦ

O ÞrlvaLe respondenL conLends LhaL Lhere was no agreemenL Lo Lhe effecL LhaL fuLure
wage lncreases mandaLed by Lhe governmenL should be lmplemenLed on an acrossŴLheŴ
board baslsŦ CLherwlseţ LhaL agreemenL would have been lncorporaLed and expressly
sLlpulaLed ln Lhe C8AŦ

ISSULť WheLher or noL prlvaLe respondenL commlLLed an unfalr labor pracLlce ln lLs refusal Lo
granL acrossŴLheŴboard wage lncreaseŦ


nLLDť
NoŦ 1he pr|vate respondent d|d not comm|t an unfa|r |abor pract|ce |n |ts refusa| to grant
acrossŴtheŴboard wage |ncreaseŦ

1he alleged vlolaLlon of ArLlcle 100 of Lhe Labor Codeţ as amendedţ as well as ArLlcle xvllţ
SecLlon 7 of Lhe exlsLlng C8A as hereln earller quoLed ls llkewlse found by Lhls 8ranch Lo have
no basls ln facL and ln lawŦ no beneflLs or prlvlleges prevlously en[oyed by Lhe employees were
wlLhdrawn as a resulL of Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe sub[ecL ordersŦ Llkewlseţ Lhe alleged
company pracLlce of lmplemenLlng wage lncreases declared by Lhe governmenL on an acrossŴ
LheŴboard basls has noL been duly esLabllshed by Lhe complalnanLs evldenceŦ 1he complalnanLs
asserLed LhaL Lhe company lmplemenLed 8epubllc AcL noŦ 6727 whlch granLed a wage lncrease
of Þ23Ŧ00 effecLlve !uly 1ţ 1989 on an acrossŴLheŴboard baslsŦ CranLlng LhaL Lhe same ls Lrueţ
such lsolaLed slngle acL LhaL respondenLs adopLed would deflnlLely noL rlpen lnLo a company
pracLlceŦ

ÞeLlLloner unlon does noL deny LhaL dlscusslon on lLs proposal LhaL all governmenLŴmandaLed
salary lncreases should be on an acrossŴLheŴboard basls was deferredţ purporLedly because lL
relled upon Lhe underLaklng of Lhe negoLlaLlng panel of prlvaLe respondenLŦ

nelLher does
peLlLloner unlon deny Lhe facL LhaL Lhere ls no provlslon of Lhe 1990 C8A conLalnlng a
sLlpulaLlon LhaL Lhe company wlll granL acrossŴLheŴboard Lo lLs employees Lhe mandaLed wage
lncreaseŦ 1hey slmply asserL LhaL prlvaLe respondenL commlLLed acLs of unfalr labor pracLlces by
vlrLue of lLs coottoctool commltmeot moJe Jotloq tbe collectlve botqololoq ptocessŦ 1he mere
facLţ howeverţ LhaL Lhe proposal ln quesLlon was noL lncluded ln Lhe C8A lndlcaLes LhaL no
coottoctool commltmeot Lhereon was ever made by prlvaLe respondenL as no agreemenL had
been arrlved aL by Lhe parLlesŦ

Cbvlously Lhe purpose of collecLlve bargalnlng ls Lhe reachlng of an agreemenL resulLlng ln a
conLracL blndlng on Lhe parLlesŤ buL Lhe fallure Lo reach an agreemenL afLer negoLlaLlons
conLlnued for a reasonable perlod does noL esLabllsh a lack of good falLhŦ 1he sLaLuLes lnvlLe
and conLemplaLe a collecLlve bargalnlng conLracLţ buL Lhey do noL compel oneŦ 1he duLy Lo
bargaln does noL lnclude Lhe obllgaLlon Lo reach an agreemenL









Amer|can W|re and Cab|e Da||y kated Lmp|oyees Un|on vŦ Amer|can W|re and Cab|e CoŦ IncŦ

IAC1Sť
Amerlcan Wlre and Cable CoŦţ lncŦ ls a corporaLlon ln Lhe manufacLure of wlres and
cablesŦ 1here are Lwo unlon ln Lhls companyţ Lhe MonLhly 8aLed unlon and Lhe ually
8aLed unlonŦ

ln leb 2001ţ Lhe Lwo unlons flled an acLlon for volunLary arblLraLlonŦ 1hey alleged LhaL
Lhe prlvaLe respondenL wlLhdrew and denled cerLaln beneflLs and enLlLlemenLs whlch
Lhey long have en[oyed wlLhouL valld causeŦ 1hese are Lhe Servlce AwardŤ 33Ʒ premlum
pay of an employee's baslc pay for Lhe work rendered durlng holy Mondayţ Poly
1uesdayţ Poly Wednesdayţ uec 23ţ 26ţ 27ţ 28ţ 29Ť ChrlsLmas parLyŤ and promoLlonal
lncreaseŦ

A promoLlonal lncrease was asked by Lhe peLlLloner for 13 of lLs members who were
glven new [ob classlflcaLlonŦ Accordlng Lo Lhe peLlLlonerţ Lhe new [ob classlflcaLlon were
ln Lhe naLure of a promoLlonŦ

1he volunLary ArblLraLor declared LhaL Lhe company ls noL gullLy for wlLhdrawlng Lhe
servlce awardţ xŴmas parLy and 33Ʒ premlum for work rendered durlng Poly week and
xŴmas season and for noL granLlng promoLlonal lncreaseŦ

1he CA afflrmed Lhe declslon of Lhe volunLary ArblLraLorŦ Pence Lhls peLlLlonŦ


ISSULť
WCn prlvaLe respondenL ls gullLy of vlolaLlon ArL 100 of Lhe Labor Codeţ as amendedţ when Lhe
beneflLs/enLlLlemenLs glven Lo Lhe members of peLlLloners unlon were wlLhdrawn?

kULINGť
1he beneflLs/enLlLlemenLs ln Lhls case are all bonuses whlch were glven by Lhe prlvaLe
respondenL ouL of lLs generoslLyŦ 1he same was a managemenL prerogaLlveţ whlchţ
whenever managemenL sees necessaryţ may be wlLhdrawnţ unless Lhey have made a
parL of Lhe wage or salary or compensaLlon of Lhe employeesŦ

lor a bonus Lo be enforceable lL musL have been promlsed by Lhe employer and
expressly agreed upon by Lhe parLles or lL musL have had a flxed amounL and had been a
long and regular pracLlce on Lhe parL of Lhe employerŦ

1he beneflLs/enLlLlemenLs ln quesLlon were never sub[ecLs of any express agreemenL
beLween Lhe parLlesŦ 1hey were never lncorporaLed ln Lhe CollecLlve 8argalnlng
AgreemenLŦ

1he xŴmas parLles and lLs lncldenLal beneflLsţ and Lhe glvlng of case lncenLlve LogeLher
wlLh Lhe servlce award cannoL be sald Lo have flxed amounLsŦ

lL was clear LhaL over Lhe yearsţ Lhere had been a downLrend ln Lhe amounL glven as
servlce awardŦ 1here was also downLrend wlLh respecL Lo Lhe holdlng of Lhe xŴmas
parLles ln Lhe sense LhaL lLs locaLlon changed fro pald venues Lo Lone whlch was free of
chargeţ Lo cuL cosLŦ 1he downLrend ln Lhe granL of Lhese Lwo bonuses over Lhe years
demonsLraLed LhaL Lhere ls noLhlng conslsLenL abouL lLŦ

1he addlLlonal 33Ʒ premlum pay for work rendered durlng Lhe holy week and xŴmas
seasonţ Lhe holdlng of xŴmas parLles wlLh lLs lncldenLal beneflLsţ and Lhe granL of cash
lncenLlve LogeLher wlLh Lhe lncenLlve award are all bonuses whlch are nelLher
demandable nor enforceable obllgaLlons of Lhe respondenLŦ

LasLlyţ slnce Lhe unlon cannoL presenL any proof LhaL a promoLlon occur wlLh Lhe 13
employees promoLlonal lncrease cannoL be ralsedŦ

















9AGŴASA S1LLL WCkS INC VS CA 486 SCkA 47S (2006)

IAC1Sť Cn SepLember 23ţ 1999ţ peLlLloner ÞagŴasa SLeelworks and Lhe unlon enLered lnLo a
collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenL (C8A)ţ effecLlve !uly 1ţ 1999 unLll !ulyţ 1ţ 2004Ŧ SecŦ 1ţ ArLŦ vl of
Lhe sald C8A provldes LhaL Lhe company agrees Lo granL all Lhe workersţ who are already
regular and covered by Lhls agreemenL aL Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhls agreemenLţ a general wage
lncrease as followsť
!uly 1ţ 1999 Ŵ Þ13Ŧ00 per day per employee
!uly 1ţ 2000 Ŵ Þ23Ŧ00 per day per employee
!uly 1ţ 2001 Ŵ Þ30Ŧ00 per day per employee

1he dlfference of Lhe flrsL year ad[usLmenL Lo reLroacL Lo !uly 1ţ 1999Ŧ 1he across Lhe board
wage lncrease for Lhe 4
Lh
and 3
Lh
year of Lhe C8A shall be sub[ecL for a reŴopenlng or reŴ
negoLlaLlon as provlded for by 8A noŦ 6713Ŧ

Cn CcLober 14ţ 1999ţ Wage Crder noŦ nC8Ŵ07 was lssued and on CcLober 26ţ 1999ţ lLs
lmplemenLlng rules and regulaLlonsŦ lL provlded for a Þ23Ŧ30 per day lncrease ln Lhe salary of
employees recelvlng mlnlmum wage and lncreased Lhe mlnlmum wage Lo Þ223Ŧ30Ŧ ÞeLlLloner
pald Þ23Ŧ30 per day lncrease Lo all of lLs rank and flle employeesŦ

Cn !uly 1ţ 2000ţ Lhe rank and flle employees were granLed Lhe second year lncrease provlded ln
Lhe C8A (Þ23Ŧ00 per day)Ŧ

Cn november 1ţ 2000ţ Wage Crder noŦ nC8Ŵ08 Look effecLŦ Sec 1 provldes LhaL Lhe prlvaLe
workers and employees ln nC8 recelvlng Lhe prescrlbed dally mlnlmum wage of Þ223Ŧ30 shall
recelve an lncrease (Þ26Ŧ30 per day)ţ seLLlng Lhe mlnlmum wage Lo Þ230Ŧ00 per dayŦ

1he unlon presldenL requesLed ÞagŴasa SLeelworks Lo lmplemenL Lhe lncrease under Wage
Crder noŦ nC8Ŵ08 ln favor of lLs employeesŦ ÞeLlLloner refusedţ clalmlng LhaL lL was noL obllged
Lo granL Lhe wage lncrease slnce none of Lhe employees were recelvlng mlnlmum wage and
Lhere was no wage dlsLorLlonŦ

1he unlon argued LhaL lL had been Lhe company's pracLlce Lo granL a wage lncrease under a
governmenLŴlssued wage orderţ aslde from Lhe yearly wage lncrease ln Lhe C8AŦ ÞeLlLloner
alleged LhaL Lhere ls no such company pracLlce and LhaL lL complled wlLh Lhe prevlous wage
orders (Wage Crder nosŦ nC8Ŵ01Ŵ03) because some of lLs employees were recelvlng wages
below Lhe mlnlmum prescrlbed sald ordersŦ As for Wage Crder noŦ nC8Ŵ07ţ peLlLloner alleged
LhaL lLs compllance was ln accordance wlLh lLs verbal commlLmenL Lo Lhe unlon durlng Lhe C8A
negoLlaLlons LhaL lL would lmplemenL any wage order lssued ln 1999Ŧ

ISSULť W/n 1PL ÞL1l1lCnL8 lS C8LlCLu 1C C8An1 WACL lnC8LASL unuL8 WACL C8uL8
nCŦ nC8Ŵ08 AS A MA11L8 Cl Þ8AC1lCL

nLLDť PablLsţ cusLomsţ usage or paLLern or of conducL musL be proven ln courL by esLabllshlng
Lhe degree of speclflclLy and frequencyŦ Mere slmllarlLy of conLracLs does noL presenL Lhe klnd
of sufflclenLly slmllar clrcumsLances Lo ouLwelgh Lhe danger of pre[udlce and confuslonŦ
1he only lnsLance when peLlLloner admlLLedly lmplemenLed a wage order desplLe Lhe facL LhaL
Lhe employees were noL recelvlng salarles below Lhe mlnlmum wage was under Wage Crder
noŦ nC8Ŵ07Ŧ ÞeLlLlonerţ howeverţ explalns LhaL lL dld so because lL was agreed upon ln Lhe C8A
LhaL should a wage lncreased be ordered wlLhln 6 monLhs from lLs slgnlngţ peLlLloner would
glve Lhe lncrease Lo Lhe employees ln addlLlon Lo Lhe C8AŴmandaLed lncreasesŦ 8espondenL's
lsolaLed acL could hardly be classlfled as a ºcompany pracLlce" or company usage LhaL may be
consldered an enforceable obllgaLlonŦ

1o rlpen lnLo a company pracLlce LhaL ls demandable as a maLLer of rlghLţ Lhe glvlng of Lhe
lncrease should noL be by reason of a sLrlcL legal or conLracLual obllgaLlon buL by reason of an
acL of llberallLy on Lhe parL of Lhe employerŦ Penceţ lf Lhe company conLlnuously granLs a wage
lncrease as mandaLed by wage order or pursuanL Lo a C8Aţ Lhe same would noL auLomaLlcally
rlpen lnLo a company pracLlceŦ ln Lhls caseţ ÞagŴasa SLeelworks granLed Lhe lncrease under
Wage Crder noŦ nC8Ŵ07 on lLs bellef LhaL lL was obllged Lo do so under Lhe C8AŦ



























Su|co vs NLkC S13 SCkA 37S (2007)
IAC1Sť
O Culver 8Ŧ Sulcoţ 1eresa uŦ Cenlzaţ 8onald 8Ŧ uacuL (complalnanLs were regular
employees of Þhlllpplne Long ulsLance 1elephone Company (ÞLu1) Cebu !ones Lxchange
and members of ,ooqqoqowo oq komoolkosyoo oq llllploos (MkÞ)Ŧ
O SepLember 1997ţ MkÞ launched a sLrlke agalnsL ÞLu1Ŧ ComplalnanLs parLlclpaLed ln Lhe
sLrlke by plckeLlng Lhe ÞLu1Ŧ
O ÞLu1 senL 2 noLlce Lo explanaLlon Lo Sulco eLŦalţ for Lhe acLs of vlolaLlon LhaL happen
durlng Lhe sLrlkeŦ 8uL Lhe complalnanL falled Lo provlde Lhe requlred wrlLLen explanaLlon
Lhe acLs charged Lo LhemŦ 1hey replled lnformlngţ LhaL Lhey opL Lo exerclse Lhelr rlghLs
Lo due process and requesL Lo furnlsh a copy of Lhe formal wrlLLen complalnL complalnL
flled Lhemţ sLaLemenL of wlLness/es and prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlons and/or reporL/s
conducLed on Lhe aforesald lncldenLţ lf anyŦ
O ÞLu1 flndlngs based on Lhe avallable evldence found Lhe complalnanLs gullLy and were
subsequenLly LermlnaLed
O Sulco eLŦal flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal and damagesŦ
O lL ls Lhe vlew of ÞLu1 LhaL ln Lhe dlsmlssal of employees for sLrlkeŴrelaLed vlolenceţ lL ls
sufflclenL Lo merely declare Lhe laLLer Lo have losL Lhelr employmenL wlLhouL havlng Lo
comply wlLh any procedure for Lhelr LermlnaLlonŦ ÞLu1ţ refused Lo lmplemenL sald
pollcyţ conLendlng LhaL lL applles Lo admlnlsLraLlve cases only and noL Lo sLrlkeŴrelaLed
cases such as Lhe ones lnvolvlng Sulcoţ eL alŦ
ISSULť WheLher ÞLu1 vlolaLed Lhe requlremenLs of due process under Lhe Labor Code when lL
dlsmlssed sald employees wlLhouL heedlng Lhelr requesL for Lhe conducL of a formal hearlng as
provlded for under ÞLu1 SysLems ÞracLlce noŦ 94Ŵ016 and prlor Lo submlsslon of Lhelr
respecLlve answers Lo Lhe charges agalnsL LhemŦ
nLLDť 1he procedure adopLed by ÞLu1 ln dlsmlsslng Sulcoţ eL alŦ fell shorL of Lhe requlremenLs
of due processŦ
1he requlremenLs of due process by whlch Lo LesL Lhe valldlLy of Lhe procedure adopLed by
ÞLu1 ln dlsmlsslng Sulcoţ eL alŦ are Lhose embodled ln ArLŦ 277 (b) of Lhe Labor Codeţ 8ule xxll
of Lhe lmplemenLlng 8ules of 8ook v and SysLems ÞracLlce noŦ 94Ŵ016Ŧ
ÞLu1 complled wlLh Lhe LwoŴnoLlce requlremenL of due processŦ 1he flrsL noLlces senL Lo Sulcoţ
eL alŦ seL ouL ln deLall Lhe naLure and clrcumsLances of Lhe vlolaLlons lmpuLed Lo Lhemţ requlred
Lhem Lo explaln Lhelr slde and expressly warned Lhem of Lhe posslblllLy of Lhelr dlsmlssal should
Lhelr explanaLlon be found wanLlngŦ 1he lasL noLlces lnformed Sulcoţ eL alŦ of Lhe declslon Lo
LermlnaLe Lhelr employmenL and clLed Lhe evldence upon whlch Lhe declslon was basedŦ
68

1hese Lwo noLlces would have sufflced had lL noL been for Lhe exlsLence of SysLems ÞracLlce noŦ
94Ŵ016Ŧ under SysLems ÞracLlce noŦ 94Ŵ016ţ ÞLu1 granLed lLs employee Lhe alLernaLlve of elLher
flllng a wrlLLen answer Lo Lhe charges or requesLlng for opporLunlLy Lo be heard and defend
hlmself wlLh Lhe asslsLance of hls counsel or unlon represenLaLlveţ lf he so deslresŦ
Sulcoţ eL alŦ exerclsed Lhelr opLlon under SysLems ÞracLlce noŦ 94Ŵ016 by requesLlng LhaL a
formal hearlng be conducLed and LhaL Lhey be glven coples of sworn sLaLemenLs and oLher
perLlnenL documenLs Lo enable Lhem Lo prepare for Lhe hearlngŦ
69
1hls opLlon ls parL of Lhelr
rlghL Lo due processŦ ÞLu1 ls bound Lo comply wlLh Lhe SysLems ÞracLlceŦ
Company pollcles or pracLlces are blndlng on Lhe parLlesŦ
60
Some can rlpen lnLo an obllgaLlon on
Lhe parL of Lhe employerţ
61
such as Lhose whlch confer beneflLs on employees
62
or regulaLe Lhe
procedures and requlremenLs for Lhelr LermlnaLlon
ArLŦ 277 (b) ln relaLlon Lo ArLŦ 264 (a)
33
and (e)
36
recognlzes Lhe rlghL Lo due process of all
workersţ wlLhouL dlsLlncLlon as Lo Lhe cause of Lhelr LermlnaLlonŦ
37
Where no dlsLlncLlon ls
glvenţ none ls consLruedŦ
38
Penceţ Lhe foregolng sLandards of due process apply Lo Lhe
LermlnaLlon of employmenL of Sulcoţ eL alŦ even lf Lhe cause Lherefor was Lhelr supposed
lnvolvemenL ln sLrlkeŴrelaLed vlolence prohlblLed under ArLŦ 264 (a) and (e)Ŧ
Moreoverţ Lhe procedure for LermlnaLlon prescrlbed under ArLŦ 277(b) and 8ule xxll of Lhe
lmplemenLlng 8ules of 8ook v ls supplemenLed by exlsLlng company pollcyŦ ArLŦ 277(b) provldes
LhaL Lhe procedure for LermlnaLlon prescrlbed Lhereln ls wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe adopLlon by
Lhe employer of company pollcy on Lhe maLLerţ provlded Lhls conforms wlLh Lhe guldellnes seL
by Lhe uCLL such as 8ule xxll of Lhe lmplemenLlng 8ules of 8ook vŦ 1hls ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe
esLabllshed prlnclple LhaL employers are allowedţ under Lhe broad concepL of managemenL
prerogaLlveţ Lo adopL company pollcles LhaL regulaLe all aspecLs of personnel admlnlsLraLlon
lncludlng Lhe dlsmlssal and recall of workersŦ




















CnINA 8ANING CCk9CkA1ICN vsŦ 8CkkCMLCŦ

IAC1Sť
8orromeo sLarLed [olnlng C8C ln 1989 as ManagerŦ
lrom 1992Ŵ1993 he was promoLed fro Lhree Llmes and recelved a hlghly saLlsfacLorlly
performance raLlngŦ
llnallyţ ln 1996ţ Lhe respondenL was promoLed Lo Lhe poslLlon of AsslsLanL vlceŴ
ÞresldenL ln Mlndanao area
Poweverţ prlor Lo hls lasL promoLlonţ Lhe respondenLţ wlLhouL auLhorlLy from Lhe
LxecuLlve CommlLLee or 8oard of ulrecLorsţ approved several uAuu/8Þ
accommodaLlons amounLlng Lo Þ2ţ441ţ373 ln favor of ManlwanŦ uAuu/8Þ ls Lhe
acronym for checks ƍurawn AgalnsL uncollecLed ueposlLs/8llls ÞurchasedŦƍ
under Lhe peLlLloner 8ank's sLandard operaLlng proceduresţ uAuu/8Þ accommodaLlons
may be granLed only by a bank offlcer upon express auLhorlLy from lLs LxecuLlve
CommlLLee or 8oard of ulrecLors and amounL ls ln excess of Lhe credlL llmlLŦ
When peLlLloner 8ank came Lo know of Lhe uAuu/8Þ accommodaLlons ln favor of
Manlwanţ 8ank's llrsL vlceŴ ÞresldenL and PeadŴvlsayas Mlndanao ulvlslonţ senL a
Memorandum Lo seek clarlflcaLlon wlLh Lhe respondenLŦ
8orromeoţ ln hls leLLerţ accepLs full responslblllLy for commlLLlng an error ln [udgmenLţ
lapses ln conLrol and abuse of dlscreLlon by relylng solely on Lhe wordţ assuranceţ sureLy
and 8LM of MrŦ Ldmund 8amosţ a frlend and a coŴbank offlcerŦ
ln anoLher Memorandum addressed Lo Lhe respondenLţ he was lnformed LhaL he had
vlolaLed Lhe peLlLloner 8ank's Code of LLhlcsŦ As suchţ he was dlrecLed Lo resLlLuLe Lhe
amounL of Þ1ţ307ţ736Ŧ79 represenLlng 90Ʒ of Lhe LoLal loss of Þ1ţ673ţ263Ŧ10 lncurred
by Lhe peLlLloner 8ankŦ
Poweverţ ln vlew of hls reslgnaLlon and conslderlng Lhe years of servlce ln Lhe peLlLloner
8ankţ Lhe managemenL earmarked only Þ836ţ637Ŧ08 from Lhe respondenL's LoLal
separaLlon beneflLs or payŦ
ln Lhe anoLher LeLLer addressed Lo Lhe respondenLţ he was agaln lnformed LhaL Lhe
managemenL would wlLhhold Lhe sum of Þ836ţ637Ŧ08 from hls separaLlon payţ mldŴyear
bonus and proflL sharlngŦ 1he amounL wlLhheld represenLed hls proporLlonaLe share ln
Lhe accounLablllLy vlsŴàŴvls Lhe uAuu/8Þ accommodaLlons ln favor of ManlwanŦ
ConsequenLlyţ Lhe respondenL made a demand on Lhe peLlLloner 8ank for Lhe paymenL
of hls separaLlon pay and oLher beneflLsŦ 1he peLlLloner 8ank malnLalned lLs poslLlon Lo
wlLhhold Lhe sum of Þ836ţ637Ŧ08Ŧ
Penceţ Lhls peLlLlonŦ

ISSULť WheLher Lhe respondenL pledged hls beneflLs as guaranLee for Lhe losses Lhe bank
lncurred resulLlng from Lhe unauLhorlzed uAuu/8Þ accommodaLlons ln favor of Manlwan?

kULINGť
1he respondenL ƍls enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflLs he clalmed ln pursuance Lo Lhe CollecLlve 8argalnlng
AgreemenL buLţ ln Lhe meanLlmeţ such beneflLs shall be deposlLed wlLh Lhe bank by way of
pledgeŦ

