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ELCHAHAL Ghassan YOUNES Rafic LAFON Pascal
Mechanical System and Concurrent 3M Mechanical Laboratory Mechanical System and Concurrent
Engineering Laboratory/ University of Lebanese University/ Faculty Engineering Laboratory/ University of
Technology of Troyes – France of Engineering  Lebanon Technology of Troyes  France
GHASSAN.EL_CHAHAL@utt.fr RYOUNES@ul.edu.lb PASCAL.LAFON@utt.fr
ABSTRACT
Nowadays, modelling and computer simulation are used
in structure design to reduce the use of experimental
investigations and laboratory tests required in a real layout
structure. Using the potentialflow theory, the
hydrodynamic pressure deduced from sea wave’s
propagation has been computed based on the non linear
theory of Stocks. The extension to the vertical breakwater
behaviour due to such excitations is indicated in this
paper. Analytical expressions for functional performance
variables of wave reflection by the vertical breakwater,
and stress distribution inside the breakwater have been
obtained. These expressions have been numerically
verified to demonstrate the capability of this analytical
model.
KEY WORDS
Analytical modelling, wave forces, vertical breakwater,
wave structure interaction, stress distribution, Matlab.
1Introduction
Coastal structures are designed mainly to provide
protection by reflection and/or dissipation of wave energy.
Rubblemound breakwaters have been extensively used
for sheltering harbours. However, especially during the
last decade, innovative vertical structures may often
represent a better alternative than rubble mound
breakwaters. In general, caissontype breakwaters may
improve hydraulic performance, total costs, quality
control, environmental aspects, construction time and
maintenance [1]. Most of these caissontype structures are
monolithic structures with impermeable vertical walls
which constitute the subject of this study.
Although the protection of marine structures has been
extensively studied in recent years, understanding of their
interaction with waves, marine structures and the seabed
is far from complete [3]. Damage of marine structures still
occurs from time to time, with two general failure modes
evident. The first mode is that of structural failure, caused
by wave forces acting on and damaging the structure
itself. The second mode, which has attracted many of the
scientists (Biot1941; Jeng 1997; Mitzutani 1998 ), is that
of foundation failure caused by liquefaction or erosion of
the seabed in the vicinity of the structure, resulting in
collapse of the structure; where the work of this paper is
mainly concentrated on the structure failure due to the
lack of knowledge in this domain. Moreover, identifying
these forces acting on the breakwater yields not only for
its loading endurance study, but also for optimizing the
exterior design and the inside material type in future work.
The physical understanding and computation of wave–
structure interaction, one of the most important
hydrodynamic processes in both coastal and offshore
engineering, are crucial to assess wave impacts on
structures as well as structural responses to wave attacks.
Traditionally, the estimation of wave loads on a structure
is often done by either empirical approach [2] (ex:
Morison equation, Sainflou, Hiroi, Goda, Svendson…) or
a computational approach. The empirical formulas are
simple but crude and will not be able to provide detailed
and accurate information about pressure distribution on a
structure. The computational approach can be further
divided into two types: the Laplace equation solver for
potential flows and the Navier–Stokes Equations (NSE)
solver for viscous flows, where the latter is used for
simulation of wave–structure interaction during which
both vortices and turbulence may be present. In this paper
it is interesting to treat the Laplace equation, where the
potentialflow problem is solved by imposing the
boundary conditions and then a structural modelling is
developed to define the pressure distribution inside the
breakwater.
2Methodology
This part identifies the methodology followed in the
analytical modelling of the waves and their induced
pressures exerted on vertical breakwaters and finally the
behaviour of the breakwater due to wavestructure
interaction. It is interesting to consider the case of a
vertical breakwater appearing in ports’ constructions far
from the shore, at a constant depth, and at a fixed point.
Then, the problems of wave’s propagation over a varying
bathymetry and shallow water consequences are
eliminated.
2.1 Wave modeling
A cartesian coordinate system Oxyz is employed, where
Oxy coincide with plane of the free surface at rest, Oz
530805
308
directed positive upwards, and Ox directed positive in the
direction of propagation of the waves. The incident wave
propagates in a straight line in the direction defined by the
angle , formed with the Ox axe. In this study, it is
supposed that the waves can strike the breakwater in a
perpendicular direction to obtain the maximum pressure
applied by the waves on the breakwater, in order to study
the dangerous case in the construction of a breakwater.
Then, the angle is taken as
γ
0 = γ (incident wave normal
to the breakwater) and the movement is reduced to two
dimensions as in figure 1.
Figure 1 Wave notations
The fluid motion is defined as follows: Let t denote time,
x and z the horizontal and vertical coordinates,
respectively, and the freesurface elevation above the
still water level. The high values of the density and sound
velocity in water render the compressibility effects
negligible in sea water, so it is considered incompressible.
The fluid is considered also irrotational. Then, the fluid
motion can be described by a velocity potential,
η
Φ , related
to the velocity U
r
. ) ( , w u
( ) 0
r r
= U rot ( ) Φ = ⇒ grad U
r
, where
x
u
∂
Φ ∂
= and
z
w
∂
Φ ∂
= .
Once the parameters characterizing the sea waves are
known (Length of wave L, Period T, Height H), a model
is needed to study the waves’ propagations and
transforms their evolution into loads on the breakwater. It
is a strict study based on the fundamental physical
principles of the conservation of momentum and mass.
The combination of the equation of momentum
conservation and that of mass, yields to the well known
equation, BernoulliLagrange, which constitutes the
essential equation to determine the field of wave’s
pressure.
( )
( )
( ) t Q gz
t z x P
grad
t
= + + Φ +
∂
Φ ∂
ρ
, ,
2
1
2
In general, the study of marine structures’ behaviours due
to waves’ propagations is mostly made as part of a linear
theory [4], where the interest in this paper is to orient the
work towards the non linear approximation (Stokes 2
nd
order expansion), which yields to a clarified view of the
efforts in an enlarged domain of frequencies and moreover
the linear wave theory is not expected to have outstanding
agreement with the real and experimental data.
It is clear that if is known throughout the fluid, the
physical quantities pressure and velocity) can be obtained
from Bernoulli's equation. The boundary value problem is
then defined as follows:
Φ
0
2
= ∆Φ = Φ ∇ Laplace equation in the fluid domain;
0 = 
.

