Marine & Coastal Engineering

COWI Group A/S
COWI A/S is a leading international consultancy firm, founded in 1930. COWI is a privately owned professional firm entirely independent of any manufacturer, supplier or contractor. The COWI Foundation is the majority shareholder. The foundation supports research and development in various fields of consultancy activities. COWI has headquarters in Kongens Lyngby, a suburb about 12 km north of Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. COWI is a highly versatile and multidisciplinary firm providing services of the highest quality in the fields of engineering, environmental science and social economics. COWI employs around 3300 staff, of which 1600 are based outside Denmark in subsidiaries, branch offices or projects offices. A high percentage of the employees are professionals holding Ph.D., M.Sc. or B.Sc. degrees in civil, structural, geotechnical, mechanical or electrical engineering and other academic areas such as geology, hydrology, chemistry, biology, agronomy, sociology, economics and planning. The annual turnover is at present (2005) 350 mill. Euro (400 mill. USD). More than 60 percent of the turnover of the company is generated outside Denmark in more than 100 countries around the world.

COWI has more than 75 years experience in transportation consultancy covering all phases of infrastructure projects from initial planning and feasibility studies over design, construction and commissioning to maintenance management and rehabilitation.
Marine and Coastal Engineering

Anton Petersen Vice President, Bridge, Tunnel and Marine Structures +45 4597 2888

The COWI Group provides consultancy and design services within the field of marine, geotechnical and coastal engineering from three centres of excellence: at COWI’s headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark, at Ben C. Gerwick Inc. San Francisco, USA, and in Doha, Qatar. The total staff in this field of engineering is presently about 110 and increasing. The total annual turnover on international projects is approximately 15 mill. USD which makes COWI one of the leading international companies in this specialised field.
Ben C. Gerwick, Inc.

Ole Juul Jensen Director, Marine & Coastal Engineering +45 4597 2906

Robert B. Bittner President Ben C. Gerwick Inc. +1 415 288 2731

Ben C. Gerwick is an internationally known civil / structural consulting firm based in San Francisco, specializing in the design and construction of major marine structures for more than 75 years, first as a heavy construction company, and as consulting engineers since 1971. In 1988, Ben C. Gerwick joined the COWI Group.

Michael Bindseil Head of Department, Marine & Foundation Engineering +45 4597 2947

Thomas Gierlevsen Head of Department, Qatar +974 44 23 845

Photo: Morten Larsen

Marine & Coastal Consultancy
Marine and coastal engineering


Fields of Consulting Services by COWI Nature • Natural resources management • Environmental policy and regulation • Environmental protection • Coastal Engineering Society • Welfare economics and services • Public administration • Social development and HRD • Urban and regional development • Development assistance • Cadastre and land administration • Geographical information systems and IT Mapping Transport • Transport planning and management • Roads • Airports • Railways and metros • Tunnels • Bridges • Ports and marine structures Buildings • Residential buildings • Educational buildings • Hospitals and health buildings • Cultural and sports buildings • Commercial buildings Industry • Industrial buildings • Production and processing plants • Oil and gas • Health, safety and environment • Environmental and social due diligence Utilities • Municipal and hazardous waste • Water and wastewater • Energy planning and systems • Telecommunication

The COWI Group has over the past years developed its capabilities in marine and coastal engineering. This development is based on rapid organic growth and by acquisition of Ben C. Gerwick Inc. in 1988 and in 1993 of COMAR a specialised marine design company, the successor of the design department of world renowned Christiani and Nielsen. In 2002 Kampsax was also merged with COWI. The organic growth has taken place by hiring of staff with previous international experience and new graduates. The staff in the three centres of excellence is truly international with multicultural background.

engineering. This experience is documented by the many successful completed projects in five continents of the world, from California in the west to Korea in the east and from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina in the south to Greenland in the north. Focus has been on developing the relationship with our clients with aim of providing added value to our clients’ projects. The very diverse, multidisciplinary and multicultural background and experience have been brought to bear for the benefit of our clients and the projects we work on.
Quality Management

As presented throughout this brochure the COWI Group possesses extensive international experience in port, marine and coastal

COWI’s marine and coastal work is ISO 9001 certified. All design activities are carried out in accordance with the individual project quality plan tailored to meet the specific requirements of each project.

Quality Management System Certificate and Certification Conditions.

Jørgen S. Steenfelt Research and Development Manager, Geotechnical Engineering +45 4597 1388

Jes Bojsen Abild Chief Project Manager +45 4597 2059

Thomas Dahlgren Chief Project Manager +45 4597 2669

Mogens A. Hviid Chief Project Manager +974 442 3845

Jotham Vizard Chief Project Manager +45 4597 1323

Jørgen Juhl Chief Project Manager +45 4597 1178

Henrik Dahl Vice President Ben C. Gerwick Inc. +1 415 288 2749


Marine & Coastal Consultancy
Services and Expertises
Consultancy services and expertises covering all project phases: Feasibility phase • Generation and development of ideas • Feasibility studies • Studies of infrastructure needs • Layout studies • Assessment of design data • Cost estimation • Construction and procurement scheduling • Environmental impact assessment Design phase • Establishment of design basis • Study of oceanographical conditions • Design data studies • Geotechnical assessments • Durability design • Civil and structural design • Mechanical & Electrical installations • Operational risk assessment Tender phase • Development of tender design • Management of tender procedures • Value engineering • Preparation of contract for construction Construction phase • Construction management • Quality, environmental and safety management • Construction risk management • Interface coordination • Programme and budget control • Site supervision • Contract and claims management Operation and maintenance (O&M) • O&M management system • Inspection of structures and installations • Ranking of maintenance and reinvestment needs • Repair and strengthening design


COWI’s services cover the whole life cycle of a project from the early ideas over studies and design to the operation phase and rehabilitation or decommissioning. Our services range from professional advice on a specific problem to comprehensive planning and total engineering design and implementation of large scale projects. Our involvement in complex and demanding marine projects over the years has led to the development of particular in-house knowledge. Marine terminals, ports, land development and man-made islands and breakwaters can be mentioned, as special fields of experience.