1he peLlLloner 8ank was lefL wlLh no oLher recourse buL Lo lmpose Lhe penalLy of resLlLuLlonŦ lL
was cerLalnly wlLhln Lhe peLlLloner 8ank's prerogaLlve Lo lmpose on Lhe respondenL whaL lL
consldered Lhe approprlaLe penalLy under Lhe clrcumsLances pursuanL Lo lLs company rules and
regulaLlonsŦ

lndeedţ lL had been shown LhaL Lhe respondent adm|tted that he v|o|ated the pet|t|oner
8ank's standard operat|ng procedures |n grant|ng the DAUD]89 accommodat|ons |n favor of
Man|wan w|thout h|gher management approva|Ŧ

8ank's Code of LLhlcs provlde LhaLť
8esLlLuLlon/lorfelLure of 8eneflLs
8esLlLuLlon may be lmposed lndependenLly or LogeLher wlLh any oLher penalLy ln case of loss or
damage Lo Lhe properLy of Lhe 8ankţ lLs employeesţ cllenLs or oLher parLles dolng buslness wlLh
Lhe 8ankŦ 1he 8ank may recover Lhe amounL lnvolved by means of salary deducLlon or
whaLever legal means LhaL wlll prompL offenders Lo pay Lhe amounL lnvolvedŦ 8uL resLlLuLlon
shall ln no way mlLlgaLe Lhe penalLles aLLached Lo Lhe vlolaLlon or lnfracLlonŦ

lorfelLure of beneflLs/prlvlleges may also be effecLed ln cases where lnfracLlons or vlolaLlons
were lncurred ln connecLlon wlLh or arlslng from Lhe appllcaLlon/avallmenL LhereofŦ

ManagemenL has Lhe prerogaLlve Lo dlsclpllne lLs employees and Lo lmpose approprlaLe
penalLles on errlng workers pursuanL Lo company rules and regulaLlonsŦ

Þrlor Lo Lhe respondenL's reslgnaLlonţ he was furnlshed wlLh Lhe Memorandum ln whlch several
clarlflcaLory quesLlons were asked Lo hlm regardlng Lhe uAuu/8Þ accommodaLlons ln favor of
ManlwanŦ lL could be sald Lhls memorandum consLlLuLed noLlce of Lhe charge agalnsL Lhe
respondenLŦ

ConLrary Lo hls proLesLaLlonsţ Lhe respondenL was glven Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard and
conslderlng hls admlsslonsţ lL became unnecessary Lo hold any formal lnvesLlgaLlonŦ













MANLIA VS NLkC 290 SCkA 603 (1998)

IAC1Sť ÞeLlLloner 8osarlo Mane[a worked wlLh prlvaLe respondenL Manlla MldLown PoLel
beglnnlng !anuary 1983ţ as a Lelephone operaLorŦ She was a member of Lhe naLlonal unlon of
Workers ln PoLelsţ 8esLauranLs and Allled lndusLrles (nuWP8Aln) wlLh an exlsLlng C8A wlLh Lhe
prlvaLe respondenLŦ

ln lebruary 13ţ 1990ţ a fellow Lelephone operaLorţ 8owena Lolengţ recelved a requesL for long
dlsLance call (8LuC) form and a deposlL for Þ300Ŧ00 from a !apanese guesL buL Lhe call was
unansweredŦ 1he deposlL was Lhen forwarded Lo Lhe cashlerŦ 1he same evenlngţ Lhe !apanese
guesL agaln made an 8LuC and deposlLed anoLher Þ300Ŧ00 buL Lhe call was also unansweredŦ
Loleng passed Lhe 8LuC Lo Mane[a for follow upŦ

Cn lebruary 13ţ Lhe cashler lnqulred abouL Lhe Þ1000 deposlL madeŦ AfLer a searchţ Lhe flrsL
one was found ln Lhe guesL follo whlle Lhe oLher ln Lhe folder for cancelled callsŦ ÞeLlLloner
Mane[a saw LhaL Lhe 2
nd
8LuC form was noL Llme sLamped so she placed lL ln Lhe machlne Lo
sLamp lL wlLh Lhe daLe lebruary 13Ŧ 8uL afLer reallzlng LhaL Lhe call was made 2 days beforeţ
she changed Lhe daLe Lo lebruary 13Ŧ

Cn March 7ţ Lhe chlef Lelephone operaLor asked Lhe peLlLloner and Loleng Lo explaln Lhe leb 13
lncldenLŦ 8oLh submlLLed Lhelr wrlLLen explanaLlonŦ Cn March 20ţ a wrlLLen reporL was
submlLLedţ sLaLlng LhaL Lhelr acLlons were covered vlolaLlons of Lhe Cffenses Sub[ecL Lo
ulsclpllnary AcLlon (CSuA) as
1Ŧ lorglngţ falslfylng offlclal documenLs andŤ
2Ŧ Culpable carelessnessŸnegllgence or fallure Lo follow speclflc lnsLrucLlon/s or
esLabllshed procedure/s
Cn March 23ţ peLlLloner was Lhen served noLlce of dlsmlssal effecLlve on Aprll 1Ŧ She refused Lo
slgn and wroLe ºunder proLesLŦ"

Cn CcLober 2ţ 1990ţ Mane[a flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal agalnsL prlvaLe respondenL
before Lhe labor arblLer (LA)Ŧ LA found LhaL Lhe peLlLloner was lllegally dlsmlssedţ sLaLlng LhaL
even Lhough Lhe case revolves on Lhe maLLer of lmplemenLaLlon and lnLerpreLaLlon of company
pollcles and ls Lhus wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe grlevance procedure under Lhe C8Aţ ArLŦ 217
Labor Code confers orlglnal and excluslve [urlsdlcLlon of all LermlnaLlon cases Lo LAŦ nL8C
dlsmlssed Lhe case for lack of [urlsdlcLlon of LA because Lhe case was sub[ecL Lo volunLary
arblLraLlonŦ

ÞeLlLloner lnslsLs LhaL her LermlnaLlon ls noL an unresolved grlevance as Lhere had been no
grlevance meeLlng beLween Lhe unlon and Lhe managemenLŦ ÞeLlLloner alleged LhaL lL has been
a company pollcy LhaL LermlnaLlon cases are noL referred Lo Lhe grlevance machlnery buL
dlrecLly Lo LAŦ

ISSULť W/n 1PL LA8C8 A88l1L8 PAu !u8lSulC1lCn 1C uLCluL 1PL CASL

nLLDť nL8C's lnLerpreLaLlon of ArL 216c Labor Code ls erroneousŦ Lven Lhough such provlslon
provldes LhaL LA have no [urlsdlcLlon over cases arlslng from lnLerpreLaLlon and lmplemenLaLlon
of C8As (musL be submlLLed Lo Lhe grlevance machlne or volunLary arblLraLlon)ţ lL musL be read
ln con[uncLlon wlLh ArL 261 whlch granLs volunLary arblLraLors orlglnal and excluslve [urlsdlcLlon
Lo hear and declde all unresolved grlevances arlslng from Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon or lmplemenLaLlon
of Lhe C8A and Lhose arlslng from Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon or enforcemenL of company personnel
pollcles whlch ls noL Lhe case hereŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe Sanyo caseţ Lhere ls dlsmlssal whlch does noL lnvolve an lnLerpreLaLlon or
lmplemenLaLlon of a C8A or lnLerpreLaLlon or enforcemenL of company personnel pollcles buL
lnvolves LermlnaLlonŦ Where the d|spute |s [ust |n the |nterpretat|onţ |mp|ementat|on or
enforcement stageţ |t may be referred to the gr|evance mach|nery set up |n the C8A or by
vo|untary arb|trat|onŦ Where the was a|ready actua| term|nat|onţ |ŦeŦ v|o|at|on of r|ghtsţ |t |s
a|ready cogn|zab|e by LAŦ

Moreoverţ ArL 260 also sLlpulaLes LhaL only dlspuLes lnvolvlng Lhe unlon and Lhe company shall
be referred Lo Lhe grlevance machlnery or volunLary arblLraLorsŦ ln Lhe case aL barţ Lhe unlon
does noL evenL come lnLo Lhe plcLure as Lhe pracLlce ln sald PoLel ln cases of LermlnaLlon ls LhaL
Lhey are noL referred anymore Lo Lhe grlevance comlLLe and LhaL Lhe LermlnaLed employee who
wlshes Lo quesLlon Lhe legallLy of hls LermlnaLlon usually goes Lo LA for arblLraLlonţ wheLher
Lhe LermlnaLlon arose from Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon or enforcemenL of Lhe company personnel
pollcles or oLherwlseŦ

ÞeLlLloner was lllegally dlsmlssed as Lhere are Lwo requlslLes ln a valld dlsmlssalť 1Ŧ 1haL Lhe
dlsmlssal musL be for any causes expressed ln ArL 282 Labor Code andŤ 2Ŧ 1he employee musL
be glven an opporLunlLy Lo be heard and Lo defend hlmselfŦ
1Ŧ 1here ls no cause for dlsmlssal as Lhe peLlLloner's acLlons were noL conLrary Lo company
pracLlce and Lhere ls also no basls for personal approprlaLlon based on Lhe facLs
2Ŧ An examlnaLlon of Lhe record reveals LhaL no hearlng whaLsoever was ever conducLed
by Lhe PoLel before Mane[a was dlsmlssedŦ Whlle lL may be Lrue LhaL Lhe peLlLloner
submlLLed a wrlLLen explanaLlonţ no hearlng was acLually conducLed before she was
LermlnaLedŦ She was noL accorded Lhe opporLunlLy Lo fully defend herself whlch ls
clearly a vlolaLlon of her rlghL Lo due processŦ











Amkor 1echno|ogy vs Iuangco S12 SCkA 32S (2007)
IAC1Sť
O uue Lo buslness lossesţ peLlLlonerŴcompany company saw Lhe need Lo reduce lLs exlsLlng
manpower complemenLŦ Several meeLlngs were held among lLs offlcers and deparLmenL
heads Lo dlscuss acLlons Lo be Laken Lo lmplemenL Lhe sameŦ
O SomeLlme ln CcLoberţ 2001ţ peLlLlonerŴcompany convened lLs key offlcers and
deparLmenL headsţ lncludlng respondenLţ Lo flnally declde wheLher Lo lmplemenL a
volunLary reLlremenL/volunLary separaLlon program or a reLrenchmenL programŦ uurlng
Lhe meeLlngţ respondenL expressed her lnLeresL and volunLeered Lo personally
parLlclpaLe ln Lhe downslzlng program of Lhe company's personnelŦ 1o formallze her
declslon Lo reLlre from Lhe companyţ respondenL submlLLed an undaLed leLLer slgnlfylng
her lnLenLlon Lo avall of Lhe volunLary 8eLlremenL Þrogram of Lhe companyţ effecLlve 13
november 2001Ŧ
O A week LhereafLerţ or on november 22ţ 2001ţ pursuanL Lo her proposlLlonţ respondenL
recelved her volunLary reLlremenL package ln Lhe amounL of 1hree Mllllon Seven
Pundred lour 1housand llve Pundred SevenLeen Þesos and 98/100 (Þ3ţ704ţ317Ŧ98)
lncluslve of an addlLlonal Lwo (2) monLhs payŦ 8espondenL slgned a 8ecelpL and 8elease
Walver and CulLclalm on Lhe same daLeŦ
O She flled her complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal on Aprll 23ţ 2002ţ or afLer almosL slx (6)
monLhs from her separaLlon from peLlLlonerŴcompanyŦ 8espondenL denled Lhe due
execuLlon of her 8elease CulLclalm and Walverţ alleglng LhaL she slgned Lhe same under
duress and lnLlmldaLlonŦ She clalmed LhaL she was LhreaLened LhaL she wlll recelve
noLhlng lf she wlll noL slgn lLŦ
O ÞeLlLloners malnLaln LhaL respondenL's reslgnaLlon was volunLaryţ perforceţ Lhere could
be no lllegal dlsmlssalŦ
ISSULť WheLher or noL respondenL volunLarlly reLlred from her poslLlon as LxecuLlve ulrecLor ln
peLlLlonerŴcompanyŦ
nLLDť 8espondenL was noL coerced or lnLlmldaLed lnLo slgnlng her reLlremenL leLLerŦ 1he
volunLarlness of her reLlremenL ls aLLesLed and conflrmed by Lop ranklng offlclals of peLlLlonerŴ
company Lhen presenL durlng Lhe meeLlng ln CcLober 2001Ŧ She falled Lo presenL evldence Lo
conLradlcL Lhelr sLaLemenLsŦ
8espondenL recelved her reLrenchmenL backwage a week afLer she submlLLed her reslgnaLlon
paperŦ She had ample Llme Lo mull over whaL courses of acLlon Lo Lake lf lndeed she was
lllegally dlsmlssedŦ lnsLeadţ she reLurned Lo Lhe company Lo slgn Lhe 8ecelpL and 8elease
Walver and CulL Clalm and Lo recelve her reLlremenL packageŦ 1hereafLerţ she looked for
employmenL ln oLher companles lL ls Lhus clear LhaL Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL was merely an
afLerLhoughL when she falled Lo flnd anoLher employmenL
Whlle Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls commlLLed Lo Lhe pollcy of soclal [usLlce and Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe
worklng classţ lL should noL be expecLed LhaL every labor dlspuLe wlll be auLomaLlcally declded
ln favor of laborŦ ManagemenL also has lLs own rlghLs whlchţ as suchţ are enLlLled Lo respecL and
enforcemenL ln Lhe lnLeresL of slmple falr play
Cebu koya| 9|ant vsŦ Deputy M|n|ster of |abor

IAC1Sť
8amon Þllones was employed on probaLlon leb 16ţ 1978Ŧ
1he slxŴmonLh perlod of probaLlon sLarLed on leb 16 and ended on AugusL 17Ŧ
AfLer Lhls perlodţ he conLlnued worklng ln Lhe sald planLŦ
Þllones underwenL medlcal examlnaLlon for quallflcaLlon as regular employee buL Lhe resulLs
showed LhaL he ls sufferlng from Þulmonary 1uberculosls (Þ18) mlnlmalŦ
1henţ he was lnformed of Lhe LermlnaLlon of hls employmenL by Cebu 8oyalŦ

ISSULť
WCn Þllones dlsmlssal by Cebu 8oyal ÞlanL was lllegal?

kULINGť
Þllones dlsmlssal was lllegalŦ
under ArLŦ 282 of Lhe labor Codeţ ºan employee who ls allowed Lo work afLer probaLlonary
perlod shall be consldered a regular employeeŦ"
Penceţ Þllones was already on permanenL sLaLus when he was dlsmlssed on AugusL 21ţ 1978 or
four days afLer he ceased Lo be a probaLlonerŦ Also Lhe 1977 wlLhholdlng Lax of Þllones ls a
proof LhaL he was hlred earller Lhan leb 16ţ 1978Ŧ
Cebu 8oyal clalms LhaL lL could noL have dlsmlssed Þllones earller because Lhe xŴray examlnaLlon
was made only on AugusL 17ţ 1978ţ and Lhe resulLs were noL lmmedlaLely avallableŦ 1hls ls
unLenableŦ
Cebu 8oyal had 6 monLhs Lo conducL such examlnaLlon buL lL chose Lo walL unLll exacLly Lhe lasL
day of Lhe probaLlon perlodŦ
Slnce Þllones was already a regular employee when he was dlsmlssedţ he could valldly clalm Lhe
securlLy of Lenure guaranLeed Lo hlm by Lhe consLlLuLlon and Lhe Labor CodeŦ
under SecŦ 8 8ule lţ 8ook lvţ of Lhe rules and 8egulaLlons lmplemenLlng Lhe labor code Lhe
medlcal cerLlflcaLe should be lssued by a compeLenL publlc healLh auLhorlLyŦ
1he medlcal cerLlflcaLe offered by Cebu 8oyal came from lLs own physlclanţ who was noL a
compeLenL publlc healLh auLhorlLyŦ 1he courL concluded LhaL Lhe requlred cerLlflcaLe was noL
presenLed because Lhe dlsease was noL so serlous LhaL lL can be cured wlLhln 6 monLhsŦ lf soţ
dlsmlssal was severe and unlawful sancLlonŦ
AddlLlonallyţ Cebu royal's appllcaLlon for clearance Lo LermlnaLe Lhe employmenL of Lhe prlvaLe
respondenL was flled wlLh Lhe MlnlsLry of labor seven days afLer hls dlsmlssalŦ nL8C requlred
noL [usL Lhe mere flllng of a peLlLlon or Lhe mere aLLempL Lo procure a clearance buL haL Lhe sald
clearance be obLalned prlor Lo Lhe operaLlve acL of LermlnaLlonŦ
1hls courL agree LhaL Lhere was an aLLempL Lo clrcumvenL Lhe law by separaLlng Lhe employee
afLer flve monLhs' servlce Lo prevenL hlm from becomlng a regular employeeţ and Lhen rehlrlng
hlm on probaLlonţ agaln wlLhouL securlLy of LenureŦ
Whereforeţ Þllones shall be relnsLaLed upon a cerLlflcaLlon by a compeLenL publlc healLh
auLhorlLy LhaL he ls flL Lo reLurn Lo workŦ




LNkIÇUL2 VS 89I S44 SCkA S90 (2008)

IAC1Sť ÞeLlLloners Lnrlquez and Sla were senlor managers ln 8Þl 8acolodţ havlng served 34 years and
29 years respecLlvelyŦ Cne dayţ uescarLlnţ a bank Lellerţ had a shorLage of Þ36ţ000 and she reporLed Lo
her managers LhaL lL was an honesL overslghL as she forgoL Lo have her moLherŴlnŴlaw slgn a wlLhdrawal
sllp when Lhe laLLer wlLhdrew Lhe same amounL earller LhaL dayŦ 1he managers allowed uescarLln Lo go
Lo her moLherŴlnŴlaw and slgn Lhe wlLhdrawal sllpŦ 1he managers dld noL reporL Lhe shorLage as lL was
regularlzed Lhe same dayŦ Meanwhlleţ anoLher Lellerţ lregllţ who lnlLlally consenLed Lo Lhe slLuaLlonţ
laLer dlvulged LhaL uescarLln acLually borrowed Lhe Þ36ţ000 and Lhe enLlre lncldenL was covered up by
Lhe managers (Þ36ţ000 was beyond Lhe floor llmlL for cashlers)Ŧ ln Lhelr defenseţ Lhe managers sald Lhe
8Þl offlcer who lnvesLlgaLed Lhem was noL properly depuLlzed by Lhe board (nonŴcompllance wlLh Lhe
nL8C prodecureţ 8ule 6 Sec 4)Ŧ Also Lhey assalled Lhelr LermlnaLlon argulng LhaL Lhe lssue has been
regularlzed on Lhe same day and LhaL Lhere was really no need Lo reporL lL because of Lhe regularlzaLlon
of Lhe lssue and LhaL Lhelr long sLay wlLh Lhe company should be appreclaLed wlLh Lhelr resLaLemenLŦ

ISSULť W/n 1PL ÞL1l1lCnL8S WL8L lLLLCALL? ulSMlSSLu Anu AS SuCPţ SPCuLu 8L 8LlnS1A1Lu

nLLDť 1he SC held LhaL Lhe procedural lssue of Lhe case (LhaL Lhere was no wrlLLen manlfesLaLlon of Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlng offlcer) cannoL ouLwelgh subsLanLlve rlghL of Lhe company Lo lnvesLlgaLe lLs employeesŦ lL
has been ruled LhaL Lhe boardţ belng Lhe represenLaLlve of Lhe companyţ can delegaLe lLs duLles Lo a
person and sald person's acL shall be blndlng Lo Lhe company as ln Lhe case aL barŦ

1he baslc requlslLe for dlsmlssal on Lhe ground of loss of confldence ls LhaL Lhe employee concerned
holds a poslLlon of LrusL and confldence or ls rouLlnely charged wlLh Lhe care or cusLody of Lhe
employer's money or properLyţ and LhaL Lhe breach musL be relaLed Lo Lhe performance of Lhe
employee's funcLlonŦ 1he fallure of Lhe peLlLloners Lo reporL Lhe cash shorLage even lf done ln good
falLhţ resulLed ln abeLLlng Lhe dlshonesLy commlLLed by Lhe LellerŦ under Lhe personnel pollcles of Lhe
bankţ such acL [usLlfles Lhelr dlsmlssal even on Lhe flrsL offenseŦ Lven lf we were Lo assume Lnrlquez'
verslon was Lrueţ Lhe facL remalns LhaL Lhey wlllfully declded agalnsL reporLlng Lhe shorLage LhaL
occurredŦ 1helr parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe coverŴup of uescarLln's mlsconducL makes Lhem unworLhy of Lhe
LrusL and confldence demanded by Lhelr poslLlonsŦ

It |s a we||Ŵsett|ed that the power to d|sm|ss an emp|oyee |s a recogn|zed prerogat|ve that |s |nherent
|n the emp|oyer's r|ght to free|y manage and regu|ate |ts bus|nessŦ An emp|oyer cannot be expected to
reta|n an emp|oyee whose |ack of mora|sţ respect and |oya|ty to h|s emp|oyer or regard for h|s
emp|oyer's ru|es has so p|a|n|y and comp|ete|y been baredŦ 1husţ to compe| 89I to keep pet|t|oners |n
|ts emp|oy after the |atter betrayed the trust g|ven to thenm wou|d be un[ustŦ 1he expecLaLlon of LrusL
ls more so magnlfled ln Lhe presenL case ln llghL of Lhe naLure of Lhe respondenL bank's buslnessŦ 1he
banklng lndusLry ls lmbued wlLh publlc lnLeresL and ls mandaLed by law Lo serve lLs cllenLs wlLh
exLraordlnary care and dlllgenceŦ 1o do Lhlsţ lL musL rely on Lhe honesLy and loyalLy of lLs employeesŦ








Smart Commun|cat|ons vs Astorga S42 scra 1S3 (2007)
IAC1Sť
O 8eglna MŦ AsLorga (AsLorga) was employed by respondenL SmarL CommunlcaLlonsţ
lncorporaLed (SMA81) on May 8ţ 1997 as ulsLrlcL Sales Manager of Lhe CorporaLe Sales
MarkeLlng Croup/ llxed Servlces ulvlslon (CSMC/lSu)Ŧ
O As ulsLrlcL Sales Managerţ AsLorga en[oyed addlLlonal beneflLsţ namelyţ annual
performance lncenLlve equlvalenL Lo 30Ʒ of her annual gross salaryţ a group llfe and
hosplLallzaLlon lnsurance coverageţ and a car plan ln Lhe amounL of Þ433ţ000Ŧ00Ŧ
3

O Cn May 18ţ 1998ţ SMA81 senL a leLLer Lo AsLorga demandlng LhaL she pay Lhe currenL
markeL value of Lhe Ponda Clvlc Sedan whlch was glven Lo her under Lhe company's car
plan programţ or Lo surrender Lhe same Lo Lhe company for proper dlsposlLlonŦ
11

AsLorgaţ howeverţ falled and refused Lo do elLherţ Lhus prompLlng SMA81 Lo flle a sulL
for replevln wlLh Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL of MakaLl (81C) on AugusL 10ţ 1998Ŧ
O ln lebruary 1998ţ SMA81 launched an organlzaLlonal reallgnmenL Lo achleve more
efflclenL operaLlonsŦ 1hls was made known Lo Lhe employees on lebruary 27ţ 1998Ŧ
6

