Write a note on the functions of management Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers, and business enterprises.Everyone comes across some or the other management functions in their day to day pursuits.Management is required to plan, organize, co-ordinate and control the affairs ofa business concern. It brings together all the resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise.There are four functions of management that allows any organization to have a controlled plan to be successful. These are very essential in building strong organizations. The four functions are shown in the figure below.

Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon. William Sheldon classified personality according to body type. He called this a person’ssomatotype. He identified three main somatotypes that are associated with certainpersonality characteristics. They are as follows: 1. Endomorphy – It is focused on the digestive system, particularly the stomach (endoderm); has the tendency toward plumpness, corresponds to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant, love of comfort and luxury, extravert. 2. Mesophorphy – It is focused on musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm), has the tendency towards muscularity, and corresponds to theSomatotonia temperament courageous, energetic, active, dynamic, assertive,aggressive, risk taker. 3. Ectomorphy: It is focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) – the

On this scale. corresponds to Cerebrotonia temperament artistic. sensitive. and isgiven a comical or descriptive name.tendency towards slightness. Sheldon created “Atlas of Men” ."Baluchitherium" for mesomorph and endomorph. Endomorphic Body Type: soft body underdeveloped muscles round shaped over-developed digestive system love of food tolerant evenness of emotions love of comfort sociable good humoured relaxed need for affection b. and so on. the pure endomorph 7-1-1. "Male Mosquito" for the extremeectomorph. with 4 as average). muscular body overly mature appearance rectangular shaped thick skin upright posture adventurous desire for power and dominance courageous indifference to what others think or want assertive. Body Type Associated personality traits a. bold zest for physical activity competitive love of risk and chance . the extreme or pure mesomorph has a score of1-7-1. Most people of courseare a combination of types. On this basis. Mesomorphic Body Type: hard. based on the degree to which they matchedthese types. Each type is represented by a series of photos. apprehensive. and the pure ectomorph 1-1-7. in which all possible body types are graded in a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high). introvert. like "saber tooth tiger" for extreme mesomorph.

c. that . The use of somatotyping is used more often in alternative therapies and Eastern psychology and spirituality What are the factors influencing perception? Factors Influencing Perception: A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside: 1) In the perceiver 2) In the object or target being perceived or 3) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made 1. Characteristics of the perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. Ectomorphic Body Type: thin flat chest delicate build young appearance tall lightly muscled stoop-shouldered large brain self-conscious preference for privacy introverted inhibited socially anxious artistic mentally intense emotionally restrained But body types have been criticized for very weak empirical methodology and are notgenerally used in psychology. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for.

weight. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. and appearances more readily. One’s own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. also affects perception. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed.interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver’s attitudes affect perception. expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive Structure.hr of a leading financial services company he is having a meeting with ms ramani leading hr consultant mr solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in in? Mr_solanki_is_the_vp_hr_of_a_leading_financial_services_company_he_is_having_a_meeting_with_ms_ramani_lead . c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favourable aspects of other people. Because our individual interest differs considerably. what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceiver’s self-concept. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. g) Expectations: Finally. such as height. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. an individual’s pattern of thinking. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits. Mr solanki is the vp.

resting. Factors related to the job itself such as using talents. promotion and the factors related to the job itself for personal development. Motivating factors in the working environment result in the job satisfaction of the person while protective ones dissatisfy him. education level. have positive impact upon the job satisfaction. marital status. Maslow connects the creation of the existence of people's sense of satisfaction with the maintenance of the classified needs. the quality of the physical environment in which they work. lack of job definitions. creativity. recognition. Insufficient education. recognition have influence on the job satisfaction. health insurance. e. and they have great impact upon performance.) . etc. drinking. the quality of one's relationship with their supervisor. lack of communications. Wahba has found out that male librarians give more importance to personal development and free decision making in their jobs than the female librarians. Kose has also found a meaningful relation between the age and job satisfaction. independence on the job and the unit where the individual works. friendship. Besides. security needs (pension. Age is one of the factors affecting job satisfaction. years in service. It has been asserted that participating in the management. having the decision making power.g. People who state their job is secure have a much larger probability of reporting themselves happy with their work.). Job satisfaction and devotion to the job. the need to love (good relations with the environment. position. There are particular demographic traits (age. all affect job satisfaction negatively. etc.) need of self-actualization (maximization of the latent[potential] power and capacity. etc. to be given importance. by some researchers. the job conducted. Similarly. responsibility. The most significant of the factors affecting performance are . relations with the managers and colleagues result in dissatisfaction. etc. status. degree of fulfillment in their work. recognition. adoration. etc. sex is also found to have an influence on job satisfaction. affected each other reciprocally.).. There is a strong connection between feeling secure and saying one is satisfied with a job. Motivating factors are achievement. to love and to be loved). The job itself (the work conducted). and the female librarians are more dissatisfied than the male librarians. Satisfying factors motivate workers while dissatisfying ones prevent. responsibility. These are: physiological needs (eating. need to self-esteem (selfconfidence. and achievement and recognition at work result in satisfaction while the management policy. tenure. development of abilities. inability to select qualified workers for the job. and hours worked per week) of employees that significantly affect their job satisfaction.ing_hr_consultant_mr_solanki_is_concerned_about_creating_an_environment_that_helps_in_in #ixzz1e9bYYNMl Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors. Studies conducted in five different countries prove that the elder workers are more satisfied . Numerous research results show that there are many factors affecting the job satisfaction. fellowship.