COWI works for public and private infrastructure owners as well as for contractors. We advocate for a close dialogue with the contractor (BOT and design-build projects) in order to take all data into account and to optimize the design and construction. Understanding our client’s needs and combining this with our knowledge and experience to successful project completion is our goal.

Main Types of Marine and Coastal Structures Ports • Container ports and terminals • General cargo and bulk • Ferry and Roll-on-Roll-of berths • Access channels and waterways • Navy Harbours and small craft • Small craft harbours • Fishing harbours • Supply bases • Marinas and pleasure craft harbours Marine Terminals • Oil and gas (LNG) terminals • Bulk terminals Coastal Projects • Land reclamation • Coastal protection • Man-made Islands • Breakwaters • Beaches Special Marine Structures • Water intake and outfall structures • Foundations for offshore wind turbines • Miscellaneous Structures in the sea

Oil & Gas Marine Terminals
COWI offers complete integrated services relating to Oil & Gas Marine Terminals. This includes layout planning, operational and maintenance philosophy, marine construction, electrical systems and mechanical installations. We plan and manage site investigations, undertake the assessment of geophysical data and define design parameters. We analyse meteorological and oceanographical data and use numerical wave and hydrodynamic modelling software to define design water levels and wave conditions and to calculate wave disturbance at the terminal. COWI performs by selected sub-consultants vessel manoeuvring studies to define dimensions of approach channels and turning basins. Planning of the berthing head arrangement is based on the project specific vessel range together with loading / unloading requirements. We perform in-house dynamic mooring analyses, including vessel downtime assessment. Facilities design includes berth and loading facilities, breakwaters, access trestle and pipe racks / conveyors. Physical model tests are made by subconsultants. In addition, facilities design encompasses tug berths, construction docks, buildings, electrical and mechanical installations, including security features and emergency shutdowns.


Contractor's Designer, Shoaiba New Tanker Terminal.

Egyptian LNG project, IDKU.


Bulk Terminals
Like other ports and port terminals the study and design of bulk terminals rely on general marine engineering and special expertise on the systems for handling of bulk. The latter is normally tailored to the actual type of bulk material to be loaded or unloaded at the terminal. Otherwise bulk handling terminals can be made at long quays like general cargo or container berths or at jetty structures quite similar to the ones used for oil and gas terminals. The design thus requires knowledge of the requirements associated with the specific type of bulk material and the various types of handling systems, ranging from traditional grab handling to various types of conveyor belts to systems using pipes for pumping of the material in question. The designer works with suppliers of such special systems to develop optimum solution. COWI undertakes all types of services for bulk terminals ranging from planning, layout studies, hydraulic studies, surveys, environmental assessments, feasibility studies, conceptual and detailed design, tender documents, contracting and contract supervision and management.

Olivin Terminal, Greenland.

Bulk Terminal, Australia.

Container Terminals
Container terminals are normally made in connection with a long straight quay as the terminal requires quite a width perpendicular to the quay to make room for container cranes at the quay front and for transport laterally along the quay and finally for storing/stacking of containers in the container yard. Container vessels become larger and larger and the latest development in vessel size is vessels up to 400 m length and a draft fully loaded in the order of 16 m, thus requiring depth at the quay front of about 17 m. The quay structures for a container terminal are thus quite similar to the ones used for other types of port terminals with the exception that most often the crane rails requires piles as foundation. These piles can be an integrated part of the quay structure. Otherwise the designer of a container terminal works closely with the operator to develop a tailored most optimum system for the specific terminal including the requirements to container cranes and the special type of equipment required for moving and stacking of containers such as for example straddle carriers. A container yard has very heavy traffic and the design of the heavy duty pavement requires special attention. COWI undertakes all types of services for container terminals ranging from planning, layout studies, hydraulic studies, surveys, environmental assessments, feasibility studies, conceptual and detailed design including heavy duty pavements, building design incl. building services, electrical and mechanical design as well as water and sewage design, tender documents, contracting and contract supervision and management.


Stigsnæs Container Terminal, Denmark.

Port of Long Beach, Los Angeles, USA.

Liseleje Coastal Protection, Denmark.


Coastal Engineering and Protection
changes which have to be analysed and understood prior to the construction of the said structures. It is our strong aim “to work with nature rather than against it”. This may be taken as our mission statement within coastal engineering. It is therefore natural to us to try to minimise the use of man-made structures on a shoreline and attempt to use beach nourishment wherever possible. In line with this mission we will when working on marine projects seek solutions attempting to minimize human intervention, i.e. placing a port or similar installation where it requires the least movement of materials, by for example selecting the site and distance from the shoreline such that the quantities in breakwaters and other structures as well as dredging and filling volumes are minimised. Further it is our aim to seek solutions that involve the least changes in the natural physical as well as flora and fauna environment. Numerical models are more and more used as a tool and COWI has strong in-house capabilities in this field as described elsewhere.

Palace Seawall, Muscat, Oman.

Coastal engineering is a special field within civil engineering. It includes the physical processes of the sea and coastal regions and the movements of sediments due to the water in motion. It further includes the interaction between man made interventions and structures and the physical environment. It is this complexity that makes coastal engineering such a special field compared to many other civil engineering disciplines and what fascinates coastal engineers. The engineer or designer often has to be imaginative and exercise personal judgement in calculations in order to arrive at correct and yet still acceptable structural solutions. The structures are founded on the sea bed or on the shoreline and exposed to water level changes, currents and wave impacts. Further, the site and the area around the structures are in many cases subject to morphological

Beach Nourishment, Funen, Denmark.

Coastal Protection, Bray Head, Ireland.

Man-Made Islands
The study and design of large-scale dredging and reclamation works for man-made islands is integrated with our in-house hydraulic and environmental numerical modelling facilities. COWI utilises the state-of-the-art MIKE 21 suite of numerical modelling software. We specialise in developing projects from master planning, surveys, environmental impact assessment, design of edge structures, reclamation and preparation of tender documents, supervision and construction management.
Aerial photograph of The Pearl Qatar, January 2006. The island is approx. 2 x 5 km. Master Plan, Danaat Howas, Bahrain.



Breakwater Projects
COWI is an international name in the design of breakwaters. Our experience reaches from fundamental scientific research to design and supervision of construction. COWI’s staff has more than 30 years experience from over 150 international breakwater projects in 5 continents. The experience includes all types of breakwaters from rubble mound to caisson. In addition the experience includes an extensive variety of armour units such as quarry rock, cubes, grooved cubes, dolos, tetrapods, accropodes, and CORE-LOC. COWI uses its in-house capabilities in numerical modelling of wave propagation as basis for definition of design waves and then for the configuration of breakwaters, and to perform conceptual analysis and design. We specify and supervise 2D flume tests and 3D physical model tests. In the event of poor ground conditions, stateof-the-art soil structure interaction analysis software is used to analyse the breakwater foundation and define soil improvement works as necessary.

Egyptian LNG project Main breakwater armoured with CORE-LOC.

Placing of CORE-LOC.

Rock breakwaters for coastal protection.

Seawater Intake and Outfalls
The design of large civil works in the marine environment draws on all of COWI’s experience in hydraulics, geotechnics and structures. COWI has the specialist resources required for all aspects of the civil design of seawater intake and outfall systems, including: • Design of intake channels, pipes and bell mouths • Assessment of impact on long shore sediment transport and coastal morphology • Assessment of impact on hydrodynamic conductions around intake/outfall • Assessment of maintenance dredging requirements • Hydraulic and structural design of pump stations • Hydraulic and structural design of culverts • Design of outlet weirs • Recirculation studies to verify location of outfalls • Environmental impact assessment
Shoaiba Power and Desalination Plant, Saudi Arabia. Outfall channel.


Shoaiba Power and Desalination Plant, Saudi Arabia. Outflow basin and weir.


Design Tools
COWI uses state-of-the-art numerical models and tools in all phases of projects. COWI staff is experienced in their use. The most prominent ones are shown below.

Aanalysis of jacket structures.


HOLEBASE is a database system for geotechnical data. It allows for proper storing and analysis of data and presentation in AutoCAD


IBDAS is COWI’s own integrated design and analysis software tool. It allows for geometrical modelling, structural analysis and verification of engineering structures and generation of construction drawings.

PLAXIS is a finite element program specifically developed for numerical analysis of geotechnical and underground structures and soil-structure interaction.


LITPACK is a state-ofthe-art numerical model for the simulation of shoreline development including erosion and accretion.



MIKE 21 is a stateof-the-art package of numerical programs to simulate waves, currents and sediment transport in the marine environment.

ROBOT is a finite element program for analysis and design of beam, truss, slab, shell and 3D structures.

ABAQUS is one of the leading multi-purpose finite element programs for a wide spectrum of numerical analysis in engineering and natural science with special focus on FEM and soil-structure interaction.


Programme for dynamic mooring analysis.

Numerical Modelling using MIKE 21
MIKE 21 is a state-of-the-art system of numerical models used for the simulation of hydrodynamics of the oceans, coastal regions and rivers etc. The model is used for tidal motion and flow, for storm surge set-up due to wind and barometric pressure. It is further used for calculation of wave conditions in deep and shallow water based on wind data and for simulation of wave disturbance in harbours and enclosed waters.


Detailed flow and tidal model of the waters and lagoons in Abu Dhabi.

COWI's Gulf Model showing instantaneous tide levels.

Boussinesq simulation of wave disturbance, Halul Harbour, Qatar.

NSW (Nearshore Wave Model) of the sea between Bahrain and Qatar.


Management of Project Risk
COWI offers all types of risk assessments for projects. Risk is inherent in any activity. All decisions or actions may result in unwanted consequences. Thus the proper thing to do is always to consider risk and to make use of the information gained in the decision process. Project risks include development risks, construction risks, operational risks, financial risks and revenue risks.
Risk Management

Service Life Design of Marine Works

Internationally COWI provide the only available reliability based service life design methodology against chloride and carbonation induced reinforcement corrosion. Marine structures are usually now to be designed for 100, 120 or even 200 years service life. This surpasses by far the assumed design life following most codes and standards.
Internationally recognised expertise and experience

COWI has been spearheading the international research and technical development of the rational service life design of concrete structures, i.e. in European research projects: DuraCrete, DuraNet and DARTS, and chairing all durability related activities within the international organisations of CEB (Comité Euro-international du Béton) and now fib (Fédération Internationale du Béton).

Risk management is basically a managerial tool to support the decision maker. It is the experience, that implementation of risk management will result in profitable decisions and improved allocation of resources. Risk management can lead to decisions close to the decision maker’s goals. Risk management ensures consistence and transparency in the decision process and it provides a basis for risk communication.
Damaged railway coastal defence structures, Ireland.

COWI’s recognised leading position within durability design and concrete technology is based on more than 40 years worldwide experience within the design, operation and maintenance of exposed reinforced concrete structures.

Cracking of concrete blocks.

Irish Rail Sea Defence Works
A significant length of the Irish rail network lies close to shoreline and is subject to ongoing coastal erosion, instability of coastal defence structures and wave overtopping, especially along the East coast between Dublin and Wicklow. Iarnród Éireann (The National Irish Rail Company) is currently implementing a longterm plan for protection of the coastal railways, as part of the Cuttings and Embankments program. Since 2000, COWI A/S in association with Fehily Timoney Gifford and Thomas Garland and Partners, has carried out a feasibility study for coastal defence works as part of this Cuttings and Embankments Programme. The study produced a 10-year strategy, in which geotechnical and coastal defence works were planned and prioritized. The project programme included the following coastal projects: • Malahide Causeway • Sorrento Point • Bray Head • Ballygannon (south of Greystones) • Kilcoole • The Breaches • Six Mile Point (Newcastle) • Five Mile Point • Rogerstown Causeway • Merrion Gates to Blackrock • Rosslare Strand Following Iarnród Éireann approval COWI A/S, in association with Fehily Timoney Gifford, Thomas Garland and Partners and Bruce Shaw Partnership, has carried out detailed design, procurement and supervision of the coastal defence works. Implementation of the works is currently well underway. A variety of geotechnical and coastal defence works are adopted at the various locations in order to suit the local site conditions. Heavy rock berm structures have been applied to the coastal defences in areas of steep rocky headland where the railway line runs in a series of embankments and rock cuttings supported at their base by masonry retaining structures. At several locations, the railway runs on top of what is thought to be ancient littoral berm formations. These are fronted by sandy beach and with low hinterland. At these locations, the coastline is subject to rapid coastal erosion. Therefore, new revetments have been established. In order to preserve the amenity of the beaches, the new revetments have been partially burried into the beach and the reconstructed dunes have been planted with marram grass. For other locations, rock and concrete block revetments behind the beach protect the track.


Services by COWI

Project Period 2000 - 2005 Client

• Feasibility study incl. prioritisation • Design of protection works • Tendering and contracting of work • Construction supervision

Iarnród Éireann


Port of Copenhagen

Services • Project management • Conceptual design • Prequalification of contractors • Tender documents • Contracting and supervision • Review of contractors design • Traffic analysis • EIA • Cost estimate • Digital document management Project Period 2000 - 2003 Client Port of Copenhagen A/S

The Port of Copenhagen A/S undertook a large port development project that includes a new ferry terminal in Søndre Frihavn (Southern Free Port) and planned for construction of commercial and residential buildings on the former DANLINK sites. The development includes relocation of ferries operated by DFDS Seaways away from the congested Copenhagen City. The new ferry terminal has three berths with 9 m water depth. Two berths accommodate existing ferries of 170 m length and a future super ferry exceeding 200 m in length and planned for sailing between Denmark and Poland. The third berth is smaller. The development also includes establishment of a custom control station and a terminal building serving the two larger berths. The port development is being procured as a design and build contract. COWI has performed the role of Client’s consultant and has carried out the planning and conceptual design of the entire project. The location of the new berths in the old port required design solutions that combined rehabilitation and strengthening of existing structures with new structures.

As Client’s Representative COWI provided multidisciplinary services and project management, which included the following components: • Planning and design of quay structures and piers on 9 m water depths • Dredging plans • Traffic analysis on the terminal area. • Testing of the proposed layout using 3D real time ship simulation at the Danish Maritime Institute • EIA (environmental impact assessment) and environmental screening • Estimate of construction costs including maintenance using successive calculation. • Soil logistics (recycling of polluted soil as landfill within the project area) The development has been procured in accordance with EU regulations for a “design and construct contract”. COWI have prepared tender documents, supervised the tender process and advised the Client during tender negotiations. COWI, together with the Client, have implemented a commercial document control program. Through the internet, this gives all project participants full accessibility and control of digital documents and drawings from the planning phase to the final phase.



Egyptian LNG Project, Idku, Egypt
Idku is located on the Mediterranean coast 50 km east of Alexandria. An export terminal for LNG was needed due to the finding of sizeable gas fields. The terminal caters for 140,000 m³ LNG vessels. It consists of a construction harbour on the side of which a 2.4 km long access trestle extends out to the berth for the gas tankers. The mooring and turning area is protected by a 850 m long island breakwater. The mooring and turning area is dredged and so is a long approach channel. The trestle is supported on steel piles and the composite superstructure modules are 40 m long. The loading, mooring and berthing platforms are all steel supported structures. The site is very exposed with offshore design waves of Hs = 11 m reduced to approx. 6.8 m at the breakwater by wave breaking as the water depth is 12 to 13 m. The breakwater is located in an area with up to 15 m of soft clay. The combination of the large breakwater in a zone subject to seismic activity and the severe wave climate resulted in a need for replacement of the soft clay with sand. COWI’s design services for this project included all studies and design tasks including mooring analysis, numerical and physical model studies (in subconsultant´s hydraulic laboratory). Focus in all the studies and design services was placed upon optimising the design with respect to minimising quantities and at the same time making construction as easy as possible for the contractor.

Services • Assesment of geotechnical investigations • Hydrographical analyses • Breakwater design • Dynamic mooring analyses • Design of access channel and navigational lights • Vessel downtime assessment • Design of jetty structure

• Seismic analyses • Building design • Electrical and Mechanical design Project period 2002 - 2004 Client Archirodon Construction/ Bechtel International

Egyptian LNG-project, Idku.

Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand, Denmark
Denmark has formulated an energy policy giving high priority to sustainable energy, where windmills are a very important element. Several offshore windfarms are planned and COWI served as consultant for the one at Rødsand. COWI has carried out detailed design for a Danish construction company for 72 windmill gravity foundations located 9 to 10 km from the coast in the southern part of Denmark. The offshore wind farm has a total capacity of approx. 480,000 MWh, equivalent to the yearly consumption of 120,000 households. The windmills are 68.5 m (225 ft) high and the width of a gravity foundation is about 17 m (56 ft). The windmills are founded at 7.5 to 12.75 m depth on a rather stiff clay till. The gravity foundations are open concrete structures filled with ballast and covered with armour stones. The foundation is made of reinforced concrete and consists of three parts: the open caisson, the shaft and the ice cone. The design is based on an optimal utilization of the subjacent soil conditions versus load conditions, when defining the foundation level of each position. The foundations are designed to sustain cyclic loads from wind, wave and ice forces during their 25 year lifetime. The detailed design included geotechnical, structural and scour protection design, the latter validated by hydraulic model tests. The geotechnical and structural designs were carried out using state of the art numerical tools, e.g. PLAXIS and IBDAS.

Services • Structural Design • Geotechnical Design • Design of Scour Protection Project Period 2001 - 2002 Client Aarsleff Ballast Nedam International Joint Venture

Top: Completed foundation elements under transport to site. Left: Production yard in Poland. Right: With turbines installed.

• Project Follow-up


Ras Laffan Marine Terminals, Qatar
Ras Laffan Port, Qatar was constructed in the early 1990’s and is now one of the world’s largest LNG exporting ports. The port was designed as an export facility for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Condensate and Sulphur derived from the processing of gas landed from the North Field Gas Reservoir situated 67 km NNE of the Port. Ras Laffan is currently expanding the original port facilities and has identified the need for both new LNG berths as well as new multi-user liquid product berths from which Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) products can be exported from amongst many products. COWI has so far been involved in the planning, design and construction of the following marine terminals: • Liquid Product Berths 1A and 1B • LNG Berth 3 • Liquid Product Berths 3A and 3B • LNG Berth 4 • LNG Berth 5 • LNG Berth 6 (site investigations) The liquid product berths are designed to enable simultaneous berthing, mooring and loading of two vessels from 20,000 to 300,000 DWT. The berths have a common approach jetty with approach road and have pipe racks on either side leading from the Lee Breakwater to the loading platform area. The loading platform is accommodating 11 loading arms for each berth. The berths are constructed using mass concrete blocks and consist of breasting and mooring dolphins, quick release hooks, catwalks for access to the mooring dolphins, navigation lights, fenders, fire fighting facilities, ship-to-shore gangway and lighting amongst other topside facilities. The buildings consist of a common control building, an electrical substation and firewater pump house as well as pipe racks and other piping structures. The LNG berths are designed to enable berthing of up to 267,000 m3 LNG carriers. LNG Berth 3 and 4 are constructed using mass concrete blocks some of which are weighing up to 700 tons. The berths consist of loading platform with topside structures and equipment, mooring and breasting dolphins, catwalks, berth furniture as well as an access causeway. LNG Berth 5 is to be constructed outside the existing main breakwater before the new main breakwater is in place. Due to the rough seas during construction pile supported structures are being considered for this berth.

Services by COWI • Offshore Geotechnical investigations
• Bathymetric and Topographic investigations • Mooring and berthing analysis and layout • Dredging plans • Materials specifications • Design of block wall structures • Design of pile supported structures • Design of up to 11 arm loading structure and associated structures

• Design of pipe racks and bridges • Design of buildings, road/drainage and associated infrastructure

Project Period 2003 - ongoing Client
Techinp, Chiyoda, Snamprogetti, Archirodon Construction, Qatar Petroleum

Qatar - Bahrain Causeway
The approximately 40 km long link will connect the West Coast of Qatar near the Zubarah fortress with the East Coast of Bahrain south of its capital Manamah. It will be the longest sea link in the world. COWI was appointed to undertake the Preliminary Engineering and Environmental Investigations and Studies for the Qatar Bahrain Causeway and completed the studies in only 10 months. The Phase 1 activities comprised: • carrying out studies, surveys and site investigations in a 15 x 40 km offshore study corridor and adjacent land areas • comparing alternative alignments and selecting three for analyses • presenting a sketch design for the causeway and its elements • recommending in favour of one alignment based upon cost and impact assessments. The Phase 2 activities included: • carrying out detailed studies, surveys and site investigations for the selected alignment • presenting a conceptual design The marine modelling studies for the QatarBahrain Causeway project included modelling of current, sediment dispersion from dredging activities and waves using MIKE 21. Results of extreme current simulations were used in the engineering design of the Causeway including scour protection. The water exchange between the Gulf and Bay of Salwah was studied. It was a requirement that it should remain unchanged. The wave climate along the alignment corridor was modelled including wave propagation over the very complicated bathymetry around the large shallow Fasht Azm Reef. The final layout included bridges and a total of 17 km of embankment. By compensation dredging the final solution had zero impact on the water exchange.


Simulated wave heights for a 10,000 years wave event from North.

Services Studies • Planning • Traffic • Topography & bathymetry • Geology & geophysics • Geotechnique • Hydrography • Meteorology • Marine modelling • Environment & ecology • Risk assessment • Design basis

Conceptual Design • Alignment • Roads & plazas • Embankments & fill depots • Bridges • Tolling & border facilities • Mechanical & electrical installations

Project Period 2001 - 2002 Client Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture, Qatar


The Pearl - Qatar
The Pearl – Qatar project involved detailed design of the reclamation works for the 400 hectares new island requiring approximately 13.5 mill m3 of fill and the associated sea defence structures for the 40 km of new shoreline. Numerical hydrodynamic model studies were completed to determine the hydrodynamic design basis. The development includes private beaches along most of the perimeter which adds to the aesthetics and exclusiveness of the development. Different concepts have been developed to create a variety of beach environments that are optimised to suit the local conditions and requirements. Along the shores facing north and east relative long pocket beaches have been introduced. The sand is retained between groyne
Plan of marine works The Pearl - Qatar.

structures. Private open beaches have been separated by beach breakwaters at one of the shorelines facing southwest. Generally terraced beaches have been used where the wave impact is oblique and an open beach would be eroding. The terraced type consists of a low crested revetment behind which a sand beach is constructed. Concrete block gravity quay walls are used in the western cove and along the channels in the Venice type development at the north-west shore to facilitate mooring of boats and to create the confined channel system. Each Pearl Quay Island features private beach, harbour and terraced beach fringed by a low crested revetment. COWI has subsequently to the island design made design of the marinas (see page 23).

Services • Bathymetric survey • Geotechnical site investigations • Environmental management plan • Design assistance during construction • Design of marinas • Design of culverts • Design basis • Conceptual design • Detailed design • Tender and contract documents Project Period 2003 - ongoing Client United Development Company (UDC)

Construction of marina quay walls in the construction pit The Pearl - Qatar.

Architects' view of Porto Arabia.



Lusail Development, Qatar
COWI has completed planning, geotechnical investigations and numerical modelling and all design activities of the Lusail Development. This new large land development is located along the shoreline north of Doha and will cover an area of about 20 km2. The project will transform the present shoreline through dredging and reclamation, creating new islands, access channels and beaches. The fully developed new township is planned for 150,000 inhabitants. The development includes business, corporate and mixed use areas, quality beaches with top class hotels, two golf courses, and an entertainment district.
Architects' impression of project view.

Master Planning

Numerical modelling of flow and wave conditions as well as beach stability and sediment spill from dredging operations made using the modelling systems MIKE 21 and LITPACK and formed an integrated part of the planning and design activities. A special point of interest was the flushing of the canals to ensure proper water quality and the design of 19 beaches surrounded by exclusive residential villas and international high class hotels.

Services • Bathymetric and Topographic Surveys
• Geotechnical Investigations • Master Planning • Environmental Impact Assessment • Conceptual and Detailed Design • Preparation of Tender Documents • Tender Evaluation

Project period 2004 - 2006 Client Bechtel Overseas Corporation

Numerical modelling.

Plan view.

Olmsted Locks and Dam, USA
The Sverdrup/Gerwick Joint Venture completed the P&S design contract for the Olmsted Dam, working for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District. The Olmsted Dam is part of the Army Corps premier civil works project, the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project. Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. has taken the lead in the areas of innovative marine construction methods, marine foundation design and construction, tremie concrete construction techniques, and seismic design. Gerwick performed extensive seismic analyses as a result of the nearby New Madrid fault. The seismic analyses includes: Response spectra analyses of tainter gate segment of the dam, lateral pushover analyses of pile foundations, hydrodynamic added masses, pile group effects and the development of kinematic motions as a result of the soil-pile-structure interaction. Gerwick also performed finite element modeling and analysis of the proposed lift-in precast segments. Loading cases include hydrostatic combined with tremie concrete placement. As part of the initial work, Gerwick provided several construction alternatives to the Army Corps for consideration. Gerwick developed proposals for “In-the-Dry,” “In-the-Wet,” and a combination of both. The “In-the- Dry” method requires constructing the dam using two or three stages of traditional, fixed cellular-sheetpile cofferdam techniques. The “In-the-Wet” method will utilize a crane barge to place large precast shell elements onto pile foundations. Tremie concrete would be placed in the large void area between the shell elements and pile foundation. Heavy lift-in methods, with precast elements weighing over 4,000 tons, and a light lift-in method, with elements weighing approximately 600 tons, were considered. The “In-the-Wet” method offers significant advantages over the traditional fixed cofferdam method, including substantial cost savings, shorter construction duration, reduced environmental impact, and greater construction safety. Major engineering challenges associated with the project include: • Designing for over an 8.0 maximum credible earthquake in an area of potentially liquefiable alluvium. • Maintaining vessel traffic along the river. • Accommodating fluctuating river elevations between 30 to 40 feet annually. • Designing for the scour and uplift forces of artesian ground water. • Preserving a wild-life sanctuary on the Southern shore at the dam site.


Services • Casting Yards/Launch System • Diving Activities • Dredging • Heavy Lift Systems • Offsite Prefabrication • Positioning Control Systems • Screeding/Subgrade Preparation • Concrete Durability • Headed Reinforcement • Pre-cast Concrete • Precast Shells (Hulls) • Tremie Concrete • Non-Linear Soil Pile Interaction • Ice Loading/Abrasion Resistance

• Liquefaction • Mooring and Berthing • Seismic Analysis • Seismic Non-Linear Soil Pile Interaction • Constructability Studies • Cost Estimating • Scheduling Preparation/Review • Specification Preparation/Review • Value Engineering Year of Completion 2008 Client S. Army Corps of Engineers Louisville District

Typical catamaran barge for pre-cast shell deployment.


Braddock Dam Lock #2, Monongahela River, USA
Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. working with the Pittsburgh District, USACE designed and assisted with construction supervision of the New Braddock Dam. Gerwick took the lead in designing the float-in precast dam segments and developing “In-the-Wet” construction methods and procedures including: • Conceptual design of the cast and launch system for the precast dam segments. • Transport, positioning and immersion of the segments on to pre-installed foundations. • Developing a cast and launch facility for two 11,000 ton dam segments • Designing a 333 ft long precast shell with sufficient strength for launch, transport and immersion while maintaining a ten ft maximum draft. • Developing a transport, positioning, immersion and dam completion plan that can safely accommodate a 500- year flood on 48 hour notice. • Developing a positioning system with +/- 1⁄4 inch vertical and +/- two inch horizontal tolerances. • Drilled pier foundation layout and preliminary design. • Underbase grouting and tremie in-fill concrete plans. • Risk analysis of the segment, launch, transport outfitting and installation.

Services Performed • Services Performed: • Detailed Design • River Navigation Structures • Precast Concrete Construction • Construction Sequencing and Scheduling • Construction Means and Methods • Tremie Concrete Mix Design • Construction Engineering

Year of Completion 2003
Client U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pittsburgh District

Precast concrete dam segment floats to the project site on the Monongahela River.

Dam segment float-in and set-down sequence.

Float-in of dam segment.

Selected References
Mina Raysut Port Development Plan Port Salalah, Oman Description: Mina Raysut is being developed into one of the largest transhipment hubs. This called for major port expansion Client: Government of Oman, Ministry of Communications Completion: 1995 Services by COWI: Feasibility study of port development plans incl. field surveys, port organisation, shipping, development plan and conceptual design of new terminal and structures, cost estimate and economic analysis incl. rates of return of investment.


Coastal Protection for Irish Rail Network, Ireland Description: Iarnród Éireann´s (Irish Rail) rail network is in many places close to the sea and have been subject to coastal erosion over the last 150 year since its construction. The project involved nation wide upgrading of the protection works Client: Iarnród Éireann (Irish Rail) Completion: 2005 Services by COWI: The project involved feasibility study of the whole country network and design, tendering and supervision of strengthening works of existing sea defences and new defences where appropriate.

The Baltic Gate, New Port at Stigsnaes, Denmark Description: The Baltic gate is planned as a new container hub for transhipment of containers from the Baltic onto large intercontinental container ships Client: Stigsnaes Innovators Completion 1998 Services by COWI: Market study, port facilities and layout, hydraulic studies, environmental screening, cost estimates and feasibility evaluation.

Shoaiba New Tanker Terminal, Saudi Arabia Description: New marine terminal for unloading of 100,000 DWT tankers. The terminal consists of 500 m access causeway, 180 m access trestle and piled jetty structures, steel piles and concrete deck Client: Archirodon (Overseas) CO. Completion: 2002 Services by COWI: Assessment and design of the terminal structures.

Öresund Bridge Scour Protection of Bridge Piers, The Öresund Link, Denmark-Sweden Description: This major bridge requires scour protection around the bridge piers to protect from erosion of combined waves and strong current. The solution adopted was a quarry rock/rubble mound solution Client: Sundlink Contractors HB Completion: 1998 Services by COWI: Studies of design waves and current by numerical MIKE 21 models, preliminary design, hydraulic model tests for design verification and detailed design.

Qasr Al Alam New Seawall, Oman Description: New blockwork seawall for protection of the Royal Palace in Muscat plus small craft landing platform Client: Tarmac Alawi L.L.C. Completion: 2002 Services by COWI: assessment of geotechnical condition as well as seismic design, design of layout and cross sections of wall, design of wall sections and outfall structures for storm water run off, drawings and material specifications.


Selected References
Caleta La Mision Port, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Description: Review and redesign of the project and all structures for this port consisting of a 1.6 km trestle on piles a berth for 25,000 DWT vessels and a main island breakwater for protection of the berth Client: UTE ( JV) Andrade Guiteierrez-Ormas Completion: 2002 Services by COWI: Studies of waves and tides in num. model, design basis, master plan, navigation study, quarry assessment, detailed design of CORE-LOC breakwater, 2D and 3D model tests by DHI, design of quay and deck structures, specifications and cost estimates. Port of Copenhagen Ferry Terminal Description: New terminal for the DFDS Seaways ferries to Oslo, Norway and Poland and a smaller berth Client: Port of Copenhagen AS Completion: 2003 Services by COWI: Clients representative for multidisciplinary planning and engineering services. Sutong Bridge, Scour Protection, P.R. China Description: The Sutong Bridge over the Yangtze River is the worlds longest cable stay bridge with a span of 1088 m between the main pylons. These are founded in the river bed in a water depth reaching about 30 m Client: Jiangsu Province SuTong Bridge Construction Commanding Department Completion: 2005 Services by COWI: Expert engineering services and construction management for the bridge and its scour protection. For the scour COWI prepared assessments of the hydraulic design data, desk study of scour and conceptual and recommendations on detailed design of the scour protection consisting of temporary protection of sand bags and permanent protection using quarry stones with falling apron at the edges to cope with potential large scour depths. Museum of Islamic Art, Doha Coastal engineering study Description: The Museum is located in the water off the shoreline in the Doha Bay. The museum and the surroundings requires costal protection works Client: Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture, Qatar Completion: 2002 Services by COWI: surveys, num. modelling of waves and current and water quality, design basis, detailed design of edge treatment slopes, structures sea walls, construction supervision.

Qatar Bahrain Causeway (QBC) Description: The QBC includes the more than 40 km long link between Qatar and Bahrain with about 17 km on embankment and the rest on low and high bridges Client: Joint Technical Committee, QatarBahrain Causeway Completion: 2002 Services by COWI: Besides engineering studies of all the bridges COWI services included all geotechnical and hydraulic surveys and numerical modelling studies followed by design of all revetment structures as well as scour protection on the bridges. The objective was to define optimum technical solution that ensures the water exchange to the waters south of the causeway.

Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Rødsand, Denmark Description: The project includes 72 offshore wind turbines. The foundations are gravity structures with a width of about 17 m Client: Aarsleff-Ballast Nedam Intern. JV. Completion: 2002 Services by COWI: Geotechnical study interpretation, structural and soil-structure interaction modelling by Plaxis and IBDAS and detailed design of the gravity foundations.

Selected References
Dubai Maritime City Development, Dubai Description: The project includes new large reclaimed area in front of Port Rashid adjacent to Dubai Dry Dock (DDD). The new area requires the relocation of the main breakwater protecting the DDD as well as additional perimeter protection and marine structures Client: Archirodon Construction Completion: ongoing ( 2006) Services by COWI: Design basis, change of basic layout, num. wave disturbance study, design of all breakwaters and revetments, vessel manoeuvring study and technical services for construction support. Danaat Howar Islands Development, Bahrain Description: Large scale island development project Client: Southern Area Development Company, Bahrain Completion: 2001 Services by COWI: Master plan revision, numerical wave, current, water quality and sedimentation modelling, engineering design of marine structures, specifications and contract documents. The Pearl - Qatar, Marine Works, Qatar The Project includes the construction of an about 5 km long and 2 km wide manmade island and adjacent cluster of islands. The island’s area is approx 400 hectares and requires about 13.5 mill. m3 of fill. Its perimeter is in the order of 50 km long and is protected by rock structures and revetments and man-made beaches Client: United Development Company (UDC) Completion: ongoing (2006) Services by COWI: Site investigations incl. geotechnical borings, numerical modelling of all hydraulic and environmental aspects, environmental management plan, design basis, conceptual design, detailed design, tender and contract documents. Conoco Phillips, Rodeo Terminal Upgrade, Richmond, CA Description: Develop options for upgrading the Rodeo Terminal Facility to accommodate 200,000 DWT tankers. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of berthing a 200,000 DWT Polar tanker at the Conoco Phillips Rodeo facility, and secondly, determine what structural upgrades would be required according to MOTEMS (Marine Oil Terminal Engineering and Maintenance Standards). Client: Conoco Phillips Completion: 2003 Services by COWI: Mooring Analyses, Structural Analyses, Cost Estimates, Quantities and MOTEMS Compliance. Mesaieed Small Craft Berth, Qatar Description: The small craft harbour is for mooring of tugs and pilot boats. It consist primarily of gravity block structures. Client: Grandi Lavouri Fincosit ( Middle East W.L.L) Completion: 2002 Services by COWI: Definition of design basis, specification and interpretation of marine investigations, specifications of ground improvement, detailed structural design of berth, detailed design of slipway and coastal protection, construction report and drawings, construction support. Liquid Product Berths 1A and 1B, Ras Laffan, Qatar Description: Product berths for 20,000 and 30,000 DWT product vessels. The berths are located in protected area in existing port basin. The structures consist of gravity structures/block works. Client: Archirodon Construction on behalf of Qatar Pretroleum. Completion: 2004. Services by COWI: Assessment of geotechnical conditions, mooring and berthing analysis and layout, dredging plan, materials specifications, design of berth structures ( block works), design of 11 nos. loading structures, pipe racks, buildings & roads & drainage, design report and all drawings.



Selected References
Shoaiba Steam Power Plant, Saudi Arabia Description: The plant located on the Red Sea Coast south of Jeddah is a major power and desalination plant with water intake and outfall structures at the shoreline Client: Saudi Archirodon Limited Completed: 2001 Services by COWI: Design of large intake structures consisting of GRP-pipes and Accropode breakwater intake basin and outfall weir, canal and guiding structures. Halul Harbour Upgrade, Qatar Description: Halul harbour is a supply base located on Halul Island 80 km off the coast of Qatar. The harbour is on the south side of the island and is protected by two CORE-LOC breakwaters. Client: Consolidated Engineering Construction Ltd. Completion: 2004 Services by COWI: Port Planning, definition of site investigations, detailed design of breakwater & concrete quay & sheet pile quay & access road, design report and construction drawings.

Tuborg Syd, Marine Works, Denmark Description: Tuborg Syd (South) is a development of the former Tuborg Brewery Port. The port basin is transformed into housing and recreational areas including 210,000 m2 of buildings. The development is given a maritime environment with marina and canals in between the buildings. Client: Carlsberg Properties Completions: ongoing (2006) since 2001. Services by COWI: Master Planning of Marina in collaboration with the architect, assessment of geotechnical conditions, numerical modelling and hydraulic studies, coastal stability analysis, design of new protecting rubble mound breakwater, design of all works/structures, tendering, contracting and supervision of marine works construction.

Beirut Central District, Marine Works, Lebanon Description: Marina and seafront structures. Marina protected by major Accropode breakwater. Seafront, 1.3 km long, consisting of large concrete caissons with wave absorbing chamber (Jarlan-principle) and wide man-made reef in front Client: SOLIDERE Completed: 2000 Services by COWI: Construction Management and special marine, geotechnical, coastal and materials engineering expert services. Design of Yachting Harbour, Kuressaare, Estonia Description: Yachting harbour with normal services and facilities located in sheltered bay. On the seaward side the harbour is protected by a breakwater Client: Kuressaare Municipality, Estonia Completed: 2000 Services by COWI: All phases of the development of the new yachting harbour including feasibility study, preliminary and detailed design. Further tender and contract services as well as overall construction supervision.

Jiujiang and Jiangyin Ports, Yangze River, China Feasibility studies Description: Upgrading of two river ports Client: Ministry of Communications, China Completed: 1996 Services by COWI: Feasibility studies including traffic, port operations, berth occupancy, development plan, EIA, technical solutions and economical feasibility.

Selected References of Ben C. Gerwick
Shoreline Storm Damage Reduction, Chicago, IL, USA Description: Shore protection for 530 m of shoreline avenues along Lake Michigan, between Diversey and Fullerton, consisting of revetment, concrete promenade and stepped slabs, steel sheet pile, and rock fill. Client: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District Completed: 2004 Services: Detailed Design.


Inner Harbor Turning Basin, Port of Oakland, CA, USA Description: Design of a 12 m tall bulkhead required for “Widening of Inner Harbor Turning Basin (ITHB) - Phase 1B Bulkhead, Dredging, and Demolition of Piers 2 & 5”. Client: DUTRA Construction Completed: 2006 Services: Geotechnical analysis and design, numerical modeling, structural design, Seismic design, value engineering, construction staging, construction support and supervision, pile load test evaluation.

Cooper River Bridge Pier Protection Islands, Charleston, SC, USA Description: Artificial islands for protection of main span bridge piers against ship collision. The islands are 20 m high, built from 346,000 m3 of rock comprising an outer layer of primary and secondary rock armor placed on a filter and quarry run core. Construction included 340,000 m3 dredging for foundation of the islands. Client: South Carolina Department of Transportation Completed: 2005 Services: Detailed Design and Ship Collision Risk Analysis. Casting Basing Costa Azul, Baja California, Mexico Description: Detailed design of a 105 m wide by 155 m long and 8 m deep casting basin facility. The basin serves for manufacturing of concrete caissons that is floated out and sunk to form a breakwater that protects an LNG terminal approx. 20 km north of the basin. Client: Costain - China Harbour JV Completed: 2005 Services: Feasibility Studies, Oceanographic Studies, Detailed Design, Structural Design, Geotechnical Analyses & Design, Hydraulic & Dewatering Design, Coastal Engineering, Downtime Assessment.

Wharf Embankment Strengthening, Port of Oakland, CA, USA Description: Wharf improvements, including concrete deck and piling for the crane girder, new sheet-pile wall, fenders, bollards, and utility trenches. The work included development of design criteria for crane loads, vessel moorings, seismic and geotechnical analyses. Client: Port of Oakland. Completed: 2004 Services: Detailed Design and Seismic Analyses.

Loading Facility, ARCO Cherry Point Refinery, Bellingham, WA, USA Description: New terminal and loading platform for tankers. Construction utilized 2-m diameter steel caissons to support the loading platform, mooring dolphins, and breasting dolphins with the focus of minimizing seismic loads and vessel impact loads to the loading platform. Client: ARCO. Completed: 1999 Services: Detailed Design.




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Our International Marine and Coastal Project Managers

Dale E. Berner, Ph.D.

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Editors: Jørgen Bang Jensen, Ole Juul Jensen, Hanne Aagaard Jensen et al., Spring 2006

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Torben Bang

Keld Thøgersen

Hanne L. Svendsen

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Frontpage picture: Egyptian LNG Project, Idku, Egypt

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