ÞarL of Lhe reorganlzaLlon was Lhe ouLsourclng of Lhe markeLlng and sales forceŦ 1husţ
SMA81 enLered lnLo a [olnL venLure agreemenL wlLh n11 of !apanţ and formed SMA81Ŵ
n11 MulLlmedlaţ lncorporaLed (SnMl)Ŧ Slnce SnMl was formed Lo do Lhe sales and
markeLlng workţ SMA81 abollshed Lhe CSMC/lSuţ AsLorga's dlvlslonŦ
O SnMl agreed Lo absorb Lhe CSMC personnel who would be recommended by SMA81Ŧ
SMA81 Lhen conducLed a performance evaluaLlon of CSMC personnel and Lhose who
garnered Lhe hlghesL raLlngs were favorably recommended Lo SnMlŦ AsLorga landed lasL
ln Lhe performance evaluaLlonţ Lhusţ she was noL recommended by SMA81Ŧ SMA81
offered her a supervlsory poslLlon ln Lhe CusLomer Care uepL buL she refused Lhe offerŦ
O Cn March 3ţ 1998ţ SMA81 lssued a memorandum advlslng AsLorga of Lhe LermlnaLlon of
her employmenL on ground of redundancyţ effecLlve Aprll 3ţ 1998Ŧ AsLorga recelved lL
on March 16ţ 1998Ŧ
O 1he LermlnaLlon of her employmenL prompLed AsLorga Lo flle a ComplalnL
8
for lllegal
dlsmlssalţ nonŴpaymenL of salarles and oLher beneflLs wlLh prayer for moral and
exemplary damages agalnsL SMA81Ŧ She clalmed LhaL abollshlng CSMC andţ
consequenLlyţ LermlnaLlng her employmenL was lllegal for lL vlolaLed her rlghL Lo
securlLy of LenureŦ
ISSULť
WheLher Lhe dlsmlssal of AsLorga be valld or lllegalŦ
WheLher or noL Lhe 81C has no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe complalnL for recovery of a car whlch
AsLorga acqulred as parL of her employee beneflLŦ

nLLDť AsLorga ls declared valldly dlsmlssedŦ
AsLorga was LermlnaLed due Lo redundancyţ whlch ls one of Lhe auLhorlzed causes for Lhe
dlsmlssal of an employeeŦ 8edundancy ln an employer's personnel force necessarlly or even
ordlnarlly refers Lo dupllcaLlon of workŦ 1he characLerlzaLlon of an employee's servlces as
superfluous or no longer necessary andţ Lhereforeţ properly Lermlnableţ ls an exerclse of
buslness [udgmenL on Lhe parL of Lhe employerŦ An employer ls noL precluded from
adopLlng a new pollcy conduclve Lo a more economlcal and effecLlve managemenL even lf lL
ls noL experlenclng economlc reversesŦ nelLher does Lhe law requlre LhaL Lhe employer
should suffer flnanclal losses before he can LermlnaLe Lhe servlces of Lhe employee on Lhe
ground of redundancyŦ
8uL whlle LllLlng Lhe scales of [usLlce ln favor of workersţ Lhe fundamenLal law also
guaranLees Lhe rlghL of Lhe employer Lo reasonable reLurns for hls lnvesLmenLŦ
38
ln Lhls
llghLţ we musL acknowledge Lhe prerogaLlve of Lhe employer Lo adopL such measures as wlll
promoLe greaLer efflclencyţ reduce overhead cosLs and enhance prospecLs of economlc
galnsţ albelL always wlLhln Lhe framework of exlsLlng lawsŦ
Poweverţ SMA81 falled Lo comply wlLh Lhe mandaLed one (1) monLh noLlce prlor Lo
LermlnaLlonŦ 1he record ls clear LhaL AsLorga recelved Lhe noLlce of LermlnaLlon only on
March 16ţ 1998
39
or less Lhan a monLh prlor Lo lLs effecLlvlLy on Aprll 3ţ 1998Ŧ Llkewlseţ Lhe
ueparLmenL of Labor and LmploymenL was noLlfled of Lhe redundancy program only on
March 6ţ 1998Ŧ
ArLlcle 283 of Lhe Labor Code clearly provldesť
ArLŦ 283Ŧ Closure of esLabllshmenL and reducLlon of personnelŦ Ÿ 1he employer may
also LermlnaLe Lhe employmenL of any employee due Lo Lhe lnsLallaLlon of labor savlng
devlcesţ redundancyţ reLrenchmenL Lo prevenL losses or Lhe closlng or cessaLlon of
operaLlon of Lhe esLabllshmenL or underLaklng unless Lhe closlng ls for Lhe purpose of
clrcumvenLlng Lhe provlslons of Lhls 1lLleţ by servlng a wrlLLen noLlce on Lhe workers and
Lhe MlnlsLry of Labor and LmploymenL aL leasL one (1) monLh before Lhe lnLended daLe
Lhereof x x xŦ
1he 81C rlghLfully assumed [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe sulL and acLed well wlLhln lLs dlscreLlon ln
denylng AsLorga's moLlon Lo dlsmlsssŦ SMA81's demand for paymenL of Lhe markeL value of Lhe
car orţ ln Lhe alLernaLlveţ Lhe surrender of Lhe carţ ls noL a laborţ buL a clvllţ dlspuLeŦ lL lnvolves
Lhe relaLlonshlp of debLor and credlLor raLher Lhan employeeŴemployer relaLlonsŦ
33
As suchţ Lhe
dlspuLe falls wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe regular courLsŦ
8eplevln ls a possessory acLlonţ Lhe glsL of whlch ls Lhe rlghL of possesslon ln Lhe
plalnLlffŦ 1he prlmary rellef soughL Lhereln ls Lhe reLurn of Lhe properLy ln specle
wrongfully deLalned by anoLher personŦ lL ls an ordlnary sLaLuLory proceedlng Lo
ad[udlcaLe rlghLs Lo Lhe LlLle or possesslon of personal properLyŦ 1he quesLlon of
wheLher or noL a parLy has Lhe rlghL of possesslon over Lhe properLy lnvolved and lf soţ
wheLher or noL Lhe adverse parLy has wrongfully Laken and deLalned sald properLy as Lo
requlre lLs reLurn Lo plalnLlffţ ls ouLslde Lhe pale of compeLence of a labor Lrlbunal and
beyond Lhe fleld of speclallzaLlon of Labor ArblLersŦ
9|oneer Concrete 9h|||pp|nesţ IncŦ vsŦ 1odaro

IAC1Sť

1odaro alleged LhaL Þloneer lnLernaLlonal LlmlLed (9IL) ls engaged ln Lhe readyŴmlx
concreLe and concreLe aggregaLes buslnessŦ

Whlle Þloneer ÞhllsŦ Poldlngsţ lncŦ (99nI) ls esLabllshed by ÞlL Lo own and hold Lhe
sLocks of lLs operaLlng company ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes

Þloneer ConcreLe ÞhllsŦ lncŦ (9C9I) ls also esLabllshed by ÞlL Lo underLake lLs buslness of
readyŴmlx concreLeţ concreLe aggregaLes and quarrylng operaLlons ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ

McDona|d ls Lhe LxecuLlve of Lhe Pongkong offlce of ÞlLŦ And |epz|g ls Lhe ÞresldenL
and Lhe Managlng dlrecLor of ÞÞPl and ÞCÞlŦ

1odaro has been Lhe managlng dlrecLor of a company engaged ln preŴmlxed concreLe
and concreLe aggregaLe producLlon

When he reslgned ln lebŦ 1996ţ ÞlL conLacLed 1odaro ln May 1996 and asked hlm lf he
was avallable Lo [oln Lhem ln Lhelr operaLlons ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ

ÞlL and 1odaro came Lo an agreemenL whereln ÞlL consenLed 1odaro's servlce as a
consulLanL for 2 0r 3 monLhsţ afLer whlchţ he would be employed as Lhe manager of
ÞlL's readyŴmlx concreLe operaLlons when Lhe company declde Lo lnvesL ln Lhe
ÞhlllpplnesŦ

ÞlL sLarLed lLs operaLlons ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŤ however lL refused Lo comply wlLh lLs
underLaklng Lo employ 1odaro on a permanenL baslsŦ

1odaro flled wlLh 81C a complalnL for a breach of conLracLual obllgaLlon agalnsL ÞCÞlŦ
ÞÞPlţ ÞlLţ Mcuonald and klepzlgŦ

ÞeLlLloners moved Lo dlsmlss Lhe complalnL LhaL Lhe complalnL sLaLes no cause of acLlon
and Lhe 81C has no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe caseŦ

81C denled Lhe peLllLlLonŦ ÞeLlLloners flled a peLlLlon for cerLlorarl wlLh Lhe CA buL lL
was llkewlse denledŦ

ISSUL]sť

1Ŧ) WCn Lhe reneged of peLlLloners conLracLual obllgaLlon ls sufflclenL Lo consLlLuLe a cause of
acLlon for damages?

2Ŧ) WCn 81C has Lhe [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe case?

kULINGť
8ecords showed LhaL klepzlg conducLed negoLlaLlons wlLh 1odaro regardlng 1odaro's
posslble employmenLŦ lL was also klepzlg who lnformed respondenL LhaL hls company
was no longer lnLeresLed ln employlng respondenLŦ Penceţ 1odaro has a cause of
acLlonŦ

Also 81C has Lhe [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe caseŦ ln Lhls caseţ no employerŴemployee
relaLlonshlp exlsLs beLween peLlLloners and 1odaroŦ

1h|s court he|d that where no emp|oyerŴemp|oyee re|at|onsh|p ex|sts between the
part|es and no |ssue |s |nvo|ved wh|ch may be reso|ved by reference to the Labor
Codeţ other |abor statutes or any co||ect|ve barga|n|ng agreementţ |t |s the k1C that
has [ur|sd|ct|onŦ

















VILLAMAkIA VS CA 487 SCkA S71 (2006)

IAC1Sť ÞeLlLloner Cscar vlllamarla !rŦ was Lhe owner of vlllamarla MoLorsţ a sole proprleLorshlp
engaged ln assembllng passenger [eepneys wlLh a publlc uLlllLy franchlse Lo operaLe along Lhe
8aclaranŴSucaL rouLeŦ 8y 1993ţ vlllamarla sLopped assembllng [eepneys and reLalned only nlneţ
four of whlch operaLed by employlng drlvers on a boundary baslsŦ Cne of Lhose drlvers was
respondenL 8usLamanLeŦ 8usLamanLe remlLLed Þ430/day Lo vlllamarla as boundary and kepL
resldue of hls dally earnlngs as compensaLlonŦ ln AugusL 1997ţ vlllamarla verbally agreed Lo sell
Lhe [eepneys Lo 8usLamanLe under Lhe ºboundaryŴhulog schemeţ" where 8usLamanLe ls Lo
remlL Þ330/day Lo peLlLloner for a perlod of 4 years and LhereafLer ownershlp wlll Lransfer Lo
8usLamanLe and conLlnue Lo drlve Lhe same under vlllamarla's franchlseŦ lL was also agreed
LhaL 8usLamanLe wlll make a down paymenL of Þ10ţ000Ŧ

Cn AugusL 7ţ 1997ţ vlllamarla execuLed a conLracL (kasunduan ng 8lllhan ng Sasakyan sa
ÞamamaglLan ng 8oundaryŴPulog) over Lhe sub[ecL [eepneys wlLh Lhe followlng sLlpulaLlonsť
1Ŧ lf 8usLamanLe falled Lo pay Lhe boundaryŴhulog for 3 daysţ vlllamarla wlll hold on Lo Lhe
vehlcle unLll he pays Lhe arrears wlLh penalLy of Þ30/day
2Ŧ lf he falls Lo remlL Lhe dally boundaryŴhuloy for one weekţ Lhe agreemenL wlll cease Lo
have legal effecL and 8usLamanLe wlll have Lo reLurn Lhe vehlcle Lo vlllamarla moLors

8usLamanLe conLlnued drlvlng Lhe [eepneys under Lhe conLrol and supervlslon of vlllamarlaŦ As
agreed uponţ he made dally remlLLances of Þ330/day ln paymenL of Lhe purchase prlce of Lhe
vehlcleŦ When 8usLamanLe falled Lo pay Lhe annual reglsLraLlon fees of Lhe vehlcleţ vlllamarla
sLlll allowed hlm Lo conLlnue drlvlng Lhe [eepneysŦ

ln 1999ţ 8usLamanLe and oLher drlvers who had Lhe same arrangemenL wlLh vlllamarla MoLors
falled Lo pay Lhelr respecLlve boundary hulogŦ As a resulLţ vlllamarla senL a noLlce remlndlng
Lhe drlvers LhaL lf Lhey fall Lo remlL Lhe boundaryŴhulog wlLhln a weekţ Lhelr respecLlve [eepneys
would be reLurned Lo hlm wlLhouL any complalnLsŦ Cn !uly 24ţ 2000ţ vlllamarla Look back
8usLamanLe's [eepneys and barred Lhe laLLer from drlvlng Lhe vehlcleŦ

8usLamanLeţ Lhenţ flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal agalnsL spouses vlllamarlaŦ Pe alleged
LhaL ln !uly 2000ţ he lnformed vlllamarla LhaL Lhe surplus englne of Lhe [eep needed Lo be
replaced and was assured LhaL lL would be doneŦ Poweverţ he was laLer arresLed and had hls
drlver's llcense conflscaLed because apparenLlyţ Lhe replacemenL englne lnsLalled was Laken
from sLolen vehlcleŦ Pe was no longer allowed Lo drlve Lhe vehlcle unless he pald Lhem
Þ70ţ000Ŧ

vlllamarla's defenseť 8usLamanLe was noL hls employee slnce Lhelr relaLlonshlp was more of a
vendorŴvendee glven Lhe boundaryŴhulog scheme

ISSULť W/n 1PL LxlS1LnCL Cl A 8CunuA8?ŴPuLCC SCPLML nLCA1LS 1PL LMÞLC?LLŴ
LMÞLC?L8 8LLA1lCnSPlÞ 8L1WLLn 1PL vLnuC8 Anu vLnuLL

nLLDť under Lhe boundaryŴhulog schemeţ a dual [urldlcal relaLlonshlp ls creaLedť LhaL of
employerŴemployee and vendorŴvendeeŦ 1he agreemenL dld noL exLlngulsh Lhe employerŴ
employee relaLlonshlp slnce Lhe boundary sysLem ls a scheme whereby an owner/operaLor
engaged ln LransporLlng passengers as a common carrler Lo prlmarlly govern Lhe compensaLlon
of Lhe drlverţ lŦeŦţ Lhe laLLer's dally earnlngs are remlLLed Lo Lhe owner/operaLor less Lhe excess
of Lhe boundary whlch represenLs Lhe drlver's compensaLlonŦ Under th|s systemţ the
owner]operator exerc|ses contro| and superv|s|on over the dr|verŦ 1he management of the
bus|ness |s st||| |n the hands of the owner]operatorţ whoţ be|ng the ho|der of the cert|f|cate
of pub||c conven|enceţ must see to |t that the dr|ver fo||ows the route prescr|bed by L1kI8Ŧ
1he fact that the dr|ver does not rece|ve f|xed wages |s not suff|c|ent to change the
re|at|onsh|p between themŦ

1he ex|stence of an emp|oyment re|at|on |s not dependent on how the worker |s pa|d but on
the presence or absence of contro| over the means and method of the workŦ 1he emp|oyerţ
thenţ has the burden of prov|ng the respondent's term|nat|on from emp|oyment was for a
|awfu| or [ust cause wh|ch he fa||ed to do |n th|s caseŦ

1he [urlsdlcLlon of LA and nL8C under ArL 217 Labor Code ls llmlLed Lo dlspuLes arlslng from an
employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp whlch can only be resolved by reference Lo Lhe Labor Codeţ
oLher labor sLaLuLes or Lhelr C8AŦ
























Lapanday Agr|cu|tura| Deve|optment Corp vs CA 324 SCkA 77 (2001)
IAC1Sť
O ln !une 1986ţ plalnLlff Commando SecurlLy Servlce Agencyţ lncŦţ and defendanL Lapanday
AgrlculLural uevelopmenL CorporaLlon enLered lnLo a Cuard Servlce ConLracLŦ
Commando SecurlLy Servlce Agency lncŦ provlded securlLy guards Lo Lapanday
AgrlculLural uevelopmenL Corp's banana planLaLlonŦ
O Cn !une 16ţ 1984ţ Wage Crder noŦ 3 was promulgaLed dlrecLlng an lncrease of Þ3Ŧ00 per
day on Lhe mlnlmum wage of workers ln Lhe prlvaLe secLor and a Þ3Ŧ00 lncrease on Lhe
LCCLAŦ 1hls was followed on november 1ţ 1984 by Wage Crder noŦ 6 whlch furLher
lncreased sald mlnlmum wage by Þ3Ŧ00 on Lhe LCCLAŦ
O 1he SecurlLy Agency demanded LhaL lLs Cuard Servlce ConLracL wlLh LAuC be upgraded
ln compllance wlLh Wage Crder nosŦ 3 and 6Ŧ uefendanL refusedŦ 1helr ConLracL explred
on !une 6ţ 1986 wlLhouL Lhe raLe ad[usLmenL called for Wage Crder nosŦ 3 and 6 belng
lmplemenLedŦ
O ÞeLlLloner asserLs LhaL prlvaLe respondenL has no facLual and legal basls Lo collecL Lhe
beneflLs under sub[ecL Wage Crder nosŦ 3 and 6 lnLended for Lhe securlLy guards
wlLhouL Lhe auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe securlLy guards concernedŦ lnasmuch as Lhe servlces of
Lhe forLyŴLwo (42) securlLy guards were already LermlnaLed aL Lhe Llme Lhe complalnL
was flled on AugusL 13ţ 1988ţ prlvaLe respondenLs complalnL parLakes of Lhe naLure of
an acLlon for recovery of whaL was supposedly due Lhe guards under sald Wage Crdersţ
amounLs LhaL Lhey clalm were never pald by prlvaLe respondenL and Lherefore noL
collecLlble by Lhe laLLer from Lhe peLlLlonerŦ
O ÞrlvaLe respondenL conLends LhaL Lhe basls of lLs acLlon agalnsL peLlLlonerŴappellanL ls
Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe Cuard Servlce ConLracL enLered lnLo by Lhemţ whlch ls deemed
amended by SecLlon 6 of Wage Crder noŦ 3 and SecLlon 9 of Wage Crder noŦ 6Ť LhaL
pursuanL Lo Lhelr amended Cuard Servlce ConLracLţ Lhe lncreases/ad[usLmenLs ln wages
and LCCLA are due Lo prlvaLe respondenL and noL Lo Lhe securlLy guards who are noL
parLles Lo Lhe sald conLracLŦ lL ls Lherefore lmmaLerlal wheLher or noL prlvaLe
respondenL pald lLs securlLy guards Lhelr wages as ad[usLed by sald Wage Crders and
LhaL slnce Lhe forLyŴLwo (42) securlLy guards are noL parLles Lo Lhe Cuard Servlce
ConLracLţ Lhere ls no need for Lhem Lo auLhorlze Lhe flllng ofţ or be [olned ln
ISSULť
WheLher or noL Lhere exlsL an LmployerŴemployee relaLlon beLween Lhe parLlesŦ
WheLher or noL Lhe nL8C has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe sald caseŦ
WheLher or noL peLlLloner ls llable Lo Lhe prlvaLe respondenL for Lhe wage ad[usLmenLs
provlded under Wage Crder nosŦ 3 and 6Ŧ

nLLDť
1here's no exlsLlng employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe parLles slnce Lhe prlvaLe
respondenL ls an lndependenL/[ob conLracLor

who asslgned securlLy guards aL Lhe peLlLloners
premlses for a sLlpulaLed amounL per guard per monLhŦ 1he ConLracL of SecurlLy Servlces
expressly sLlpulaLed LhaL Lhe securlLy guards are employees of Lhe Agency and noL of Lhe
peLlLlonerŦ
lL ls seen from ArLlcle 106 and 107 LhaL Lhe prlnclpal (peLlLloner) and conLracLor (prlvaLe
respondenL) are [olnLly and severally llable Lo Lhe employees for Lhelr wagesŦ 1he [olnL and
several llablllLy of Lhe conLracLor and Lhe prlnclpal ls mandaLed by Lhe Labor Code Lo assure
compllance wlLh Lhe provlslons Lhereln lncludlng Lhe mlnlmum wageŦ 1he conLracLor ls made
llable by vlrLue of hls sLaLus as dlrecL employerŦ 1he prlnclpalţ on Lhe oLher handţ ls made Lhe
lndlrecL employer of Lhe conLracLors employees Lo secure paymenL of Lhelr wages should Lhe
conLracLor be unable Lo pay LhemŦ Lven ln Lhe absence of an employerŴemployee relaLlonshlpţ
Lhe law lLself esLabllshes one beLween Lhe prlnclpal and Lhe employees of Lhe agency for a
llmlLed purpose lŦeŦ ln order Lo ensure LhaL Lhe employees are pald Lhe wages due LhemŦ
lL ls clear also LhaL lL ls only when conLracLor pays Lhe lncreases mandaLed LhaL lL can clalm an
ad[usLmenL from Lhe prlnclpal Lo cover Lhe lncreases payable Lo Lhe securlLy guardsŦ 1he
concluslon LhaL Lhe rlghL of Lhe conLracLor (as prlnclpal debLor) Lo recover from Lhe prlnclpal as
solldary coŴdebLor) arlses only lf he has pald Lhe amounLs for whlch boLh of Lhem are [olnLly and
severally llable ls ln llne wlLh ArLlcle 1217 of Lhe Clvll Codeť
ºÞaymenL made by one of Lhe solldary debLors exLlngulshes Lhe obllgaLlonŦ lf Lwo
or more solldary debLors offer Lo payţ Lhe credlLor may choose whlch offer Lo
accepLŦ
Pe who made paymenL may clalm from hls codebLors only Lhe share whlch
corresponds Lo eachţ wlLh lnLeresL for Lhe paymenL already madeŦ lf Lhe paymenL
ls made before Lhe debL ls dueţ no lnLeresL for Lhe lnLervenlng perlod may be
demandedŦ xxxƍ
lL wlll be seen LhaL Lhe llablllLy of Lhe peLlLloner Lo relmburse Lhe respondenL only arlses lf and
when respondenL acLually pays lLs employees Lhe lncreases granLed by Wage Crder nosŦ 3 and

lL ls well seLLled ln law and [urlsprudence LhaL where no employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp exlsLs
beLween Lhe parLles and no lssue ls lnvolved whlch may be resolved by reference Lo Lhe Labor
Codeţ oLher labor sLaLuLes or any collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenLţ lL ls Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
LhaL has [urlsdlcLlonŦ ln lLs complalnLţ prlvaLe respondenL ls noL seeklng any rellef under Lhe
Labor Code buL seeks paymenL of a sum of money and damages on accounL of peLlLloners
alleged breach of lLs obllgaLlon under Lhelr Cuard Servlce ConLracLŦ 1he acLlon ls wlLhln Lhe
realm of clvll law hence [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe case belongs Lo Lhe regular courLsŦ Whlle Lhe
resoluLlon of Lhe lssue lnvolves Lhe appllcaLlon of labor lawsţ reference Lo Lhe labor code was
only for Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe solldary llablllLy of Lhe peLlLloner Lo Lhe respondenL where no
employerŴemployee relaLlon exlsLsŦ ArLlcle 217 of Lhe Labor Code as amended vesLs upon Lhe
labor arblLers excluslve orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon only over Lhe followlngť
1Ŧ unfalr labor pracLlcesŤ
2Ŧ 1ermlnaLlon dlspuLesŤ
3Ŧ lf accompanled wlLh a clalm for relnsLaLemenLţ Lhose cases LhaL workers may
flle lnvolvlng wagesţ raLes of payţ hours of work and oLher Lerms and condlLlons
of employmenLŤ
4Ŧ Clalms for acLualţ moral exemplary and oLher forms of damages arlslng from
employerŴemployee relaLlonsŤ
3Ŧ Cases arlslng from any vlolaLlon of ArLlcle 264 of Lhls Codeţ lncludlng quesLlons
lnvolvlng legallLy of sLrlkes and lockouLsŤ and
6Ŧ LxcepL clalms for Lmployees CompensaLlonţ Soclal SecurlLyţ Medlcare and
maLernlLy beneflLsţ all oLher clalmsţ arlslng from employerŴemployee relaLlonsţ
lncludlng Lhose of persons ln domesLlc or household servlceţ lnvolvlng an
amounL exceedlng flve Lhousand pesos (Þ3ţ000Ŧ00) regardless of wheLher
accompanled wlLh a clalm for relnsLaLemenLŦ
ln all Lhese casesţ an employerŴemployee relaLlonshlp ls an lndlspensable [urlsdlcLlonal
requlslLeŤ and Lhere ls none ln Lhls caseŦ







9h||mareţ IncŦ]Mar|ow Nav|gat|on CoŦţ LtdŦ VsŦ Suganob

IAC1Sť

8espondenL Suganob was employed as Chlef Cook for peLlLloners for almosL 10 years on
board wlLh varlous vessels of peLlLlonersŦ

Pls lasL employmenL was where he was hlred for a perlod of 10 monLhs sLarLlng SepLŦ 2ţ
2001Ŧ

