Alfa Romeo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A.

Type

Società per azioni

Industry

Automotive

Predecessor

Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID)

Founded

24 June 1910 in Milan, Italy

Founder(s)

Alexandre Darracq/Ugo Stella Nicola Romeo

Headquarters

Turin, Italy[1]

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

John Elkann (President) Harald J. Wester (CEO)

Products

Automobiles

Production output

119,451 units (2010)

Owner(s)

Fiat S.p.A.

Parent

Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.

Website

AlfaRomeo.com

Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. (Italian pronunciation: [ˈalfa roˈmɛːo]) is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. on June 24, 1910, in Milan,[2] the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars.[3] The company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group,[4] and since February 2007 a part of Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. In the late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly and a new company was founded named A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili English: Lombard Automobile Factory, Public Company), initially still in partnership with Darracq. The first nonDarracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi. A.L.F.A. ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24 HP models. In August 1915 the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP becoming the first car to be badged as such. In 1928 Nicola Romeo left, with Alfa going broke after defense contracts ended, and at the end of 1932 Alfa Romeo was rescued by Benito Mussolini's government, which then had effective control. The Alfa factory struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, and turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models. The company, in 1954, developed the classic Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1995. During the 1960s and 1970s Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, though the Italian government parent company, Finmeccanica, struggled to make a profit so sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986.

1 Technological development o 2. and Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. Formula One.[5] Contents             1 History o 1.2 Body design o 2.1 Current models o 5.1 Aircraft engines 7 Media and public profile 8 Marketing and sponsorship 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit] History [edit] Foundation and early years .3 The badge 3 Motorsport 4 Production 5 Automobiles o 5. three years after the foundation of the company. The company gained a good name in motorsport.2 Future models o 5. sportscar racing.1 Foundation and early years o 1. via works entries (usually under the name Alfa Corse or Autodelta) and private entries. They have competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier. The first racing car was made in 1913. before becoming independent in 1939.4 Trucks and light commercial vehicles o 5. which gave a sporty image to the whole marque.5 Concepts 6 Other production o 6. Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team.5 Return to the United States 2 Design and technology o 2. touring car racing and rallies. including Grand Prix motor racing.3 Historic models o 5.3 Carabinieri and Italian government o 1.Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in many different categories of motorsport.4 Recent developments o 1.2 Post war o 1.

founded a new company named A. The first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP. In August 1915 the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo.A. the GP1914 which featured a four cylinder.L. Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be a more suitable location and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello.F. ventured into motor racing. One of them.F. cars. A. an aristocrat from Milan. with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24 HP models. but even before the construction of the planned factory had started. the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly and Stella.F. initially still in partnership with Darracq.L. became chairman of the SAID in 1909. Late 1909.A 1908 Darracq 8/10 HP assembled by Alfa Romeo's predecessor. who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war .L.[7] However.[6] The firm's initial location was in Naples.F. Cavaliere Ugo Stella.000 sq yd) was erected. with the other Italian co-investors. with some Italian investors.F. four valves per cylinder and twin ignition. designed by Giuseppe Merosi.L. In 1914. an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built. Darracq Italiana The A. hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suitable to the Italian market.A.A 24 hp (this is with Castagna torpedo body) was the fist car made by Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili in 1910.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili).A. the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A.700 square metres (8. with more powerful engines (40-60 HP). double overhead camshafts. for three years.L. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. where a new factory of 6.

Enzo Ferrari proved to be a better team manager than driver.[6] In 1920. When Ferrari left Alfa Romeo. Giuseppe Merosi continued as head designer. aircraft engines and other components. and when the factory team was privatised. When the war was over. For Alfa road cars Jano developed a series of smallto-medium-displacement 4.F. to replace Merosi as chief designer at Alfa Romeo. which were added to his A. Rome (Officine Meccaniche di Roma) and Naples (Officine Ferroviarie Meridionali).L. and 8 cylinder inline power plants based on the P2 unit that established the classic architecture of Alfa engines. winning many races prior to the Second World War. he went on to build his own cars. Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railways carriage plants in Saronno (Costruzioni Meccaniche di Saronno).efforts. In 1923 Vittorio Jano was lured away from Fiat.[9] Their first success came in 1920 when Giuseppe Campari won at Mugello and continued with second place in the Targa Florio driven by Enzo Ferrari. Tazio Nuvolari often drove for Alfa. it then became Scuderia Ferrari.F. partly thanks to the persuasion of a young Alfa racing driver named Enzo Ferrari. two rows of overhead valves per cylinder bank and dual overhead cams. the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP becoming the first car to be badged as such.A. . and the company continued to produce solid road cars as well as successful race cars (including the 40-60 HP and the RL Targa Florio). centrally-located plugs. Alfa Romeo production between 1934-1939[8] Industrial Year Cars vehicles 699 0 1934 91 211 1935 20 671 1936 270 851 1937 542 729 1938 372 562 1939 Car production had not been considered at first. Munitions. which won Alfa Romeo the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925.A. compressors and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war.L. ownership. Jano's designs proved to be both reliable and powerful. with light alloy construction. but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars were still lying at the A. factory since 1915. The first Alfa Romeo under Jano was the P2 Grand Prix car. 6. hemispherical combustion chambers.

Alfa Romeo production between 1998-2010[11] Year Cars 197.680 1998 208. with the bodies normally built by Touring of Milan or Pinin Farina. —Henry Ford talking with Ugo Gobbato in 1939[10] ” [edit] Post war Once motorsports resumed after the Second World War. Alfa Romeo proved to be the car to beat in Grand Prix events. The luxury vehicles were out.202 Folgore engines) was bombed during the Second World War. This engine would eventually be enlarged to 2 litres (2000 cc) and would remain in production until 1995. During this period Alfa Romeo built bespoke vehicles for the wealthy. coupes and open two-seaters. I tip my hat.[9] which then had effective control.638 2001 187. and Giuseppe Farina won the first Formula One World Championship in 1950 in the 158. adapted from a pre-war voiturette. The Alfa factory (converted during wartime to the production of Macchi C.8C 2900B Touring Spider (1937) In 1928 Nicola Romeo left. Alfa became an instrument of Mussolini's Italy. with the introduction of the Giulietta series of berline (saloons/sedans). and at the end of 1932 Alfa Romeo was rescued by the government. “ When I see an Alfa Romeo go by.336 1999 206.437 2002 .836 2000 213. This was the era that peaked with the legendary Alfa Romeo 2900B Type 35 racers. initially in 1300 cc form. All three varieties shared what would become the classic Alfa Romeo overhead Twin Cam four cylinder engine. with Alfa going broke after defence contracts ended. The introduction of the new formula (Formula One) for single-seat racing cars provided an ideal setting for Alfa Romeo's tipo 158 Alfetta. Juan Manuel Fangio secured Alfa's second consecutive championship in 1951. a national emblem. Smaller mass-produced vehicles began to be produced in Alfa's factories beginning with the 1954 model year. and struggled to return to profitability after the war.

was reorganized and four new automobile companies were created. However..469 162.[15] There is a planned strategic relationship between these two. the Tipo 103 never saw the production. it would precede the Mini as the first "modern" front-wheel drive compact car. Models produced subsequent to the 1990s combined Alfa's traditional virtues of avant-garde styling and sporting panache with the economic benefits of product rationalisation. The Italian government company Finmeccanica bowed out in 1986 as Fiat Group bought in. In the 1970s. Alfa concentrated on competition using production-based cars. Lancia Automobiles S. In 2005 Maserati was bought back from Ferrari and brought under Fiat's full control. and a high-performance exotic called the 8C Competizione (named after one of Alfa's most successful prewar sports and racing cars. Alfa-Romeo had experimented with its first front-wheel drive compact car named "Project 13-61". It even resembled the smaller version of its popular Alfa-Romeo Giulia. the 8C of the 1930s). Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. During the 1960s.A.687 119.[16] In the beginning of 2007.p.p. The Fiat Group plans to create a sports and luxury division from Maserati and Alfa Romeo. Among other victories.p.794 151.. forward-motor layout as the modern front-wheel drive automobiles.[9] to manufacture Alfas and Lancias.2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 182. and Fiat Light Commercial Vehicles S. Alfa concentrated on prototype sports car racing with the Tipo 33. and include a "GTA" version of the 147 hatchback.A.A. due to the financial difficulties in post-war Italy.[12] It had the same transverse-mounted.p.179 130. These companies are fully owned by Fiat Group Automobiles S.[17] [edit] Carabinieri and Italian government . Fiat Automobiles S.097 103. creating a new group. the GTA won the inaugural Sports Car Club of America's Trans-Am championship in 1966. with early victories in 1971. engines.451 In 1952.p. Had Alfa-Romeo succeed in producing Tipo 103. Fiat Auto S.[13][14] By the 1970s Alfa was again in financial trouble. It was to be called Tipo 103. Alfa-Romeo made a second attempt toward the late 1950s based on Project 13-61.A. Alfa Lancia Industriale S. the Giugiarodesigned Brera. including the GTA (standing for Gran Turismo Allegerita).A.A.p.815 157..p.898 103. an aluminium-bodied version of the Bertonedesigned coupe with a powerful twin-plug engine. Eventually the Tipo 33TT12 gained the World Championship for Makes for Alfa Romeo in 1975 and the Tipo 33SC12 won the World Championship for Sports Cars in 1977. platforms and possibly dealers will be shared in some market areas.A.