\

∂
Φ ∂
− = d z
z
Condition at the sea floor;
0
0
= 
.

\

∂
Φ ∂
= x
n
Kinematic condition at the solid
boundary;
0 = 
.

\

∂
Φ ∂
−
∂
∂
∂
Φ ∂
+
∂
∂
=η
η η
z
z x x t
Kinematic condition at the free
surface;
) (
2
1
2 2
t Q g
z x t
z
=



.

\

+


.

\


.

\

∂
Φ ∂
+ 
.

\

∂
Φ ∂
+
∂
Φ ∂
=η
η Dynamic equation
at the free surface;
The equation of Laplace expresses the mass conservation;
the sea bottom condition expresses the impermiability of
the sea bed where the normal component of the velocity is
zero; the kinematic condition at the solid boundary
(breakwater, 0 = x ), expresses the static condition of the
breakwater (wave reflection) where is the outward
normal direction of the solid boundary; the kinematic
condition on surface,
n
r
η = z , expresses that a fluid particle
at the surface should remain there at all times, while the
dynamic condition expresses that the pressure on the free
surface is zero. The used method for the nonlinear theory
(Stockes 2
nd
order expansion), called perturbation method
[5], consists of developing the different variables into
power series depending on a parameter
L
H
= ε , where the
linear theory constitutes the first order yielding exact
solutions only for waves with infinitesimal amplitudes.
}
n
n
Φ + + Φ + Φ + Φ = Φ ε ε ε ε ..........
3
3
2
2
1
By considering the amplitudes of the oscillations of the
free surface to be small, the terms are then evaluated on
the free surface depending on due to Taylor series. ( t x, η )
( ) ( )
0
0
......... 0 , ,
=
=


.

\

∂
Φ ∂
+ + 
.

\

∂
Φ ∂
+ Φ = Φ
z
n
n n
z
z n z
x x
η
η η
The developments are limited to the second order of the
camber ε so: and . It is
convenient to determine
2
2
1
Φ + Φ = Φ ε ε
2
2
1
η ε εη η + =
( ) t z x , ,
2
Φ and ( ) t x,
2
η knowing
and (linear case), Then the boundary conditions for
the free surface for z= , are transformed into
perturbation series. Solving for the 1
1
Φ
1
η
(x, η ) t
st
order expansion
(linear theory)
( )  
( ) ( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
− =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
+
− = Φ t kx i
H
t kx i
kd ch
d z k ch Hg
i ω η ω
ω
exp
2
Re , exp
) ( 2
Re
1 1
L k / 2 (Where π = designates the wave number and ω the
frequency). The nonlinear approximation is achieved by
substituting for the first order in the perturbation series:
( )
( )  
( )
( )
( )  
( ) ( )
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
−
+

.

