SECTION- C6903 ROLL NO-B51 REG NO.-10901624 COURSE-B.

TECH(ECE) SUBMITTED TO

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

TOPIC - SPECTROMETRE AND ITS APPLICATIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We are extremely grateful and remain indebted to our guide MR. BHARPUR SINGH for being a source of inspiration and for his constant support in the Design, Implementation and Evaluation of the project. We are thankful to them for their constant constructive criticism and invaluable suggestions, which benefited us a lot while developing the project on “SPECTROMETRE AND APPLICATION”. He has been a constant source of inspiration and motivation for hard work. He has been very co-operative throughout this project work. Through this column, it would be our utmost pleasure to express our warm thanks to his for their encouragement, co-operation and consent without which we mightn’t be able to accomplish this project. We also express our gratitude to MR BHARPUR SINGH for providing us the infrastructure to carry out the project and to all staff members who were directly and indirectly instrument in enabling us to stay committed for the project.

Ajeet kumar

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1: INTRODUCTION 2: SPECTROPHOTOMETRE 3: SPECTROSCOPES 4: SPECTROGRAPHS 5: APPLICATION 6: REFERENCES .

spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The independent variable is usually the wavelength of the light or a unit directly proportional to the photon energy. A spectrometer is used in spectroscopy for producing spectral lines and measuring their wavelengths and intensities. which has a reciprocal relationship to wavelength. be the polarization state. at microwave and radio frequencies). for instance. any particular instrument will operate over a small portion of this total range because of the different techniques used to measure different portions of the spectrum. such as wave number or electron volts. from gamma rays and X-rays into the far infrared. Spectrometer is a term that is applied to instruments that operate over a very wide range of wavelengths.1 INTRODUCTION A spectrometer (spectrophotometer. the spectrum analyzer is a closely related electronic device Spectroscope Other names Spectrograph . The variable measured is most often the light's intensity but could also. typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. the study is called spectrophotometry. If the region of interest is restricted to near the visible spectrum. Below optical frequencies (that is. In general.

the term does not cover time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. but they can be designed to measure diffuse or specular reflectance. Perhaps the most common application of spectrophotometers is the measurement of light absorption. The use of spectrophotometers is not limited to studies in physics. . Also.Related items Mass spectrograph 2 SPECTROPHOTOMETRE In chemistry. biochemistry. near-ultraviolet. A spectrophotometer is a photometer (a device for measuring light intensity) that can measure intensity as a function of the color (or more specifically the wavelength) of light. spectrophotometry is the quantifiable study of electromagnetic spectra. They are also commonly used in other scientific fields such as chemistry. Strictly. Spectrophotometry involves the use of a spectrophotometer. even the emission half of a luminescence instrument is a type of spectrophotometer. Important features of spectrophotometers are spectral bandwidth and linear range of absorption measurement. and molecular biology. They are widely used in many industries including printing and forensic examination. It is more specific than the general term electromagnetic spectroscopy in that spectrophotometry deals with visible light. and near-infrared.

Light from the source lamp is passed through a monochromator. Historically. Discrete frequencies are transmitted through the test sample. single beam instruments can have a larger dynamic range and are optically simpler and more compact. one path containing a reference sample and the other the test sample. Especially for infrared spectrophotometers. there are spectrophotometers that use a Fourier transformtechnique to acquire the spectral information quicker in a technique called Fourier Transform InfraRed. A single beam spectrophotometer measures the relative light intensity of the beam before and after a test sample is inserted. spectrophotometers use a monochromator containing a diffraction grating to produce the analytical spectrum. There are also spectrophotometers that use arrays of photosensors. Then the intensity of the transmitted light is measured with .Design There are two major classes of devices: single beam and double beam. A double beam spectrophotometer compares the light intensity between two light paths. which diffracts the light into a "rainbow" of wavelengths and outputs narrow bandwidths of this diffracted spectrum. Although comparison measurements from double beam instruments are easier and more stable. The spectrophotometer quantitatively compares the fraction of light that passes through a reference solution and a test solution.

The spectrophotometer then displays % absorbency (the amount of light absorbed relative to the initial substance). The sample absorbs light. The light source shines into a monochromator." The absorbency of a reference substance is set as a baseline value. the sequence of events in a spectrophotometer is as follows: 1. so the absorbencies of all other substances are recorded relative to the initial "zeroed" substance. 2. . A particular output wavelength is selected and beamed at the sample. In short. and the transmittance value for this wavelength is then compared with the transmission through a reference sample. Many spectrophotometers must be calibrated by a procedure known as "zeroing. 3.a photodiode or other light sensor.