6 days afLer he had boarded sald shlpţ he experlenced palns on hls rlghL shoulderŦ AfLer
undergolng consulLaLlon ln vleLnamţ he was medlcally repaLrlaLedŦ

upon arrlval ln Lhe ÞhllsŦţ Suganob was lmmedlaLely referred by Lhe peLlLloners Lo Lhe
Þeople's dlagnosLlc CenLerţ lncŦ where a serles of examlnaLlons and dlagnosls were
performed on hlmŦ

1he medlcal reporL showed LhaL Suganob was unflL Lo work unLll CcLober 11ţ 2001 and
on CcLober 29ţ 2011ţ Suganob was declared flL Lo work by Lhe Þeople's ulagnosLlc
CenLer provlded he malnLalns hls medlcaLlonsŦ

Aprll 3ţ 2002ţ Suganob's physlclan declared LhaL he cannoL be cleared and ls noL flL Lo
work because of hls age and Lhe recurrence of sympLoms of lllnessŦ

Suganob soughL hls permanenL dlsablllLy compensaLlon and oLher beneflLs from
peLlLloners buL hls requesL was refusedŦ

Suganob flled a complalnL Lo recover slckness and permanenL dlsablllLy beneflLsŦ

ISSULť

ls Suganob enLlLled Lo dlsablllLy beneflLs and slckness allowance/wages?
kULINGť

1he courLs flnd LhaL Suganob ls enLlLled Lo Crade l dlsablllLy beneflLs and slckness whlch
corresponds Lo LoLal and permanenL dlsablllLyŦ

1he medlcal cerLlflcaLe lssued on CcLober 29ţ 2001 by peLlLloner's company physlclan sLaLed
LhaL Suganob was flL Lo reLurn work was condlLlonal because Suganob sLlll has Lo malnLaln
medlcaLlonsŦ

And Lhe medlcal cerLlflcaLe lssued by Lhe Þhyslclan chosen by Suganob on Aprll 3ţ 2002
lndlcaLed LhaL Suganob's lllness recurred and conLlnued whlch rendered hlm unflL Lo
conLlnue hls workŦ

ln boLh medlcal cerLlflcaLesţ Suganob was noL consldered Lo be flL Lo reLurn workŦ Penceţ lL
ls clear Lhe Suganob ls enLlLled Lo dlsablllLy beneflLsŦ

1o be enLlLlled Lo Crade 1 dlsablllLy beneflLsţ Lhe employees dlsablllLy musL noL only be LoLal
buL also permanenLŦ

ÞermanenL dlsablllLy ls Lhe lnablllLy of a worker Lo perform hls [ob for more Lhan 120 daysţ
regardless of wheLher or noL he loses Lhe use of any parL of hls bodyŦ

Clearly Suganob's dlsablllLy ls permanenL slnce he was unable Lo work from Lhe Llme he was
medlcally repaLrlaLed for more Lhan seven monLhsŦ Alsoţ lf suganob ls flL Lo workţ he would
have Laken back by peLlLlonersŦ In d|sab|||ty compensat|onţ |t |s not the |n[ury wh|ch |s
compensatedţ but rather the |ncapac|ty to work resu|t|ng |n the |mpa|rment of one's
earn|ng capac|tyŦ

Whereforeţ Suganob ls Lo be awarded 120Ŵday slckness benflLs and permanenL dlsablllLy
beneflLsŦ


















LDI S1AII 8UILDLkS IN1LkNA1ICNAL INC VS MAGSINC 3S9 SCkA 212 (2001)

IAC1Sť Lul ls a recrulLmenL agency wlLh uomlnguez as lLs presldenL whlle Magslno wasţ unLll
dlsmlssalţ lLs supervlsor of Þrocesslng and uocumenLaLlon CroupŦ

1he manager of Lhe Þrocesslng and uocumenLaLlon Croup senL a memo Lo Magslno saylng LhaL
managemenL recelved reporLs LhaL Magslno wlLhheld collecLed premlum paymenLs for workers'
mandaLory repaLrlaLlon bondŦ Magslnoţ Lhenţ was requlred Lo explaln Lhe alleged lncldenLŦ
lnsLead of complylng wlLh Lhe memoţ respondenL Lendered her reslgnaLlon buL was held ln
abeyance pendlng resulL of Lhe lnvesLlgaLlonŦ Cn May 20ţ 1993ţ respondenL was glven a noLlce
of LermlnaLlonţ

ISSULť W/n nL8C CC88LC1L? ulS8LCA8uLu 1PL LvluLnCL Þ8LSLn1Lu Cn AÞÞLALŤ W/n
8LSÞCnuLn1 WAS ulSMlSSLu lC8 CAuSL

nLLDť lL has been seLLled LhaL no undue sympaLhy ls Lo be accorded Lo any clalm of a
procedural mlssLep ln labor casesŦ Such cases musL be declded accordlng Lo [usLlce and equlLy
and subsLanLlal merlLs of Lhe conLroversyŦ ln Lhe 8rlsLol caseţ Lhe SC held LhaL Lhe nL8C dld noL
commlL grave abuse ln conslderlng addlLlonal documenLary evldence submlLLed by Lhe
employer on appeal Lo prove breach of LrusL and loss of confldence as basls for dlsmlssalŦ

lL should be sLressed LhaL ln an unlawful dlsmlssal caseţ Lhe employer has Lhe burden of provlng
Lhe lawful cause for Lhe employee's dlsmlssalŦ WlLhouL sufflclenL proofţ an employee cannoL be
dlsmlssed on Lhls groundŦ As suchţ lL was an error for nL8C and CA Lo dlsallow evldence
presenLed on appealŦ

Moreoverţ Lhere ls no sufflclenL proof Lo esLabllsh Magslno was dlsmlssed for loss of LrusL and
confldenceŦ ÞeLlLloners slmply alleged LhaL Lhe respondenL falled Lo accounL for Þ201ţ600
wlLhouL showlng how Lhls flgure was arrlved aLŦ

CA was correcL Lo order separaLlon pay lnsLead of relnsLaLemenL because of Lhe sLraln Lhe
relaLlonshlp of Lhe employer and employee and back wagesţ followlng Lhe rullng ln 8usLamanLe
vsŦ nL8Cţ should be compuLed from Lhe Llme of respondenL's dlsmlssal up Lo Lhe Llme of flnallLy
of Lhe declslonŦ










An|no vs NLkC 290 SCkA 489 (1998)
IAC1Sť
O ComplalnanLs allege LhaL Lhey are employees of respondenL PlnaLuan Mlnlng
CorporaLlon (PMC) holdlng supervlsory poslLlonsŦ SomeLlme ln SepLember 1993ţ
complalnanLs planned Lhe formaLlon of a supervlsors unlon wlLh PMCŦ 1he plan was
recelved enLhuslasLlcally by pracLlcally all employees wlLh supervlsory rankţ and shorLly
LhereafLer Lhe PlnA1uAn MlnlnC SuÞL8vlSC8? unlCn (PlMSu) was formally
organlzed and reglsLered wlLh Lhe uCLLŦ ComplalnanLs were elecLed offlclal and acLlve
members of PlMSuŦ
O Cn or abouL 03 november 1993ţ PlMSu formally noLlfled Lhe company of lLs legal
exlsLence Lhrough a leLLer addressed Lo Lhe ÞresldenL of PMCŦ Ŧ lL formally lnformed Lhe
company of lLs deslre for a collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenL and submlLLed lLs proposals
Lherefore under leLLer daLed 16 november 1993Ŧ 1he complalnanL clalms LhaL LhaL Lhe
company compleLely lgnored Lhe unlon's proposal and dld noL answer Lhe PlMSu abouL
lLţ whlch consLralnL Lhe unlon Lo flle an unfalr labor pracLlce case agalnsL PMC on May
13ţ 1994Ŧ
O ln order Lo weaken and lf posslble desLroy Lhe unlonţ respondenLsţ ln Lhe gulse of
reLrenchmenLţ dlsmlssed Lhe complalnanLs who are Lhe acLlve leaders of Lhe unlon
under leLLer daLed 16 !une 1994Ŧ ComplalnanLs aver LhaL Lhelr dlsmlssal was done wlLh
mallclous lnLenL Lo cause Lhem and Lhe unlon damage for Lhelr leglLlmaLe exerclse of Lhe
rlghL Lo selfŴorganlzaLlonţ ln open deflance of ArLŦ 248 of Lhe Labor CodeŦ
O 8ecause of Lhelr dlsmlssalţ complalnanLs sLaLe LhaL Lhey were deprlved of Lhelr salarlesţ
and suffered moral damages for menLal angulshţ serlous anxleLyţ soclal humlllaLlonţ
besmlrched repuLaLlon and oLher slmllar hurLŦ ComplalnanLs Lhen pray LhaL
respondenLsť (a) be declared gullLy of unfalr labor pracLlcesŤ (b) be ordered Lo relnsLaLe
complalnanLs Lo Lhelr former poslLlons wlLh backwagesŦ

ISSULť WheLher or noL Lhere was a valld reLrenchmenL of Lhe complalnanLsŦ
nLLDť !urlsprudence prescrlbes Lhe mlnlmum sLandards necessary Lo prove Lhe valldlLy of a
reLrenchmenLŦ
8eLrenchmenL ls resorLed Lo by an employer because of losses ln Lhe operaLlon of a buslness
occasloned by lack of work and conslderable reducLlon ln Lhe volume of buslnessŦ lL ls a
managemenL prerogaLlve conslsLenLly recognlzed and afflrmed by Lhls CourLţ sub[ecL only Lo
falLhful compllance wlLh Lhe subsLanLlve and procedural requlremenLs lald down by law (arLlcle
283) and [urlsprudence
1o [usLlfy reLrenchmenLţ Lhe followlng requlslLes musL be complled wlLhť ƍ(a) Lhe losses
expecLed should be subsLanLlal and noL merely Je mlolmls ln exLenLŤ (b) Lhe subsLanLlal losses
apprehended musL be reasonably lmmlnenLŤ (c) Lhe reLrenchmenL musL be reasonably
necessary and llkely Lo effecLlvely prevenL Lhe expecLed lossesŤ and (d) Lhe alleged lossesţ lf
already lncurredţ and Lhe expecLed lmmlnenL losses soughL Lo be foresLalled musL be proved by
sufflclenL and convlnclng evldenceŦƍ
ln LermlnaLlon casesţ Lhe burden of provlng LhaL Lhe dlsmlssal was for a valld or auLhorlzed
cause resLs upon Lhe employerŦ ln Lhe case aL barţ respondenL corporaLlon dld noL submlL an
loLa of evldence Lo show losses ln lLs buslness operaLlons and Lhe economlc havoc lL would
susLaln lmmlnenLlyŦ lL merely clalmed LhaL reLrenchmenL was underLaken as a measure of selfŴ
preservaLlon Lo prevenL losses broughL abouL by Lhe conLlnulng decllne of nlckel prlces and
exporL volume ln Lhe mlnlng lndusLryŦ






























San M|gue| Corporat|on vsŦ NLkC

IAC1Sť
LrnesLo lblas was employed by San Mlguel corporaLlon (SMC) on uecŦ 24ţ 1978 as a C8C
operaLorŦ
Accordlng Lo SMC's Þollcyţ absences wlLhouL permlsslon or AWCÞsţ whlch are absences
noL covered elLher by a cerLlflcaLlon of Lhe planL docLor LhaL Lhe employee was absenL
due Lo slckness or by duly approved appllcaLlon for leave of absence flled aL leasL 6 days
prlor Lo Lhe lnLended leaveţ are sub[ecL Lo dlsclpllnary acLlonŦ
Cn Lhe same Þollcyţ lL also punlshes falslflcaLlon of company records or documenLs wlLh
dlscharge or LermlnaLlon for Lhe flrsL offense lf Lhe offender hlmself beneflLs from Lhe
falslflcaLlonŦ
lor respondenL's absences ln !anuary and Aprll he was glven a wrlLLen warnlng on May
9ţ 1997 LhaL he had already lncurred 3 AWCÞs and LhaL furLher absences would be
sub[ecL Lo dlsclpllnary acLlonŦ
lor hls absences ln Aprll and Mayţ LrnesLo was alleged Lo have falslfled hls medlcal
consulLaLlon card by sLaLlng LhaL he was granLed slck leave by Lhe planL cllnlc on sald
daLesŦ
1wo noLlce Lo Lxplaln leLLers were senL Lo LrnesLo requlrlng hlm Lo sLaLe ln wrlLlng why
he should noL be sub[ecL Lo dlsclpllnary acLlon for falslfylng hls medlcal consulLaLlon card
and for noL reporLlng for work ln Lhe monLh of May buL LrnesLo dld noL comply wlLh
Lhese noLlcesŦ
!une 3ţ 1997ţ LrnesLo submlLLed a handwrlLLen explanaLlon Lo Lhe charges denylng Lhe
alleged falslflcaLlon of medlcal consulLaLlon cardŦ
SMC conducLed an admlnlsLraLlve lnvesLlgaLlonŦ uurlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon respondenL
never admlLLed LhaL he had soughL slck leave permlsslon and also denled falslfylng hls
medlcal consulLaLlon cardŦ
Accordlng Lo Lhe LesLlmonles of Lhe Lwo employees (Slwa and Marable) of SMCţ LrnesLo
falslfled hls medlcal consulLaLlon card Lo cover up hls excesslve AWCÞsŦ
SMC concluded LhaL LrnesLo commlLLed Lhe offenses of excesslve AWCÞs and
falslflcaLlon of company records or documenLsţ and dlsmlssed hlmŦ
LrnesLo flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal agalnsL SMCŦ
1he labor arblLer found LhaL respondenL was never suspended for hls prevlous AWCÞsŦ
lL furLher ruled LhaL Lhe managemenL has Lo be blamed fro Lhe nonŴlmplemenLaLlon
wlLh Lhe company pollcyŦ
1he CA afflrmed Lhe declslon of Lhe labor arblLer

ISSULť
WCn SMC lllegally dlsmlssed LrnesLo?

kULINGť
1he courL agrees LhaL SMC was unable Lo prove Lhe falslflcaLlon charge agalnsL respondenLŦ
8espondenL cannoL be legally dlsmlssed on Lhe basls of Lhe LesLlmonles of SMC's employeesŦ
SMC was unable Lo proveţ by subsLanLlal evldenceţ LhaL lL was respondenL who made Lhe
unauLhorlzed enLrlesŦ

8ut respondent's d|sm|ssa| was we|| w|th|n the purv|ew of SMC's management prerogat|veŦ

SMC gave respondenL a warnlng LhaL he had already 6 AWCÞs from Lhe monLh of !anuary and
AprllŦ Pe Lhen agaln absenL on May 7 and 8ţ 1997Ŧ Pe was also glven noLlces Lo explaln hls
AWCÞs on May 26 and !une 2ţ 1997Ŧ As early as !une 1997ţ he had more Lhan 9 AWCÞsŦ

ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of company rules and pollclesţ Lhe employer has Lhe cholce Lo do so
sLrlcLly or noLţ slnce Lhls ls lnherenL lLs rlghL Lo conLrol and manage lLs buslness effecLlvelyŦ

WL flnd SMC has acLed well wlLhln lLs rlghLs when lL dlsmlssed respondenL for hls numerous
absencesŦ 8espondenL was afforded due process and valldly dlsmlssed for causeŦ





























NCkIS 1kADING CC INC VS GNILC S44 SCkA 278 (2008)

IAC1Sť Cnllo was Lhe credlL and collecLlon manager of norkls 1radlng and ls lncharge of Lhe
Albay and CaLanduanes branches of Lhe companyŦ ln 2000ţ Cnllo was found Lo be submlLLlng
oversLaLed reporLs abouL hls area of managemenL whlch mlsled Lhe managemenL lnLo bellevlng
LhaL Cnllo was dolng a good [obŦ norkls P8 lssued a memo LhaL he wlll be suspended for 13
days wlLhouL pay and beneflLsŦ Pe was subsequenLly Lransferred from hls poslLlon Lo belng Lhe
markeLlng asslsLanL of Lhe company's senlor vÞ AlbosŦ Cnllo accepLed Lhe poslLlon under
proLesLŦ Pe sued for lllegal suspenslon and consLrucLlve dlsmlssalŦ

nL8C held LhaL Lhe peLlLloners valldly exerclse Lhelr managemenL prerogaLlve Lo lmpose
dlsclpllne on an errlng employee for negllgence buL Lhe Lransfer of poslLlon from manager Lo
markeLlng asslsLanL consLlLuLes consLrucLlve dlsmlssalŦ

ÞeLlLloner's argumenLť ÞeLlLloners clalm LhaL Lhey were merely exerclslng Lhelr lnherenL
prerogaLlve as an employer when Lhey appolnLed respondenL as MarkeLlng AsslsLanL Lo Lhe
Senlor vlceŴÞresldenL for MarkeLlngŦ

ISSULť W/n 1PL 18AnSlL8 Cl CnlLC l8CM A CCLLLC1lCnS MAnACL8 1C MA8kL1lnC
ASSlS1An1 CCnS1l1u1LS CCnS18uC1lvL ulSMlSSAL

nLLDť 1he employer has Lo prove LhaL Lhe Lransfer ls noL unreasonableţ lnconvenlenL or
pre[udlclal Lo Lhe employee and does noL lnvolve a demoLlon ln rank or dlmlnuLlon of hls
salarlesţ prlvlleges and oLher beneflLs oLherwlseţ lL would consLlLuLe consLrucLlve dlsmlssalŦ

ConsLrucLlve dlsmlssal ls deflned as a qulLLlng because conLlnued employmenL ls rendered
lmposslbleţ unreasonable or unllkelyŤ when Lhere ls demoLlon ln rank or dlmlnuLlon of payŦ
ConsLrucLlve dlsmlssal also exlsLs when an acL of clear dlscrlmlnaLlonţ lnsenslblllLyţ or dlsdaln by
an employer becomes unbrearable Lo Lhe employeeţ leavlng hlm no cholce buL Lo leave hls
employmenLŦ

Whlle Lhe Lransfer of respondenL from CredlL and CollecLlon Manager Lo MarkeLlng AsslsLanL
dld noL resulL ln Lhe reducLlon of hls salaryţ Lhere was a reducLlon ln hls duLles and
responslblllLles whlch amounLed Lo a demoLlon LanLamounL Lo a consLrucLlve dlsmlssalŦ










9unza| vs L1SI 1echno|og|es IncŦ S18 SCkA 66 (2007)
IAC1Sť
O ÞeLlLlonerţ Lorna ulslng Þunzalţ had been worklng for L1Sl 1echnologles lncŦ as a
ueparLmenL SecreLary for 12 years prlor Lo Lhe LermlnaLlon of her servlcesŦ
O ÞeLlLloner senL an emall Lo her offlcemaLes announclng Lhe holdlng of Palloween parLy
LhaL was supposed Lo be held aL Lhe offlce Lhe followlng dayŦ upon recelvlng Lhe emallţ
peLlLloner's supervlsorţ Carmelo 8emudaro advlsed her flrsL secure an approval from Lhe
Senlor vÞţ Werner CelserL for Lhe holdlng of Lhe parLy ln Lhe offlceŦ CelserL dld noL
approve of Lhe plan of conducLlng a parLy ln Lhe offlceŦ
O ÞeLlLloner senL a second emall Lo her offlcemaLes lnformlng Lhem of Lhe cancelled
Palloween parLy and lncludlng some remarks agalnsL Lhe Senlor vÞ ( Pe was so
unfalrŧpara bang palagl slyang lnllsahan sa LrabahoŧbaklL mosL of Lhe parenLs na magŴ
[olned ang anak ay nakaŴvL namanŦ Anywayţ solohln na lang nlya bukas ang offlce) and
lnvlLlng her offlcemaLes Lo aLLend Lhe 1rlck or 1reaL ln Megamall durlng offlce hours
(10am)Ŧ
O CelserL goL a copy of her emallţ Lhus requlrlng her Lo explaln ln wrlLlng wlLhln 48hrs why
she should noL be glven a dlsclpllnary acLlon for commlLLlng Art|c|e IVţ NoŦ S Ǝ 8
Improper conduct or acts of d|scourtesy or d|srespect and Mak|ng ma||c|ous
statements concern|ng Company Cff|cerţ whereby such offenses may be sub[ecL Lo
suspenslon Lo LermlnaLlon dependlng upon Lhe gravlLy of Lhe offense/s as speclfled ln
our 15l´s Code of ConducL and ulsclpllneŦ
O ÞeLlLloner replled Lhru a leLLer explalnlng LhaL she had no mallclous lnLenLlon ln sendlng
Lhe second emall and LhaL she never expecLed LhaL such klnd of words can be called as
acLs of dlscourLesy and dlsrespecLŦ
O CelserL and 8emudaro subsequenLly conferred wlLh peLlLloner Lo glve her a chance Lo
explaln her sldeŦ SubsequenLly Lhey senL her a leLLer flndlng her explanaLlon
unaccepLable and LermlnaLlng her servlcesţ effecLlve lmmedlaLelyŦ
O ÞeLlLloner flled before nL8C a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal agalnsL L1Slţ CelserL and
8emudaroŦ
ISSULť WheLher or noL Lhe lmmedlaLe dlsmlssal of Lhe peLlLloner was reasonable and proper
conslderlng Lhe vlolaLlon she commlLLedŦ
nLLDť
1he lmposlLlon of Lhe penalLy of dlsmlssal ls properť
(1) Þunzal's sLaLemenLs were dlscourLeous and dlsrespecLful noL only Lo a mere coŴ
employeeţ buL Lo a hlgh ranklng execuLlve offlclal of Lhe companyŤ
(2) Þunzal's sLaLemenLs Lended Lo rldlcule and undermlne Lhe credlblllLy and auLhorlLy
of SvÞ CelserLţ and even encouraged dlsobedlence Lo Lhe sald offlcerŤ
(3) Þunzal's message was senL Lo a greaL number of employees of L1Slţ whlch Lended Lo
sow dlssenL and dlsrespecL Lo managemenL among a greaL number of employees of
L1SlŤ
(4) Þunzal's message could noL have been made ln good falLhţ because Lhe message
lLself used language LhaL placed SvÞ CelserL ln rldlcule and porLrayed hlm as an ob[ecL of
scornţ beLraylng Lhe sender's bad falLhŦ
Clven Lhese clrcumsLancesţ Lhe facL LhaL Þunzal's lnfracLlon occurred only once should be
largely lnslgnlflcanLŦ 1he gravlLy and publlclLy of Lhe offense as well as lLs adverse lmpacL ln Lhe
workplace ls more Lhan sufflclenL Lo place Lhe same ln Lhe level of a serlous mlsconducLŦ
lL ls Lhe prerogaLlve of managemenL Lo regulaLeţ accordlng Lo lLs dlscreLlon and [udgmenLţ all
aspecLs of employmenLŦ 1hls flows from Lhe esLabllshed rule LhaL labor law does noL auLhorlze
Lhe subsLlLuLlon of Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe employer ln Lhe conducL of lLs buslnessŦ Such
managemenL prerogaLlve may be avalled of wlLhouL fear of any llablllLy so long as lL ls exerclsed
ln good falLh for Lhe advancemenL of Lhe employers' lnLeresL and noL for Lhe purpose of
defeaLlng or clrcumvenLlng Lhe rlghLs of employees under speclal laws or valld agreemenL and
are noL exerclsed ln a mallclousţ harshţ oppresslveţ vlndlcLlve or wanLon manner or ouL of
mallce or splLe


















1orreda vsŦ 1osh|ba Informat|on Lqu|pment (9h||sŦ) IncŦ

IAC1Sť
1orreda was employed aL 1oshlba as flnance accounLanL under Lhe llnance and
AccounLlng ueparLmenL headed by kobayashlţ vlceŴÞresldenL and Sepulvedaţ llnance
ManagerŦ
lrom SepLember 1Ŵ3ţ 1998ţ Sepulveda recelved some complalnLs from separaLed
employees and from lncumbenL employees on maLernlLy and oLher beneflLsŦ
ln order Lo reLrleve Lhe clalmanLs' payroll and SSS fllesţ whlch 1orreda kepL ln hls
drawerţ Sepulvedaţ wlLh prlor approval from kobayashlţ had Lhe drawer forclbly opened
by a sLaff member of Lhe Ceneral AdmlnlsLraLlon SecLlonŦ 1he drawer was opened ln
Lhe presence of Cscar Lusebloţ noralyn llorenclo and llor 8erdln of Lhe llnance
ueparLmenLŦ
Cn SepLŦ 7ţ 1998 Sepulveda requesLed 1orreda Lo submlL hls key for dupllcaLlon LŦ
1orreda refusedŦ
Sepulveda senL a formal requesL Lhrough eŴmall dlrecLlng hlm Lo Lurn over hls drawer
key Lo Lhe Ceneral AdmlnlsLraLor of Lhe company for Lhe dupllcaLlon and Lo explaln ln
wrlLlng why he refused Lo surrender hls keyŦ
1orreda replled Lhrough eŴmall accuslng Sepulveda of robberyŦ 1orreda furnlshed coples
of Lhls eŴmall Lo several employeesŦ
Cn Lhe same dayţ Sepulveda senL Lo Lhe P8u a complalnL/requesL for lnvesLlgaLlon vla eŴ
mall regardlng 1orreda's accusaLlon and hls abuslve and rude behavlorŦ
1he sLaff of Lhe Ceneral AdmlnlsLraLlon (CA) SecLlon conducLed an lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe
complalnL agalnsL Sepulveda and submlLLed hls reporL declarlng LhaL Lhere was no
facLual basls for 1orreda's robbery charge agalnsL SepulvedaŦ
1he CA recommended LhaL 1orreda be dlsmlssed conformably wlLh lLs flndlngs LhaL he
commlLLed grave slander under Lhe company's Lmployee PandbookŦ
1orreda was dlsmlssedŦ
1orreda flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssalŦ

ISSULť WCn Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe peLlLloner was legalŦ

kULINGť 1he dlsmlssal of 1orreda was legalŦ

8espondenL 1oshlba proved LhaL peLlLloner was dlsmlssed for [usL causeŦ

1he false aLLrlbuLlon by 1orreda of robbery agalnsL Sepulveda was made ln wrlLlngţ 1orreda
commlLLed llbel and noL grave slander agalnsL SepulvedaŦ

An employee may be dlsmlssed from employmenL for acLs punlshable under arLŦ 282 (a) of Lhe
Labor Code LhaL ls by serlous mlsconducLŦ

1here ls abundanL evldence on record showlng LhaL 1orreda commlLLed llbel agalnsL hls
lmmedlaLe superlorţ Sepulvedaţ an acL consLlLuLlng serlous mlsconducL whlch warranLs Lhe
dlsmlssal from employmenLŦ

1orreda knew LhaL lL was noL Sepulveda who opened hls drawerŦ
ÞeLlLloner admlLLed LhaL hls charge of robbery agalnsL Sepulveda was baselessţ buL clalmed LhaL
he fabrlcaLed Lhe charge because of hls anger aL Sepulveda's repeaLed acLs of openlng hls
drawer wlLhouL prlor permlsslonŦ

An employer has a free relgns and en[oys wlde laLlLude of dlscreLlon Lo regulaLe all aspecLs of
employmenL lncludlng Lhe prerogaLlve Lo lnsLlll dlsclpllne ln lLs employees and Lo lmpose
penalLlesţ lncludlng dlsmlssalţ upon errlng employeesŦ

1hls ls a managemenL prerogaLlveţ where Lhe free wlll of managemenL Lo conducL lLs own
affalrs Lo achleve lLs purpose Lakes formŦ


















UNICN CI IILI9kC VS NLS1LL 9nILS 449 SCkA S21 (2007)
IAC1Sť ln anLlclpaLlon of Lhe explraLlon of Lhe exlsLlng C8A beLween nesLle and ulLţ Lhe
presldenLs of Lhe Alabang andf Cabuyao dlvlslons lnformed Lhe company of Lhelr lnLenL Lo open
negoLlaLlons for Lhe upcomlng C8A coverlng 2001Ŵ2004Ŧ nesLle acknowledged Lhe leLLer and
lnformed Lhe unlon LhaL lL was preparlng lLs own counLerproposal and proposed ground rules
LhaL shall govern Lhe conducL of Lhe C8A negoLlaLlonsŦ

ln May 2001ţ nesLle senL anoLher leLLer underscorlng sub[ecLs whlch shall be excluded from Lhe
C8A negoLlaLlons also clarlfled LhaL slnce Lhe closure of Lhe Alabang planLţ Lhe C8A negoLlaLlons
wlll only be appllcable Lo Lhe Cabuyao planLŦ lncldenLallyţ boLh parLles falled Lo reach an
agreemenL on Lhe proposed C8AŦ Cn november 2001ţ a noLlce of sLrlke was flled by Lhe unlon
alleglngţ among oLhersţ nesLle's unfalr labor pracLlces (lŦeŦ bargalnlng ln bad falLh by seLLlng
preŴcondlLlons ln Lhe ground rules)Ŧ ln vlew of Lhe lmpendlng sLrlkeţ nesLle flled wlLh uCLL a
peLlLlon praylng LhaL uCLL sec SLoŦ 1omas assume [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe labor dlspuLeţ Lhereby
en[olnlng any lmpendlng sLrlke aL Lhe Cabuyao planLŦ Powever desplLe Lhe ln[uncLlon conLalned
ln Lhe assumpLlon of [urlsdlcLlon order and conclllaLlon efforLsţ on !anuary 13ţ 2002ţ Lhe
employees of Lhe unlon aL Lhe Cabuyao planL wenL on sLrlkeŦ ln llghL of Lhe sLrlkeţ uCLL
secreLary lssued anoLher orderť
1Ŧ Crderlng members of Lhe unlon Lo reLurn Lo work wlLhln 24 hours
2Ŧ nesLle Lo accepL back all reLurnlng employees under Lhe same Lerms and condlLlons
exlsLlng prlor Lo Lhe sLrlke
3Ŧ 1o cease and deslsL from commlLLlng acLs lnlmlcal Lo Lhe ongolng conclllaLlon meeLlngs
4Ŧ 8oLh parLles Lo submlL poslLlon papers wlLhln 10 days
uesplLe Lhlsţ Lhe members of Lhe unlon conLlnued wlLh Lhelr sLrlke and refused Lo go back Lo
work as lnsLrucLed

ISSULť W]N kLS9CNDLN1 NLS1LL IS GUIL1¥ CI UNIAIk LA8Ck 9kAC1ICL IN kLIUSING
1C 9kCCLLD WI1n 1nL C8A NLGC1I A1ICNS UNLLSS 9L1I1ICNLk II kS1 ADMI1S
1nA1 1nL kL1I kLMLN1 9LAN IN 1nL CCM9AN¥ IS A NCNŴ C8A MA11Lk
nLLDť ln an earller case lnvolvlng Lhe same parLlesţ Lhe SC held LhaL Lhe lncluslon of Lhe
reLlremenL plan ln Lhe C8A as parL of Lhe package of economlc beneflLs exLended by Lhe
company Lo lLs employees has a consensual characLer Lo Lhe plan so LhaL lL may noL be
LermlnaLed or modlfled aL wlll by elLher parLyŦ 1he facL LhaL Lhe reLlremenL planL ls nonŴ
conLrlbuLory does noL make lL a nonŴlssue ln Lhe C8A negoLlaLlonsŦ Slnce Lhe reLlremenL plan
has been an lnLegral parL of Lhe C8A slnce 1972ţ Lhe unlon's demand Lo lncrease Lhe beneflLs
due Lhe employees under sald plan ls a valld C8A lssueŦ ÞursuanL Lo ArL 100 Labor Codeţ
employees do have a vesLed and demandable rlghL over exlsLlng beneflLs volunLarlly granLed Lo
Lhem by Lhelr employerŦ As suchţ Lhe laLLer may noL unllaLerally wlLhdrawţ ellmlnaLe or
dlmlnlsh such beneflLsŦ
Lmp| oyers are accorded r| ghts and pr| v| | eges to assure the| r se| fŴ
determ| nat| on and | ndependence and reasonab| e return of cap| ta| Ŧ 1h| s mass
of pr| v| | eges compr| ses the soŴca| | ed management prerogat| vesŦ In th| s
connect| onţ the ru| e | s that good fa| th | s a| ways presumedŦ As | ong as the
company' s exerc| se of the same | s | n good fa| th to advance | ts | nterest and
not for purpose of defeat| ng or c| rcumvent| ng the r| ghts of emp| oyees under
the | aw or a va| | d agreementţ such exerc| se w| | | be uphe| dŦ
lrom Lhe facLs and evl dence exLanL l n Lhe records of Lhese consol l daLed
peLl L l onsţ Lhl s CourL fl nds LhaL 1) L he 8eLl remenL Þl an l s sLl l l a val l d l ssue f or
herel n parLl es col l ecLl ve bargal nl ng negoLl aLl onsŤ 2) L he CourL of Appeal s
comml LLed reversl bl e error l n l l ml L l ng Lo Lhe l ssue of Lhe ground rul es Lhe
scope of L he power of Lhe SecreLary of Labor Lo assume [ url sdl cLl on over L he
sub[ ecL l abor dl spuLeŤ and 3) nesLl e l s noL gul l Ly of unfal r l abor pracLl ceŦ




























Star 9aper Corp vs S|mbo| 487 SCkA 228 (2006)
IAC1Sť
O ÞeLlLloner SLar Þaper CorporaLlon (Lhe company) ls a corporaLlon engaged ln Lradlng Ŷ
prlnclpally of paper producLsŦ !osephlne CngslLco ls lLs Manager of Lhe Þersonnel and
AdmlnlsLraLlon ueparLmenL whlle SebasLlan Chua ls lLs Managlng ulrecLorŦ
O 8espondenLs (Slmbolţ Comla and LsLrella) were all regular employees of Lhe companyŦ
O 1he company has a company pollcyţ promulgaLed ln 1993ţ vlzť
1Ŧ new appllcanLs wlll noL be allowed Lo be hlred lf ln case he/she has żaŽ
relaLlveţ up Lo żLheŽ 3rd degree of relaLlonshlpţ already employed by Lhe companyŦ
2Ŧ ln case of Lwo of our employees (boLh slngles żslcŽţ one male and anoLher
female) developed a frlendly relaLlonshlp durlng Lhe course of Lhelr employmenL and
Lhen declded Lo geL marrledţ one of Lhem should reslgn Lo preserve Lhe pollcy sLaLed
aboveŦ
O Slmbol and Comla havlng marrled one of Lhelr coŴemployees were advlsed LhaL one of
each couples should reslgn pursuanL Lo Lhe company pollcyŦ
O ÞeLlLoner sLaLed LhaL LsLrella who also meL one coŴworkerţ Zunlga a marrled manţ goL
LsLrella pregnanLŦ ÞeLlLloner alleged LhaL Lhey could have LermlnlnaLed her servlces due
Lo lmmorallLy buL lnsLeadţ she opLed Lo reslgnŦ
O 1he respondenLs Slmbol and Comla had a dlfferenL verslon clalmlng LhaL Lhey dld noL
reslgn volunLarllyŤ Lhey were compelled Lo reslgn ln vlew of an lllegal company pollcyŦ As
Lo LsLrellaţ afLer geLLlng pregnanL and dlscoverlng LhaL Zunlga was noL separaLed
severed her relaLlonshlp Lo hlm Lo avold dlsmlssal due Lo company pollcyŦ She meL an
accldenL Lhus was advlsed Lo recuperaLe and upon reLurnlng Lo workţ she was denled
enLry and was glven a Memo sLaLlng LhaL she was belng dlsmlssed for lmmoral
mlsconducLŦ
O 8espondenLs flled a complalnL for unfalr labor pracLlceŦ 1hey averred LhaL Lhe company
pollcy was lllegal and conLravenes ArLlcle 136 of Lhe Labor CodeŦ
ISSULť
WheLher Lhe pollcy of Lhe employer bannlng spouses from worklng ln Lhe same company
vlolaLes Lhe rlghLs of Lhe employee under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe Labor Code or ls a valld
exerclse of managemenL prerogaLlveŦ
nLLDť
1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon sLaLes our pollcy Lowards Lhe proLecLlon of labor under Lhe followlng
provlslonsť ArLlcle llţ SecLlon 18ţ ArLlcle xlllţ SecŦ 3
1he Clvll Code llkewlse proLecLs labor wlLh Lhe followlng provlslonť ArLŦ 1700 and 1702
1he case aL bar also lnvolves ArLlcle 136 of Lhe Labor CodeŦ
1he noŴspouse employmenL pollcy vlolaLe Lhe marlLal sLaLus provlslon because lL arblLrarlly
dlscrlmlnaLes agalnsL all spouses of presenL employees wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe acLual effecL on
Lhe lndlvldualƌs quallflcaLlons or work performanceŦ
1hese courLs also flnd Lhe noŴspouse employmenL pollcy lnvalld for fallure of Lhe employer Lo
presenL any evldence of bus|ness necess|ty oLher Lhan Lhe general percepLlon LhaL spouses ln
Lhe same workplace mlghL adversely affecL Lhe buslnessŦ 1hey hold LhaL Lhe absence of such a
bona f|de occupat|ona| qua||f|cat|on lnvalldaLes a rule denylng employmenL Lo one spouse due
Lo Lhe currenL employmenL of Lhe oLher spouse ln Lhe same offlceŦ 1husţ Lhey rule LhaL unless
Lhe employer can prove LhaL Lhe reasonable demands of Lhe buslness requlre a dlsLlncLlon
based on marlLal sLaLus and Lhere ls no beLLer avallable or accepLable pollcy whlch would beLLer
accompllsh Lhe buslness purposeţ an employer may noL dlscrlmlnaLe agalnsL an employee
based on Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe employee's spouseŦ 1hls ls known as Lhe bona f|de occupat|ona|
qua||f|cat|on except|onŦ
1here musL be a compelllng buslness necesslLy for whlch no alLernaLlve exlsL oLher Lhan Lhe
dlscrlmlnaLory pracLlceŦ 1o [usLlfy a bona flde occupaLlonal quallflcaLlonţ Lhe employer musL
prove Lwo facLorsť (1) LhaL Lhe employmenL quallflcaLlon ls reasonably relaLed Lo Lhe essenLlal
operaLlon of Lhe [ob lnvolvedŤ andţ (2) LhaL Lhere ls a facLual basls for bellevlng LhaL all or
subsLanLlally all persons meeLlng Lhe quallflcaLlon would be unable Lo properly perform Lhe
duLles of Lhe [obŦ
We do noL flnd a reasonable buslness necesslLy ln Lhe case aL barŦ
ÞeLlLloners' sole conLenLlon LhaL ƍLhe company dld noL [usL wanL Lo have Lwo (2) or more of lLs
employees relaLed beLween Lhe Lhlrd degree by afflnlLy and/or consangulnlLyƍ ls lameŦ 1haL Lhe
second paragraph was meanL Lo glve LeeLh Lo Lhe flrsL paragraph of Lhe quesLloned rule ls
evldenLly noL Lhe valld reasonable buslness necesslLy requlred by Lhe lawŦ







Mar|va| 1rad|ngţ IncŦ vsŦ NLkC

IAC1Sť
Abella worked as ch1emlsL/quallLy conLroller aL Marlval for almosL 8 yearsŦ
Cn !uly 14ţ 2000ţ Manuelţ vlceŴÞresldenL and Ceneral Manager of Marlvalţ conducLed a
sLaff meeLlng and afLer Lhe meeLlng he asked Lhe packaglng supervlsor and lmporLaLlon
manager Lo sLay behlnd Lo dlscuss oLher maLLersŦ
Manuel Lhen requesLed Lwo male employees Lo move some Lables and placed Abella's
belonglngs on one of Lhese Lables wlLhouL Abella's presenceŦ
Abella came ln when Manuel and Lhe packaglng supervlsor and lmporLaLlon manager
were already havlng Lhelr own meeLlngŦ
Whlle Abella was aLLendlng her Lhlngsţ her shoulder bag fell loudly on Lhe floorţ
dlsrupLlng Lhe offlcer's meeLlngŦ
Manuel approached Abella Lo ask whaL Lhe problem was and Abella expressed her anger
over Lhe facL LhaL Lhe employees were noL lnformed flrsL before Lhelr Lables were
movedŦ
Manuel asked Abella Lo leave Lhe room buL she refused Lo do soŦ
1hree days laLerţ Abella recelved a memo from Manuel dlrecLlng her Lo explaln wlLhln
24 hours why no dlsclpllnary acLlon should be lmposed for her dlsrespecLful
lnsubordlnaLlon and unprofesslonal conducLŦ
Abella denled Lhe accusaLlon agalnsL herŦ She clarlfled LhaL her bag accldenLally fell Lo
Lhe floorţ LhaL she alred her slde regardlng Lhe Lable rearrangemenL ln a LacLful and
courLeous manner and LhaL Lhe order Lo geL her ouL of Lhe room was un[usLlfledŦ
unconvlnced by Lhe explanaLlon and flndlng no [usLlflable reason for Lhe employee's
ouLbursLţ Marlval flred Abella on !uly 21ţ 2000Ŧ
Abella flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal wlLh Lhe labor ArblLer alleglng LhaL she was
dlsmlssed from work wlLhouL [usL cause and wlLhouL due processŦ

ISSUL]sť
1Ŧ WheLher a valld cause exlsLed Lo [usLlfy Abella's dlsmlssal?
2Ŧ WheLher Lhe cause of Abella's dlsmlssal amounLs Lo serlous mlsconducL?


kULINGť
ln order Lo conslder lL a serlous mlsconducL LhaL would [usLlfy dlsmlssal under Lhe lawţ lL musL
have been done ln relaLlon Lo Lhe performance of her duLles as would show her unflL Lo
conLlnue worklng for her employerŦ

1he acLs of Abella LhaL was complalned of dld noL perLaln Lo her duLles as chemlsL/quallLy
conLrollerŦ

Abella dld noL make any false and mallclous sLaLemenLs agalnsL her superlorsŦ Abella's acL do
noL consLlLuLe serlous mlsconducL as Lo [usLlfy her dlsmlssalŦ

AfflanLs falled Lo clLe parLlcular acLs or clrcumsLances whlch would show LhaL Abella was
exLremely dlsrespecLful Lo her superlorŦ 1hey [usL alleged LhaL respondenL Lhrew her bag and
oLher Lhlngs nolslly and uLLered unpleasanL remarks aL her employerŦ

Abella merely uLLeredţ ºSana naman nexL Llme na uurungln yung gamlL namlnţ eh sasablhln
muna sa amlnŦ" We do noL flnd Lhe remarks unpleasanLŦ 1he words ºSAnA nAMAn" SuCCLS1
1PA1 SPL WAS MAklnC A 8LCuLS1 1C PL8 SuÞL8lC8 lC8 A Ll11LL MC8L CCnSluL8A1lCnŦ

1he courL relLeraLes Lhe seLLled rule LhaL ln LermlnaLlon of employmenL dlspuLesţ Lhe burden of
proof ls always on Lhe employer Lo prove LhaL Lhe dlsmlssal was for a [usL and valld causeţ
whlch Marlval falled Lo dlschargeŦ

1hls courL agrees LhaL Lhe dlsmlssal on Abella for mlsconducL appears Lo be Loo harsh a penalLyŦ
lL musL be noLed LhaL Abella ls belng held llable for a flrsL Llme offenseţ desplLe 8 years of
unblemlshed servlceŦ ConslderaLlon musL sLlll be glven Lo her lengLh of servlce and Lhe number
of vlolaLlons commlLLed durlng her employmenLŦ














1INIC VS CA S24 SCkA S33 (2007)

IAC1Sť SmarL CommunlcaLlons employed peLlLloner 1lnlo as lLs general manager for vlSMln on
uecember 2002Ŧ ln May 2003ţ Caegţ Lhe group head of sales and dlsLrlbuLlonţ lnformed
peLlLloner of hls new asslgnmenL as sales manager ln Lhe MakaLl head offlceŦ 1hereafLerţ Lhe
peLlLloner dld noL reporL for workŦ Pe Lhen flled a complalnL for consLrucLlve dlsmlssalŦ Caeg
requlred peLlLloner Lo explaln hls conLlnulng refusal Lo Lransfer Lo hls new asslgnmenL buL
lnsLeadţ peLlLloner referred Caeg Lo hls complalnL for consLrucLlve dlsmlssalŦ Caeg also
scheduled a hearlng on !une 23ţ 2003 buL peLlLloner falled Lo aLLendŦ 1husţ prlvaLe respondenLs
LermlnaLed Caeg LermlnaLed peLlLloner's employmenL effecLlve !une 23ţ 2003 for
lnsubordlnaLlonŦ

ISSULť W/n Þ8lvA1L 8LSÞCnuLn1'S (CALC) AC1 Cl 18AnSlL88lnC ÞL1l1lCnL8 1C l1S
MAkA1l PLAu ClllCL lS A vALlu LxL8ClSL Cl MAnACLMLn1 Þ8L8CCA1lvL

nLLDť As a ruleţ Lhe courL wlll noL lnLerfere wlLh an employer's prerogaLlve Lo regulaLe all
aspecLs of employmenL whlch lncludes work asslgnmenLţ worklng meLhodsţ and place and
manner of workŦ 1hls prerogaLlve ls based on lLs assessmenL and percepLlon of lLs employees'
quallflcaLlonsţ apLlLudesţ eLcŦ Lo move Lhem around ln Lhe varlous areas of lLs buslness
operaLlonsŦ 1hls prlvllege lnherlLed ln Lhe employer's rlghL Lo conLrol and manage hls
enLerprlse effecLlvelyŦ

L|m|tsť
It cannot be used as a subterfuge by the emp|oyer to r|d h|mse|f of an undes|rab|e
worker
1ransfer |s not unreasonab|eţ |nconven|ent or pre[ud|c|a| to the emp|oyee
It does not |nvo|ve a demot|on |n rank or d|m|nut|on of h|s sa|ar|es and other benef|ts

















I||ght Attendant and Stewards AssocŦ of the 9h||Ŧ vs 9AL SS9 SCk 2S2 (2008)
IAC1Sť
O ÞeLlLloner lASAÞ ls Lhe duly cerLlfled collecLlve bargalnlng represenLaLlve of ÞAL fllghL
aLLendanLs and sLewardsţ or collecLlvely known as ÞAL cabln crew personnelŦ
8espondenL ÞAL ls a domesLlc corporaLlon organlzed and exlsLlng under Lhe laws of Lhe
8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ operaLlng as a common carrler LransporLlng passengers and
cargo Lhrough alrcrafLŦ
O Cn !une 13ţ 1998ţ ÞAL reLrenched 3ţ000 of lLs employeesţ lncludlng more Lhan 1ţ400 of
lLs cabln crew personnelţ Lo Lake effecL on !uly 13ţ 1998Ŧ ÞAL adopLed Lhe reLrenchmenL
scheme allegedly Lo cuL cosLs and mlLlgaLe huge flnanclal losses as a resulL of a
downLurn ln Lhe alrllne lndusLry broughL abouL by Lhe Aslan flnanclal crlslsŦ
O lASAÞ and ÞAL conducLed a serles of consulLaLlons and meeLlngs and explored all
posslblllLles of cushlonlng Lhe lmpacL of Lhe lmpendlng reducLlon ln cabln crew
personnelŦ Poweverţ Lhe parLles falled Lo agree on how Lhe scheme would be
lmplemenLedŦ 1hus ÞAL unllaLerally resolved Lo uLlllze Lhe crlLerla seL forLh ln SecLlon
112 of Lhe ÞALŴlASAÞ CollecLlve 8argalnlng AgreemenL
ż8Ž
(C8A) ln reLrenchlng cabln
crew personnelť LhaL lsţ LhaL reLrenchmenL shall be based on Lhe lndlvldual employeeƌs
eff|c|ency rat|ng and sen|or|tyŦ
O Cn !uly 13ţ 1998ţ howeverţ ÞAL carrled ouL Lhe reLrenchmenL of lLs more Lhan 1ţ400
cabln crew personnelŦ
ISSULť WheLher or noL ÞAL ls gullLy of lllegal dlsmlssal of lLs employeesŦ
nLLDť
ÞALƌs reLrenchmenL program ls lllegal because lL was based on wrongful premlse (Þlan 14ţ
whlch ln reallLy Lurned ouL Lo be Þlan 22ţ resulLlng ln reLrenchmenL of more cabln
aLLendanLs Lhan was necessary) and ln a seL of crlLerla or raLlng varlables LhaL ls unfalr and
unreasonable when lmplemenLedŦ lL falled Lo Lake lnLo accounL each cabln aLLendanLƌs
respecLlve servlce recordţ Lhereby dlsregardlng senlorlLy and loyalLy ln Lhe evaluaLlon of
overall employee performanceŦ