\

− +
−
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
+
− = Φ
t kx i
kd ch kd sk
d z k ch gk H
i
kd sh
t
L
gH
t kx i
kd ch
d z k ch Hg
i t z x
ω
ω
π
ω
ω
2 exp
2
2 8
3
Re
2 4
exp
) ( 2
Re , ,
3
2
2
This expression of velocity potential describes the
physical properties of the waves in the absence of any
structure, where the reflection phenomenon must be taken
309
into consideration during the collision of the waves by the
breakwater. Then, a reflected wave identical to the
incident one is created but in the opposite sense.
( ) ) , , ( , , t z x r t z x
i r
− Φ × = Φ
Where r designates the reflection coefficient (coefficient
of amplitude reduction), the superposition of the incident
and reflected velocity potentials creates a global wave
system [7] whose velocity potential is defined as:
.
r T
Φ Φ = Φ
i
+
Moreover, the extremity of the breakwater involves the
diffraction of the waves and hence concentric circles are
formed around its extremity. Considering a semiinfinite
breakwater, eliminates this phenomenon and keeps the
problem in the domain of wave reflection only; where the
global potential velocity describing the problem is
maintained as expressed above. The substitution of this
value for the velocity potential in the Bernoulli
Lagrange equation implies the expression of the pressure
distribution (pressure at any point in the fluid domain.) in
the case of wavebreakwater interaction, where all the
waves are reflected by the breakwater (no diffraction or
transmission).
) (
T
Φ
( )
( )  
( )
( ) ( )  
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 
( ) { }

( )
( )
( )  1 2
2
1
4
1
2 exp Re
2 exp 2 exp
3
1 2
2
1
4
3
Re
exp exp
2
1
Re , ,
2 2
2
2
− +
+
− + − +
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
+ − − + + −
−
+
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ − − + −
+
+ − =
d z k ch
kd sh
r
L
H
gH t i H r
t kx i r r t kx i
kd sh
d z k ch
kd sh L
H
gH
t kx i r t kx i
kd ch
d z k ch
gH
gz t z x P
π
ρ β ω ω ρ
β ω ω
π
ρ
β ω ω
ρ
ρ