When a material is heated to incandescence it emits light that is characteristic of the atomic makeup of the material. Early spectroscopes were simply prisms with graduations marking wavelengths of light. the color of which will be familiar to anyone who has seen a low pressure sodium vapor lamp. fiber optics Spectroscopes are often used in astronomy and some branches of chemistry. Particular light frequencies give rise to sharply defined bands on the scale which can be thought of as fingerprints. all automated and controlled by a computer.5924 nanometers. the element sodium has a very characteristic double yellow band known as the Sodium D-lines at 588. Modern spectroscopes.3 SPECTROSCOPE Comparison of different diffraction based spectrometers: Reflection optics.9950 and 589. such as monochromators. generally use a diffraction grating. . a movable slit. and some kind of photodetector. For example. refraction optics. The spectroscope was invented by Joseph von Fraunhofer.

but it had a camera in place of the viewing tube. In modern spectrographs. A comparison of the three abscissa types typically used for visible spectrometers.to far-IR) and is displayed with an abscissa given in terms of wavelength. It was based on the same principle as the spectroscope. and near-IR spectral ranges) or Watts (in the mid. Arrays of photosensors are also used in place of film in spectrographic systems. Such spectral analysis. With the development of photographic film. the spectrum is generally given in the form of photon number (in the UV. wavenumber. visible. allowing real-time spectrographic analysis with far greater accuracy. or spectroscopy. has become an important scientific tool for analyzing the composition of unknown material and for studying astronomical phenomena and testing astronomical theories. . This image was then viewed through a tube with a scale that was transposed upon the spectral image. the more accurate spectrograph was created. usually an Amici prism) that refracted the beam into a spectrum because different wavelengths were refracted different amounts due to dispersion. A comparison of the three abscissa types typically used for infrared spectrometers. In recent years the electronic circuits built around the photomultiplier tube have replaced the camera. light entered a slit and a collimating lens transformed the light into a thin beam of parallel rays. or eV.In the original spectroscope design in the early 19th century. enabling its direct measurement. The light then passed through a prism (in hand-held spectroscopes.

depending on the precise nature of the waves. There are several kinds of machines referred to as spectrographs.4 SPECTROGRAPH Grating spectrometer schematic A very simple spectrometer based on a prism A spectrograph is an instrument that separates an incoming wave into a frequency spectrum. The first .

but when both gratings have a wide spacing and one is blazed so that only the first order is visible and the other is blazed that a lot of higher orders are visible. but the spherical aberration can be set to zero.spectrographs used photographic paper as the detector. The plant pigment phytochrome was discovered using a spectrograph that used living plants as the detector. The star spectral classification and discovery of the main sequence. Hubble's law and the Hubble sequence were all made with spectrographs that used photographic paper. such as CCDs which can be used for both visible and UV light. as an analogy to monochromator 5 APPLICATION Customer Applications Agricultural and Food Plant Reflectance Description Spectral reflectance from plants can indicates plant stress and predict growth rate Initial high-temperature schedule to reduce drying time and control kiln brown stain in ponderosa pine shop lumber. Usually one would guess to retrieve a spectrum on the diagonal. one gets a very fine spectrum nicely folded onto a small common CCD-chip. A spectrograph is sometimes called polychromator. An echelle spectrograph uses two diffraction gratings. The exact choice of detector depends on the wavelengths of light to be recorded. Therefore an entrance point and not a slit is used and a 2d CCD-chip records the spectrum. The small chip also means that the collimating optics need not to be optimized for coma or astigmatism. rotated 90 degrees with respect to each other and placed close to one another. The forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope will contain both a nearinfrared spectrograph (NIR Spec) and a mid-infrared spectrometer (MIRI). The surface color Lumber Colorimetery . More recent spectrographs use electronic detectors.

The foraging strategies of wading birds may be influenced by their degree of crypsis to aquatic prey. Highdensity polyethyleneWPCs made from modified wood flour were subjected to accelerated (xenon-arc) weathering.and lightness of rough green and dry fleshly planed boards were determined using a StellarNet Spectrometers The effects of weathering on the surface properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) were examined. Colorimetery and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to monitor the color change and surface chemistries of the weathered WPC surface. We tested this hypothesis with laboratory and field experiments with multiple prey species. Spectral Signatures of the reflectance of visual and near infrared radiation are used to make Surface Characterization of Weathered Wood-Plastic Composites Produced from Modified Wood Flour Onions Contaminants on Poultry Processing Equipment Environmental and Ecology Remote Sensing MonitoringTallapoosa Watershed Influence of plumage colour on prey response:does habitat alter heron crypsis to prey? Spectral Signatures of surface materials in pig buildings . White plumage has been hypothesized to be adaptive for herons hunting in open water habitats. lower wood lignin and higher plastic content of the weathered WPC surface. We tested this hypothesis with laboratory and field experiments with multiple prey species. White plumage has been hypothesized to be adaptive for herons hunting in open water habitats. The study showed that longer exposure time caused higheroxidation. A fiber optic sensor measures percent soluble solids in onions for a big pay off at market time. Detection of Fecal/Ingesta Contaminants on Poultry Processing Equipment Surfaces By Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy Hyperspectral Reflectance Measurements of ChlorophyllConcentration and Related Water Quality Predictors The foraging strategies of wading birds may be influenced by their degree of crypsis to aquatic prey.

