This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Piezoelectricity is a coupling between a material's mechanical and electrical behaviours. In the simplest of terms, when a piezoelectric material is squeezed, an electric charge collects on its surface. Conversely, when a piezoelectric material is subjected to a voltage drop, it mechanically deforms. Many crystalline materials exhibit piezoelectric behaviour. A few materials exhibit the phenomenon strongly enough to be used in applications that take advantage of their properties. These include quartz, Rochelle salt, lead titanate zirconate ceramics (e.g. PZT-4, PZT-5A, etc.), barium titanate, and polyvinylidene flouride (a polymer film). On a nanoscopic scale, piezoelectricity results from a nonuniform charge distribution within a crystal's unit cells. When such a crystal is mechanically deformed, the positive and negative charge centres displace by differing amounts. So while the overall crystal remains electrically neutral, the difference in charge centre displacements results in an electric polarization within the crystal. Electric polarization due to mechanical input is perceived as piezoelectricity.

Applications

Applications where strongly-piezoelectric materials are used include buzzers inside pagers and cell phones, shakers inside ultrasonic cleaners, spark generators inside electronic igniters, and strain sensors inside pressure gages. Piezoelectric materials also make inexpensive but fantastically accurate "clocks". For example, the element keeping track of time inside a quartz watch is literally a small piece of vibrating quartz. Its vibration period is stable to more than one part per million as a result of its piezoelectic properties.

**Description of Piezoelectric Ceramics
**

The characteristic of converting mechanical energy to electrical energy, and from electric energy to mechanical energy is called piezoelectric. In other words, piezoelectric materials will expand or contract when subjected to a voltage, and generate a voltage when subjected to a pressure. Generally, ceramics are comprised of fine crystals. Each crystal is comprised of atoms with a positive or negative electrical charge. Most ceramics have well balanced positive and negative electric charges. However, some dielectric ceramics called "ferroelectrics" have unbalanced positive and negative electric charges in the crystals, even under natural conditions, resulting in biased electric charges (spontaneous polarization).

Immediately after being subjected to firing, the ferroelectric ceramics will develop spontaneous polarization with random polar axes. As a whole, the ceramics seem to have well balanced

positive and negative electric charges. piezoelectric ceramics are produced. When an external voltage is applied to piezoelectric ceramics. piezoelectric ceramics enable mutual conversion between electric energy and mechanical energy by utilizing polarization of the crystals. if a tensile force to the same material. As described above. If the polarizing process is applied to ferroelectric ceramics. the centers of the positive and negative electrical charges in the ceramics are individually attracted or repelled by the external electric charges. Conversely. The process to align the polar axes of spontaneous polarization is called the polarizing process. causing the ceramics to expand or contract. the polarity of the electric charges will be reversed. the polar axes generated by spontaneous polarization are aligned in a uniform direction. However. On the other hand. applying a pressure to piezoelectric ceramics generates positive and negative electric charges on opposing face of the piezoelectric ceramic. with the application of a high DC voltage. which cannot be cancelled even if the voltage is removed. .

pressure. 5 and 6 identify rotations (shear). and 3.Definition of Piezoelectric Coefficients and Directions Orthogonal system describing the properties of a poled piezoelectric ceramic. They vary with temperature. The direction of polarization (3 axis) is established during the poling process by a strong electrical field applied between two electrodes. The axes 4. effects are dependent on direction. To identify directions the axes. 2. mechanical and electrical boundary conditions etc. form factor. . For actuator applications the piezo properties along the poling axis are most essential (largest deflection). are introduced (analogous to X. electric field. The coefficients only describe material properties under small signal conditions. Axis 3 is the poling direction Because of the anisotropic nature of Piezo ceramics. Y. Z of the classical right hand orthogonal axial set). termed 1. It should be clearly understood that the piezoelectric coefficients described later are not independent constants.

d31 applies if the electric field is in the same direction as before. k² is the ratio of energy stored (mechanical or electrical) to energy (mechanical or electrical) applied. • • Other important parameters are the Young's modulus Y (describing the elastic properties of the material) and the relative dielectric coefficients (permittivity) (describing the capacitance of the material). gij: Voltage coefficients or field output coefficients [Vm/N]: open circuit electric field developed (V/m) per applied mechanical stress (N/m²) or (due to the sensor / actuator properties of Piezo material) strain developed (m/m) per applied charge density (C/m²).g. The coefficients are energy ratios describing the conversion from mechanical to electrical energy or vice versa. ε To link electrical and mechanical quantities double subscripts (e. Charge output coefficients [C/N]: charge density developed (C/m²) per given stress (N/m²). the second describes the direction of the system response. dij) are introduced. kij: Coupling coefficients [no Dimensionss].Piezoelectric materials are characterized by several coefficients: Examples are: • dij: Strain coefficients [m/V]: strain developed (m/m) per electric field applied (V/m) or (due to the sensor / actuator properties of Piezo material). Example: d33 applies when the electric field is along the polarization axis (direction 3) and the strain (deflection) is along the same axis. . but the strain is in the 1 axis (orthogonal to the polarization axis) The individual piezoelectric parameters are related by several equations. The first subscript gives the direction of the excitation.

d31 is on the order of -200 to -300 x 10-12 m/V. These figures only apply to the raw material at room temperature under small signal conditions. . d33 is on the order of 450 to 650 x 10-12 m/V. These coefficients describe the relationship between the applied electrical field and the mechanical strain produced. The displacement ∆L of an unloaded single layer piezo actuator can be estimated by the equation: ∆L = S · Lo = ±E · dij · Lo where S = strain (relative length change Lo = ceramic length [m] E = electrical field strength [V/m] dij. Note that d31 (affects the lateral deformation D) is negative. d33 and d31 are sometimes referred to as "piezo gain". = material properties d33 describes the strain parallel to the polarization vector of the ceramics (thickness) and d31 the strain orthogonal to the polarization vector (width). The strain coefficient d33 applies for piezo stack actuators. Note: For the material used in standard piezo actuators. L/L. without dimensions) Elogation and contraction of a piezo disk when a voltage is applied. d31 applies for tube and strip actuators. the piezoelectric material used and the length L of the piezo ceramics. The material properties can be described by the piezoelectric strain coefficients dij.Displacement of Piezo Actuators Displacement of piezo ceramics is a function of the applied electric field strength E.

The presence of electrical resonances and anti-resonances make the piezoelectric impedance unique. For a (simple geometry) piezoelectric element.Piezoelectric Impedance The electrical impedance is a distinguishing characteristic for piezoelectric elements. The resonances result from the electrical input signal exciting a mechanical resonance in the piezo element. For each mechanical resonance in the piezo element. This characteristic piezoelectric impedance can be modeled by an equivalent circuit. Recall that the electrical impedance is defined as the voltage drop across an element divided by the current through the element. a resonance/antiresonance pair will exist in the impedance. The difference stems from the coupling of electrical energy input to mechanical motion output. the electrical impedance over a given frequency range will appear similar to that shown here: The impedance for a non-piezoelectric element (of the same shape and dielectrical properties) is also shown in blue. It differs substantially from the impedance of non-piezoelectric dielectric elements when driven at highenough frequencies. .

The following 2 conditions are required for the circuit to accurately simulate piezoelectric resonance behavior: The value of C must be much smaller than Cp C and Cp in parallel must equal the piezo's low-frequency capacitance The frequencies (in Hz) of the electrical resonance and anti-resonance are given by the following equations (which assume a small series resistance R): .Equivalent Circuit The following electric circuit can be used to model a resonance / anti-resonance pair that exists in the electrical impedance of piezoelectrics.

its electrical properties (permittivity). However. the subscript E on the compliance matrix sE means that the compliance data was measured under at least a constant. or vice-versa. In order to describe or model piezoelectric materials. this equation states: Strain = Compliance × Stress. a constitutive equation describes how a material strains when it is stressed. Constitutive equations exist also for electrical problems. stress field. written as: The piezoelectric coupling terms are in the matrix d that contains the piezoelectric coefficients for the material. For example. Likewise. Engineers are already familiar with the most common mechanical constitutive equation that applies for everyday metals and plastics. Matrix Subscript Definitions The subscripts in piezoelectric constitutive equations have very important meanings. and its piezoelectric coupling properties. since piezoelectric materials are concerned with electrical properties too. they describe how charge moves in a (dielectric) material when it is subjected to a voltage. we must also consider the constitutive equation for common dielectrics: In words. or vice-versa. Coupled Equation Piezoelectric materials combine these two seemingly dissimilar constitutive equations into one coupled equation. . and preferably a zero. this equation states: ChargeDensity = Permittivity × ElectricField. and it appears twice in the constitutive equation (the superscript t stands for matrix-transpose). electric field. the subscript T on the permittivity matrix εT means that the permittivity data was measured under at least a constant. and preferably a zero. This equation is known as Hooke's Law and is written as: In words. one must have knowledge about the material's mechanical properties (compliance or stiffness). They describe the conditions under which the material property data was measured.Hooke's Law and Dielectrics What is a constitutive equation? For mechanical problems.

strain (S). charge-density displacement (D). Strain-Charge Form: Stress-Charge Form: Strain-Voltage Form: Stress-Voltage Form: . which defines how the piezoelectric material's stress (T). they were taken from the two dependent variables on the left-hand-side of each equation. The four possible forms for piezoelectric constitutive equations are shown below. The names for each of the forms is arbitrary.Appendix Piezoelectric Constitutive Equations Piezoelectricity is described mathematically within a material's constitutive equation. and electric field (E) interact. Note that the Voltage and Electric Field variables are related via a gradient.

σ1) strain components (e.g. Symbol Object Type vector vector vector vector matrix matrix matrix matrix matrix matrix matrix Size 6x1 6x1 3x1 3x1 6x6 6x6 3x3 3x6 3x6 3x6 3x6 Units Meaning stress components (e.g.Piezo Symbol Definitions Following is a description of all matrix variables used in the piezoelectric constitutive equations. ε3) electric field components electric charge density displacement components compliance coefficients stiffness coefficients electric permittivity piezoelectric coupling coefficients for StrainCharge form piezoelectric coupling coefficients for StressCharge form piezoelectric coupling coefficients for StrainVoltage form piezoelectric coupling coefficients for StressVoltage form T S E D s c N/m2 m/m N/C C/m2 m2/N N/m2 F/m C/N C/m2 m2/C N/C ε d e g q .

respectively. y. . PZT). the poling direction is assumed to lie along the z axis. The final 3 entries are the shear stresses around the x. and determines the row ordering in the coupling matrix d. respectively. For polarized piezoelectric materials (e. d11 d21 d31 d12 d22 d32 d13 d23 d33 d14 d24 d34 d15 d25 d35 d16 d26 d36 Piezoelectric Coupling ε11 0 ε22 0 0 ε33 Permittivity Matrix is symmetric. The first 3 entries are the direct stresses along the x. The 3 entries correspond to the electric field component along the x. and diagonal for most materials. y. This ordering determines the layout of the compliance matrix s. The ordering of the 6 stress (and 6 strain) variables follows the convention used by crystallographers. respectively.General Matrix Structure The entries in the constitutive matrices for piezoelectric materials are subscript-labeled as follows: s11 s12 s22 s13 s23 s33 s14 s24 s34 s44 s15 s25 s35 s45 s55 s16 s26 s36 s46 s56 s66 Compliance Matrix is symmetric. and z axes. z}. Subscript Ordering Constitutive data is presented in a 3-axis cartesian coordinate system. y. y. This ordering determines the layout of the permittivity matrix ε. and determines the column ordering in the coupling matrix d. and z axes. The electric field (and charge displacement) variable ordering is straightforward. and z axes. denoted by {x.g.

77 -1.854 *10-12 .3 0 0 2.68 .79 12.6 0 0 0 -4.5 4.5 0 0 -1.77 -1.5 0 0 -1.22 -1.Piezo Electric Properties for Quartz Crystal symmetry class Density Trigonal 32 2651 kg/m3 Constitutive data is presented in the Strain-Charge format.5 0 20.3 0 0 0 0 0 -0.1 *10-12 Piezoelectric Coupling -2.79 -1.67 0 0 0 0.04 -9 0 0 0 0 -9 29.52 0 0 0 4.22 9. 8.22 4.6 0 *10-12 Relative Permittivity 4.22 -4.67 0 0 4.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 20.52 0 0 0 4. Compliance 12.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Smart Materials and Structures Volume 21 Issue 6 2012 [Doi 10.1088_0964-1726_21!6!065017] Xu, Jia Wen; Liu, Yong Bing; Shao, Wei Wei; Feng, Zhihua -- Optimization of a Right-Angle Piezoelectric Cantilever Using Auxiliarby Ikhwan Muhammad
- sensors-16-01045by kaaashu
- Dimensional Reduction of an End-Electroded Piezoelectric Composite Rodby hmalikn7581
- Week13 TNT Conversion of Piezoelectric Material Databy Deepak Chachra

- Piezo Equations
- Modeling of Piezolaminated Composite Shells for Vibration Control
- shear_bender.ppt
- ICMM TGZielinski Piezoelectricity.slides
- Nanogenerators Termpaper
- smartmaterial.pptx
- MS01
- test
- 285_1
- 9781848009998-c1
- Class 12-13 Piezoelectric Materials-2
- exemple_petar_Piezo.pdf
- Smart Materials and Structures Volume 21 Issue 6 2012 [Doi 10.1088_0964-1726_21!6!065017] Xu, Jia Wen; Liu, Yong Bing; Shao, Wei Wei; Feng, Zhihua -- Optimization of a Right-Angle Piezoelectric Cantilever Using Auxiliar
- sensors-16-01045
- Dimensional Reduction of an End-Electroded Piezoelectric Composite Rod
- Week13 TNT Conversion of Piezoelectric Material Data
- PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS.pdf
- pzt
- Chapter 4-Piezoelectric Ceramics
- Master Thesis Shape Control of Composite Structures With Optimally Placed Piezoelectric Patches
- Chatelaine, Oct 2011
- Conf Piezo Mems 2011
- Noliac CEramics NCE Datasheet
- Basic Nanogenerator
- New Materials for Micro Scale Sensors and Actuators
- A Benchmark for Free Vibration and Effective Coupling of Thick Piezoelectric Smart Structures
- Muralt
- Bhanusri Paper
- Review Compozite
- Pvdf Porous
- Piezoelectric Ceramics

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd