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MANUAL FOR AGROHYDROLOGY AND ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR SMALL WATER IMPOUNDING PROJECT (SWIP)

Department of Agriculture BUREAU OF SOILS AND WATER MANAGEMENT Diliman, Quezon City March 1997

TABLE OF CONTENTS DESCRIPTION 1. ESTIMATION OF RUN-OFF and DERIVATION OF INFLOW 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2. Establishment of Project Data Estimation of Basin Lag Time and Time Concentration Computation for Rainfall Depth Rainfall Increments Determination Rearrangement of Rainfall Pattern Derivation of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Convolution of Equation for Flood Hydrograph PAGE NO. HYDROGRAPH 1 1 2 2 3 8 9 10 10 10 11 11 14 14 14 14 14 15 16 16 16

FIELD WATER BALANCE COMPUTATION 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 Establishment of Cropping Pattern and Cropping Calendar Computation of 80% Dependable Rainfall Crop Coefficient and Crop Rooting Depth Percolation Loss Soil Water Holding Capacity Actual Evapotranspiration Change in Storage Initial Storage Estimation of Water Storage at End of Decade Irrigation Efficiency

3. ESTIMATION OF 10-DAY RESERVOIR INFLOW 3.1 3.2 4. ANNEXES A. B. C. D. Philippine Water Resources Region Climate Map of the Philippines Monthly Distribution of Potential Evapotranspiration of Selected Places in the Philippines Planting Calendar Estimation of 10-Day Inflow for Region I, II, & IV Estimation of 10-Day Inflow for Other Regions

24 25 27 28

LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. Regression Coefficients of the Rainfall Intensity-Duration Frequency Curve for Different Locations 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Soil Groups for Estimation of Watershed Index W. Antecedent Moisture Condition for Estimation of Water Index W. Values of Watershed Index W. Adjustment of Watershed Index W for Antecedent Moisture 7 Recommended Retention Rate for Hydrologic Soil Groups T/Tp versus q/qp for Dimensionless Hydrograph Percolation for Different Soil Types S W H C of Different Soil Textural Class Regional Run-off Coefficient and % Monthly Baseflow Distribution 4 6 6 6 Condition 8 9 12 15 17 PAGE NO.

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. 1 1 2 4 5 6 TITLE Rearrangement of Rainfall Increments Water Management Scheme and Crop Depending Variables for Field Water Balance for Irrigated Wetland Rice. Crop Depending Variables for Field Water balance of Irrigated Corn. Crop Depending Variables for Field Water balance of Irrigated Mungo. Crop Depending Variables for Field Water balance of Irrigated Tomato. Crop Depending Variables for Field Water balance of Irrigated Peanut. PAGE NO. 5 12 12 13 13 14

AGROHYDROLOGIC STUDIES AND ANALYSES There are 3 general computations to be considered in the study. These are as follows: 1. Estimation of Run-off and Derivation of Inflow Hydrograph (25 yrs.) 2. Field Water Balance Computation 3. Reservoir Inflow Computation 1. ESTIMATION OF RUN-OFF AND DERIVATION OF INFLOW HYDROGRAPH This would require the following data and inputs to be taken from the project site. These are topographic map soil and land capability mp or report, land use/vegetation map or report and rainfall intensities. The following arranged procedures would be helpful in deriving the inflow hydrograph. 1.1 Establishment of the Project Data a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 1.2. Drainage Area, A, in sq. km. Mainstream length from outlet to highest ridge, L. Mainstream from outlet to point nearest basin centroid, Lc. Total fall (elevation difference) from highest ridge to outlet, H, in meter. Watershed gradient, Soil type of watershed (dominant) to determine the soil group identified soil type in the watershed belong to. Watershed cover/land use. the

Estimation of Basin Lag Time, TL and time of Concentration TC using Snyders Method (revised), Time to peak, Tp and peak runoff, qp. a. Compute for unadjusted TL (TL in hours) Where: L = mainstream length from outlet to highest ridge, in miles LC = mainstream length from outlet to the nearest basin centroid. Y = watershed gradient a = 0.38 Ct = coefficient with values (Linsleys): 1.2 for mountatins drainage area 0.72 for foothill drainage area 0.35 for valley drainage area b. Adjust estimate of TL Adjusted TL (for D = 0.4 ) Adjusted TL = TL + (D )

Method, and

1 c. Compute time of concentration, TC, in hours.

TC = TL / 0.70 d. Compute the time to peak, Tp using Tp = D + TL (adjusted) Where: D = time duration of one inch of excess rainfall (USDA SCS) suggested values of D as 0.5 hr. (or 0.40 hr.) where Tc < 3; 1 hr. where 3<Tc<6:1/5 Tc where Tc>6. e. Compute the Peak rate of Runoff, qp, in cms/mm excess rainfall: qp = Where: A = drainage area, sq. km. TL = time lag (adjusted), hr. qp = cms/mm 1.3 Compute for rainfall Depth P for different duration D, utilizing equation: P = iD where i = rainfall intensity computed using Rainfall Intensity Duration, Frequency Curve for different location in the Philippines (Table 1). Gen. Equation : D = Duration The tabulation of rainfall depth Pi versus Duration Di is thus: Seq. No. 1 2 4 n 1.4 Duration, D, Hr D1 = D D2 = 2D1 D3 = 3D1 Dn = 2Dn Rainfall Intensity I, min/hr. 1 2 3 n Rainfall Depth P, mm P1 P2 P3 Pn

Obtain rainfall increments Pi and rearranged them according to three maximization patterns: 1. 2. 3. Peak P1 at middle time position, i = n/2 Peak P1 at 1/3 time position, i = n/3 Peak P1 at 2/3 time position, i= 2n/3 + 1

The sequences for peak at the different positions mentioned are shown in figure I. Considering that the highest qp is usually computed or obtained from the 2/3 time position pattern, the hydrograph to be derived will utilize this pattern without anymore working the other 2 patterns for comparison, thus tabulation would only be as follows: 2 Rainfall Increments Rearranged Rainfall Increments APi, mm in 2/3 Position of peak pi

________________________________________________________________________ Seq. No. 1. P1 = P1 P14 2. P2 = P2 - P1 P13 3. P3 = P3 P2 P12 4. P4 = P4 P3 P10 5. P5 = P5 P4 P9 6. P6 = P6 P5 P7 7. P7 = P7 P6 P6 8. P8 = P8 P7 P5 9. P9 = P9 P8 P3 10. P10 = P10 P9 P2 11. P11 = P11 P10 P1 12. P12 = P12 P11 P4 13. P13 = P13 P12 P8 14. P14 = P14 P13 P11 15. P15 = P15 P14 P15 This rainfall-increment pattern is subjected to estimation of losses in the next step for the determination of rainfall excess amounts. 1.5 For the rearranged rainfall pattern considered, -Apply the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Method to obtain Initial Abstraction, Ia: Ia = 0.2s Where: Ia = initial abstraction, in inches s = 1000 10 W = maximum potential difference between rainfall and runoff, in inches W = watershed index, also called the runoff curve number N or CN = function of soil group, antecedent moisture condition (AMC), and land use cover in the watershed - Refer to Table 2 (Soil Group), Table 3 (Antecedent Moisture Conditions, Table 4 Value of W for different land uses/covers, assuming AMC II) and Table 5 (Adjustments of W for AMC I and AMC III). - The computed initial abstraction Ia is subtracted from the rainfall over the necessary initial number of time increment until Ia is satisfied. - After subtracting Ia, a uniform retention rate f is applied in succeeding time increments so that retention depth subtracted each time from a rainfall increments is at most equal to f AP, Applicable values are given in Table 6.

3 TABLE 1 Regression Coefficients if the Rainfall intensity, f (mm/hr) Duration, t (hr) Frequency, T Curve for Different Locations: General Equation: i = aTC

(t+b)d
REGION 1 STATION/LOCATION Vigan, Ilocos Sur Baguio City Laoag City Tuguegarao, Cagayan Aparri, Cagayan San Agustin, Arayat, Pampanga Sta. Cruz, Pampanga Dagupan, Pangasinan Matalava, Lingayen Iba, Zamabales Cabanatuan City Cansinala, Apalit, Pampanga Gabaldon, Nueva Ecija Infanta, Quezon Calapan, Mondoro Or. MIA Pot Area, Manila Tayabas, Quezon Casiguran, Quezon Alabat, Quezon Ambalong, Tanauan, Batangas Angono, Rizal Daet, Camarines Norte Legaspi, City Virac, Catanduanes Iloilo City Cebu Airport Dumaguete City Borongan, Eastern Samar UEP, Catarman, Samar Catbalogan, Samar Tacloban, Leyte Zamboanga City Cagayan de Oro Surigao City Binatuan, Surigao del Sur Davao City a 47.295 51.414 60.676 47.263 53.503 48.749 41.687 53.665 0.890 51.960 62.961 36.597 43.209 67.327 54.846 46.863 58.798 39.710 77.587 55.424 41.351 62.314 44.553 55.836 49.052 44.390 59.330 100.821 51.622 61.889 51.105 39.661 48.571 78.621 61.486 57.433 81.959 b 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.20 0.40 0.85 0.10 0.10 0.80 0.20 0.10 0.30 0.30 0.10 0.20 0.70 0.20 0.70 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.40 1.00 0.10 0.40 0.10 0.10 0.30 0.50 0.60 0.10 0.50 c 0.2710 0.2337 0.2370 0.2290 0.2780 0.2330 0.2220 0.1340 0.2220 0.2020 0.1395 0.2280 0.2150 0.2010 0.2460 0.1940 0.1980 0.1320 0.2380 0.2310 0.2310 0.1910 0.2240 0.2480 0.2480 0.2040 0.2400 0.2370 0.1680 0.2300 0.2020 0.1660 0.2090 0.1950 0.2520 0.1340 0.1740 d 0.577 0.343 0.554 0.598 0.610 0.690 0.611 0.575 0.611 0.448 0.754 0.568 0.487 0.617 0.768 0.609 0.679 0.461 0.717 0.491 0.511 0.630 0.570 0.591 0.591 0.670 0.812 1.057 0.581 0.681 0.620 0.629 0.803 0.954 0.602 0.577 0.945 R 0.9882 0.9800 0.9944 0.9949 0.9916 0.9973 0.9976 0.9959 0.9973 0.9951 0.9950 0.9962 0.9942 0.9867 0.9969 0.9979 0.9981 0.9912 0.9849 0.9880 0.9620 0.9934 0.9971 0.9958 0.9958 0.9970 0.9956 0.9963 0.9972 0.9905 0.9948 0.9968 0.9973 0.9992 0.9901 0.9932 0.9986

2 3

6 7 8

9 10

11

Note:

If b resulting rainfall intensitydurationfrequency are straight (plotted on log chart).

the

curves lines log,

5
TABLE 2: Soil Groups for Estimation of Watershed Index W

Soil Group A B C D

Description of Soil Characteristics Soils having very low runoff potential, For Example, deep sands with little silt or clay. Light soils under/or well structured soils having above Average infiltration when thoroughly melted. For example, light sandy loams, silty loams. Medium soils and shallow soils having below-average Infiltration when thoroughly melted. For example, clay loams. Soils having high runoff potential. For example, heavy soils, particularly days of high swelling capacity, and very shallow soils underlain by dense clay horizons.

TABLE 3:

Antecedent Moisture Conditions for Estimation of Watershed Index W Rain in pervious 5 days Dormant Season less than 0.5 in. 0.5 1.1 in. more than 1.1 in. Growing Season lass than 1.4 in. 1.4 to 2.1 in. more than 2.1 in.

Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC) I II III TABLE 4:

Values of Watershed Index W (Assuming Antecedent Moisture Condition II) Farming Treatment Hydrologic Condition Poor Fair Good Poor Fair Good Good Straightro w Contoured Poor Good Poor Good Poor Good Poor Good A 70 50 40 45 35 25 30 65 60 65 55 65 70 70 65 80 6 SOIL GROUP B C 80 85 70 80 60 75 65 75 60 75 55 70 60 75 70 75 70 75 80 80 75 85 70 85 80 80 80 85 85 85 80 90 D 90 85 80 85 80 75 80 90 85 85 85 90 90 90 85 95

Land Use or Cover Native pasture or grassland Timbered Areas Improved Permanent pastures Rotation pastures

Crop

Straightro w Contoured

Fallow

(Table 4 Cont)

The meaning of the terms listed under the heading Hydrologic Condition are as follow: a. Native pastures: Pastures in poor condition is sparse, heavily grazed pastures with less than half the total watershed area under plant cover. Pasture in fair condition is moderately grazed and with between half and three-quarters of the catchment under plant cover. Pasture in good condition is lightly grazed and with more than three-quarters of the catchment area under plant cover. Timbered areas: Poor areas are sparsely timbered and heavily grazed with no undergrowth. Fair areas are moderately grazed, with some undergrowth. Good areas are densely timbered and ungrazed, with considerable undergrowth. Improved permanent pastures: Densely sown permanent legume pastures subject to careful grazing management are considered to be in good hydrologic condition. Rotation pastures: Dense, moderately grazed pastures used as part of a well planned, crop-pasture-fallow rotation are considered to be in good hydrologic condition. Sparse, overgrazed or opportunity pastures are considered to be poor condition. Crops: Good hydrologic condition refers to crops which form a part of a well planned and managed croppasture-follow rotation. Poor hydrologic condition refers to crops managed according to a simple cropfollow-rotation.

b.

c. d.

e.

TABLE 5:

Adjustment of Watershed index W for Antecedent moisture Condition

AMC = II 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25

Corresponding Value of W for: AMC = I 100 87 80 70 65 60 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 20 15 10

AMC = III 100 99 98 97 95 90 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45

TABLE 6:

Recommended Retention Rate for Hydrologic Soil Group (USBR)

Hydrologic Soil Group A B C D


1.6

Retention Rate, inches/hour 0.4 0.24 0.12 0.04

Derive the synthetic unit hydrograph, using T/Tp versus q/qp for dimensionless hydrograph (Table 7) -interpolate from the values of Table 7 the selected values of discharge ratios q/qp for values of ratio equal to T/Tp = D , 2D , 3D TP TP TP Until q/qp is less than 0.001 time

etc.

-Compute the ordinate of Synthetic Unit hydrograph as follows: Ui = (q/qp) i qp Where: Ui = ordinate of synthetic unit hydrograph in cms/mm (i= 1, 2, 3 . . . ) q/qp I = interpolated value of q/qp from smooth dimensionless hydrograph. qp = Computed peak rate of runoff in cms/mm -Obtain correction factor k for synthetic unit hydrograph (Dimensionless and ideally close to 1: K = 3.6 U1 D D in hours; A in sq. km.) A -Correct to ordinate Ui ( i = 1, 2, 3 . . . ) Uu (Corrected Ui) = original Ui K -To check, K should be equal to one when using the same formula: K = 3.6 U1 D A -In tabulated form we will have: Seq. No. i 1 2 3 4 n Time T, hr D 2D 3D 4D nD Dimensionless T/Tp D/Tp 2DTp 3D/Tp 4D/Tp nD/Tp Hydrograph q/qp Values interpolated From Table 7 Unit Hydrograph Ui = (q/qp) i qp (q/qp)1 qp (q/qp)2 qp (q/qp)3 qp (q/qp)4 qp (q/qp)n qp Ui Cms/mm Uu = Ui/ki Uu1 Uu2

Uu n Uu

TABLE 7: Time Ratio T/Tp 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

T/Tp versus q/qp for dimensionless hydrograph Disch. Ratio q/qp 0 0.015 0.175 0.16 0.28 0.43 0.6 0.77 0.89 0.97 1 0.98 0.92 0.84 0.75 Time Ratio T/Tp 1.5 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Infinity Disch. Ratio q/qp 0.66 0.56 0.42 0.32 0.24 0.18 0.13 0.098 0.075 0.036 0.018 0.009 0.004 0

1.7

To the rearrange pattern of excess rainfall, apply the synthetic unit hydrograph Qi ( i = 1, 2, 3 . . . ) according to the convolution equations: Q1 = U1 E1 Q2 = U1 E2 + U2 E1 Q3 = U1 E3 + U2 E2 + U3 E1 Q4 = U1 E4 + U2 E3 + U3 E2 + U4 E1 etc.

\ 9

2.

FIELD WATER BALANCE COMPUTATION

Establish the best cropping pattern and cropping calendar with the following objectives: a) minimum irrigation requirements; b) maximum annual production; c) optimum growing conditions for the given crop and growing stages: d) grow paddy rice during wet season when water abundant and irrigation is minimal. Fill the column for the rainfall (rain) with 80% dependability computed using the two parameter lognormal distribution and the average potential evapotranspiration (PET). To compute for 80% dependable for a given site the following procedures are to be considered: a. Collect 10-day rainfall data, defined as the sums of daily rainfall over each defined 10day period and arrange them as follows: Year Month Jan. Decade 1 2 3 4 5 6 34 35 36 b. 1 2 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N Mean Std. Dev. -

Feb. Dec.

Compute the mean of 10 day rainfall for all decades K = 1, 2, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 N XK = 1 XKi N i =1 XK = mean of 10 day rainfall in decade K XKi = 10 day rainfall data in decade K and year 1 N = number of recorded observation in decade K in years.

Where

c.

Compute the standard deviation of 10 day rainfall for decades K = 1, 2, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 __ SK = 1 (XKi - X )2 N-1 i=1 Where SK = standard deviation of 10 day rainfall in decade K .36

d.
10

Compute the coefficient of variation of 10 day rainfall for all decades K = 1, 2, 3,


Where ZK = coefficient variation

e.

Compute the standard normal deviation corresponding to an axceedance probability, p of 80 %, tp, for p = 80% tp = -0.831

f.

Compute the frequency factor for all decades K 1, 2, 3. . . . 36

Where: B = Ln ( 1 + Z2 ) KK = frequency factor in decade K g. Compute the 10 day rainfall at 80% dependability for all decades _ RK = XK + SK KK

Where: RK = 10 day rainfall at 80% dependability h. Month Jan. Tabulate the results as follows: Decade 1 2 3 . . . 34 35 36 XK . . . = SK . . . ZK . . . KK . . . RK . . . -

Dec.

Mean 80% dep or 10 day rainfall at project site

Fill- up the crop-coefficients (kc) and crop-rooting depth columns according to the establishment of cropping calendar and crop growing stages. Refer to Figures 2 to 6. For wetland rice, the crop coefficient at all stages can be assumed equal to one (1). Make a reasonable assumption for probable percolation losses (mm/day) or refer to Table 8.

11 TABLE 8: Percolation For Different Soil Types Clay --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.25 mm / day

Silty Clay --------------------------------------------------------------------------Clay Loam-------------------------------------------------------------------------Silty Clay Loam-------------------------------------------------------------------Sandy Clay Loam-----------------------------------------------------------------Sandy Loam-----------------------------------------------------------------------Figure 2:

1.50 mm / day 1.75 mm / day 1.75 mm / day 2.0 mm / day 4.0 mm / day

Water Management Scheme & Crop Depending Variables Used In Field Balance Computation For Irrigated Wetland Rice Land Soaking 1 2 Land Preparation 3 4 5 6 7 Crop in the Field (100 Days) 8 9 10 11 12 13

Rainfall Collecting Period

1 Maximum water depth in paddy, mm Minimum water depth, mm Optimum water depth, mm FIGURE 3 200 10 100

2 80 20 65

3 80 20 65

6 80 20 50

7 80 20 50

8 80 20 50

9 80 20 45

10 80 20 45

11 80 20 45

12 10 0 0

13 0 0 0

80 80 20 20 50 50

Crop Depending Variables For Field Water Balance For Irrigated Corn Crop in the Field (110 Days) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Rainfall Collection & Land Preparation LP

LP Crop Coefficient Rooting Depth (mm)

1 0.65 100

2 0.65 200

3 0.7 5 300

4 0.8 450

5 0.85 600

6 0.9 700

7 0.9 775

8 0.9 825

9 0.9 875

10 0.75 900

11 0.5 900

12

FIGURE 4 Crop Depending Variables Used in the Field Water Balance For Irrigated Mungo

Rainfall Collection & Land Preparation LP

Crop in the Field (80 Days) 4 5

LP Crop Coefficient Rooting Depth

1 0.35 80

2 0.5 150

3 0.7 230

4 0.9 300

5 0.9 300

6 0.85 300

7 0.77 300

8 0.7 300

FIGURE 5

Crop Depending Variables Used in the Field Water Balance for Irrigated Tomato

Rainfall Collection & Land Preparation LP

Crop in the Field (80 Days) 4 5

LP Crop Coefficient Rooting Depth (mm)

1 0.35 80

2 0.5 100

3 0.7 300

4 0.9 400

5 0.9 500

6 0.85 600

7 0.77 700

8 0.7 700

FIGURE 6

13 Crop Depending Variables for the Field Water Balance for Irrigated Peanut

Rainfall Collection

& Land Preparation LP

Crop in the Field (100 Days) 3 4 5

10

LP Crop Coefficient Rooting Depth (mm) 0

1 0.4 80

2 0.7 0 150

3 0.7 0 200

4 0.9 5 250 5

5 0.9 300

6 0.9 5 350

7 0.7 5 400 5

8 0.7 5 500

9 0.7 600

10 0.5 5 600

2.5

Make a reasonable assumption of soil water capacities WHC in volume percentage of soils used for upland crops. (10% - 20%). Refer to Table 9. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is equal to AET = PET x KC Change in storage (STOR) is equal to STOR = RAIN - AET - PERCO - for paddy rice STOR = RAIN - AET for upland crops. Initial Storage (INIT) is estimated using the following formula INIT = (Raini + Raini 1) (0.70) for paddy rice INIT = (Raini + Raini 1) (0.50) for upland crops Estimate the water storage (STOR) at the end of a given decade: STORi = STORi 1 + STOR If STORi > allowable max storage Then DRAINAGE = STORi allowable max storage STORi = allowable max storage IRRIGATION = . If STORi < allowable minimum storage Then IRRIGATION = Optimum Storage STORi STORi = Optimum Storage Drainage = . ELSE IRRIGATION = . DRAINAGE = . 14

2.6 2.7

2.8

2.9

Note:

For upland crops, allowable min. soil moisture storage is usually assumed to 50% of soil water holding capacities in the root zone, that is 0.54 (WHC) (ROODEP). Do not irrigate during the last two decade of a given period.

2.10

Use an irrigation efficiency if 51% for paddy rice (lowland) and 54% for upland crops to the estimated net crop irrigation to get an estimate of system irrigation requirements. Soil Water Holding Capacities of Different Soil Textural Classes: Total Available Moisture Pv =Pw As Volume% 8 (6-10) 12 (9-15) 17 (14-20) 19 (16-22) 21 (18-23) 23 (20-25)

TABLE 9

Soil Texture Sandy Sandy Loam Loam Clay Loam Silty Clay Clay

15
3. 3.1 ESTIMATION OF 10 DAY RESERVOIR INFLOW For Regions I, III, IV, characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, 10 day reservoir inflow are estimated as follows:

a.
Where:

DQj = RCj . Pj DQj = direct runoff in decade j (mm) RCj = runoff coefficient in decade j, equal to estimated mean monthly runoff coefficient Pj = 80% dependable rainfall

b.

10 day Baseflow BFj = F .Qj 1 Where: BFj = baseflow in decade j (mm) F = 10 day reservoir factor = 0.002 + 0.026 (D.A.) where DA is drainage area in sq. km. (This regression equation analysis of several small watersheds <100 km2 In the country). Qj 1 = Total runoff (or inflow) in the previous decade (j-j), mm c. 10 day Reservoir Inflow Qj = DQj + BFj Where: Qj = reservoir inflow in decade j (mm) DQj = direct runoff in decade j (mm) BFj = baseflow in decade j (mm)

3.2

For the other regions in the country which are predominantly characterized by indistinct, short, or no dry season with more or less continuous rainfall, 10 day reservoir inflow are estimated as follows: a. 10 day Direct Runoff DQj = RCj . Pj Where: DQj = direct runoff in decade j (mm) RCj = runoff coefficient in decade j, equal to estimated monthly runoff coefficients Pj = mean 10 day rainfall in decade j (mm) b. Annual Baseflow BF = a + b . DA Where: BF = annual baseflow a.b. = regression factor for the region where the project is located (Table 10) D.A . = Drainage Area, (sq. km.) 10 day Baseflow Qj = Where: Qj = DQj = BFj = DQj + BFj reservoir inflow in decade j (mm) direct runoff in decade j (mm) baseflow in decade j (mm)

c.

TABLE 10 Region 1

16 Regional Run off Coefficient and % Monthly Baseflow Distribution:

Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.25 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.17 0.37 0.64 0.67 0.75 0.75 0.61 0.25

Region 2 Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. %Baseflow 8.76 7.91 7.22 7.05 6.7 6.42 7.39 8.18 9.37 10.43 10.84 9.72 Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.17 0.17 0.08 0.08 0 0.17 0.2 0.34 0.4 0.41 0.44 0.37

Linear Curve Fit a = 286.021

BF =

a + b

(D.A) R = 0.74

b = -9.72 x 10-1

17 Region 3 Month Jan. Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.45

Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Region 4 Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Region 5 Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Linear Curve Fit a = 2, 057.31 :

0.08 0 0 0.24 0.34 0.58 0.7 0.75 0.7 0.4 0.5

Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.45 0.44 0.19 0 0 0.19 0.19 0.26 0.33 0.47 0.57 0.5

%Baseflow 9.17 8.69 8.28 7.91 7.64 7.66 7.86 8.08 8.31 8.53 8.79 9.07
BF = a + b (D.A) b = 18.28 18

Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.5 0.38 0.3 0.25 0.1 0.08 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.35 0.39 0.47
R = 0.87

Region 6 Month %Baseflow Run - off Coefficient, RC

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Linear Curve Fit a = 1, 043.65 Region 7 Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Linear Curve Fit a = 1, 055.85 : BF : BF

8.06 8.1 7.96 8.1 8.26 8.45 8.66 8.73 8.6 8.47 8.37 8.21 = a + b (D.A) b = 8.221

0.39 0.19 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.18 0.44 0.44 0.33 0.49 0.39 0.39

R = 0.695

%Baseflow 8.23 8.07 8.09 8.22 8.23 8.35 8.47 8.66 8.57 8.45 8.37 8.29 = a + b (D.A) b = 11.80

Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.26 0.15 0.1 0 0.09 0.15 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.26

R = 0.766

19 Region 8 Month %Baseflow Run - off Coefficient, RC

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Linear Curve Fit a = 12.52 : BF

9.1 8.8 8.6 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.4 9 = a + b (D.A)

0.38 0.28 0.25 0 0.14 0.22 0.3 0.34 0.34 0.51 0.7 0.7

b = 14.051

R = 0.872

Region 9 Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Linear Curve Fit a = 1, 164.37 : BF %Baseflow 8.53 8.33 8.16 7.94 8 8.13 8.19 8.32 8.42 8.53 8.66 8.76 = a + b (D.A) R = 0.999 Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.3 0.22 0.08 0 0 0.07 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.24 0.24 0.3

b = 30.36

20 Region 10 Month %Baseflow Run - off Coefficient, RC

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Linear Curve Fit a = 2, 119.90 : BF

8.51 8.43 8.36 8.29 8.21 8.16 8.21 8.27 8.3 8.34 8.4 8.49 = a + b (D.A)

0.49 0.4 0.37 0.32 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.24 0.24 0.28 0.25 0.52

b = 6.09

R = 0.562

Region 11 Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Linear Curve Fit a = 152.608 : BF %Baseflow 8.42 8.38 8.35 8.31 8.3 8.25 8.27 8.3 8.32 8.34 8.37 8.39 = a + b (D.A) R = 0.751 Run - off Coefficient, RC 0.17 0 0 0 0.12 0.12 0.29 0.29 0.26 0.26 0.23 0.22

b = 7.53

21 Region 12 Month %Baseflow Run - off Coefficient, RC

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Linear Curve Fit a = 1, 751.61 : BF

8.13 7.99 8.03 8.13 8.24 8.39 8.54 8.69 8.66 8.53 8.4 8.26 = a + b (D.A)

0.21 0.12 0 0.13 0.25 0.35 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.21 0.21

b = -4.018

R = 0.915

22

23

ANNEX A I

PHILIPPINE WATER RESOURCE REGIONS

Water Resources Region No. 1 ILOCOS Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Benguet, La Union and part of Mt. Province. Predominant Climate : Type I Water Resources Region No. 2 CAGAYAN VALLEY Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Viscaya, Quirino and parts of Mt. Province, Kalinga-Apayao, Ifugao and Predominant Climate : Type III Water Resources Region No. 3 CETRAL LUZON Nueva Ecija, Pamapanga, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Bulacan, ZamabaleS, Bataan and portions of Benguet and Province. Predominant Climate : Type I Water Resources Region No. 4 SOUTHERN TAGALOG Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon and Metropolitan Manila in Luzon, and the island provinces of Marinduque, Mindoro, Romblon, and Palawan. Predominant Climate : Type I Water Resources Region No. 5 BICOL Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, Sorsogon in the South-eastern Peninsula of Luzon and the of Catanduanes and Masbate. Predominant Climate : Type II and Type III and Type IV inslands Quezon.

Aurora

Water Resources Region No. 6 WESTERN VISAYAS Negros Occidental, the sub-province of Guimaras, and the island of Panay which consist of the provinces of Aklan, Antique, Capiz and Iloilo. Predominant Climate : Type I and Type III Water Resources Region No. 7 CENTRAL VISAYAS Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros Oriental Predominant Cliamate : Type III Water Resources Region No. 8 EASTERN VISAYAS Samar and Leyte Islands. Predominant Climate : Type IV Water Resources Region No. 9 SOUTHWESTERN MINDANAO Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Sur and Zamboanga del Norte together with Sulu Archipelago. Predominant Climate : Type III and Type IV Water Resources Region No. 10 NORTHERN MINDANAO Agusan del Norte, Misamis Oriental and part of Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte. Predominant Climate : Type II Water Resources Region No. 11 SOUTHEASTERN MINDANAO Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental and Surigao del Sur and South Cotabato provinces. Predominant Climate : Type II and Type IV Water Resources Region No. 12 SOUTHERN MINDANAO Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Bikidnon, North Cotabato, Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat and Predominant Climate : Type III and Type IV South Cotabato.

24

25

26 27
PLANTING CALENDAR PLANTING CALENDAR FOR TYPE I CLIMATE TWO PRONOUNCED SEASONS : DRY from November to April WET during the rest of the year All the provinces of the western part of the islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros, and Palawan are covered in Type I. CROP Rice: Lowland Palagad Upand Corn: Dry season Rainy season Peanut: Dry season Rainy season Beans: Batao Bountiful Bean Cowpea Cadios Mungo Patani Seguidillas Sitao Soybean Vegetables: Leafy: Cabbage Cauliflower Celery Lettuce Mustard Pechay Fruit: Ampalaya Cucumber Eggplant PERIOD June October January April Ocrober May November May May May October May October May July November May October May May November May September December February June January June January June June June December June November June September February June January June June February June CROP Muskmelon Okra Patola Squash Tomato Upo Watermelon Root: Camote(Sweet Potato) Gabi Ginger Raddish Sinkamas Tugue Ubi Cassava Others: Garlic Onion Sweet Pepper Condol Chayote October October October August August October May October May September May December February February January January December July January June December June Spinach Sweet Peas Carrot Potato(Irish) Talinum Kutchai Arrowroot Tapilan Beets Jute PERIOD November May October May October May October October October November May December May May October October May May May October October October May September May October May October October October October October May October October May May September October May January June December June January June December January January January June February June June December December June June June December December December June December June December June December November December December December June December December June June October January June

Melon

September October -

February January 28

Endive Snap Bean

September October -

October December

PLANTING CALENDAR PLANTING CALENDAR FOR TYPE 2 CLIMATE NO DRY SEASON with a very PRONOUNCED MAXIMUM RAINFALL from November to January. The areas covered are Catanduanes, Sorsogon, Eastern part of Albay, the Eastern and Northern parts of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, a great portion of the Eastern part of Quezon, the Eastern part of Leyte and a large portion of Eastern Mindanao. CROP Rice: Lowland Palagad Upand Corn: Dry season Rainy season Peanut: Dry season Rainy season Beans: Batao Cowpea or Kibal Cadios Bountiful Bean Mungo Patani(climbing) Seguidillas Sitao Soybean Tapilan Vegetables: Leafy: Cabbage Celery Kutchai Lettuce Pechay Cauliflower Mustard PERIOD October May June September March January August Janury August May Febraury January May November Febraury January Febraury January Febraury May January January August December July August November May February September Febraury September June April March July December March May June May April June March March October CROP Fruit: Ampalaya Condol Cucumber Eggplant Melon(ordinary) Muskmelon Okra Patola Squash Tomato Upo Watermelon Root: Camote Carrot Cassava Gabi Ginger Raddish Ubi Others: Irish Potato Endive Onion Garlic Sinkamas Sweet Pepper Chayote Arrowroot Beet Peas Jute Talinum PERIOD June November January March January August March March Whole year March Whole year January August November January August Febraury March April April September June June September April September March March

Year Round March - April Year Round Year Round Year Round November - December March - May Year Round February December December November October February August February June January February January June March March March December November March September March September March March March July

January January March March January January January -

March March July June March March March

Spinach

January -

March

November -

December

29

PLANTING CALENDAR PLANTING CALENDAR FOR TYPE 3 CLIMATE Seasons are not pronounced, relatively DRY from November to April and WET during the rest of the year. This type of climate covers the Western part of Cagayan(Luzon), Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, the Eastern portion of the Mountain Province, Southern Quezon, the Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, Northeast Panay, Eastern Negros, Central and Southern Cebu, part of Northern Mindanao, and most of Eastern Palawan. CROP PERIOD CROP PERIOD Rice: Lowland June - August Mustard May - July Palagad November - January October - December Upand April - June Pechay May - June October - December Corn: Spinach May - June Dry season October - December October - December Rainy season April - June Third Crop December - February Fruit: Ampalaya May - June Peanut: November - December Dry season September October Chayote May - June Rainy season April - June November - January Third Crop December - January Cucumber May - June October - January Beans: Eggplant May - June Batao May - June November - January Bountiful Bean May - June Melon(ordinary) May - June November - January October - January Cowpea or Kibal May - June Muskmelon November - January November - December Okra May - July Kadios May - June October - December October - November Patola May - July Mungo December - January October - January September - October Squash May - June Patani May - June October - December (climbing) November - December Sweet Pepper May - June Seguidillas May - June October - December Sitao May - June Tomato October - January November - January Upo April - May Soybean May - June October - January October - December Condol June - July Tapilan May - June November - January November - December Watermelon October - January Peas April June November - January Root: Vegetables: Sweet Potato April - June Leafy: November - January Cabbage April - June Carrot October - December October - December Gabi May - July Cauliflower October - December October December

Celery Lettuce

May October April October -

July December May December

Garlic Ginger Irish Potato

October October November October -

December December December December

PLANTING CALENDAR PLANTING CALENDAR FOR TYPE 4 CLIMATE RAINFALL more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. The areas covered by Type 4 climate are Batanes Province, Northeastern Luzon, Western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, Eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, Western Leyte, Northern Negros, and most of Central, Eastern, and Southern Mindanao. CROP PERIOD CROP PERIOD Rice: Lowland May - July Lettuce May - June August - October January - February Palagad November - January Mustard June - July Upand April - June September - January Corn: Pechay May - July Dry season September - November November - January Rainy season April - June Spinach April - May Third Crop November - February Fruit: Ampalaya May - June Peanut: September - January Dry season September - November Chayote May - June Rainy season May - June November - December Third Crop November - February May - June Beans: October - December Batao May - June Cucumber June - July Bountiful Bean May - June October - December October - December Eggplant June - July Cowpea or Kibal May - June November - January October - December Melon November - January Kadios May - July Muskmelon November - January Mungo May - June Okra June - July November - January September - October Patani May - June January - February November - January Patola May - June Seguidillas May - June December - January Sitao May - June Squash May - June October - January November - January Soybean May - June Sweet Pepper May - June November - January September - January Tapilan May - June Tomato May - June November - December October - January Peas June - July Upo May - June December - January October - January Vegetables: Watermelon April - May Leafy: November - January Cabbage June - September Root: October - January Camote May - June Cauliflower April - July September - November September - January Carrot May - June Celery June - July November - January January - Febraury Gabi June - September Kutchai June - July January - February

TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1.0 2.0 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 GENERAL DAM Determination of Dam Height Dead or Inactive Storage Active Storage Flood Surcharge Freeboard Outline of Dam Height Computation Dam Crest Width Selection of Type of Earth Dam Homogeneous/ Modified Homogeneous Type Zoned Embankment Type Embankment Slopes Seepage Through Earth Embankment Seepage Line Position of Seepage Line Quantity of Seepage Filter Design Embankment Slope Protection Upstream Slope Downstream Slope Title Page 1 1 1 1 3 3 6 7 7 7 7 9 11 13 13 13 13 21 22 22 23

Section 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.4 Appendix I

Title SPILLWAY General Spillway Type and Alignment Spillway Hydraulics Control Section Discharge Channel Terminal Section Structural Requirements OUTLET WORKS General Specific Type and Physical Arrangement Outlet Works Hydraulics Section of Design Discharge Head Combination Sizing of Discharge Pipe Sizing of Impact Type Dissipator Structural Design Considerations IRRIGATION WORKS General Canal Layout and Profile Canal Hydraulics Slide Slopes Permissible Velocity Applicable Formula for Sizing of Canal Freeboard Design of Canal Structures General Design Criteria for Canal Structures

Page 24 24 24 24 25 25 31 40 43 43 43 44 44 44 48 48 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 53 53 55

LIST OF TABLES Table No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Title Outline of Dam Height and Dam Crest Embankment Slopes for Homogeneous Dams Embankment Slopes for Zoned Dams Permissible Velocities for Non-Cohesive Soils Permissible Velocities for Grassed Channel Outline of USBR Basin Computations Format Cantilever Retaining Wall Parameters Discharge Pipe Computations Format Impact Type Stilling Basin Computations Format Page 8 14 15 27 28 46 41 46 50

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9a 9b 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Title Reservoir Storage Allocations Reservoir Operation Studies Format and Flow Chart Flood Routing Format and Flow Chart Modified Homogeneous Dam Sections Size of Impervious Core of Zoned Dam Slope Stability Chart No. 1 Slope Stability Chart No. 2 Slope Stability Chart No. 3 Elements of Seepage Line Diagrams for Determining a and a Flow Profile Along Spillway Unsubmerged Deflector Bucket Type IV USBR Basin Type III USBR Basin Type II USBR Basin Hydraulic Jump Nomograph (Stilling basin Depth Vs Hydraulic Head for Various Channel Losses) Typical Chute and Stilling Basin Section Typical Outlet Works System Impact Type Energy Dissipator Types of Irrigation Canal Layout

Page 2 4 5 10 12 16 17 18 19 20 30 32 33 34 35 39 42 45 49 54

ENGINNERING DESIGN 1.0 GENERAL

For the Water Impounding Component of the Rainfed Project, the earth embankment dam type (homogeneous or zoned type) is considered to be more cost effective over concrete or other types of dam. The dam embankment volumes, consisting of natural earth materials, are relatively small and are available at or in the vicinity of the project site. These materials are soil and rock in their many varied forms. Included in this section are the procedures, criteria and assumptions used in the design of a small earth dam and its appurtenances. Also included in the later part of this section are the procedures, criteria and assumptions in the design of irrigation works consisting of canals and canal structures as well as access roads to complete the coverage on the physical structural component of the project. In the procedures and assumptions that follow, it is assumed that dam location, necessary site investigations as well as prerequisites studies on geology, hydrology, etc., have already been undertaken. 2.0 DAM 2.1 Determination of dam Height In general, the height of the dam is determined on the basis of the following vertical space requirements in the reservoir. a. Dead or Inactive Storage Space b. Active Storage Space c. Flood Surcharge d. Freeboard e. Settlement Space allocations of each of the above items are illustrated in Figure 1. 2.1.1 Dead or Inactive Storage The number of years for sediment to fill up the dead storage space plus about 20% of the live storage is termed as the expected economic life of the project. This time magnitude is an agency policy decision.

Unless amended later, sediment volume shall be computed on the basis of 25 years of accumulation in the reservoir. This volume shall be allocated in the dead storage space as shown in Figure 1. 2.1.2 Active Storage

The active storage is allocated primarily for irrigation purposes. This space is determined from reservoir operation studies. Reservoir operation study basically water accounting. No clear-cut formula is involved but the basic principle is to optimize reservoir to meet water requirement. The study involves trial runs for different hectareage of service area until maximum area is attained with minimum reservoir spill or shortage. Among the data and assumptions needed to undertake the reservoir operation study are the following: a. b. c. d. e. Reservoir inflow Reservoir evaporation loss Water requirements Reservoir area-capacity-elevation curves. Reservoir elevation at the end of the operation must be equal to the starting elevation.

Items a, b and c are obtained from the results of Hydrologic Studies. Item d is derived from a reservoir topographic map. Shown in Figure 2 are the typical format and detailed flow chart for reservoir operation studies. 2.1.3 Flood Surcharge Flood surcharge space is allocated for the design flood. Maximum surcharge height is the difference between maximum and normal water surface. It is dependent on three factors namely; a. Spillway size opening. b. Reservoir capacity-elevation relationship. c. Magnitude and shape of the inflow hydrograph. Flood surcharge height is estimated by flood routing.

4 5

There are a number of methods for flood routing but the basic formula is: I=O+S Where; ----------------------------------------- 1 I = inflow volume O = outflow volume S = change in storage

A simple and expedient method of flood routing is by arithmetic trial and error. Shown in Figure 3 are format and detailed flowchart for such method. In this all other methods of flood routing, it is assumed that all outlets are fully closed and all discharges are allowed to pass only over the spillway. Moreover, water surface in the reservoir is at normal level at the start of the flood. The data required to undertake flood routing computations are the following: a. Hydrograph of inflow design flood. b. Reservoir capacity-elevation curve. c. Spillway rating curve or equation given by the following formula for a broadcrested weir: Q = CLH3/2 Where: ------------------------------------------ 2 Q = discharge over the spillway C = weir coefficient; 1.704 metric H = surcharge height L = spillway width

2.1.4

Freeboard Freeboard space is provided against wave splash along the upstream face of the dam, which may coincide with occurrence of the design flood as well as embankment settlement. It is estimated by the following formula: For vertical wall Fb1 = --------------------3 Fb2 = 2% to 5 % of dam height ------------------------------------------- 4 Fb = Fb1 + Fb2 ------------------------------------------------------------------5 Where: F b1= freeboard due to wave run-up, m F = reservoir effective fetch, km V = wind velocity, km/hr Fb2 = freeboard due to embankment settlement, m Fb = total freeboard, m