statistically significant discrimination between clean and dirty pig building areas Exploring how the Black Phoebe’s (a small bird that is a sit-and-wait predator) vision. the reflectance of prey items and the background. Potential applications like optical interconnects and optical sensor systems are examined. Emission Spectra obtained can be used to calculate species concentrations and temperatures. The development of sensors for hybrid rocket motors has lead to the use of nearinfrared diode lasers for characterizing hybrid rocket plumes. The use of organic optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic photodiodes in micro-optical systems is discussed.Black Phoebes Female Preferences for Aposematic Signal Components in a Polymorphic Poison Frog Physics OH Emission Spectra of Hybrid Rocket Motors Using PMMA and HTPB Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometry Characterization of Combustion in Hybrid Rocket Motors Spectroscopic Diagnostics of an Atmospheric Microwave Plasma for Monitoring Metals Pollution Organic semiconductor devices for micro-optical applications . both spatially and temporally. UV. I-V-curves and the dynamic behaviour are analyzed.Optical-UV spectroscopic studies are being carried out to better understand this particular atmospheric pressure plasma torch. We studied female preferences for different components of aposematic coloration in the polymorphic poison frog Oophaga pumilio across several phenotypically distinct populations. 2. Device characteristics including emission spectra. In this paper we report our findings from a study of the emission spectra of hybrid rocket exhaust plumes in the ultraviolet. and near-infrared. and beryllium.5 kW. chromium. in rocket exhaust plumes. and irradiance interacted to change how the bird looked for food items. In the combination Birds. regions of theelectromagnetic spectrum. A 1. NIR. Aposematic signals may be subject to conflicting selective pressures from predators and conspecifics.45 GHz microwave sustained plasma in a flowing sample of stack exhaust gas has been shown in recent DOE/EPA testing to be an accurate monitor of trace hazardous metals (in the part per billion range) such as lead. VIS. visible.

we developed spiral photonic actuators which can reversibly change both shape and colour in response to the chemical environment. The deposited films were characterized on their morphology. by the chemical bath without colloidal precipitates and by the clean film surfaces obtained. The implemented novel technique for substrate oscillation has shown to improve the films quality.75 to 10. Here we report on the design and drawing of a hollow optical fibre lined with an interior omnidirectional dielectric mirror.6mm in wavelength. Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique by using different conditions to agitate the bath and the substrate. Confinement of light in the hollow core is provided by the large photonic bandgaps established by the multiple alter-nating submicrometre-thick layers of a high-refractive-index glass and a low-refractive-index polymer. and on thickness. CdS films with variable deposition time can be achieved depending on the agitating technique. on the band gap energy.The transmission losses are found to be less than 1.0 dB m 21. by oscillating only the substrate during deposition is possible to obtain clean Colour-tunable spiral photonic actuators Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission Physical properties of CdS/ITO thin films growth by CBD technique with substrate oscillating agitation . orders of magnitude lower than those of the intrinsic fibre material. Combining the multi-faceted environmental responsiveness of polymers with photonically active structures. In addition. The fundamental and high-order transmission windows are determined by the layer dimensions and can be scaled from 0. An important step towards integration is realized by coupling the amplifiedspontaneous emission of an organic semiconductor material into a single mode polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) waveguide.with a polymeric optical fibre (POF) a transmission line comprising a organic light emitting diode and organic photodiodes is demonstrated. thus demonstrating that low attenuation can be achieved through structural design rather than high-transparency material selection.

the energy of spontaneous radiation in the full solid angle was 45 mJ/cm 3 Excilamps . The final results were evaluated using CV and scanning electron microscopy techniques. and the FWHM of a radiation pulse was 110ns.5 kW/cm 2 at e±ciency up to 5. The spontaneous radiation power rise in xenon was observed at pressures up to 12 atm. In xenon at pressure High Power UV and VUV Pulsed of 1. The conducting polymers were deposited electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry.films and avoid the formation of colloidal precipitates on the chemical bath. Chemistry Living anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate controlled by metal-free phosphazene catalyst as observed by small-angle neutron scattering. Pulsed radiant exitance of inert gases halogenides excited by VDIAEB was 4. A volume discharge. normally presented when it is magnetically or ultrasonically agitated.5 %. gel permeation chromatography and UVvisible spectroscopy Phosphazene (PZN) catalyst. Polyaniline and polypyrrole were considered as pseudocapacitivecoatings for carbon nanotube film electrodes. The effects of the polymer coating on the capacitance of the CNT electrodes were analyzed as well.2 atm. Emission characteristics of a nanosecond discharge in inert gases and its halo-genides without preionization of the gap from an auxiliary source have been investigated. Electrochemical Synthesis of Conducting Polymers on Carbon Nanotube Films and Its Effect on Electrochemical Capacitance . PZN catalyst coexisting with a co-catalyst 1hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been observed for the first time by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and UV-visible spectroscopy to elucidate the aggregation behavior of the PZN molecules themselves and the state of living chain ends in a living polymer solution. The electrochemical effects of the number of voltage cycles and monomer and electrolyte concentrations on film thickness were studied. initiated by an avalanche electron beam (VDIAEB) was realized atpressures up to 12 atm.

which has shaped the distribution of pigmentation according to a latitudinal gradient. In a continuing series of experiments designed to determine the spectral extinction cross section of bacterial aerosols. and in this sense. it is an atypical trait. shows a remarkable diversity in human populations. and there is evidence indicating that several additional genes may be playing a role in skin. and Implications for Public Health Extinction Cross-Section Measurements of Bacillus globigii Aerosols . skin pigmentation shows large differences among continental populations. Genetic Basis. The information that is emerging from recent studies points to a complex picture where positive selection has been acting at different genomic locations. Research during the last 5 years has substantially increased our understanding of thegenes involved in normal pigmentation variation in human populations. Visible band measurements of Bacillus globigii aerosols indicated a slight increase in the extinction cross section with increasing wavelength. spectral transmittance was measured as a function of particle concentration. the type. and for some genes only in certain population groups. hair. and iris pigmentation. At least six genes have been identified using genotype/phenotype association studies and/or direct functional assays. The extinction cross section was estimated to be Bio-Science Human Pigmentation Variation: Evolution. which is primarily determined by the amount. The reasons for this discrepancy can be traced back primarily to the stronginfluence of natural selection.Numerous genetic studies have indicated that the average proportion of genetic variation due to differences among major continental groups is just 10–15% of the total genetic variation. and the distribution of melanin.and extinction cross sections were calculated.Soluble Narrow Band Gap Polymers (Dry-Box) Soluble Narrow Band Gap and Blue Propylenedioxythiophene-Cyanovinylene Polymers as Multifunctional Materials for Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Applications Pigmentation. In contrast.

The preliminary characteristics of the plume and applications to the ablation of cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma HCC BEL-7402 cell line are presented. as they develop necrosis when submitted to such stress. However the physiological role of this pathway remains obscure. both UV and heat cause a rapid increase in the levels of hydrogen peroxide in the ssadh mutants. and these exhibited a similar phenotype. A plasma needle using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle was developed. Ablation of Liver Cancer Cells in Vitro by a Plasma Needle . Moreover. they appear dwarfed with necrotic lesions. The activity of the GABA shunt in plants is rapidly enhanced in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. The ssadh mutants are also sensitive to heat. which appears to be essential for plant defense against environmental stress. we analyzed Arabidopsis TDNA knockout mutants of SSADH. To elucidate its role in plants. Our work establishes a role for the GABA shunt in preventing the accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates and cell death. When exposed to white light (100 μmol of photons per m2 per s). our study also shows that trichomes are hypersensitive to stresses in ssadh mutants. Four alleles of thessadh mutation were isolated.25)10 8 cm 2 at the 543-nm wavelength. whereas photosynthetic active range light has a very little effect. and it is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.2. In plants the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase and succinicsemialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Surprisingly. the ultimate enzyme of the pathway. Detailed spectrum analysis revealed that UV-B has the most adverse effect on the mutant phenotype. which is associated with enhanced cell death.58 (±0. Mitochondrial succinicsemialdehyde dehydrogenase of the γ-aminobutyrate shunt is required to restrict levels of reactive oxygen intermediates in plants The γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shunt is a metabolic pathway that bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

Process Monitoring and Quality Control Semi-Conductor The MPSS (Multi Probe Spectrophotometer System) is a multi-channel process control monitor used in semi-conductor fabrication and other real-time process applications. A dual beam process monitor using "Neural Networks" to measure the concentration of alcohol in a process stream. A triple-channel SpectroColorimeter used as a process Quality Control monitor for plastic injection molding operations. The "Dilatometer" analytical instrument designed for specifically for polymer chemists. A list of patents filed using StellarNet spectrometers Alcohol Film Deposition Dilatometer Colorimeter StellarNet Patents . A multi-channel system used to monitor silver film deposition on a moving roll of plastic using transmission and reflectance.

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6 REFERENCES 1 FUNDAMENTAL OF PHYSICS (HALLIDAY/ RESNICK/ WALKER) 2 NEHRU LABORATORY . PATNA 3 WIKIPEDIA .

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