CulLclalms execuLed as a resulL of ÞALƌs lllegal reLrenchmenL program are llkewlse annulled
and seL aslde because Lhey were noL volunLarlly enLered lnLo by Lhe reLrenched employeesŤ
Lhelr consenL was obLalned by fraud or mlsLakeţ as vollLlon was clouded by a reLrenchmenL
program LhaL wasţ aL lLs lncepLlonţ made wlLhouL baslsŦ 1he law looks wlLh dlsfavor upon
qulLclalms and releases by employees pressured lnLo slgnlng by unscrupulous employers
mlnded Lo evade legal responslblllLlesŦ As a ruleţ deeds of release or qulLclalm cannoL bar
employees from demandlng beneflLs Lo whlch Lhey are legally enLlLled or from conLesLlng
Lhe legallLy of Lhelr dlsmlssalŦ 1he accepLance of Lhose beneflLs would noL amounL Lo
esLoppelŦ 1he amounLs already recelved by Lhe reLrenched employees as conslderaLlon for
slgnlng Lhe qulLclalms shouldţ howeverţ be deducLed from Lhelr respecLlve moneLary
awardsŦ
nan[|n neavy Industr|es and |Construct|on CoŦţ LtdŦ VsŦ Ibanez

IAC1Sť
Pan[ln ls a forelgn company engages ln Lhe consLrucLlon buslness ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ
8espondenL lbanezţ Carollnoţ Caculaţ uagoLodoLţ Calda and four oLher coŴworkers
employees of Pan[lnŦŦ
Aprll 13ţ 2002ţ Pan[ln dlsmlssed respondenLs from employmenLŦ
ÞeLlLlonerţ on Lhe oLher handţ malnLalned LhaL respondenLs were hlred as pro[ecL
employees for Lhe consLrucLlon of Lhe L81/M81 Llne 2 Þackage 2 and 3 Þro[ecLŦ
ÞeLlLloner also lnslsLs a compleLlon bonus was pald Lo Lhe respondenLsŦ Ŧ
9et|t|oner's a|so attached cop|es of the qu|tc|a|mţ executed by respondentsţ wh|ch
stated that the |atter rece|ved a|| wages and benef|ts that were due them and
re|eased nan[|n and |ts representat|ves from any c|a|ms |n connect|on w|th the|r
emp|oymentŦ
CA declared respondenLs LhaL Lhey were regular employees who had been dlsmlssed
wlLhouL [usL and valld causes wlLhouL due processŦ

ISSULť WCn respondenLs are regular employees?

kULINGť
8espondenLs are Lo be consldered regular employees of Pan[lnŦ

A wrlLLen conLracL wlll be Lhe evldence LhaL respondenLs were lnformed of Lhe duraLlon and
scope of Lhelr work and Lhelr sLaLus as pro[ecL employeesŦ

ln Lhls caseţ no conLracL was producedŦ ln Lhe absenL of proof LhaL Lhe pro[ecL employees were
lnformed of Lhelr sLaLusţ lL ls presume LhaL Lhey are regular employeesŦ

Pan[ln argues LhaL Lhe 1ermlnaLlon 8eporL flled before Lhe uCLL slgnlfles LhaL respondenLs'
servlces were engaged only for Lhe L81/M81 Llne 2Ŧ 8uL Pan[ln was noL able Lo offer evldence
Lo conLroverL Lhe respondenLs' clalm LhaL Lhey were asslgned Lo varlous consLrucLlon pro[ecLsŦ

ÞeLlLloner dld noL presenL oLher 1ermlnaLlon 8eporLsŦ 1he fallure of an employer Lo flle a
1ermlnaLlon 8eporL wlLh Lhe uole every Llme a pro[ecL ls compleLed lndlcaLes LhaL respondenLs
were noL pro[ecL employeesŦ

ÞeLlLloner lnslsLs LhaL Lhe paymenL Lo Lhe respondenLs of a compleLlon bonus lndlcaLes LhaL
respondenLs were pro[ecL employeesŦ 8uL peLlLloner falled Lo presenL evldence showlng LhaL
Lhey underLook Lo pay respondenLs such bonus upon Lhe compleLlon of Lhe pro[ecLŦ

I|na||yţ the qu|tc|a|ms wh|ch the respondents s|gned cannot bar them from demand|ng what
|s |ega||y due them as regu|ar emp|oyeeŦ

Çu|tc|a|ms and wa|vers are |neffect|ve to bar c|a|ms for the fu|| measure of a worker's |ega|
r|ghtsţ part|cu|ar|y when the fo||ow|ng cond|t|ons are app||cab|eť 1) where there |s a c|ear
proof that the wa|ver was wang|ed fro an unsuspect|ng or gu|||b|e personŤ 2) where the terms
of sett|ement are unconsc|onab|e on the|r faceŦ

1o determ|ne whether the qu|tc|a|ms s|gned by respondent are va||dţ one |mportant factor
that must be taken |nto account |s the cons|derat|on accepted by respondentsŤ the amount
must const|tute a reasonab|e sett|ement equ|va|ent to the fu|| measure of the|r |ega| r|ghtsŦ

In th|s caseţ the qu|tc|a|ms s|gned by the respondents do not appear to have been made for
va|uab|e cons|derat|onŦ kespondentsţ who are regu|ar emp|oyeesţ are ent|t|ed to backwages
and separat|on pay and the qu|tc|a|ms wh|ch they s|gned cannot prevent them from seek|ng
c|a|ms to wh|ch they are ent|t|edŦ



















kŦ8Ŧ MICnALL 9kLSS VS GALI1 S4S SCkA 23 (2008)

-cc ttŦ 2028Ŧ comptomlse ls o coottoct wbeteby tbe pottlesţ by mokloq teclptocol
coocessloosţ ovolJ o lltlqotloo ot pot oo eoJ to ooe olteoJy commeoceJŦ
-cc ttŦ 20J6Ŧ comptomlse comptlses ooly tbose objects wblcb ote Jefloltely stoteJ tbeteloţ ot wblcb
by oecessoty lmpllcotloo ftom lts tetms sboolJ be JeemeJ to bove beeo locloJeJ lo tbe someŦ
qeoetol teoooclotloo of tlqbts ls ooJetstooJ to tefet ooly to tbose tbot ote coooecteJ wltb tbe Jlspote
wblcb wos tbe sobject of tbe comptomlseŦ

IAC1Sť ln May 1997ţ respondenL CallL was employed by 8Ŧ8Ŧ Mlchael Þress as an offseL
machlne operaLor (Þ230/dayŤ Monday Lo SaLurday)Ŧ uurlng hls employmenLţ CallL was Lardy for
a LoLal of 190 Llmes and was absenL wlLhouL leave for 9 Z daysŦ SomeLlme ln lebruary 1999ţ
respondenL was asked Lo render C1 buL refused LoŦ 1he followlng day (leb 23)ţ peLlLloner
Lscobla Lold hlm noL Lo work and Lo reLurn laLer ln Lhe afLernoon for a hearlngŦ A memo
(warnlng for dlsmlssal and noLlce of hearlng) was senL Lo hlm sLaLlng LhaL he commlLLed Lhe
followlng offensesť
1Ŧ PablLual and excesslve Lardlness
2Ŧ AcLs of dlscourLesy and dlsrespecL ln addresslng superlors
3Ŧ lallure Lo work C1 afLer havlng been lnsLrucLed Lo dos so
4Ŧ lnsubordlnaLlon

CallL dld noL show up for Lhe hearlngŦ leb 24ţ respondenL was LermlnaLed from employmenL
and recelved a LermlnaLlon leLLerŦ SubsequenLlyţ CallL flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssalŦ

ISSULť W]N 1nLkL WAS IUS1 CAUSL 1C 1LkMINA1L 1nL LM9LC¥MLN1 CI kLS9CNDLN1
GALI1 AND W]N DUL 9kCCLSS WAS C8SLkVLD IN 1nL DISMISSAL 9kCCLSS

nLLDť nL8C and CA were lncorrecL ln holdlng LhaL peLlLloner condoned CallL's hablLual
Lardlnessţ evldenced by Lhe facL LhaL he was noL glven any noLlce/warnlngŦ 1he mere facL LhaL
Lhe numerous lnfracLlons of respondenL have noL been lmmedlaLely sub[ecLed Lo sancLlons
cannoL be lnLerpreLed as condonaLlon of Lhe offenses or walver of Lhe company Lo enforce
company rulesŦ A walver ls a volunLary and lnLenLlonal rellnqulshmenL or abandonmenL of a
known rlghL or prlvllegeŦ 1o const|tute a va||d wa|verţ |t must be couched |n c|ear and
unequ|voca| terms wh|ch |eave no doubt as to the |ntent|on of a party to g|ve up a r|ght or
benef|t wh|ch |ega||y perta|ns to h|mŦ nenceţ the management prerogat|ve to d|sc|p||ne
emp|oyees |s a |ega| r|ght that cannotţ as a genera| r|ght be |mp||ed|y wa|vedŦ ln Lhe case aL
barţ CallL dld noL adduce any evldence Lo show walver or condonaLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe
peLlLlonersŦ

lor wlllful dlsobedlence Lo be a valld cause for dlsmlssalţ Lwo elemenLs musL be presenLť
1Ŧ 1he employee's assalled conducL musL have been wlllfulţ lŦeŦţ characLerlzed by wrongful
and perverse aLLlLude
2Ŧ 1he order vlolaLed musL have been reasonableţ lawfulţ made known Lo Lhe employeeţ
and musL perLaln Lo Lhe duLles whlch he had been engaged Lo dlschargeŦ
ln Lhe presenL caseţ lL ls clear LhaL peLlLloner's order for respondenL Lo render C1 Lo meeL a
producLlon deadllne complles wlLh Lhe second requlslLeŦ ArL 89 Labor Code empowers Lhe
employer Lo legally compel hls employees Lo perform C1 agalnsL Lhelr wlll Lo prevenL serlous
loss or damageŦ 1he flrsL requlslLe ls also presenL due Lo Lhe facL LhaL respondenL refused Lo do
C1 desplLe hls knowledge LhaL Lhere ls a producLlon deadllne and wlLhouL hlmţ no furLher
prlnLlng can be madeţ shows hls wrongful and perverse aLLlLudeŦ

1he Lwln noLlce requlremenL musL be glven Lo an employee before hls employmenL could be
LermlnaLedť
1Ŧ A flrsL noLlce Lo apprlse Lhe employees of Lhelr faulL
2Ŧ A second noLlce Lo communlcaLe Lo Lhe employees Lhelr employmenL ls belng
LermlnaLed
1he undue hasLe ln effecLlng respondenL's LermlnaLlon shows LhaL Lhe LermlnaLlon process was
a mere slmulaLlonŸLhe requlred noLlces were glvenţ a hearlng was even scheduled and heldţ
buL respondenL was noL really glven a real opporLunlLy Lo defend hlmselfŤ and lL seems LhaL
peLlLloners had already declded Lo dlsmlss respondenL from servlceţ even before Lhe flrsL noLlce
had been glvenŦ

















Are||ano vs 9owertech CorpŦ S42 SCkA 182 (2008)
IAC1Sť
O A complalnL was flled by Lhe -oqkokolsooq ,ooqqoqowo -q lowettecb cotpototloo ln
behalf of lLs 32 lndlvldual members and nonŴunlon members agalnsL Lhelr employerţ
ÞowerLech for lllegal dlsmlssal and oLher money clalmsŦ
O 1he case proceeded wlLh respecL Lo Lhe remalnlng LwenLyŴflve (23) employeesţ
peLlLloners ln Lhls caseŦ
O Cn !une 23ţ 1999ţ Labor ArblLer 8enell !oseph 8Ŧ uela Cruz rendered a ueclslon
ż3Ž

declarlng lllegal Lhe LermlnaLlon of LwenLy (20) of peLlLloners and granLlng Lhelr
moneLary clalms ln Lhe LoLal amounL of Þ2ţ338ţ728Ŧ84Ŧ
O uurlng lLs pendencyţ Carlos CesLladaţ for hlmself and on behalf of oLher peLlLlonersţ
execuLed a qulLclalmţ release and walver
ż4Ž
ln favor of ÞowerLech ln conslderaLlon of Lhe
amounL of Þ130ţ000Ŧ00Ŧ CesLlada was appolnLed by hls coŴpeLlLloners as Lhelr aLLorneyŴ
lnŴfacLŦ 1he appolnLmenL was evldenced by a speclal power of aLLorneyŦ
O Cn March 13ţ 2000ţ CesLlada LermlnaLed Lhe servlces of Lhelr counselţ ALLyŦ LvangellsLa
andţ lnsLeadţ reLalned ALLyŦ Manuel Luls lellpe of Lhe Þubllc ALLorneyât`s CfflceŦ
O ÞowerLech pald Þ130ţ000Ŧ00 Lo CesLlada purporLedly as compromlse amounL for all of
peLlLlonersŦ CesLladaţ Lhrough ALLyŦ lellpeţ and ÞowerLech flled a [olnL moLlon Lo
dlsmlss
ż10Ž
wlLh Lhe nL8C based on Lhe compromlse agreemenLŦ
O ALLyŦ LvangellsLa opposed
ż11Ž
Lhe moLlonţ alleglng LhaL Lhe compromlse agreemenL ls
unconsclonableţ LhaL he was lllegally LermlnaLed as counsel for Lhe oLher peLlLloners
wlLhouL Lhelr consenLţ and LhaL Lhe Þ130ţ000Ŧ00 was recelved by CesLlada as paymenL
solely for hls backwages and oLher moneLary clalmsŦ Cn Lhe !olnL MoLlon Lo ulsmlss ln
Lhelr opposlLlonţ Lhe oLher complalnanLs represenLed by ALLyŦ LvangellsLa argued LhaL
CesLlada recelved Lhe ÞhÞ130ţ000Ŧ00 referred Lo ln Lhe CulLclalm and 8elease as
paymenL and for hls backwagesŦ lL ls furLher argued LhaL CesLlada had never lnLervened
ln Lhe paymenL of awards due Lhe oLher complalnanLs ln Lhls case as evldenced by Lhe
leLLer of CesLlada Lo ALLyŦ LvangellsLaŦ
ISSULť 1he valldlLy of a qulLclalm based on a broad speclal power of aLLorney affecLlng Lhe
rlghLs of LwenLyŴLwo (22) employeesŦ
nLLDť
1be l150ţ000 wos polJ to CestloJo solely os poymeot fot bls bockwoqesţ
oot tbose of petltlooetsŤ tbete ls evlJeot collosloo betweeo lowettecb ooJ CestloJoţ beoceţ tbe
comptomlse oqteemeot ls volJŦ
CesLladaât`s admlsslon LhaL he recelved Lhe amounL of ÞhÞ130ţ000Ŧ00 only as paymenL for hls
backwages and LhaL Lhe same has no reference Lo Lhe clalm of Lhe oLher complalnanLs ln Lhls
case ls bolsLered furLher by Lhe facL LhaL Lhe CulLclalm and 8elease aLLached Lo Lhe lnsLanL !olnL
MoLlon Lo ulsmlss was slgned only by CesLlada and LhaL Lhe oLher complalnanLs never Look parL
ln Lhe execuLlon LhereofŦ A walver of money clalms musL be regarded as a personal rlghLŤ
henceţ Lhe proLecLlve rule LhaL for a compromlse deallng wlLh Lhelr [udgmenL Lo be valldly
enLered lnLo Lhere musL be personal and speclflc lndlvldual consenL glven by Lhe workers
1he CourL gave credence Lo Lhe admlsslon of CesLlada LhaL he recelved Lhe Þ130ţ000Ŧ00 as
paymenL for hls own backwagesŦ ln hls leLLer Lo ALLyŦ LvangellsLaţ CesLlada sald LhaL he was
pressured by ÞowerLech Lo slgn Lhe walver and qulLclalm for peLlLloners ln order Lo recelve hls
share ln Lhe Þ2Ŧ3 mllllon [udgmenLŦ Pavlng no sLable [ob afLer hls dlsmlssalţ CesLlada had no
oLher cholce buL Lo breach hls flduclary obllgaLlon Lo peLlLlonersŦ Pe succumbed Lo Lhe
pressure of ÞowerLech ln slgnlng Lhe walverţ release and qulLclalm ln exchange for Lhe
Þ130ţ000Ŧ00Ŧ ln shorLţ he colluded wlLh ÞowerLech Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of peLlLloners
1o Cur mlndţ whaL prompLed ÞowerLech Lo agree Lo pay Lhe Þ130ţ000Ŧ00 was Lhe nL8C order
voldlng Lhe compromlse agreemenL and relnsLaLlng Lhe Labor ArblLer Þ2Ŧ3 mllllon [udgmenLŦ 8y
Lhenţ ÞowerLech was faced wlLh Lhe posslblllLy of paylng Þ2Ŧ3 mllllon Lo peLlLlonersŦ lL was also
requlred by law Lo posL a sureLy bond for Lhe same amounL ln order Lo perfecL lLs appeal wlLh
Lhe nL8CŦ
Armed wlLh Lhe nL8C orderţ peLlLloners were benL on pursulng Lhelr appealŦ ÞowerLech
panlckedŦ lL negoLlaLed wlLh CesLlada offerlng hlm Þ130ţ000Ŧ00 ln exchange for a walver and
qulLclalm for hlmself and for peLlLlonersŦ ÞowerLech knew LhaL CesLlada was auLhorlzed by
peLlLloners Lo negoLlaLe for âtoany sum he may deem [usL and reasonableât and Lo slgn
qulLclalms and walvers for LhemŦ !obless and havlng no regular lncomeţ CesLlada succumbed Lo
Lhe pressureŦ Pe connlved wlLh ÞowerLech and agreed Lo recelve Lhe Þ130ţ000Ŧ00 for hlmself
ln exchange for slgnlng a qulLclalm and walver ln Lhe name of peLlLlonersŦ
1o glve effecL Lo Lhe colluslonţ CesLlada had Lo geL rld of ALLyŦ LvangellsLaţ who had prevlously
succeeded ln nulllfylng Lhe compromlse agreemenLŦ Pe flred ALLyŦ LvangellsLa wlLhouL cause
baslng hls dlsmlssal on hls plenary auLhorlLy as agenL of peLlLlonersŦ
ln hls leLLerţ CesLlada admlLLed LhaL Lhe dlsmlssal of ALLyŦ LvangellsLa was upon Lhe proddlng of
vlrLue SarmlenLoţ personnel manager of ÞowerLechŦ ÞowerLech lmposed Lhe dlsmlssal of ALLyŦ
LvangellsLa as a condlLlon before CesLlada may recelve Lhe amounLŦ A day afLer flrlng ALLyŦ
LvangellsLaţ CesLlada recelved Lhe Þ130ţ000Ŧ00Ŧ 1haL same dayţ CesLladaţ represenLed by ALLyŦ
lellpeţ and ÞowerLech flled a [olnL moLlon Lo dlsmlss wlLh Lhe nL8CŦ
Colluslon ls a specles of fraudŦ ArLlcle 227 of Lhe Labor Code empowers Lhe nL8C Lo vold a
compromlse agreemenL for fraudţ Lhusť
Any compromlse seLLlemenLţ lncludlng Lhose lnvolvlng labor sLandard lawsţ volunLarlly agreed
upon by Lhe parLles wlLh Lhe asslsLance of Lhe 8ureau or Lhe reglonal offlce of Lhe ueparLmenL
of Laborţ shall be flnal and blndlng upon Lhe parLlesŦ 1he naLlonal Labor 8elaLlons Commlsslon
or any courL shall noL assume [urlsdlcLlon over lssues lnvolved Lhereln excepL ln case of nonŴ
compllance Lhereof or lf Lhere ls prlma facle evldence LhaL Lhe seLLlemenL was obLalned
Lhrough fraudţ mlsrepresenLaLlonţ or coerclonŦ



AN1AMCC GCLDIILLDS MINING CCM9AN¥ V CIk

IAC1S
1he Nat|ona| Labor Un|onţ represenLlng Lhe workers of AnLamok Coldfleld Mlnlng
Companyţ sent a |etter to management demand|ng h|gher pay and better work|ng cond|t|onsŦ

Management accepted some of the|r demands and re[ected the othersŦ

ConsequenLly Lhe workers wenL on sLrlkeŦ

1he ueparLmenL of Labor lnLervened and an amlcable seLLlemenL beLween Lhe parLles
was enLered lnLoŦ

uesplLe Lhlsţ anoLher sLrlke was subsequenLly heldŦ

1henţ one of Lhe laborers was sLoned from behlnd whlch resulLed ln Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe
forLyŴflve workersŦ

1he maLLer was heard ln Lhe CourL of lndusLrlal 8elaLlons (Cl8) where wlLnesses for boLh
peLlLloners and respondenLs LesLlfledŦ

1he Cl8 ordered one of lLs speclal agenLs Lo proceed Lo Lhe premlses of Lhe mlnes and Lo
conducL furLher lnvesLlgaLlonŦ

1he lnvesLlgaLlon dlsclosed LhaL Lhe unwarranLed dlsmlssal of Lhe forLyŴflve men afLer
Lhe lncldenL seems Lo have been spurred by an anxlous deslre of Lhe company Lo geL rld of
Lhese menŦ

Among Lhese 43 men are found leaders of Lhe movemenL of Lhe laborers for hlgher pay
and beLLer worklng condlLlons whlch culmlnaLed ln Lhe sLrlke called on !anuary 3ţ 1939Ŧ

lL was also found ouL LhaL more Lhan 400 workers of dlfferenL classes among Lhemţ
mockersţ mlnersţ Llmbermenţ Lrammers and capaLaces comlng from dlfferenL mlnes ln Lhe
reglon have been employed by AnLamok as fresh laborers and LhaL almosL all of Lhese men are
noL members of Lhe naLlonal Labor unlonţ lncŦƍ

ln Lhe order of !anuary 23ţ 1939 of Cl8ţ Lhe respondenL was en[olned Lo refraln from
dlscharglng any laborer lnvolved ln Lhe dlspuLe wlLhouL [usL cause and wlLhouL prevlous
auLhorlLy of Lhe CourLŦ

And ln dlsmlsslng Lhe 43 workers lL vlolaLed Lhe sald orderŦ

AnLamok lnslsLs lLs rlghL of selecLlng Lhe men Lo be employed and LhaL ln Lhe exerclse of
Lhls rlghL lL should noL be resLralned or lnLerfered wlLh by Lhe Cl8Ŧ ConsequenLlyţ Lhey assall Lhe
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valldlLy of CommonwealLh AcL noŦ103ţ whlch creaLed Lhe Cl8ţ on Lhe ground LhaL lL deprlves
Lhem of llberLy and properLy wlLhouL due process of lawŦ

ISSULť WCn CommonwealLh AcL noŦ 103 ls unconsLlLuLlonal


nLLDť NC
In Commonwea|th Act NoŦ 103ţ our Government no |onger performs the ro|e of a mere
med|ator or |ntervenor but that of the supreme arb|terŦ

1he pollcy of |a|ssez fa|re (a docLrlne whlch prescrlbes freedom from governmenL
lnLerference ln economlc or lndusLrlal affalrs) has g|ven way to the assumpt|on by the
government of the r|ght of |ntervent|on even |n contractua| re|at|ons affected w|th pub||c
|nterestsŦ
!usLlce Laurel ln Ang 1lbayţ and naLlonal Workers 8roLherhood v Cl8ţ and naLlonal Labor
unlonţ lncŦ sLaLes LhaL our ConsLlLuLlon was adopLed ln Lhe mldsL of surglng unresL and
dlssaLlsfacLlon resulLlng from economlc and soclal dlsLress whlch was LhreaLenlng Lhe sLablllLy
of governmenLs Lhe world overŦ

Lmbodylng Lhe splrlL of Lhe presenL Llmeţ general provlslons were lnserLed ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon whlch are lnLended Lo brlng abouL Lhe needed soclal and economlc equlllbrlum
beLween componenL elemenLs of socleLy Lhrough Lhe appllcaLlon of whaL may be Lermed as Lhe
common [usLlce advocaLed by CroLlus and LelbnlLs many years ago Lo be secured Lhrough Lhe
counLerbalanclng of economlc and soclal forces and opporLunlLles whlch should be regulaLedţ lf
noL conLrolledţ by Lhe SLaLe or placedţ as lL wereţ ln cusLodla socleLaLlsŦ

ƌ1he promoLlon of soclal [usLlce Lo lnsure Lhe wellŴbelng and economlc securlLy of all Lhe
peopleƌ was Lhus lnserLed as vlLal prlnclple ln our ConsLlLuLlonŦ (SecŦ 3ţ ArLŦ llţ ConsLlLuLlonŦ) 1he
ConsLlLuLlon ln varlous secLlons has provlded Lhe means Lowards lLs reallzaLlonţ lor lnsLanceţ
secLlon 6 of ArLlcle xlll declares LhaL Lhe SLaLe ƌshall afford proLecLlon Lo laborţ especlally Lo
worklng women and mlnorsţ and shall regulaLe Lhe relaLlons beLween landowner and LenanLţ
and beLween labor and caplLal ln lndusLry and ln agrlculLureŦƌ