2.2 Vertical Breakwater modelling
There is no experience at hand to premeditate the
destruction failures or damage of breakwater at design
stage itself, and this return to the lack of detailed
structural studies. The analytical method proposed in this
paper for the analysis of structural construction of
conventional breakwaters is based on predicting the
hydrodynamic forces (induced from the waves), and then
analyzing the stress repartition in the breakwater by
considering the hydrodynamic forces and the inertia
forces due to rigidbody motions as external forces. This
study is assimilated to a mechanical problem in a
continuous medium, which consists to determine
analytically the stress tensor on each point M in the
solid of the studied structure [6],[8]. The general method
used in elasticity theory to determine the stress
distribution in the interior of an elastic body, is based on
proposing the form of the stress tensor that must satisfy
the equilibrium equations, all the boundary conditions,
and the compatibility equations. The disadvantage of this
method is that it needs a lot of function trials (especially
with such non uniform equation of hydrodynamic
pressure), since there are hundreds of functions that
satisfy the above conditions but not all them describe the
real state of the problem. For the simplicity of
calculations, it is recommended to divide the problem
over two parts: the hydrodynamic forces developed from
the waves’ propagations and the hydrostatic forces
developed from water depth.
( ) M σ
Hydrodynamic pressure
The exerted pressure by waves on the vertical breakwater
is deduced from the computed fluid problem in the first
section. This hydrodynamic pressure has a complicated
expression different from the hydrostatic one that is linear,
its repartition over the breakwater has a curved shape
(obtained using Matlab); where its maximum is around
the still water level and it decreases to zero at the top of
the breakwater (with the wave height) and also decreases
with water depth (figure 2). Fixing 0 = x
0
(exterior
breakwater surface), and the phase angle = β (vertical
impermeable wall, [9]), the pressure distribution over the
vertical breakwater is obtained.
Figure 2 Hydrodynamic pressure distribution over the breakwater
The hydrodynamic pressure exerted by the waves on the
breakwater is acting on the exterior surface of the
breakwater due to the assumption that all the waves
propagating from the ocean side are totally reflected
outside the port (no transmission); and hence it can be
simply deduced that there are no dynamic pressure acting
on the interior surface of the breakwater due to the
absence of waves’ propagations inside the port. It can be
written as follows:
( ) ( ) f d z k b d z k a P + + + + = 2 cosh cosh
( )
) cos(
1
2
t
chkd
r gH
a ω
ρ +
= ,
− −
+ +
= 1
) 2 cos( ) 3 3 3 (
2 4
2
2 2
r
kd sh
t r r
kd Lsh
H g ω π ρ
b
( )   ( ) t r H r t r r
kd Lsh
H g
f ω ω ρ ω
π ρ
2 cos 1 ) 2 cos( 1
2 4
2 2 2
2
+ + + − − − =
It is reduced to an equation with hyperbolic functions of z
(height), where the other variables independent of the
altitude are collected together in the terms a and .
The hydrodynamic stress’s form is chosen as:
, , b f
( ) ( ) ( ) d z k C l x k B d z k z A
xd
+ + + + = 2 cosh  sinh cosh
1 1 1
σ
( ) ( )
( ) ) ( cosh ) ( 2 cosh
 sinh ) ( cosh
3
2
3
2
3
2 2
d z k l x D d z k x C
l x k h z B d z k z A
zd
+ − + + +
− + + = σ
( ) ( )
( ) ) ( cosh ) ( 2 cosh
 cosh cosh
2
3
2
3
2
3 3
d z k l x D d z k x C
l x k z B d z k z A
xzd
+ − + + +
+ + = τ
310
where terms
are to be determined when applying the equilibrium,
boundary, and compatibility equations.
3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
, , , , , , , , , , D C B A D C B A C B A
aEquilibrium conditions:
div ,
→ → →
= + 0
v
f σ
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
g
z x
z x
b
z xz
xz x
ρ
σ τ
τ σ
0
bBoundary conditions: The condition for the ocean side
(12) is :
→ →
=
f
n σ σ. , where n
r
is the normal to the side (1
2), which is equal to (1,0)
The constraint vector n
r
. σ is equal to the surface force P
r
x
xz
x
τ
σ
z
xz
σ
τ
=
−
0 0
1 p
For the port side, there is absence of any type of dynamic
pressure, then on : l x = 0 .
r
r
= n σ ,and also for the upper side
of the breakwater, no forces are exerted, then on h z = :
0 .
r
r
= n σ
cCompatibility equation: The problem is statically
undetermined by the above conditions alone and to solve
such problem, elastic deformations must be introduced.
The mathematical expression of the compatibility
equation of the stress distribution with the existence of the
continuous functions U and , defines the deformation
state. This compatibility equation, represented in a
differential equation, assures the existence of the
deformation functions and satisfies the boundary
conditions also. (the 6 compatibility equations are reduced
to one equation in the case of 2D)
V
z x
x z
xz z x
∂ ∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂ γ ε ε
2
2
2
2
2
,
x
U
x
∂
∂
= ε ,
z
V
z
∂
∂
= ε ,
x
V
z
U
xz
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= γ
Figure 3 Fixed support stability conditions
The integration of the above expressions yields to
determine the deformations’ functions for each point in
the solid; where and q r (integration constants) are two
functions chosen to satisfy the sufficient conditions to
identify the problem:
) ( sinh ) ( d z k m z q + =
0 ) ( = x r
, is a variable to be determined
, chosen equal to zero for the lack of any
additional boundary condition. The boundary conditions
applied at the bottom of the breakwater are related to the
state of breakwater foundation, figure 3.
m
Fixed supported bottom
¦
´
whatever the
value of x. The problem arrives to 11 variables with 11
equations which describe the dynamical physical state of
the wavebreakwater interaction. Solving for these
variables, it is ended with the hydrodynamic stress tensor.
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
= − =
= − =
= − =
0 ) (
0 ) (
0 ) (
d z
d z V
d z U
γ
Hydrostatic pressure
The hydrostatic pressure exerted on the breakwater due to
water depth has a linear form which simplifies the
problem (figure 4). The difference between the water
levels on each side of the breakwater is due to the
elevation of the water level from the ocean side due to
waves’ propagations (h≈1.25 wave height). The stress
tensor for the hydrostatic problem is supposed as follows:
Figure 4 Hydrostatic pressure distribution over the breakwater
3
2
3
2
3 3
2 2 2 2
1 1
2
1
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
D x C h z x B l x xz A
D l x x C h z B l x xz A
C z B x A
xzs
zs
xs
+ + − + − =
+ − + − + − =
+ + =
τ
σ
σ
Repeating the same procedure for the hydrostatic pressure
problem, 11 variables with 11 equations, it is ended by the
hydrostatic stress tensor definition.
The global problem defining the real existing case is
attained by combining the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic
problem. This leads to an analytical addition for the
resultant stresses defining the whole problem.
,
xd xs x
σ σ σ + = ,
zd zs z
σ σ σ + =
xzd xzs xz
τ τ τ + =
The stress tensor is then finally defined by extremely
complicated equations in function of the wave properties
and the coordinates of any point on or inside the contour
of the breakwater. In fact, it is very important to end up
with such equations capable to define the stresses at any
point of this breakwater, where it is deduced from
analytical models. This constitutes an important base for
the future work treating the optimisation of structure
design and material of breakwaters. (where st , sm, ms
are functions of x and z used in the
z
σ expression to
simplify it’s writing and do not hold any physical
explanation ):
) ( sinh ) (
) ( 4
4
) ( sinh ) ( ) ( cosh
) ( 4
) (
4 2
3
2
3
4
l x k h d h k
l x
l x k h d d xk
k
l x k
h d
l x
sm
− +
−
+
− +
+
−
+
−
=
  ) ( sinh ) ( 3 ) ( sinh ) ( cosh
4
) ( sinh ) (
2
4 2
l x k h z d z k kz d z k
l x k h d k
ms − − + + + +
− +
=
4
) ( sinh ) ( ) ( cosh
2
l x k h d d xk
k
l x k
st
− +
+
−
=
gh gz
l
x
gh l x shk
shkl
f d z k bch d z achk
x
ρ ρ ρ σ − + +
+ + + +
=
2
)  (
] ) ( 2 ) ( [
2
311
 