The colours of the Alfa Romeos used by the Polizia were grey/blue with white stripes and writing. .Italian State Police Flying Squad "Panther" 1971 Alfa Giulia Super In the 1960s Alfa Romeo became famous for its small cars and models specifically designed for the Italian police — "Panthers" and Carabinieri.[18] one of the dozens about this legend. true to their history. determined and respected perception by the general public of the men that drove these cars. and 166 have found particular employment in the last two decades. the term "Pantera" became used interchangeably and the image helped create a no-nonsense. Polizia Autostradale (Highway Police) and the conventional police service (Polizia). known as the "Gazzella" (Antelope) denoting the speed and agility of these "Pattuglie" (armed response patrol units). "to chase or predate" (this car is wrongly supposed to be the one that the famous Roman police marshal and unrivalled driver Armandino Spadafora brought down on the Spanish Steps in 1960 while following some robbers — it was actually a black Ferrari 250 GT/E — this picture of Giulia. The 164. is taken from a film and not at the Spanish Steps). Successively. the following Alfa Romeo Berlinas have found favour for Italian Police and Government employment:[19]          Alfa Romeo Alfetta Alfa Romeo "Nuova" Giulietta Alfa Romeo 33 (Only Polizia di Stato) Alfa Romeo 75 Alfa Romeo 164 (Official Vehicles) Alfa Romeo 155 Alfa Romeo 156 Alfa Romeo 166 (Official Vehicles) Alfa Romeo 159 Since 1960s. among them the glorious "Giulia Super" or the 2600 Sprint GT. known as "Pantera" (Panther). enhancing the aggressive look of the Alfa (particularly the Giulia series). the Italian Prime Minister has used Alfa Romeos (and lately the new Maserati Quattroporte) as preferred government limousines. However. while the Carabinieri Alfas were dark blue with white roofs and red stripes. trl. Since then. Alfas remain the chosen mount of the Carabinieri (renowned arm of the Italian Armed Forces seconded only partly for civilian Policing purposes). which acquired the expressive nickname of "Inseguimento" dir.

[28] [edit] Design and technology .[20] [edit] Return to the United States Giulietta Spider Alfa Romeo was imported to the United States by Max Hoffman starting from the mid 1950s.000 units which was significantly lower than Fiat CEO Marchionne's global sales target of 300. American market. Alfa Romeo resumed sales in the United States with the 8C Competizione in October 2008. however as the FAQ on Alfa's English website had said "The long-awaited return of Alfa Romeo to the United States market should take place by 2007.000. it sold a total of about 112.estimated to be about 15 percent to 20 percent of the Alfa’s annual revenues—or about 300 million to 500 million euros a year. he made proposal to produce an open version of the Giulietta. and 500." Alfa Romeo's return to United States was confirmed on 5 May 2006 by Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne. Some analysts concluded that the automaker suffered large operating losses in the mid-2000s . Alfa wants to achieve 170.[23] In 1995 Alfa Romeo ceased exporting cars to the United States.000 by 2014 including 85. 4.[26] The Wall Street Journal reported on Nov.[24] the last model to be sold being the 164.[edit] Recent developments Alfa Romeo has been suffering from falling sales. with a range of new models.000 sales in 2011.[21] The Giulietta Spider was born by request of Max Hoffman.[25] Alfa Romeo and Chrysler are currently in discussions.000 MiTo.000 from N.[27] The Alfa Romeo 4C will be the first mass produced car to re-enter the US market in 2013. 2009. Rumours began of their return.000 Giulietta and 60. For the year of 2010. that Chrysler would announce that it is dropping several models of Dodge and Jeep while phasing in Alfa Romeo and Fiat 500 models. with Alfa Romeo possibly using Chrysler manufacturing plants that have been shut down due to unneeded product.[22] In 1961 Alfa Romeo started importing cars to the United States. including 100.

this construction technique became extremely widespread. which had such things as 50:50 weight distribution.[31] Electronic Variable Valve Timing was introduced in the (Alfetta)[citation needed].[39] [edit] Body design Over the life of the marque.[36] robotised/paddle control transmission Selespeed used in 156.[34] standard fit alloy wheels[citation needed] and transaxle. Alfa Romeo tested one of the very first electric injection systems (Caproni-Fuscaldo) in the Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 with "Ala spessa" body in 1940 Mille Miglia.[35] Newer innovations include complete CAD design process used in Alfa Romeo 164.[30] Mechanical Variable Valve Timing was introduced in the Alfa Romeo Spider sold in U. Construction techniques used by Alfa Romeo have become imitated by other car makers. has rapidly gained international credibility with its work.[38] The Multiair -an electro-hydraulic variable valve actuation technology used in MiTo was introduced in 2009. markets in 1980. A selection of these include the following      Bertone Giorgetto Giugiaro / Italdesign Pininfarina Zagato Centro Stile Alfa Romeo The last mentioned. The 8C Competizione super-coupé.[edit] Technological development Alfa Romeo has introduced some technological innovations over the years.[29] the first road car with such an engine the 6C 1500 Sport appeared in the 1928. and the company has often been among the first users of new technologies.S. examples of imitation by other car manufacturers:  1950s : Monocoque body design in the Giulia : While not an imitation per se. The 105 series Giulia was a quite advanced car using such technologies as: All-wheel disc brakes. The following is a list of innovations. and in this way Alfa Romeo body design has often been very influential. and the MiTo hatchback are the result of their work. Alfa Romeo's trademark double overhead cam engine was used for the first time in the 1914 Grand Prix car. The engine had six electrically operated injectors which were fed by a semi-high pressure circulating fuel pump system. and where appropriate.[37] the 156 was also world's first passenger car to use Common rail diesel engine. and remains so to the present day. . many famous automotive design houses in Italy have accepted commissions to produce concepts and production vehicle shapes for Alfa Romeo. the Centro Stile.[32] plastic radiator header tank[citation needed] it had also the lowest Drag Coefficient (Cd) in its class[33] The same trend continued with the Alfetta 2000 and GTV.