1he same secLlon also sLaLes LhaL ƌLhe SLaLe may provlde for compulsory arblLraLlonŦƌ ln
exLraordlnary cases menLloned ln secLlon 16ţ ArLlcle vlţ of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ Lhe ÞresldenL of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes may be auLhorlzed by lawţ for a llmlLed perlod and sub[ecL Lo such resLrlcLlons as Lhe
naLlonal Assembly may prescrlbeţ Lo ƌpromulgaLe rules and regulaLlons Lo carry ouL a declared
naLlonal pollcyŦƌ AlbelLţ almosL aL Lhe same Llme Lhe Congress of Lhe unlLed SLaLes approved Lhe
naLlonal Labor 8egulaLlons AcL (49 SLaLŦţ 449) on !uly 3ţ 1933ţ commonly known as Lhe Wagner
AcLţ we were ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes headway Lowards Lhe adopLlon of our fundamenLal lawţ
pursuanL Lo congresslonal auLhorlLy glven ln Lhe 1ydlngsŴMcuuffle lndependence AcLţ approved
March 24ţ 1934Ŧ ln our 8lll of 8lghLs we now flnd Lhe followlng provlslon ƌ1he rlghL Lo form
assoclaLlons or socleLles for purposes noL conLrary Lo law shall noL be abrldgedŦƌ (ÞarŦ 6ţ secLlon
1ţ arLŦ lllţ ConsLlLuLlonŦ) WhaL was an aglLaLlon ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes whlch broughL abouL Lhe
recommendaLlon by Lhe Commlsslon on lndusLrlal 8elaLlons creaLed by an AcL of Congress ln
1912 for Lhe adopLlon of a Labor 8lll of 8lghLs as an amendmenL Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes
ConsLlLuLlon lsţ ln our caseţ vlrLually an accepLed prlnclpleţ whlch may be expanded and
vlLallzed by leglslaLlon Lo keep pace wlLh Lhe developmenL of Llme and clrcumsLancesŦ

8y and largeţ these prov|s|ons |n our Const|tut|on show and express the need of
sh|ft|ng emphas|s to commun|ty |nterest w|th a v|ew to aff|rmat|ve enhancement of human
va|uesŦ

ln conformlLy wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal ob[ecLlve and cognlzanL of the historico/ foct thot
industrio/ ond oqricu/turo/ disputes hod qiven rise to disquietudeţ b/oodshed ond revo/ution in
our countryţ the Nat|ona| Assemb|y enacted Commonwea|th Act NoŦ 103ţ ent|t|ed ƌAn Act to
afford protect|on of |abor by creat|ng a Court of Industr|a| ke|at|ons empowered Lo flx
mlnlmum wages for laborers and maxlmum renLal Lo be pald by LenanLsţ and to enforce
compu|sory arb|trat|on between emp|oyers or |and|ordsţ and emp|oyees or tenantsţ
respect|ve|yŤ and by prescrlblng penalLles for Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe ordersƌ andţ laLerţ
CommonwealLh AcL noŦ 213ţ enLlLledţ ƌAn AcL Lo deflne and regulaLe leglLlmaLe labor
organlzaLlonsŦƌ

Commonwea|th Act NoŦ 213 was enacted |n pursuance of what appears to be the
de||berate embod|ment of a new soc|a| po||cyţ founded on the concept|on of a soc|ety
|ntegrated noL by lndependenL lndlvlduals aL deallng aL arms' lengLhţ buL by |nterdependent
members of a conso||dated who|e whose |nterests must be protected aga|nst mutua|
aggress|on and warfare among and beLween dlvers and dlverse unlLs whlch are lmpelled by
counLervalllng and opposlLe lndlvldual and group lnLeresLsţ and Lhls ls parLlcularly Lrue ln Lhe
relaLlonshlp between |abor and cap|ta|Ŧ Soclal and lndusLrlal dlsLurbances whlch flfLy years ago
were feudalŴllke and of lsolaLed lmporLance may now well resulL ln a serlous sLraln upon Lhe
enLlre economlc organlsm of Lhe naLlonŦ Several aLLempLs aL meeLlng and solvlng our pecullar
soclal and economlc problems have already been madeŦ

1he system of vo|untary arb|trat|on dev|sed by Act NoŦ 40SS of the defunct 9h|||pp|ne
Leg|s|ature has apparent|y been abandoned by the enactment of the aforement|oned
Commonwea|th Acts NosŦ 103 and 213Ŧ








PCL SHIPPING PHILS INC VS NLRC 511 SCRA 44 (2007)

FACTS: n November 1993, respondent Felicisimo Carilla was hired by
petitioner, a manning agent, on behalf of its principal, Anglo-Eastern
Shipmanagement to work as master on board MV Handy-Cam Azobe for one
year. The contract provided that respondent would receive a monthly basic
pay of $1,700, fixed T $765, master´s allowance $170 and leave with pay
of 6 days per month or $340 (total $2,975).

However, while the vessel where respondent was on board was docked in
Bombay, India, Carilla was dismissed and repatriated to the Philippines. He
then filed a case with PEA for illegal dismissal with claims for salaries and
other benefits for the unexpired portion of his contract as well as unremitted
allotment and damages. Carilla alleged that he was dismissed without
notice and notice, and without any valid reason. As such, petitioner deprived
him of his expected monthly benefits for the unexpired portion of his
contract totaling $16,660 ($2,975 x 5 months and 18 days), petitioner
withheld his allotment for the entire May 1994 as well as his accrued leave
pay.

Petitioner PCL Shipping, on the other hand, contended that Carilla´s
termination as lawful as he had failed to take the necessary steps to ensure
the safety of the vessel and its cargo while in South Korea and Keelung port
causing petitioner to incur huge amount of damages on cargo claims and
vessel repairs. Despite the fact that he was warmed of his lapses, Carilla had
not shown any improvement which forced the company to dismiss the
respondent.

LA held in favor of respondent Carilla and declared his termination illegal,
citing that the recommendations of his previous employers contradicted the
allegations against Carilla of being incompetent and that the petitioner´s
evidence were unauthenticated, unreliable and self-serving.

ISSUE: N PRIVATE RESPDENT CARILLA AS ILLEGALLY DISMISSED

HELD: In termination cases, the burden of proof rests upon the
employer to show that the dismissal of the employee is for just
cause and failure to do so would mean that the dismissal was not
justified. A dismissed employee is not required to prove his
innocence of the charges leveled against him by his employer. The
determination of the existence and sufficiency of a just cause must be
exercised with fairness and in good faith and after observing due process.

It is well settled in this jurisdiction that confidential and managerial
employees cannot be arbitrarily dismissed at any time, without cause as
reasonably established in an appropriate investigation. Such employees,
too, are entitled to the security of tenure, fair standards of employment and
the protection of labor laws. Managerial employees, no less than rank and
file laborers, are entitled to due process. The captain of a vessel is a
confidential and managerial employee within the meaning of this doctrine.
Thus, the respondent was illegally dismissed as he was not accorded fair
investigation required by law and the ground invoked for his dismissal was
not proven.

In cases regarding contract workers who were dismissed without
just cause which arose before the effectivity of RA 8042, it is settled
that if the contract is for a fixed term and the employee is dismissed
without just cause, he is entitled to the payment of his salaries
corresponding to the unexpired portion of his contract. In the case at
bar, Carilla´s contract was until November 18, 1994 but he was dismissed
and repatriated to the Philippines on June 6, 1994; thus he is entitled to be
paid his salary corresponding to the unexpired portion of his contract.















9h||Ŧ A|r||nes IncŦ vs Santos 218 SCkA 41S (1993)
IAC1Sť
O lndlvldual respondenLs are all ÞorL SLewards and CaLerlng SubŴdeparLmenLţ Þassenger
Servlces ueparLmenL of ÞAL responslble for preparlng meal orders and checkllsLsţ seLLlng up
sLandard equlpmenL ln accordance wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe Lype of servlce for each
fllghLŤ skllngţ blnnlngţ and lnvenLorylng of Commlssary supplles and equlpmenL
O Several deducLlons were made from Lhelr salaryŤ Lhe deducLlons represenLed losses of
lnvenLorled lLems charged Lo Lhem for mlshandllng of company properLlesŦ
O Cn AugusL 21ţ 1984ţ respondenL made a formal noLlce regardlng Lhe deducLlons Lo
peLlLloner Lhru MrŦ 8eynaldo Abad (Manager for CaLerlng)Ŧ Slnce no acLlon was Lakenţ Lhey
flled a formal grlevance on novŦ 4 1984 pursuanL Lo Lhe grlevance machlnery SLep 1 of Lhe
C8AŦ 1he unlon wanLed Lo dlscuss Lhe lllegal/quesLlonable salary deducLlons and lnvenLory
of bonded goods and merchandlse belng done by caLerlng servlce personnel whlch Lhey
belleve should noL be Lhelr duLyŦ
O 1he grlevance was submlLLed on novŦ 21ţ 1984 Lo Lhe offlce of MrŦ 8eynaldo Abadţ who was
on vacaLlon leave aL LhaL LlmeŦ
O MrŦ Abad falled Lo acL wlLhln Lhe 3Ŵday deadllne sLaLed ln Lhe C8AŤ as such Lhe respondenL
bellevlng ln good falLh LhaL sald grlevance was resolved ln Lhelr favorŦ
O upon MrŦ Abad's reLurn on uecŦ 7 1984ţ he lmmedlaLely lnformed Lhe grlevanL and
scheduled a meeLlng on uecŦ 12ţ 1984Ŧ 1he respondenL refused Lo conducL lnvenLory works
ln uec 7ţ 10 and 12Ŧ
O ln Lhe meeLlng MrŦ Abad denled Lhe peLlLlon of Lhe respondenLs and adopLed Lhe poslLlon
LhaL Lhe lnvenLory of bonded goods ls parL of Lhelr duLy as caLerlng servlce personnel and
raLlonallzed Lhe salary deducLlon for losses due Lo mlshandllng of company properLyŦ
O MrŦ Abad wroLe a Memorandum addressed Lo Lhe lndlvldual respondenL for Lhem Lo explaln
why no dlsclpllnary acLlon should be Laken agalnsL Lhem for noL conducLlng lnvenLoryŦ 1he
respondenL complled wlLh Lhe dlrecLlves explalnlngţ ºSlnce Lhe grlevance sLep 1 was noL
declded and no acLlon was done by your offlce wlLhln 3 days from november 21ţ 1984ţ per
provlslon of Lhe ÞALŴÞALLA C8Aţ ArLŦ lvţ SecŦ 2ţ Lhe grlevance ls deemed resolved ln ÞALLAƌs
favorŦ"
O MrŦ Abad found Lhe explanaLlon unsaLlsfacLoryţ Lhusţ a penalLy of suspenslon ranglng from
7days Lo 30 days was lmposed dependlng on Lhe number of lnfracLlons commlLLedŦ
O 8espondenL flled a complalnL before Lhe Labor ArblLer for lllegal suspenslonŦ Labor ArblLer
dlsmlssed Lhe complalnLţ Lhus respondenL appealed Lhe declslon before Lhe nL8C whlch seL
aslde Lhe Labor ArblLers' order of dlsmlssalŦ

ISSULť WheLher or noL Lhe lllegal dlsmlssal was valldŦ

nLLDť
lL ls a facL LhaL Lhe sympaLhy of Lhe CourL ls on Lhe slde of Lhe laborlng classesţ noL only because
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lmposes such sympaLhyţ buL because of Lhe oneŴslded relaLlon beLween labor
and caplLalŦ

1he consLlLuLlonal mandaLe for Lhe promoLlon of labor ls as expllclL as lL ls
demandlngŦ 1he purpose ls Lo place Lhe worklngman on an equal plane wlLh managemenL Ÿ
wlLh all lLs power and lnfluence Ÿ ln negoLlaLlng for Lhe advancemenL of hls lnLeresLs and Lhe
defense of hls rlghLsŦ

under Lhe pollcy of soclal [usLlceţ Lhe law bends over backward Lo
accommodaLe Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe worklng class on Lhe humane [usLlflcaLlon LhaL Lhose wlLh
less prlvllege ln llfe should have more prlvlleges ln lawŦ

1he respondenL knew LhaL Lhe dlvlslon headţ 8eynaldo Abad was Lhen ºon leave" when Lhey
flled Lhelr grlevance buL Lhls knowledge should noL prevenL Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe C8AŦ
1he grlevance of employees ls noL a maLLer whlch requlres Lhe personal acL of MrŦ Abad and
Lhus could noL be delegaLedŦ ÞeLlLloner could aL leasL have asslgned an offlcerŴlnŴcharge Lo look
lnLo Lhe grlevance and posslbly make hls recommendaLlon Lo MrŦ AbadŦ lL ls of no momenL LhaL
MrŦ Abad lmmedlaLely looked lnLo Lhe grlevance upon reLurnlng Lo workţ for lL musL be
remembered LhaL Lhe grlevanL are worklngmen who suffered salary deducLlons and who rely so
much on Lhelr meager lncome for Lhelr dally subslsLence and survlvalŦ 8esldesţ lL ls noLeworLhy
LhaL when Lhese employees flrsL presenLed Lhelr complalnL on AugusL 21ţ 1984ţ peLlLloner
falled Lo acL on lLŦ lL was only afLer a formal grlevance was flled and afLer MrŦ Abad reLurned Lo
work on uecember 7ţ 1984 LhaL peLlLloner declded Lo Lurn an ear Lo Lhelr plalnLsŦ
Abadƌs fallure Lo acL on Lhe maLLer may have been due Lo peLlLlonerƌs lnadverLenceţ buL lL ls
clearly Loo much of an ln[usLlce lf Lhe employees be made Lo bear Lhe dlre effecLs LhereofŦ
Much as Lhe laLLer were wllllng Lo dlscuss Lhelr grlevance wlLh Lhelr employerţ Lhe laLLer closed
Lhe door Lo Lhls posslblllLy by noL asslgnlng someone else Lo look lnLo Lhe maLLer durlng Abadƌs
absenceŦ 1husţ prlvaLe respondenLs should noL be faulLed for bellevlng LhaL Lhe effecLs of Lhe
C8A ln Lhelr favor had already sLepped lnLo Lhe conLroversyŦ






LOPEZ V. MWSS 462 SCRA 428 (2005)

FACTS:
By virtue of an Agreement petitioners were engaged by the MWSS as collectors-
contractors wherein the former agreed to collect from the concessionaires of
MWSS charges fees assessments of rents for water sewer and/or plumbing
services which the MWSS bills from time to time.

Ìn 1997 MWSS entered into a Concession Agreement with Manila Water Service
wherein the collection of bills was transferred to said private concessionaires
effectively terminating the contracts of service between petitioners and MWSS.

Regular employees of the MWSS were paid their retirement benefits but not
petitioners.

MWSS relied on a resolution of the Civil Service Commission (CSC) that contract-
collectors of the MWSS are not its employees and therefore not entitled to the
benefits due regular government employees.

Petitioners filed a complaint with the CSC. CSC denied their claims stating that
petitioners were engaged by MWSS through a contract of service which explicitly
provides that a bill collector-contractor is not an MWSS employee.

Relying on Part V of CSC Memorandum Circular No. 38 Series of 1993 the CSC
stated that contract services/job orders are not considered government services
which do not have to be submitted to the CSC for approval unlike contractual and
5,nti, appointments.

Petitioners invoke the rule of liberal construction in favor of labor and the
constitutional policy of protection to labor.

To further strengthen their case petitioners refer to CSC Resolution 92-2008 dated
8 December 1992 which states in part:
. . . . The fact that they were being hired directly and paid on commission basis by
MWSS itself is indicative that they are government employees and should be entitled
to the incentive awards.

SSUE: WON petitioners were employees of the MWSS and entitled to the benefits
they claim?

HELD: We find for the petitioners.

The Court has invariably affirmed that it will not hesitate to tilt the scales of justice to the
labor class for no less than the Constitution dictates that "the State . . . shall protect the
rights of workers and promote their welfare." Ìt is committed to this policy and has
always been quick to rise to defense in the rights of labor as in this case.

Protection to Iabor, it has been said, extends to aII of Iabor¾IocaI and overseas,
organized and unorganized, in the pubIic and private sectors. Besides, there is no
reason not to appIy this principIe in favor of workers in the government. The
government, incIuding government-owned and controIIed corporations, as
empIoyers, shouId set the exampIe in uphoIding the rights and interests of the
working cIass.
The MWSS is a government owned and controlled corporation with its own charter
Republic Act No. 6234. As such it is covered by the civil service and falls under the
jurisdiction of the Civil Service Commission.

CSC Memorandum CircuIar No. 38, Series of 1993, categoricaIIy made the
distinction between contract of services/job orders and contractuaI and 5,39,
appointment, declaring that services rendered under contracts of services and job
orders are non-government services which do not have to be submitted to the
CSC for approvaI.

This was foIIowed by CSC Memorandum CircuIar No. 4 Series of 1994 which
aIIowed the crediting of services for purposes of retirement onIy for such
services supported by duIy approved appointments.

Subsequently the CSC issued other resoIutions applying the above-mentioned
circulars stating that while some functions may have been contracted out by a
government agency the persons contracted are not entitIed to the benefits due to
reguIar government empIoyees.

The case reveaIs that petitioners are empIoyees of MWSS.

MWSS wielded its power of selection when it contracted with the individual petitioners
undertaking separate contracts or agreements.

Under the Agreement MWSS may terminate it if the "Collector-Contractor"
1. Obviously failure to collect the payments of customers or remit the collections
constitutes neglect of duty.
2. Making erasures alterations or changing of figures in the fees or collection receipts
amounts to fraud.
3. Lack of courtesy dishonesty and arrogance are practically the same as misconduct.

SignificantIy, MWSS granted petitioners benefits usuaIIy given to empIoyees to
wit: COLA meal emergency and traveling allowances hazard pay cash gift and other
bonuses.

Petitioners rendered services to MWSS for which they were paid and given similar
benefits due the other employees of MWSS.

While petitioners were contract-collectors of MWSS they were under the Iatter's
direction as to where and how to perform their coIIection and were even subject
to discipIinary measures.

Trainings were in fact conducted to ensure that petitioners are conversant of the
procedures of the MWSS.

Contrary to MWSS' assertion that petitioners were "free to adopt (their) own
method/strategy in the matter of collection" the Agreement clearly provided that the
procedure and/or manner of the collection of bills to be followed shall be in accordance
with the provisions of the M,nu,41!r4.edures.

The power to transfer or reassign employees is a management prerogative exclusively
enjoyed by employers. Ìn this case MWSS had free reign over the transfer of biII
coIIectors from one branch to another. MWSS also monitored the performance of
the petitioners and determined their efficiency ratings.

Ìnterestingly in that regard under the 7002039 petitioners were "aIIowed" to
render overtime work, and were given additionaI "incentive commission" for work
so rendered as long as the same was authorized.

MWSS provides them with company stationeries, office space and equipment.
Likewise MWSS comported itself as the employer of petitioners providing them with
Ì.D.s. and certifications which declared them as employees of MWSS. Ìt also deducted
and remitted petitioners' withholding taxes and Medicare contributions.

The CSC, as weII as the Court of AppeaIs, makes much of CSC Memorandum
CircuIar No. 38, Series of 1993, which distinguishes between contract of
services/job services and contractuaI appointment.

The Circular provides:

Contract of Services and Job Orders are different from Contractual appointment and
Plantilla appointment of casual employees respectively which are required to be
submitted to CSC for approval.

Contracts of Services and Job Orders refer to empIoyment described as follows:
1. The contract covers lump sum work or services such as janitoriaI, security or
consuItancy services where no employer-employee relationship exist;
2. The job order covers piece of work or intermittent job of short duration not
exceeding six months on a daily basis;
3. The contract of services and job orders are not covered by Civil Service Law Rules
and Regulations; [sic] but covered by COA rules;
4. The empIoyees invoIved in the contracts or job orders do not enjoy the benefits
enjoined by government empIoyees, such as PERA, COLA and RATA.
. As the services rendered under contracts of services and job orders are not
considered government services they do not have to be submitted to the Civil Service
Commission for approval.

A careful review of the above-quoted circular shows that the relationship defined by the
Agreement cannot fall within the purview of contract of services or job orders.

Viewed in that context the work rendered by the petitioners is essentiaI to the
company's survivaI and growth. MWSS relies for the most part on the bill collections
in order to sustain its operations. t is not intermittent and seasonaI but rather
continuous and increasing by reason of its indisputable essentiality.

As clearly indicated in the circular employees involved in the contracts or job orders do
not enjoy the benefits enjoyed by the petitioners which are the same benefits given to
government employees.

Some of the petitioners had rendered more than two decades of service to the
MWSS. The continuous and repeated rehiring of these biII coIIectors indicate the
necessity and desirabiIity of their services, as weII as the importance of the roIe
of biII coIIectors in the MWSS.

We agree with the CSC when it stated that the authority of government agencies to
contract services is an authority recognized under civil service rules.

However said authority cannot be used to circumvent the laws and deprive employees
of such agencies from receiving what is due them.










ENRIQUEZ VS BPI 544 SCRA 590 (2008)

FACTS: Petitioners Enriquez and Sia were senior managers in BPI Bacolod,
having served 34 years and 29 years respectively. ne day, Descartin, a
bank teller, had a shortage of P36,000 and she reported to her managers
that it was an honest oversight as she forgot to have her mother-in-law sign
a withdrawal slip when the latter withdrew the same amount earlier that
day. The managers allowed Descartin to go to her mother-in-law and sign
the withdrawal slip. The managers did not report the shortage as it was
regularized the same day. Meanwhile, another teller, Fregil, who initially
consented to the situation, later divulged that Descartin actually borrowed
the P36,000 and the entire incident was covered up by the managers
(P36,000 was beyond the floor limit for cashiers). In their defense, the
managers said the BPI officer who investigated them was not properly
deputized by the board (non-compliance with the NLRC prodecure, Rule 6
Sec 4). Also they assailed their termination arguing that the issue has been
regularized on the same day and that there was really no need to report it
because of the regularization of the issue and that their long stay with the
company should be appreciated with their restatement.

ISSUE: N THE PETITINERS ERE ILLEGALLY DISMISSED AND AS
SUCH, SHULD BE REINSTATED

HELD: The SC held that the procedural issue of the case (that there was no
written manifestation of the investigating officer) cannot outweigh
substantive right of the company to investigate its employees. It has been
ruled that the board, being the representative of the company, can delegate
its duties to a person and said person´s act shall be binding to the company
as in the case at bar.

Technicalities should never be used to defeat the substantive rights of the
other party. Every party-litigant must be afforded the amplest opportunity
for the proper and just determination of his cause, free from the constraints
of technicalities. Considering that there was substantial compliance, a liberal
interpretation of procedural rules in this labor case is more in keeping with
the constitutional mandate to secure social justice.

The basic requisite for dismissal on the ground of loss of confidence is that
the employee concerned holds a position of trust and confidence or is
routinely charged with the care or custody of the employer´s money or
property, and that the breach must be related to the performance of the
employee´s function. The failure of the petitioners to report the cash
shortage even if done in good faith, resulted in abetting the dishonesty
committed by the teller. Under the personnel policies of the bank, such act
justifies their dismissal even on the first offense. Even if we were to assume
Enriquez´ version was true, the fact remains that they willfully decided
against reporting the shortage that occurred. Their participation in the
cover-up of Descartin´s misconduct makes them unworthy of the trust and
confidence demanded by their positions.

It is a well-settled that the power to dismiss an employee is a
recognized prerogative that is inherent in the employer's right to
freely manage and regulate its business. An employer cannot be
expected to retain an employee whose lack of morals, respect and
loyalty to his employer or regard for his employer's rules has so
plainly and completely been bared. Thus, to compel BPI to keep
petitioners in its employ after the latter betrayed the trust given to
thenm would be unjust. The expectation of trust is more so magnified in
the present case in light of the nature of the respondent bank´s business.
The banking industry is imbued with public interest and is mandated by law
to serve its clients with extraordinary care and diligence. To do this, it must
rely on the honesty and loyalty of its employees.