( )
( ) ( )
( )
d h
h z gh
d h
h z gd
d h l
h z ghx
d h
d h
h z l x x
d h
d h
l x x
d h
gh
d h
gd
d h l
ghx
l
x
l
h z gh
g
kl
d z k z l x k fdk
st kl k h d
l x k f b a
kl h d st
l x k x d fk
d z k z l x k h d k l x k h z
kl h d sm
fd
sm kl h d st
l x k x d fk
st kl k h d sm
l x k f b a
d z k z l x k h d k
l x k h z
st h d
l x
d z k l x
l x k d h k h d hsm stk
d h k x
st h d sm
x
d z k l x k
st h d
l x ms
d z k kx
st h d
msx
kl h d smk
fdk
st kl k h d sm
l x k f b a
st kl h d sm
l x k x d fk
d z k l x k
st h d
l x ms
kl
d z k kz d z k l x k fdk
st kl k h d
l x k f b a ms
st kl h d
l x k x d fk ms
d z k l x d z k x l x fdk k kz g
d z k z l x k h d k
l x k h z
st h d
x
d z k x
d z k z l x k h d k
l x k h z
st h d
l x
d z k l x
l x k d h k h d sm hk
d h k x
st h d sm
x
b
b
z
+
−
+
+
−
+
+
−
− 
.

\

+
+
− − −
×
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦

.