this Giulia-based concept resulted in the production Alfa Romeo Montreal road car with a variant of the Tipo 33 V8 engine. 7 and 9. Alfa 1900 Sprint were the basis of the B. and their impacts on car design: 1950s . In addition. 1970s : Fairing of bumpers : In order to meet American crash standards.A. Most manufacturers incorporated design ideas first expressed in the 164 into their own designs.Descendants of the Tipo 33 The Tipo 33 racing car. 1980s : The Alfa 164 : The design process and influence of this car is almost completely out of all proportion to previous Alfas.Designed by Pininfarina. particularly in Germany and Japan. Honda has used this design style in the latest Civic hatchback. and less visible rear door-handle flaps. and whether the resulting vehicles would be palatable to public. 1960s and 1970s . cars The Berlina Aerodinamica Tecnica prototype cars were designed by Bertone as an exercise in determining whether streamlining and wind-tunnel driven designs would result in high performance on a standard chassis. 11 was based on the 8C Competizione. two of which ultimately resulted in production vehicles.T.T. . Here is a brief list:    Gandini/Bertone Carabo (1968) . this car ultimately resulted in the 33 Stradale road car Gandini/Bertone Montreal Concept (1967) .T. have proven influential as regards sedan and coupé styling. Alfa Romeo models have also served as the inspiration and basis of some very interesting and often beautiful concept cars. The 164 introduced complete CAD/CAM in the manufacturing cycle. with its high-revving 2000 cc V8 engine became the basis for a number of different concept cars during 1960s and 1970s. Alfa formulated design styling techniques to incorporate bumpers into the overall bodywork design of vehicles so as to not ruin their lines.[40] The later B. including greater reliance on on-board computers. and a somewhat similar idea is also seen in the most recent Mazda RX-8 four-seat coupé. Most made their appearances at the Auto Salon Genève.A. the 164's styling influence continues into the present day line of modern Alfa's. demonstrating that concept vehicles are often immediately translatable into road car form.A. providing that initial design takes place using CAD systems. 5. Toyota in particular sought to produce a similarly shaped series of vehicles at this time. 2000s : The Brera and 159 : These vehicles design. Tipo 33.[citation needed] 1990s : The pseudo-coupé : The Alfa 156 and 147.2 (1969). by Giorgetto Guigaro.     1960s : Aerodynamics : The 116-series Giulia boasted a very low Cd.The B. The culmination of this design technique was 1980s Alfa Romeo 75.Marcello Gandini expressed ideas that would come to fruition in the Lamborghini Countach. while four door vehicles. with very little directly made by hand in the vehicle. Here follows a short list of concept cars. represented themselves as two-doors with prominent front door handles.making its appearance at the 1967 Montreal Expo. The process was widely copied.

The future Alfa Romeo concept cars have mostly emphasized performance in combination with historical tradition.A fully fibreglassed vehicle. rulers of Milan in the 14th century. the emblem of the House of Visconti.[41][42] In 1918. concept cars for Alfa Romeo have generally become production vehicles. The name "MILANO". after some modification to make them suitable for manufacture. A dark blue metallic ring was added. Naples in the early 1970s. 1980s-today . after the abolition of the monarchy. The Zagato SZ. Alfa added a laurel wreath around the badge. after the company was purchased by Nicola Romeo. After the victory of the P2 in the inaugural Automobile World Championship in 1925. Brera and 159 are all good examples of Alfa Romeo's stylistic commitment in this direction.[41] In 1946. GTV and Spider (descended from the Proteo). the Savoy knots were replaced with two curvy lines. the emblem of Milan. the badge was redesigned with the help of Giuseppe Merosi.Modern ideas In general. and the independently designed Diva Concept cars have demonstrated that this ethos is the centre of Alfa conceptualisation. and in some ways the epitome of Guigaro's 'Origami' style of flat planes. on the left is a red cross on a white field. The Centro Stile website also gives designers very good direction in terms of the combination of line and form Alfa prefers to see in the design process of its car's bodywork. and to provide driver and passenger safety.[41] It was designed in 1910 by an Italian draughtsman Romano Cattaneo who used two heraldic devices traditionally associated with Milan: on the right is the Biscione. the hyphen. The Nuvola Concept. [edit] Motorsport . which Cattaneo had seen on the door of the Castello Sforzesco. [edit] The badge Evolution of Alfa Romeo's badge Alfa's badge incorporates emblems from fifth century Italy. containing the inscription "ALFA — ROMEO" and "MILANO" separated by two Savoy dynasty knots to honour the Kingdom of Italy. and the lines were eliminated when Alfa Romeo opened its factory at Pomigliano d'Arco. Bertone/Guigaro Navajo (1976).