but their performance certainly doesn't improve. No meaningful relationship between the job satisfaction and age. and job satisfaction is related to education. The individual's willingness to get a result. The difference between the results that the individual desire and those s/he maintained will affect his/her satisfaction . These are worthwhile efforts. Being treated like machines. education level. The aspects studied were how the human behaved . The least satisfied workers are those in service occupations and managers that work for others. under the variable of social conditions.economical. and the situation often returns quickly to normal . socio-political. consultants. professional experience. High levels of job satisfaction are observed in those professions which are deemed of good standing in the society. improved job satisfaction can sometimes decrease job performance.in fact. professional experience has been claimed to increase job satisfaction. Job satisfaction varies a lot. most efforts to improve performance seem to center on improving the conditions surrounding the work. his/her endeavour and expectation of maintaining the result will push him/her to show the highest performance. etc. However. cultural and demographical ones . the greater the job satisfaction). (Researches suggests. the humans were subjected to close scrutiny and study. many workers are satisfied in even the least prestigious jobs. as the workers deem themselves relatively in good position. level of wage. technical. There is a consistent relationship between the professional status and the job satisfaction. They simply like what they do. There is no strong acceptance among researchers. Initial studies were mostly mechanical. That may make them more satisfied with their "work" in the short run. SET-2 write a note on classical era for evolution of organization behaviour In the early twentieth century. If the social conditions are worse than the individual's working conditions.. the higher the prestige of the job. sex and professional group was found. but they usually result only in short-term improvements in attitudes and productivity. The workers usually compare their working conditions with the conditions of the society. But. Most workers like their work if they have little supervision. early studies in the complexities of organizational activity got underway. On the contrary. you could let workers sometime sit around all day and do nothing. that increased job satisfaction produces improve job performance -. then this will result in satisfaction of the individual. Ethnic and religious orientation is associated to work attitudes. For example.

By the 1980s how important the cultures of different organizations was emphasized instead of the amount and quality of the research.extreme temperature conditions can be very stressful. It became clear that organizations were centered on interactive groups of their members. is bound to achieve greater levels of productivity . During this time scientific management was viewed as the best way to run an organization. By understanding and using psychology productivity will improve tremendously.during regular applied testing of a person's responses to stimuli. brought focus on collaboration. More often than not the basis for this was quantitative research and interconnected realms of psychology. Anthropology was but one of many fields being added into studies about organizational behaviors. as it was called in the beginning of the 20th century. Parts of the History of Organizational Behavior Studies can be seen during the 1890's. and the aspect of particular persons understanding the intent of the organization. The Human Relations Movement. By the Second World War. .claimed the advocates of this system. Many theories were coming forth as the seventies came around. and a more humanistic view needed to be formulated as psychology and analysis as a means of understanding human behavior became more sophisticated. systems theories. The most severe one is permanent hearing loss. Unfortunately there was a limitation to both of these because they did not bear in mind the interaction between the two connected streams but treated each as a separate entity. An organization that in its' course of action adheres to a set of guidelines and guides itself on findings of time and motion studies. and the various levels of management throughout the entire organizations. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors Noise. James March and Herbert Simon were leading experts in the field. and more and more people became interested in sciences. It can also affect performance in cases when the level of noise is very very high and when the tasks are demanding. performance deteriorates under heat exposure. Temperature. This article may only be used if the author bio and links are included. For demanding mental tasks. See more on Organizational Behaviors. particularly when two or more tasks are timeshared or performed simultaneously. As part of the curriculum many business schools now include this and related courses in fields such as industrial psychology. Performance is deteriorated under hot temperatures during physical tasks. The name of the person who runs the History of Organizational Behavior Studies internet site is Patricia Jones.com. influence. complexity theories and strategies. a paradigm shift had occurred in the study of organizational behavior. The environmental stressors have great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. At the time. The new buzzword was operations research.has many negative effects on workers. Presently any managerial course has organizational behavior studies as its integral part. Another stream of ideas that were part of study organizations were divided according to their political preferences.

He frequently loses his temper. Thus. Dutta. Character or ethics. It is the use of knowledge and expertise that confers power. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic products waste etc. Position. little is known about its effect on performance. Patnayak and Mr. Q. the marketing manager has little power to influence the decisions that affect the finance department. holds very little power if it is not distributed. Of course. Supervisors. with their ability to give raises. Knowledge or expertise. governments often regulate the levels of exposure to these stressors in industrial settings. Dutta belong to. Patnayak – He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving those recommendations and appreciation. The big issue here is whether they do what they say they are going to do—even when they no longer feel like doing it. Managers who have the authority to reprimand and fire employees hold this type of power. job dissatisfaction and anxiety apart from stress. etc. 2. Apart from health risks. you could be an incredibly bright person and still be powerless. She makes the following observations about two key people in the organization. Rewards.5 Given below are certain instances observed by a summer trainee – Ritu. Repetition. State troopers and highway patrol officers who have the ability to give . Some measure of power is conferred on the basis of one’s formal position in an organization. This helps HR to decide about giving a bonus or promotion to employees. like anything else. 3. People who have knowledge or expertise can wield tremendous power. Those who have the ability to create a negative outcome for a counterpart have the power of punishment. machine-paced jobs are especially stressful and cause depression. However. This happens because workers have no control over work. Ritu observes that he frequently punishes the non-performers and also gives them warnings regarding suspension etc. a marketing manager can influence the decisions that affect the marketing department. For example.Cold exposure can be a problem too. Explain the type of power they use often Ten Types of Power 1. People who are able to bestow rewards or perceived rewards hold power. while making an observational study at Global Green consultants. Money can have power. 4. hold power over employees. Now explain what base of power Mr. Because these factors influence physical health of workers. Punishment. 1) Mr.repetitive and routinized tasks are associated with monotony and boredom. But money. 5. 2) Mr. We know for sure that manual performance is severely affected by cold temperatures (finger dexterity). The more trustworthy individuals are the more power they have in negotiations. negative attitudes toward work. knowledge in itself is not powerful.He is an aggressive person.

as in many other areas of life. Kennedy. Lack of interest or desire. the kidnapper actually loses power. Dealing with someone of the opposite sex can confer power. Leadership style influence level of motivation. but bizarre or irrational behavior can confer a tremendous amount of power. “Passion and confidence in what they believe in. Those who have been exposed to this type of behavior tend to avoid such individuals. Gender.” 9. We have videotaped many negotiation case studies in which the turning point came when a woman casually touched a man’s hand or arm to make her point. 8. invariably the names of Mother Teresa. Every organization has someone who blows up or behaves irrationally when confronted with problems. Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while worker responsibility increases ambition. 6. and Ronald Reagan come up. When we ask. of course. Charisma or personal power. This may sound funny. If a kidnapper threatens a hostage with death enough times. Reward motivated Materialism Recognition motivated Social status High level of supervision Command-and-control Peer motivated To be like others Status quo Dependency Resist change Low Authority motivated Follows policy Threat. these individuals are not given many tasks to accomplish because others are afraid to ask them.out speeding tickets also have this power. man’s motivation is influenced by changing ambitions and/or leadership style he works under or socializes with. giving up all power can be very powerful. When we ask participants in our seminars for examples of leaders who have had charisma or personal power. the sellers could care less if they sell the house today or live in it for another ten years! 10. the hostage may just challenge the kidnapper to go ahead and kill him. or control over his own death. John F. fear motivated Reacts to force . Independent Achiever Thrives on change High Team motivated Mixed styles Goal motivated Opportunity Personality type and efficiency depends on leader's skill and/or the work environment he's created. If you are buying a house and you really do not care if you purchase the house you are currently negotiating for or the one down the street. “What do all three of these leaders have in common?” participants usually respond. Powerlessness. 7. However. you will most likely hold more power in the negotiation—unless. In some instances. throughout a lifetime. Leadership Style versus Motivation Leadership Style Motivation Type Motivation is Based on: Personality Type Efficiency Limited supervision Worker with decision making responsibility Self motivated Creativity Leader of ideas or people. At the point that the hostage gives up power. the side with the least interest in what is being negotiated holds the most power. In negotiations. As a result. Craziness.