\

+
+
− −
+
−
+
−
+
+
−
−
+
+
+ −
+
+
− + +
−
+
−
−
× + − + + − −
+
+
−
+
−
+
+
− + +
×
+ − +
+ − −
+
−
+ + −
+
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
− + +
+
+
+
×
+ − +
+
−
− + +
+
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
+
−
+
− + +
+
+
−
×
+ − +
+
−
−
+ + + −
−
+
− + +
+
+
−
+ + − − + − − −
×
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
+ − +
+ − −
+
+ + +
+ − + +
− −
+
−
+ + −
×
− + +
+
−
+
−
=
2
) ( 2
2
) (
2
) ( 2
2
2 2
1 ) )( (
2
2 2
1 ) (
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
) (
) sinh(
) ( cosh ) ( sinh
) sinh( ) (
) ( cosh ) (
) sinh( ) (
) ( sinh
)] ( cosh ) ( sinh ) ( ) ( sinh ) [(
) sinh( ) (
4
) sinh( ) (
) ( sinh
) sinh( ) (
) ( cosh ) (
)] ( cosh ) ( sinh ) (
) ( sinh ) [(
) ( 4
) (
) ( cosh ) (
) ( sinh ) ( cosh ) (
) ( 2 cosh 4
) ( 4
) ( sinh ) (
) ( 4
) (
) ( 2 sinh 2
) ( 4
) sinh( ) (
4
) sinh( ) (
) ( cosh ) (
) sinh( ) (
) ( sinh
) ( sinh ) (
) ( 4
) (
) sinh(
) ( sinh ) ( cosh ) ( sinh
) sinh( ) (
) ( cosh ) (
) sinh( ) (
) ( sinh
) ( cosh ) ( 2 ) ( 2 cosh 2 ) 2 4 ( sinh
) ( cosh ) ( sinh ) (
) ( sinh ) (
) ( 4
) ( 2 cosh
)] ( cosh ) ( sinh ) (
) ( sinh ) [(
) ( 4
) (
) ( cosh ) (
) ( sinh ) ( cosh ) (
) ( 2 cosh 4
) ( 4
2
2
2
2
2
3 3
2 2
4 2 3
4 3
2 2
3
4 2
3
3
4
3
4 2
3
3
4
3
3
4
3
3
4
4 2
2
3 3
2 2
3
3
4
2
3
3
2 2
2
4 2
3
3
4
3
4 2
3
3
4
3
4 2
3
3
4
υρ υρ υρ
υρ υρ υρ ρ
ρ
υ
υ
υ
υ υ
υ
υ
υ
υ
υ
υ
υ
ρ
σ
 
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
) ( 2 ) ( 2
) ( cosh
cosh ) ( sinh ) (
) ( 2 cosh
) ( 2 sinh 2
) ( cosh 2
) ( cosh
) ( sinh ) (
) ( 2 cosh
) ( 2 sinh 2
) ( sinh ) ( cosh
) ( cosh
) ( cosh ) ( cosh ) (
) ( 2 cosh
) ( 2 cosh ) ( cosh
) ( cosh
) ( cosh
cosh ) ( cosh ) (
) ( 2 cosh
) ( 2 cosh
) ( cosh
1 ) ( cosh
cosh
) ( cosh
sinh
) ( 2 cosh ) ( cosh
) ( cosh
l
x h z gh
l
x h z gh
d z k l
kl z d z k l x k
d z k l
z d z k kx
l x k z
d z k l
d z k l x k
d z k l
d z k kx
d z k kz d z k
d z k l
d h k d z k l x z
d z k l
d h k d z k zx
d h k h
d z k l
kl d h k l x z
d z k l
d h k z x
l x k h
l
l x
l
x
d z k z
l
kl l x
l
x
l x k z
kl
f d z k b d z k a
l x k k
xz
−
+
−
−
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
+
+ −
−
+
+
− − +
+
+ −
−
+
+
− + + +
×
+
+ + −
−
+
+ +
− +
+
+ −
+
+
+
+ − −


.

\

−
− − + +


.

\

−
− − −
×
+ + + +
− −
=
ρ
τ
2.3 Stability against overturning
After defining all the exerted forces on the breakwater and
the stresses’ distributions inside it, it is important to
introduce a stability condition to maintain equilibrium
despite all these exterior forces. The verification equation
for structure stability, is the well known condition for
overturning around the lower inner edge of the
breakwater. 0 ≥ − −
s d w
M M M
d
M
; where is the
moment of the weight, is the moment of the
hydrodynamic pressure applied by the waves, and is
the moment of the hydrostatic pressure acting on the
whole structure
w
M
s
M
( )
2 1
P P − . From this stability condition,
the width of the vertical breakwater can be simply
deduced to stabilize it against overturning from the
following expression: (
m
ρ designates the density of the
inside material)
+ + + −
+
+
+ + + +
+
≥
∫ ∫
+
∫
+
d h d
d
m
h d
m
zdz h zdz h d z
h d
dz z f d z k b d z k a
h d
l
0
0
) [( ) ( (
) (
) ) ( 2 cosh ) ( cosh (
) (
2
2
2
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ
3Verification of results
The success of the theoretical and analytical formulation
of the wavevertical breakwater interaction relies on the
accuracy and accordance of these results with the
numerical ones. The setup for an analytical calculation is
as flows (choosing the parameters of a strong wave): wave
properties [L=140 m, T=9 sec, d=40 m, H=4 m, r=0.8,
t=0, sea water density=1025 kg/m
3
] and breakwater
properties [l=15 m (satisfying stability condition),
concrete density=2300 kg/m
3
, υ=0.2, E= 20x10
9
N/m
2
],
where all the stress equations are programmed in
MATLAB inorder to benefit from its high quality in
treating symbolic equations and drawing their evaluated
contours. To verify our results, a comparison made with
numerical results based on the finite element theory also
using MATLAB in its partial differential equation
toolbox.
4Conclusion
An analytical model based on the potential flow theory for
the wave propagation and on the mechanics of continuous
medium for the stress distribution inside the structure, has
been set up to study the wavevertical breakwater
interaction in this paper. By comparing with numerical
data (pdetool MATLAB), this analytical model has been
proven to be reliable to simulate the waves propagations,
their induced pressures on the breakwater, and the
structure behaviour due to the applied forces. Regardless
to the difference in the stress distribution at the
breakwater fixed support, the results of the analytical
model are in good agreement with the numerical data.
312
Finally, there are some important remarks to be concluded
from these interesting results and some recommendations
for future work:
1 The maximum stresses’ values result from the huge
weight of the structure, from the hydrostatic pressure due
to the water depth, and not from the hydrodynamic
pressure induced form the waves’ propagations, and hence
the breakwater that is mainly designed to protect the ports
from the waves’ propagations is submitting induced
pressure out of its objective that is playing an important
role in characterising its design and overwhelming over all
other constraints. For example, the maximum
hydrodynamic pressure obtained from the above wave
properties is 0.6 Pa where the hydrostatic one reaches 4.5
Pa at the bottom of the breakwater (see
x
σ ) and this
results correspondingly in very high bending and shearing
stresses reaching (see
z
σ and
xz
τ ). These high values for
bending stresses can probably cause the total destruction
of the whole breakwater in case of strong waves due to the
great traction efforts 4 MPa at the left bottom.
2It is clearly observed that the difference in the stress
contours distribution, near the fixed support between the
two cases, returns to the two different methods in
calculating the stress; where the support conditions appear
only in the stress
z
σ for the case of analytical modelling.
On the other side, the numerical modelling takes into
considerations the support conditions in calculating all the
stresses by the method of finite element.
3 The future work must be oriented towards the floating
breakwater instead of the fixed one, to suppress the great
height of the breakwater causing the enormous hydrostatic
pressure and the enormous weight of the structure;
moreover to suppress the second important mode of
failure summarised in the erosion of the seabed in the
vicinity of the structure.
4 Determining the stress tensor at any point of the
breakwater constitutes an important layout to analyse the
load distribution inside it, and to move forward toward
redesigning and optimising its external geometrical shape
benefiting from the non uniform load distribution.
5 The computation must be approached using the finite
element theory to attain the maximum precision in the
studied model.
6 Choosing another material type for the breakwater
lighter than concrete.
References
[1] H.Oumeraci, Probabilistic design methods for vertical
breakwaters. Proc. Coastal Structures. Balkema,
Rotterdam, 2000, 585– 594.
[2] G. Gruhan, A comparative study of the first and
second order theories and Goda’s formula for wave
induced pressure on a vertical breakwater with irregular
waves, Ocean Engineering Journal,32, 2005, 21822194.
[3] D. Jeng, C. Schacht, C. Lemckertb, Experimental
study on ocean waves propagating over a submerged
breakwater in front of a vertical seawall. Ocean
Engineering Journal 32, 2005,2231–2240.
[4] B. Molin , Les effets nonlinéaires en interaction
houlestructure et leur modélisation, Journées AUM AFM,
Brest,2004.
[5] R. Bonnefille, Cours d'hydraulique maritime
(E.N.S.T.A. Editions Masson, 1976, 1756 and 150167).
[6] S. Timoshenko, Théorie de l’Elasticité (Libraire
polytechnique ch. Béranger,1961, p. 2359).
[7] Y. Goda, Random seas and design of maritime
structures. (University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo 1985)
[8] I.S. Sokolinof, Mathematical Theory of Elasticity
(McGrawHill, 1956).
[9] I. Tadjbkhsh, J. Keller, Standing surface waves of
finite amplitude. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 8, 1960 .
313
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