all new Alfa Romeo models will be made from the same basic platform (i. Alfa Romeo's factory racing team was outsourced to Enzo Ferrari's Scuderia Ferrari between 1933-1938. In the 1920s and 30s Alfa Romeo scored wins at many of the most famous and prestigious races and motoring events such as Targa Florio. Prototypes. via works entries Alfa Corse. or Quadrifoglio.[43] Quadrifoglio badge on the Alfetta 159 Cloverleaf. with fine results. According to the current Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne in order to reap economies of scale.. frame). [edit] Production Until the 1980s. who took one of the most legendary victories of all time by winning the 1935 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring. Autodelta and private entries.Brian Redman driving with Alfa Romeo 33 TT 12 Main article: Alfa Romeo in motorsport Alfa Romeo has been involved with motor racing since 1911. except for the Alfasud. Even Maserati will share components with some Alfas. This became the symbol of competition Alfas. The image first appeared in 1923 when Ugo Sivocci presented one prior to the start of the 14th Targa Florio as a good luck token to the team. were rear-wheel-drive. Alfa Romeos. Touring and Fast Touring. but previously denoted Alfa Romeo racing cars in the pre-Second-World-War era. Mille Miglia and Le Mans. denoting higher performance. The most legendary Alfa Romeo driver is Tazio Nuvolari. badges denote high-end in comfort and engine size variants of Alfa Romeo cars. Alfa Romeo has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier. Great success continued with Formula One. when they entered two 24 HP models on Targa Florio competition.e. Private drivers also entered some rally competitions. Some modern Alfas wear a cloverleaf badge which is typically a .

In 2003 the Arese factory was closed. Even stranger. Alfa Romeo withdrew from the market and closed the plant. while the Arese plant manufactured the 164 and new Spider and GTV. However. These models were the top of the range. South Africa became self sufficient. In the late 1960s. since then the Alfa seat is known to be in Arese. The same year a new flagship. Alfa-Romeos were assembled in Brits. and the GTA (gran tourismo alleggerita) ("light-weight grand tourer"). followed by the 145 and the 146. Alfa Romeos Brits plant was used in 198485 to build Daihatsu Charades both for local consumption but also for export to Italy. The Alfettas of the early 1980s had models available sold as the "Silver Leaf" and "Gold Leaf" (Quadrifoglio Oro). outside of Pretoria in the Transvaal Province of South Africa. the 166 (assembled in Rivalta. the 147 was released. a number of European automobile manufacturers established facilities in South Africa to assemble right hand drive vehicles. The Pomigliano d’Arco plant produced the 155. During the 1990s. South Africa had the greatest number of Alfa Romeos on the road outside of Italy. This led to a remarkable set of circumstances where between 1972 and 1989. After the plants closing.[44] In late 1985.green four leaf clover on a white background (Quadrifoglio Verde). What remains are some offices and the great Alfa Romeo Historical Museum. but variants of blue on white have been recently observed as well. In the past. the name in homage to the original 159. Lainate and Garbagnate Milanese. a must-see for Alfa Romeo fans. to skirt Italian limits on Japanese imports. literally tons of valuable parts were bulldozed into the ground to escape paying import duties. The Arese factory today hosts almost nothing and is nearly abandoned. turismo ("touring"). With the imposition of sanctions by western powers in the 1970s and 1980s. with the impending Fiat takeover and an international boycott of the South African Apartheid government. the main Alfa Romeo seat was moved from inside Milan to a very large and nearby area extending over the municipalities of Arese. In the 60s. Fiat and other Italian manufacturers established factories along with these other manufacturers. in 1998 it was voted ―Car of the Year‖. The Gold Leaf model was also sold as the "159i" in some markets. Badging was the Alfa Cloverleaf in either gold or silver to denote the specification level. which won the prestigious title of ―Car of the Year 2001‖. At the beginning of the third millennium. Alfa Romeo offered a Sprint trim level. and in car production came to rely more and more on the products from local factories. and became quite successful for Alfa Romeo. since the offices and the main entrance of the area are there. near Turin) was launched. Alfa Romeo moved car production to other districts in Italy. Assembly plants by model[45] . The 156 was launched in 1997. The trim levels (option packages) offered today on the various nameplates (model lines) include the lusso ("luxury"). The GTA package is offered in the 147 and 156 and includes a V-6 engine.

p. Naples Model(s) Giulietta MiTo 159. small family car officially revealed at the Geneva Motor Show 2010. 159 Sportwagon [edit] Automobiles [edit] Current models MiTo   Giulietta   Supermini 3-door hatchback Small family car 5-door hatchback    159 Compact executive car 4-door sedan  5-door station wagon Brera Spider Coupe  Spider The 159 features a traditional Alfa Romeo V-shaped grille and bonnet Alfa Romeo MiTo The MiTo is a three door sporty supermini officially introduced on 19 June 2008 in Castello Sforzesco in Milan. Fiat Group Automobiles S. Alfa Romeo Giulietta The Giulietta (previously Milano) is a five door.[46] the international introduction was at British Motor Show in 2008.p. Location Piedimonte San Germano Turin Pomigliano d'Arco.Plant Cassino Piedimonte S.p.[47] It replaced the 147.A. Germano Stabilimento Mirafiori Giambattista Vico Owner Fiat Group Automobiles S.A.A. Fiat Group Automobiles S. .

Production of the Brera stopped in November 2010. Alfa Romeo Brera The Brera is a 2+2 coupé designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and manufactured by Pininfarina. introduced officially in production form at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show. The car replaced the Spider 916 model. but it still available for buyers.[48] the 159 is available with four different petrol engines and three diesels. a roadster variant of the Brera coupé. Pininfarina assembled this car alongside the Brera in San Giorgio Canavese. introduced in 1995.Alfa Romeo 159 Current mid-size saloon.[49] It was originally introduced as a concept car at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show.[49] Production of the Spider stopped in November 2010.[50] Alfa Romeo Spider The Spider. and was launched in 2005 as successor to the decade-old GTV. 159 Sportwagon is an estate version of this car. but it is still available for buyers. was introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show. Italy.[50] [edit] Future models     Alfa Romeo Giulia sedan and station wagon (Expected-2014)[28] Alfa Romeo 4C (Expected-2013)[28] Alfa Romeo C-SUV (Expected-2013)[28] Alfa Romeo Spider (new) (Expected-2014)[28] [edit] Historic models 6C Gran Sport (1931) . Was launched in 2005 to replace the 156. The production version maintained the exterior appearance almost exactly but on a smaller scale.

8C 2300 (1931) 2600 Touring Spider (1961) GT Junior (1965) Montreal (1970) GTV6 (1980) Spider (1992) .

156 (1997) 8C Competizione (2008) Alfa Romeo Autotutto F12 ambulance Road cars 1910-1920 24 HP 1910-1911 12 HP 1910 1911-1920 15 HP 1913-1922 40-60 HP 1921-1922 20-30 HP 1920-1921 G1 1921-1921 G2 1920 1922-1927 RL 1923-1925 RM 1927-1929 6C 1500 1929-1933 6C 1750 Racing cars 1911 15 HP Corsa 1913 40-60 HP Corsa 1914 Grand Prix 1922 RL Super Sport 1923 RL Targa Florio 1923 P1 1924 P2 1928 6C 1500 MMS 1929 6C 1750 Super Sport 1931 Tipo A 1931 8C 2300 Monza 1932 Tipo B (P3) 1935 Bimotore 1935 8C 35 1935 8C 2900A 1936 12C 36 1937 12C 37 1937 6C 2300B Mille Miglia 1937 8C 2900B Mille Miglia 1938 308 1938 312 1938 316 1938 158 1931-1934 8C 2300 1933-1933 6C 1900 1930 1934-1937 6C 2300 1935-1939 8C 2900 1939-1950 6C 2500 .

1940 1950-1958 1900 1951-1953 Matta 1950 1954-1962 Giulietta 1958-1962 2000 1959-1964 Dauphine 1962-1968 2600 1960 Giulietta SZ 1962-1976 Giulia Saloon 1963 Giulia TZ 1963-1967 Giulia TZ 1965 GTA 1963-1977 Giulia Sprint 1965 Tipo 33 1960 1965-1967 Gran Sport Quattroruote 1968 33/2 1965-1971 GTA 1969 33/3 1966-1993 Spider 1967-1969 33 Stradale 1967-1977 1750/2000 Berlina 1970-1977 Montreal 1972 33/4 1972-1983 Alfasud 1973 33TT12 1972-1984 Alfetta saloon 1976 33SC12 1970 1974-1987 Alfetta GT/GTV 1979 177 1976-1989 Alfasud Sprint 1979 179 1977-1985 Nuova Giulietta 1979-1986 Alfa 6 1983-1994 33 1982 182 1984-1987 Arna 1983 183 1984-1987 90 1984 184 1980 1985-1992 75 1985 185 1987-1998 164 1989-1993 SZ/RZ 1992-1998 155 1993 155 V6 TI 1994-2000 145 1994-2000 146 1990 1995-2006 GTV/Spider 1997-2005 156 1998-2007 166 2000-2010 147 2007-2009 8C Competizione 2000 2008-2010 8C Spider 2003-2010 Alfa Romeo GT 1939 6C 2500 Super Sport Corsa 1948 6C 2500 Competizione 1951 159 1952 6C 3000 CM [edit] Trucks and light commercial vehicles .