Definition of Social Justice: While the Constitution is committed to the
policy of social justice and the protection of the working class, it
should not be supposed that every labor dispute will be
automatically decided in favor of labor. Management also has its
own rights which, as such, are entitled to respect and enforcement
in the interest of simple fair play. Out its concern for those with less
privileges in life, this Court has inclined more often than not toward
the worker and upheld his cause in his conflicts with the employer.
Such favoritism however, has not blinded us to the rule that justice
is in every case of the deserving, to be dispensed in the light of the
established facts and the applicable law and doctrine.











9LD1 vsŦ 8o|so S30 SCkA SS0 (2007)
IAC1Sť
O 8olso was an lnsLaller/8epalrman ll of ÞLu1 slnce lebruary 1982 unLll ÞLu1 dlsmlssed
hlm on 20 !uly 1997Ŧ
O Cn 3 lebruary 1996ţ Samuel Mabunga (Mabunga)ţ a ÞLu1 subscrlberţ sold Lhe rlghLs Lo
hls Lelephone llne Lo lsmael Salazar (Salazar) for Þ20ţ 000Ŧ Mabunga recelved Þ13000 for
Lhe LransferŦ lor Lhe lnsLallaLlon of Lhls Lelephone llneţ Salazar pald Þ2ţ300 Lo a ÞLu1
lnsLaller who lnLroduced hlmself as oy -eqto and Lhe remalnlng Þ2ţ300 Lo oy -eqto´s
Lwo companlonsŦ
O Cn 20 May 1996ţ Salazar wroLe ÞLu1 complalnlng abouL Mabunga's conLlnued usage of
Lhe Lelephone llne Lhrough exLenslon desplLe Lhe LransferŦ
O Cn 28 !une 1996ţ Salazar wenL Lo ÞLu1's CuallLy ConLrol and lnspecLlon ulvlslon (CClu)
offlce where he afflrmed paylng Þ2300 Lo 8oy negro and anoLher Þ2300 Lo 8oy negro's
companlon for Lhe lnsLallaLlon of Lhe Lelephone llneŦ uurlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlonţ Salazar
poslLlvely ldenLlfled a phoLograph of 8olso as LhaL of 8oy negroŦ
O Cn 29 !une 1996ţ Lhe CClu personnel lnspecLed Lhe Lelephone llne lnsLallaLlon aL
Salazar's resldence and conflrmed LhaL Mabunga was uslng Lhe Lelephone llne uslng an
ouLslde exLenslon lnsLalled aL Salazar's house ÞLu1 lnformed Salazar and Mabunga LhaL
lL was an unofflclal lnsLallaLlonŦ
O Cn 23 !uly 1996ţ ÞLu1 lssued an lnLerŴofflce Memoţ requesLlng Lhe appearance of 8olsoţ
LogeLher wlLh hls lmmedlaLe Supervlsoror or unlon 8epresenLaLlve for Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon
of hls alleged parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe lllegal lnsLallaLlon
O Cn 26 !uly 1996ţ Salazar and 8olso appeared aL Lhe CClu lnvesLlgaLlonŤ Salazar
reafflrmed hls sLaLemenL and poslLlvely plcked ouL and ldenLlfled 8olso as Lhe lnsLaller
of Lhe unofflclal Lelephone llneŦ 8olso denled Lhe allegaLlons agalnsL hlm
O 8olsoţ submlLLed Lo ÞLu1 a recanLaLlon of Salazar's prevlous sLaLemenLsţ alleglng LhaL he
dld noL personally know 8olso and LhaL 8olso was noL 8oy negroŦ
O Cn 10 !ulyţ 1997ţ 8olso's counsel demanded Lhe lmmedlaLe dlsmlssal of Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve case agalnsL 8olso's based on Salazar's reLracLlon and Lhe release of
8olso's beneflLs under ÞLu1's early reLlremenL programŦ
O Clvlng no credence Lo Lhe recanLaLlon leLLer and flndlng LhaL Salazar's prevlous
sLaLemenLs esLabllsh 8olso's culpablllLyţ ÞLu1 LermlnaLed 8olso effecLlve !une 20ţ 1997
for serlous mlsconducLŦ
O 8olso flled a wlLh Lhe Labor ArblLer a complalnL agalnsL ÞLu1 for lllegal dlsmlssalţ
backwages and damageŦ
O Labor ArblLer dlsmlssed Lhe case for lack of merlLŦ 1husţ 8olso appealed Lo nL8C and
ruled ln favor of 8olsoŦ
ISSULť WheLher or noL 8olso's dlsmlssal for serlous mlsconducL was lawfulŦ

nLLDť
1he Labor Code provldes LhaL an employer may LermlnaLe Lhe servlces of an employee for a [usL
causeŦ Among Lhe [usL causes ln Lhe Labor Code ls ArLlcle 282 of LC provldes serlous
mlsconducLŦ MlsconducL ls lmproper or wrong conducLŦ lL ls Lhe Lransgresslon of some
esLabllshed and deflnlLe rule of acLlonţ a forbldden acLţ a derellcLlon of duLyţ wlllful ln characLerţ
and lmplles wrongful lnLenL and noL mere error ln [udgmenLŦ
An employee's dlsmlssal due Lo serlous mlsconducL musL be supporLed by subsLanLlal evldenceŦ
SubsLanLlal evldence ls LhaL amounL of relevanL evldence as a reasonable mlnd mlghL accepL as
adequaLe Lo supporL a concluslonţ even lf oLher mlndsţ equally reasonableţ mlghL concelvably
oplne oLherwlseŦ
ln Lhls caseţ Lhere ls no quesLlon LhaL ÞLu1 lnsLallersţ such as 8olsoţ repalrmenţ and llnemen
provlde servlces buL cannoL collecL or recelve any personal fees for such servlcesŦ vlolaLlng Lhls
company rule consLlLuLes serlous mlsconducLŦ
A reLracLlon does noL necessarlly negaLe an earller declaraLlonŦ lor Lhls reasonţ courLs look wlLh
dlsfavor upon reLracLlonsŦ Penceţ when confronLed wlLh a recanLlng wlLnessţ ln Lhls case Lhe
complalnanLţ courLs musL noL auLomaLlcally exclude Lhe orlglnal sLaLemenL based solely on Lhe
recanLaLlonŦ CourLs should deLermlne whlch sLaLemenL should be glven credence Lhrough a
comparlson of Lhe orlglnal and Lhe new sLaLemenLsţ applylng Lhe general rules of evldence
Salazar dld noL expressly repudlaLe hls earller sLaLemenL LhaL he pald 8olso Þ2ţ300 for Lhe
lnsLallaLlon of Lhe lllegal Lelephone llneŦ WhaL Salazar sLaLed ln hls recanLaLlon leLLer was LhaL
8olso was noL oy -eqtoŦ 1hereforeţ only 8olso's ldenLlLy as oy -eqto was reLracLedŦ
Salazar's orlglnal sLaLemenL LhaL 8olso recelved Þ2ţ300 for Lhe lnsLallaLlon of Lhe ouLslde
exLenslon llne remalns undlspuLedŦ
1he CourL has held LhaL Lhe longer an employee sLays ln Lhe servlce of Lhe companyţ Lhe greaLer
ls hls responslblllLy for knowledge and compllance wlLh Lhe norms of conducL and Lhe code of
dlsclpllne ln Lhe companyŦ An employee's lengLh of servlce wlLh Lhe company even aggravaLes
hls offenseŦ 8olso should have been more loyal Lo ÞLu1 from whlch he had derlved hls lncome
for 13 yearsŦ
upholdlng Lhe employee's lnLeresL ln dlsregard of Lhe employer's rlghL Lo dlsmlss and dlsclpllne
does noL serve Lhe cause of soclal [usLlceŦ Soclal [usLlce ceases Lo be an effecLlve lnsLrumenL for
Lhe ºequallzaLlon of Lhe soclal and economlc forces" by Lhe SLaLe when lL ls used Lo shleld
wrongdolngŦ



CALALANG V WILLIAMS

IAC1Sť
1he SecreLary of Þubllc Works and CommunlcaLlons (ÞWC) approved wlLh modlflcaLlon
Lhe recommendaLlon LhaL orlglnaLed from Lhe naLlonal 1rafflc Commlsslon (n1C)ţ whlch was
favorably lndorsed by Lhe ulrecLor of Þubllc Works (ÞW)

O LhaL 8osarlo SLreeL and 8lzal Avenue be closed Lo Lrafflc of anlmalŴdrawn vehlclesţ
beLween Lhe polnLs and durlng Lhe hours from 7 aŦmŦ Lo 11 pŦmŦţ for a perlod of one year from
Lhe daLe of Lhe openlng of Lhe ColganLe 8rldge Lo LrafflcŤ

O LhaL Lhe Mayor of Manlla and Lhe AcLlng Chlef of Þollce of Manlla have enforced and
caused Lo be enforced Lhe rules and regulaLlons Lhus adopLedŤ

O LhaL as a consequence of such enforcemenLţ all anlmal drawn vehlcles are noL allowed
Lo pass and plck up passengers ln Lhe places abovemenLloned Lo Lhe deLrlmenL noL only of Lhelr
owners buL of Lhe rldlng publlc as wellŦ

CommonwealLh AcL noŦ 348 glves Lhe ulrecLor of Þubllc Works Lhe auLhorlLy Lo
promulgaLe rules and regulaLlons Lo regulaLe and conLrol Lhe use of and Lrafflc on naLlonal
roadsŦ

Maxlmo Calangţ ln hls capaclLy as prlvaLe clLlzen and as a Laxpayer of Manllaţ flled a
peLlLlon for a wrlL of prohlblLlon agalnsL Lhe Chalrman of n1Cţ ulrecLor of ÞWţ AcLlng SecreLary
of ÞWCţ Mayor of Manlla and AcLlng Chlelf of Þollce of ManllaŦ


ISSULť
WCn Lhe rules and regulaLlons complalned of lnfrlnge Lhe consLlLuLlonal precepL regardlng Lhe
promoLlon of soclal [usLlce Lo lnsure Lhe wellŴbelng of all Lhe people?

nLLDť noŦ
Soclal [usLlce ls promoLed lf Lhe greaLesL good ls broughL abouL Lo Lhe greaLesL numberŦ

Soc|a| [ust|ce must be founded on the recogn|t|on of the necess|ty of |nterdependence among
d|vers and d|verse un|ts of a soc|ety and of the protect|on that shou|d be equa||y and even|y
extended to a|| groups as a comb|ned force |n our soc|a| and econom|c ||feţ cons|stent w|th
the fundamenta| and paramount ob[ect|ve of the state of promot|ng the hea|thţ comfortţ and
qu|et of a|| personsţ and of br|ng|ng about "the greatest good to the greatest numberŦ"

CommonwealLh AcL noŦ 348 was passed by Lhe naLlonal Assembly ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe
paramounL pollce power of Lhe sLaLeŦ
Sa|d Actţ by vlrLue of whlch Lhe rules and regulaLlons complalned of were promulgaLedţ a|ms to
promote safe trans|t upon and avo|d obstruct|ons on nat|ona| roadsţ |n the |nterest and
conven|ence of the pub||cŦ ln enacLlng sald lawţ Lhereforeţ the Nat|ona| Assemb|y was
prompted by cons|derat|ons of pub||c conven|ence and we|fareŦ

Þersons and properLy may be sub[ecLed Lo all klnds of resLralnLs and burdensţ ln order Lo secure
Lhe general comforLţ healLhţ and prosperlLy of Lhe sLaLe
























HEIRS OF JUGALBOT VS CA 518 SCRA 202 (2007)

FACTS: In September 1997, an emancipation patent (EP) was issued to
Nicolas Jugalbot based on his claim that he was the tenant of the subject
property located in Cagayan De ro. The subject property was in the name
of Virginia Roa but it was originally registered in the name of Marcelino Cabili
from whom Roa purchased the same in 1966.

Jugalbot alleged that he was a tenant of the property continuously since
1950s. but based on the certification of the Department of Agriculture
(DAR), the subject property was declared to be tenanted as of ctober
1972. n March 1, 1988, the EP was registered with the RD and Jugalbot
was issued TCT E-103.

In August 1998, the heirs of Virginia Roa filed a complaint for the
cancellation of title, recovery of possession and damages against Jugalbot.
Department of Agriculture Adjudication Board (DARAB) dismissed the case
and upheld the EP issued to Jugalbot.

ISSUE: N A TENANCY RELATINSHIP EXISTS BETEEN PETITINERS
HEIRS F JUGALBT AND HEIRS F RA UNDER PD 27. (ARE PETITINERS
DE JURE TENANTS F PRIVATE RESPNDENTS?)

HELD: To determine if a tenancy relationship exists, the following must be
present:
a. The parties are the landowner and the tenant
b. The subject matter is agricultural land
c. There is consent
d. The purpose is agricultural production
e. There is personal cultivation by the tenant
f. There is sharing of harvests between the parties

In an earlier case, it was affirmed that tenancy relationship cannot be
presumed. The elements of tenancy must be first proved in order to entitle
the claimant to security of tenure. The principal factor in determining
whether a tenancy relationship exists is intent. The intent of the parties, the
understanding when the farmer is installed, and their written agreements,
provided they are not contrary to law are more important.

The SC held that the petitioners are not de jure tenants of the Roa under PD
27 due to the absence of the essential requisites that establish a tenancy
relationship between them.
1. Virginia Roa was denied of due process because DAR failed to send
notice of the impending land reform coverage, as the notice was
addressed to her husband, Pedro Roa. There is no evidence that the
subject property was acquired during their marriage, thus the property
belonged to her exclusively.
2. There is no concrete evidence on record sufficient to establish that
Jugalbot or his heirs personally cultivated the land in question or that
there was sharing of harvests.

The fact alone of working on another´s landholding does not raise a
presumption of the existence of agricultural tenancy. ther factors must be
taken into consideration like compensation in the form of lease rentals or a
share in the produce of the landholding involved. ithout the essential
elements of consent and sharing, no tenancy relationship can exist between
the petitioner and private respondents.

It may not be amiss to stress that laws which have for their object
the preservation and maintenance of social justice are not only
meant to favor the poor and underprivileged. They apply with equal
force to those who, notwithstanding their more comfortable position
in life, are equally deserving of protection from the courts. Social
justice is not a license to trample on the rights of the rich in the
guise of defending the poor, where no act of injustice or abuse is
being committed against them.














Agabon vs NLkC 442 SCkA S73 (2004)
IAC1Sť
ÞrlvaLe respondenL 8lvlera Pome lmprovemenLsţ lncŦ ls engaged ln Lhe buslness of selllng and lnsLalllng
ornamenLal and consLrucLlon maLerlalsŦ lL employed peLlLloners vlrglllo Agabon and !enny Agabon as
gypsum board and cornlce lnsLallers on !anuary 2ţ 1992 unLll lebruary 23ţ 1999 when Lhey were
dlsmlssed for abandonmenL of workŦ ÞeLlLloners Lhen flled a complalnL for lllegal dlsmlssal and paymenL
of money clalms and on uecember 28ţ 1999ţ Lhe Labor ArblLer rendered a declslon declarlng Lhe
dlsmlssals lllegal and ordered prlvaLe respondenL Lo pay Lhe moneLary clalmsŦ

ISSULť WheLher or noL respondenL's dlsmlssal ls lllegalŦ

nLLDť
1he CourL ruled LhaL Lhe dlsmlssal ls legal and enLlLles Lhem of paymenL of beneflLsŦ ulsmlssals based on
[usL causes conLemplaLe acLs or omlsslons aLLrlbuLable Lo Lhe employee whlle dlsmlssals based on
auLhorlzed causes lnvolve grounds under Lhe Labor Code whlch allow Lhe employer Lo LermlnaLe
employeesŦ A LermlnaLlon for an auLhorlzed cause requlres paymenL of separaLlon payŦ

When Lhe dlsmlssal ls for [usL or auLhorlzed cause buL due process was noL observedţ Lhe dlsmlssal
should be upheldŦ Whlle Lhe procedural lnflrmlLy cannoL be curedţ lL should noL lnvalldaLe Lhe dlsmlssalŦ
Poweverţ Lhe employer should be held llable for nonŴcompllance wlLh Lhe procedural requlremenLs of
due processŦ 1he dlsmlssal should be upheld because lL was esLabllshed LhaL Lhe peLlLloners abandoned
Lhelr [obs Lo work for anoLher companyŦ ÞrlvaLe respondenLţ howeverţ dld noL follow Lhe noLlce
requlremenLs and lnsLead argued LhaL sendlng noLlces Lo Lhe lasL known addresses would have been
useless because Lhey dld noL reslde Lhere anymoreŦ unforLunaLely for Lhe prlvaLe respondenLţ Lhls ls noL
a valld excuse because Lhe law mandaLes Lhe Lwln noLlce requlremenLs Lo Lhe employee's lasL known
addressŦ 1husţ lL should be held llable for nonŴcompllance wlLh Lhe procedural requlremenLs of due
processŦ
Where Lhe dlsmlssal ls for a [usL causeţ as ln Lhe lnsLanL caseţ Lhe lack of sLaLuLory due process should
noL nulllfy Lhe dlsmlssalţ or render lL lllegalţ or lneffecLualŦ Poweverţ Lhe employer should lndemnlfy Lhe
employee for Lhe vlolaLlon of hls sLaLuLory rlghLsŦ 1he lndemnlLy Lo be lmposed should be sLlffer Lo
dlscourage Lhe abhorrenL pracLlce of ƍdlsmlss nowţ pay laLerţƍ whlch we soughL Lo deLerŦ 1he sancLlon
should be ln Lhe naLure of lndemnlflcaLlon or penalLy and should depend on Lhe facLs of each caseţ
Laklng lnLo speclal conslderaLlon Lhe gravlLy of Lhe due process vlolaLlon of Lhe employerŦ
lL musL be sLressed LhaL ln Lhe presenL caseţ Lhe peLlLloners commlLLed a grave offenseţ lŦeŦţ
abandonmenLţ whlchţ lf Lhe requlremenLs of due process were complled wlLhţ would undoubLedly resulL
ln a valld dlsmlssalŦ
An employee who ls clearly gullLy of conducL vlolaLlve of ArLlcle 282 should noL be proLecLed by Lhe
Soclal !usLlce Clause of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ Soclal [usLlceţ as Lhe Lerm suggesLsţ should be used only Lo
correcL an ln[usLlceŦ As Lhe emlnenL !usLlce !ose ÞŦ Laurel observedţ soclal [usLlce musL be founded on
Lhe recognlLlon of Lhe necesslLy of lnLerdependence among dlverse unlLs of a socleLy and of Lhe
proLecLlon LhaL should be equally and evenly exLended Lo all groups as a comblned force ln our soclal
and economlc llfeţ conslsLenL wlLh Lhe fundamenLal and paramounL ob[ecLlve of Lhe sLaLe of promoLlng
Lhe healLhţ comforLţ and quleL of all personsţ and of brlnglng abouL ƍLhe greaLesL good Lo Lhe greaLesL
numberŦƍ
!usLlce ln every case should only be for Lhe deservlng parLyŦ lL should noL be presumed LhaL every case of
lllegal dlsmlssal would auLomaLlcally be declded ln favor of laborţ as managemenL has rlghLs LhaL should
be fully respecLed and enforced by Lhls CourLŦ As lnLerdependenL and lndlspensable parLners ln naLlonŴ
bulldlngţ labor and managemenL need each oLher Lo fosLer producLlvlLy and economlc growLhŤ henceţ
Lhe need Lo welgh and balance Lhe rlghLs and welfare of boLh Lhe employee and employerŦ



















9LD1 V NLkC (A8UCA¥)

IAC1Sť

ÞrlvaLe respondenL Marllyn Abucayţ a Lrafflc operaLor for ÞLu1ţ was accused by 2 complalnanLs
of havlng demanded and recelved from Lhem 3ţ800 pesos ln conslderaLlon of her promlse Lo
faclllLaLe Lhe approval of Lhelr appllcaLlons for phone lnsLallaLlonsŦ

lnvesLlgaLed and heardţ she was found gullLy and dlsmlssed from servlceŦ

8espondenL flled a complalnL for lllegal removal wlLh Lhe MlnlsLry of Labor and LmploymenLŦ

1he complalnL was dlsmlssedţ buL Lhe Labor ArblLer granLed her separaLlon pay of one monLh
pay for every year of servlceŦ

Pence Lhls peLlLlonţ clalmlng Lhe granLlng of flnanclal asslsLance was made wlLh grave abuse of
dlscreLlonŦ

ÞeLlLloner conLends LhaL alLhough ArL 279 of Lhe Labor Code enLlLles an employee Lo
relnsLaLemenL and backwages lf dlsmlssed wlLhouL [usL causeţ one dlsmlssed ln accordance wlLh
law ls noL allowed any rellef aL all as Lhls would be LanLamounL Lo rewardlng Lhe dlssoluLe
workerŦ

8espondenL nL8C clalms LhaL dlsmlssal was sufflclenL punlshmenL and LhaL Lhe granL of
flnanclal asslsLance was lnLended Lo help her for Lhe loss of employmenL afLer worklng falLhfully
for 10 yearsŦ

Slmllarly ln Lhe cases of llresLone CoŦ v Larlosa and llllplnoţ lncŦ v nL8Cţ employees who were
valldly dlsmlssed on grounds of vlolaLlon of company pollcles were sLlll awarded flnanclal
asslsLance on Lhe ground of soclal and compasslonaLe [usLlceŦ

ÞeLlLloner conLends LhaL Lhese cases osLenslbly consLlLuLe Lhe excepLlon Lo ArL 279ţ based on
conslderaLlons of equlLyŦ

ISSULť

WCN |t |s |ega| to award f|nanc|a| ass|stance to an emp|oyee who had been d|sm|ssed w|th
[ust cause


nLLDť NCŦ

Separat|on pay sha|| on|y be a||owed as a measure of soc|a| [ust|ce when the emp|oyee |s
va||d|y d|sm|ssed for causes other than ser|ous m|sconduct and not |nvo|v|ng mora| turp|tudeŦ

1here ls no doubL lL ls compasslonaLe Lo glve separaLlon pay when Lhe cause ls noL lnlqulLous as
when a salesman ls dlsmlssed for hls lnablllLy Lo flll hls quoLaŦ

Pls company cannoL be compelled Lo malnLaln hlm aL Lhe expense of Lhe efflclency of Lhelr
operaLlons buL Lhe awardlng of flnanclal asslsLance would be susLalnable under Lhe pollcy of
soclal [usLlceŦ

Poweverţ Lhe same salesman surely does noL deserve such generoslLy lf hls offense ls
mlsapproprlaLlon of Lhe recelpLs of hls salesŦ

Such conducL ls noL slmply lnepL buL raLher depraved and lmmoralţ Lhus maklng hlm
undeservlng of such asslsLanceŦ

Cur ConsLlLuLlon ls repleLe wlLh poslLlve commands for Lhe promoLlon of soclal [usLlceţ and
parLlcularly Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe rlghLs of Lhe workersŦ Poweverţ soc|a| [ust|ce |s not |ntended
to countenance wrongdo|ng s|mp|y because |t |s comm|tted by the underpr|v||egedŦ

Compasslon for Lhe poor ls an lmperaLlve ln every humane socleLyţ buL only when Lhe reclplenL
ls noL a rascal clalmlng an undeserved prlvllegeŦ

Penceţ |t may on|y be |nvoked by those whose hands are c|ean and whose mot|ves are
b|ame|essŦ

App|y|ng these cons|derat|onsţ the award|ng of f|nanc|a| ass|stance |s un[ust|f|edŦ

ÞeLlLlon ls C8An1Lu

SLÞA8A1L CÞlnlCn
ÞAulLLA żconcurŽ

l concurŦ Poweverţ ln cases were separaLlon pay ls awardedţ Lhe amounL Lo be granLed should
be lefL Lo Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe nL8C (raLher Lhan Lhe 1 monLh of pay for each year of servlce
rule) and should noL be dlsLurbed by Lhe CourL ln absence of evldence of grave abuse of
dlscreLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe nL8CŦ

lL8nAn żdlssenLŽ
Þrovldlng a rlgld maLhemaLlcal formula for compuLlng Lhe amounLs of separaLlon pay defles Lhe
splrlL of Lhe consLlLuLlonal mandaLe LhaL ºLhose who have less ln llfe should have more ln law"Ŧ

1hese flxed raLes would noL favor Lhe lowŴsalarled employee as he would encounLer dlfflculLy ln
flndlng anoLher [obŦ
C8lnCŴACulnC żdlssenLŽ
ŴWe should noL raLlonallze compasslonŦ













































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