together. Decisions are made on the front line where alternative methods are analyzed. Playing catch-up drains motivation while leaders of change inspire motivation. If workers have conflicts with their supervisors. The ability to adapt is achieved through selfdevelopment programs. It is accepted because efficiency is created by repetitive action. It is up to the individual or business to decide which side of change they want to be on. an individual must be willing to abandoned old skills and learn new ones. creating a combative environment. This brings us to work habits. management takes action only when problems become too big to ignore. are searching for ways to solve and prevent problems. • Associates influence the level of individual motivation. but they don’t have the authority to take action and have learned not to be concerned. it motivates people to thrive on change by seeking challenges. Supervisors are only concerned with elements that management thinks are important. as a result.• Self-motivated or visionaries will not accept authority controlled environments. A downward spiral of management implementing more control and workers resisting control develop. With today’s changing technology. they will find ways to increase the magnitude of problems. • In a team-motivated environment. management and workers unite to prevent or solve problems. finding ways to create efficiency. Reaction to Efficiency The efficiency of advancing technology is forcing change. The worker adapts to level three with an occasional trip to level two. Reaction to Change Command-and-control leadership is the primary style in our society. Level one is the leader of changing technology. As a result. management considers the opinions or concerns of people on the front line to be trivial. Front line employees may be aware conflicts. management and front line workers. In level one. They will find a way to escape if trapped. teaching people to resist change. dependency types will become inspired and strive to be acceptable with independent thinking coworkers. . Once acquiring a skill. they do not want to learn another. the leading edge or trailing edge. they adapt to whatever methods gets things done with the least amount of effort. Because level one thrives on change. management must find ways to solve all problems and find alternative methods. finding ways to achieve goals. Worker responsibility is just the opposite. Under command-and-control leadership. Under worker responsibility. In level three management makes all decision. The leading edge is exciting while the trailing edge is a drag. Being able to prevent problems is a motivating force.

Problems are always out of control. Getting the job done is the primary goal of management and workers. young workers are establishing work habits. Getting the job done is down the list. As a result.Team Motivated Elementary problems are prevented or solved at the source. Reaction to Goals Self-motivated people are goal motivated. Under worker responsibility. They will continually expand their skills as the need or as opportunity arises. they establish another. ambitions will be associated with maintaining the status quo. Companies that attract and keep this type of person stay on the leading edge of technology. then he will lead in such a way that trains subordinates to lead by control. the employees' goals are quitting time and payday. Once they conquer one goal. The CEO is a visionary in customer service and employee leadership. . Out of training and on the job. developing attitudes and learning a professional skill. ambitions will be associated with opportunity. Under command-and-control leadership. If the CEO desires control. Reaction to Learning Habits In level two. motivation level will depend on the leadership style they work under. The employees' goals are the same as the CEO’s. Managers focus on worker control. Workers goal is to find ways to do little as possible. Abused Workers Lack of leadership skills and the desire for power creates elementary problems. Every goal is a learning process that requires all the elements in level one. Command and Control Leadership . Dependency of Authority Elementary are dealt with by management when large enough to be recognized.

do not finish what they start. THE LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Perhaps the most difficult decision to make is at what "level" to start. team motivation is extremely powerful. adds to the motivating force.Reaction to Recognition Recognition is important. modifying a program. they frequently call meetings of employees. etc. This environment is found in level one. Q. People. working alone. etc. others do care and team members are needed for achieving the goal. restructuring to self-managed teams. First requirement is interest. fear and failure become a challenge by itself. each member seeks to be a leader of quality input. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission. and then under what circumstances a business should use them. Self Motivated Projects Self-motivated projects' is the ability to start and finish what one has started. They develop skills and confidence. As a result. new technologies. When action is taken.6 “Fashion4now” is a famous and old magazine. team members support each other until success is achieved. a challenge is presented and a goal set. then asking questions which inspires' the learning process. as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person. the concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change. With a common goal. With information. This means they were faced with a challenge. Self-motivated projects are difficult because no one cares if they succeed. Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context. Long-term benefits are achieved when the employee feels the job could not have been done without them. the barriers of persistence. new programs such as Total Quality Management. major collaborations. which are required steps to larger projects. "rightsizing". mergers. which means. By itself. For this reason. which is another barrier. they had the responsibility and authority to take action. its benefits are short lived. They have also formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and explain the perspective of change. This is why most people quit before they get a good start. restructuring operations (e. who find ways to overcome barriers and hang in there.). risk. Often this term designates a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates. Team Motivated Projects Everyone can be inspired to achievement in a team-motivated environment. The ability to finish challenging projects is the secret to being a winner.g. etc. re-engineering. Ans. it builds positive self-esteem. layoffs. . In this environment. There are four levels of organizational change: First let's describe these levels. They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of “Fashion4now” To start implementing this change. Some experts refer to organizational transformation. The top management decides to start the eedition of the magazine. are the winners. The exchange of ideas.. Typically. information and testing the results. Most people.

SHAPING AND ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE At this level. Management generates alternate "scenarios" of the future. quality or customer satisfaction. Communicate what you're doing about it. To read more about level 3 organizational changes. . Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the sake of change.REENGINEERING (STRUCTURALLY CHANGING) YOUR PROCESSES Either as an aftermath or consequence of level one or two work or as an independent action. opportunities and threats) analysis is completed. please see "A Tale of Three Villages. including what they think are the problems and what should be done to resolve them." LEVEL 2 . reengineering focuses on making major structural changes to everyday with the goal of substantially improving productivity. level three works focuses on fundamentally changing how work is accomplished. 4) management is too afraid to start at level 1 because of the changes needed to really meet future requirements. Rather than focus on modest improvements. Oftentimes organizations put in considerable effort into getting every employee focused on making these small changes. efficiency. Widely communicate the potential need for change." LEVEL 3 . measurement system etc. what it is "good" at. To read more about level 4 organizational changes and how it compares to level 3. defines opportunities based on these possible futures. either assuming that 1) the future will be like the past or at least predictable. making improvements on how a buggy whip for horse-drawn carriages is made will rarely come up with the idea that buggy whips are no longer necessary because cars have been invented. often with considerable effect. "Moving from the Future to your Strategy. 2.LEVEL 1." LEVEL 4 . an organization can then define its measures. Communicate what was done and how it worked out. Ask to see references and check the references.DEFINING WHAT BUSINESS (AS) TO BE IN AND THEIR "CORE COMPETENCIES Many attempts at strategic planning start at this level. please see "A Tale of Three Villages. More information on this is in the next article. 2) the future is embodied in the CEO's "vision for the future". goals. or 3) management doesn't know where else to start. Unfortunately. If possible. Plan the change. "Moving from the Future to your Strategy. assesses its strengths and weaknesses in these scenarios changes its mission. 4. work with a team of employees to manage the change.INCREMENTALLY CHANGING YOUR PROCESSES Level 4 organizational changes are focusing in making many small changes to existing work processes. After a mission has been defined and a SWOT (strengths. what will you need to reach the goals. What goal(s) do you hope to accomplish? 5. etc. and what the future will be like. Ensure the consultant is highly experienced in organization-wide change. Consider using a consultant. weaknesses. organizations start out with few assumptions about the business itself. Get as much feedback as practical from employees. 3. Know why you're making the change. or 5) the only mandate they have is to refine what mission already exists. More information on this is in the next article." Some General Guidelines to Organization-Wide Change 1. How do you plan to reach the goals. strategies.

11. and they should know who that person is. 9.how long might it take and how will you know when you've reached your goals or not? Focus on the coordination of the departments/programs in your organization. End up having every employee ultimately reporting to one person. Acknowledge and celebrate your accomplishments. but rather to expect it. As much as possible. Read some resources about organizational change. including new forms and structures . let them decide how to do the project. This includes granting them the authority and responsibility to get the job done. if possible. 13. Take care of yourself first. Include closure in the plan. Keep focused on meeting the needs of your customer or clients. 7. not on each part by itself. Don't seek to control change. Job descriptions are often complained about. Delegate decisions to employees as much as possible. The process won't be an "aha!" It will take longer than you think. 6. 12. 10. Organization-wide change can be highly stressful. Have someone in charge of the plan. but they are useful in specifying who reports to whom. Keep perspective. 8. understand it and manage it.

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