Later. The last Alfa Romeo vans were the Alfa Romeo AR6 and AR8.[52] Sweden. Alfa Romeo concentrated only on passenger car manufacturing. After the war. which were rebadged versions of Iveco Daily and Fiat Ducato. In co-operation with FIAT and Saviem starting from the 60s different light truck models were developed. The company also produced trolleybuses for many systems in Italy. commercial motor vehicle production was resumed. The production of heavy LCVs was terminated in 1967. LCVs Alfa Romeo AR6.Romeo2 LCV In 1930 Alfa Romeo presented a light truck in addition to heavy LCVs based to Büssing constructions. In Brazil the heavy trucks were built still few years by Alfa Romeo subsidiary Fábrica Nacional de Motores under the name FNM.14         Romeo (1954–1958) Romeo 2 (until 1966) Romeo 3 (1966) A11/F11 A12/F12 (until 1983) AR8 (based on first generation Iveco Daily) AR6 (based on first generation Fiat Ducato) Alfa Romeo F20 (Saviem license) Trucks .[53] Greece. Turkey and South Africa.[54] Germany. Latin America.[51] In the Second World War Alfa Romeo also built trucks for the Italian army ("35 tons anywhere") and later also for the German Wehrmacht.

There have been many Alfa Romeo concept cars. Other famous Italian coachbuilders and design houses like Pininfarina. Alfa Romeo 900 A. often made by famous design houses and designers.2 OCREN trolleybus in Naples Buses     Alfa Romeo 140 A.n/a) Alfa Romeo 800 (1940–1943)[56] Alfa Romeo 900 (1947 . Bertone.            Alfa Romeo 50 "Biscione" (Büssing-NAG 50)/ 80 (1931 . Alfa Romeo Mille (Alfa Romeo 1000) Trolleybuses     Alfa Romeo 110AF (1938) Alfa Romeo 140AF (1949) Alfa Romeo 900 Alfa Romeo Mille (Alfa Romeo 1000) [edit] Concepts Main article: Alfa Romeo concept cars Design has always played a large role in the history of Alfa Romeo.1954) Alfa Romeo 950 (1954 .n/a) Alfa Romeo 430 (1942–1950)[56] Alfa Romeo 500 (1937 . The BAT series of concepts from the 1950s was a joint collaboration project with the Italian design house Bertone.n/a) Alfa Romeo 350 (1935 . Alfa Romeo 950.1934)[55] Alfa Romeo 85 / 110 (1934 .1964) Alfa Romeo A15 (Saviem license) Alfa Romeo A19 (Saviem license) Alfa Romeo A38 (Saviem license) Alfa Romeo 1000 (Mille) Aerfer FI 711.1958) Alfa Romeo Mille (Alfa Romeo 1000) (1958 . Zagato and .

This engine made it possible to build efficient fighter aircraft like the Macchi C.75.[61] [edit] Media and public profile . Rolls-Royce and General Electric aircraft engines. cookers.100 airplane.81 and Cant Z506B Airone all used Alfa Romeo manufactured engines.79.[30] Alfa Romeo built various aircraft engines during the Second World War. the best known was the RA.[60] Alfa Avio was also part of developing team to the new T700-T6E1 engine to the NHI NH90 helicopter. Savoia Marchetti SM.[58] In 1931. and even today some of models are designed and constructed by these great names. buses. Savoia-Marchetti SM. [edit] Aircraft engines D2 aircraft engine An Alfa engine was first used on an aircraft in 1910 on the Santoni-Franchini biplane. trams. compressors.202 Folgore for the Italian army.[57] In 1932 Alfa Romeo built its first real aircraft engine the D2 (240 bhp).74. Alfa Romeo's Avio division was sold to Aeritalia in 1988. the Savoia Marchetti SM. marine and aircraft engines.ItalDesign-Giugiaro have also played a great role in Alfa Romeo's history. which was fitted to Caproni 101 D2. a competition was arranged where Tazio Nuvolari drove his Alfa Romeo 8C 3000 Monza against a Caproni Ca. a licensed version of the Daimler-Benz DB 601. generators.[59] from 1996 it was part of Fiat Avio.1000 RC 41-I Monsone. After the Second World War Alfa Romeo produced engines for Fiat. installed to the Beechcraft King Air.[6] tractors. Pratt & Whitney. Aerfer and Ambrosini. Alfa Romeo built also Italy's first turbine engine. In the 1930s when Alfa Romeo engines were used for aircraft on a larger scale. railway locomotives. Savoia-Marchetti SM. [edit] Other production Although Alfa Romeo is best known as automobile manufacturer it has produced also commercial vehicles. In the 1960s Alfa Romeo mainly focused upgrading and maintaining Curtiss-Wright.

[40] The entire set of scenes featuring the Spider in the Graduate were replicated in satire by Mike Myers in his comedy. Probably the most famous appearance and presence on screen of any Alfa is in the 1967's hit film The Graduate. Alfa Romeo continued sales of the Spider into the 1990s. Katharine Ross and Anne Bancroft. derived from several design studies dating back to the late 1950s. In the scene it is pursued by two Bavarian BMW 5-series police cars. and a group of them are "Alfisti". and a special edition named the Alfa Graduate was available in the United States in the 1980s.[67] They featured in the car chase with James Bond's Aston Martin DBS V12 around Lake Garda. starring Dustin Hoffman.[63] It gave worldwide celebrity to the "Spider".causing it to ultimately grind to halt (fortunately at the correct church!) The Spider was designed by Pininfarina. a white 2600 GT coupe. The Graduate Dustin Hoffman's Spider runs out of gas in The Graduate. The same film also features a Carabineri Alfa 156. Rene Mathis also has an Alfa. Other films  Giulietta Masina in Fellini's Juliet of the Spirits is courted by a "Romeo" in a Giulietta (Spider).[64] The Spider here cuts out Simon & Garfunkel's "Mrs. which have the characteristic 'Big V-6' sound on-screen. and electrical foibles (the non-functional fuel gauge) reproduced. On the strength of the Spider's appeal.In Italian the owner of an Alfa Romeo is an "Alfista".[68] . the Spider is believed to be the last design on which Battista Farina personally worked. a double play on words. Robinson" when passing under a bridge (implying music being played on a radio). Noteworthy attention was paid to the auditory qualities of the Alfa's.[65] James Bond One of the most prominent roles was when James Bond (Roger Moore) stole and then drove a graphite GTV6 in 1983's Octopussy. Wayne's World 2. The Spider depicted on screen had its engine note accurately recorded. Italy.[66] A pair of black Alfa Romeo 159 Ti cars appeared in the opening scenes of the 2008 James Bond film Quantum of Solace. but still has a non-functional fuel gauge .[62] There are many thriving Alfa Romeo owners clubs and Alfa Romeo Model Registers.

in Ripley's Game. in 1973's The Day of the Jackal drives a white Giulietta Spider. This was actually the car that was booby-trapped and explodes with Apollonia.  Top Gear In recent times. the members of the Swiss Guard all drive Alfa Romeo sedans (albeit inaccurately referred to as 'Alpha Romeos' throughout the book). then crashes the car.[70] John Malkovich. the titular Jackal. and the eventual destruction of Bond's Bentley Mark IV.[75] [edit] Marketing and sponsorship .[71]   Television  In the television crime film series Ein Fall für Zwei ("a case for two". James Bond becomes involved in an impromptu race with a young man driving an Alfa Romeo while he pursues Hugo Drax. At the beginning. Tobias Moretti drove a 155[73] and later Gedeon Burkhard drove a 166.[74] Literature In the first printing of Dan Brown's novel Angels & Demons. Co-presenter Jeremy Clarkson insists that "nobody can call themselves a true petrolhead" until they have owned one. his Sicilian wife. starting from Giulia Super to the latest Alfa Romeo models. This scene in the novel results in the death of the young man. as Tom Ripley. has always been driving Alfa Romeo. drives a red Alfa Romeo 156 Sportwagon. In the Ian Fleming novel Moonraker. over 250 episodes made so far).[72] Alfa Romeo had also a "role" in the Austrian detective series Kommissar Rex (Inspector Rex).[69] Michael Corleone (Al Pacino) in The Godfather drove a black Alfa Romeo 6C while in exile in Sicily. He repaints the car blue in a forest clearing to avoid police. Edward Fox's character. the destruction of his car. who plays the role of the private detective Josef Matula. in it. the leading actor Claus Theo Gärtner. the BBC 2 Series 'Top Gear' has had quite an impact on the popular conception of the Alfa Romeo.

[83] A new state-of-the-art super maxi. Alfa Romeo sponsors a number of sporting events. of 5 days. and was one of the featured brands in 2010 when Alfa Romeo celebrated its 100th anniversary.Alfa Romeo II on her first sail During the years Alfa Romeo has been marketed with different slogans like: "The family car that wins races" used in the 1950s in Alfa Romeo 1900 marketing campaing.[85] .[79] It has sponsored the SBK Superbike World Championship and Ducati Corse since 2007. the first Alfa Romeo super maxi yacht was launched. such as the Mille Miglia rally. Alfa Romeo II set a new elapsed-time record for monohulls in the 2009 Transpac race. As part of its marketing policy. and the Goodwood Festival of Speed for many years. "Cuore Sportivo" and "Beauty is not enough". 36 minutes.[76]In the 1970s the Alfa Romeo 1750 GTV was marketed as "if this kind of handling is good enough for our racing cars."[77] The Giulia Sprint GTA was marketed as "The car you drive to work is a champion". "Driven by Passion".[78] More recent slogans used are "Mediocrity is a sin". In mid-2008 Alfa Romeo III was launched for competitive fleet racing under the IRC rule. 20 seconds[84] She has been first to finish in at least 140 races.[80][81] The Alfa Romeo Giulietta has been used since Monza 2010 race as the safety car in Superbike World Championship events. was commissioned in 2005. measuring 30 metres (98 ft) LOA. it’s good enough for you.[82] In 2002. Alfa Romeo III measures 21. She has been first to finish in at least 74 races including the 2002 Sydney—Hobart Race. Alfa Romeo II. "racing since 1911" used on most 1960s Alfa advertisments. Alfa Romeo I. 14 hours.4 metres (70 ft) LOA and features interior design styled after the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful