Meridian Junior College

Summary of Periodic Table - Chemical Periodicity

Physical Properties of Period 3 Element
Period 3 element Atomic No. Atomic Radius Graph 1 Ionic Radius Graph 2 Melting pt Graph 3 m.p. ↑ from Na to Al due to increasing metallic bond strength as no. of valence e- contributed per atom into sea of delocalised electrons ↑ Na 11 Mg 12 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18

Across the period, nuclear charge ↑ & negligible ↑ in shielding effect,  effective nuclear charge ↑  atomic radius ↓ Formation of Cations Ionic Radius ↓ from Na+ to Si4+ as nuclear charge ↑ (each ion : Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+ have 10 e-) High m.p. due to giant metallic structure. There is strong metallic bonding. Highest m.p. due to macromolecular structure. Numerous covalent bonds between Si atoms arranged tetrahedrally in a 3Dimensional structure. Low electrical conductivity as Si is a metalloid Formation of Anions Ionic Radius ↓ from P3- to Cl- as nuclear charge ↑ (each ion : P3- , S2-, Cl- have 18 e-) Low m.p. due to simple molecular structure. Weak van der waals forces between molecules. M.p of S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar due to decrease in size of electron cloud as no. of electrons decreases.

Electrical conductivity Graph 4 First I.E Graph 5

High electricial conductivity, ↑ from Na to Al as no. of valence e- contributed per atom into sea of delocalised electrons ↑ Generally 1st I.E. ↑ across period as nuclear chare g↑ and negligible increase in shielding effect,  effective nuclear charge ↑  more energy required to remove the valence electron

Non-conductor of electricity due to absence of delocalised electrons or mobile ions

Electronegativity Graph 6

Lower 1st I.E of Al than Mg as the 3p e- in Al is at further away from the nucleus compared to 3s e- being removed in Mg; Lower 1st I.E of S than P as a paired 3p e- in S is removed which experiences inter-electron repulsion compared to an unpaired 3p ein P. ↑ across period as nuclear charge ↑ and negligible increase in shielding effect,  Effective. nuclear charge ↑ across period.

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Summary of Trends exhibited by Elements across Period 3 Atomic radius / nm

Graph 1

Ionic radius /nm

Graph 2
first
P3S2-

Graph 5

Cl-

Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ Si
4+

Proton number
Na Mg Al Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Si

P

S

Cl

Proton number

Electrical conductivity

Graph 3

Graph 4

Graph 6

Na Mg Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

Proton number

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Chemical Properties of Period 3 Element
Period 3 element Reaction with dry O2* Na Very vigorous Burns with yellow flame Mg Very vigorous Burns with bright white flame
Mg (s) + ½O2 (g)  MgO (s)

Al Needs to be heated to 800 0C due to presence of the protective Al2O3 oxide layer
4Al (s) + 3O2 (g)  2Al2O3 (s)

Si Slow Needs to be strongly heated
Si(s) + O2 (g)  SiO2 (s)

P Vigorous Forms a dense white smoke
P4(s) + 3O2 (g)  P4O6 (s) P4(s) + 5O2 (g)  P4O10 (s)

S Slow Burns with a blue flame With excess O2, SO2 is oxidised to SO3
S(s) + O2 (g)  SO2 (g)

Cl ---

Ar ---

2Na (s) + ½O2 (g)  Na2O (s)

Reaction with dry Cl2*

Very vigorous
Na (s) + Cl2 (g)  2NaCl (s)

Vigorous
Mg(s) + Cl2 (g)  MgCl2 (s)

Vigorous
2Al(s) + 3Cl2 (g)  Al2Cl6 (s)

Slow
Si (s) + 2Cl2 (g)  SiCl4 (l)

Slow 2 chlorides (PCl3 & PCl5) formed PCl5 formed in excess Cl2
P4(s) + 6Cl2 (g)  4 PCl3 (s) P4(s) +10Cl2 (g)  4 PCl5 (s)

Slow (Not required in syllabus)

---

---

Reaction with cold water*

Reacts vigorously with water to form hydroxide & H2(g)
2 Na (s) + 2 H2O  2NaOH(aq) + H2 (g)

React very slightly with cold water but burns in steam.
Mg (s) + H2O (g)  MgO (s) + H2 (g)

Al reacts with steam. 2 Al(s) + 3 H2O (g)  Al2O3 (s) + 3 H2

No reaction

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Properties of Period 3 Oxides
Period 3 oxide Oxidation No. Structure Nature of Oxide Reaction with water* Na2O +1 MgO +2 Al2O3 +3 SiO2 +4 P4O6, P4O10 +3, +5 SO2, SO3 +4, +6

Oxidation no. of oxides ↑ across period as no. of valence e- available for bond formation ↑ Giant Ionic Lattice Structure Ionic & basic Forms NaOH with water (pH ≈ 13) Forms Mg(OH)2 with boiling water (pH ≈ 9) Ionic & amphoteric No reaction (pH = 7) Giant molecular Structure Simple molecular Structure Covalent & acidic Form H3PO3, H3PO4 with water
(pH ≈ 2)

Form H2SO3, H2SO4 with water
(pH ≈ 2) SO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO3(aq) SO3(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO4(aq)

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) MgO (s) + H2O(l) Al2O3 does not dissolve in water because of P4O6(s) + 6H2O(l)  4H3PO3(aq) → 2NaOH(aq) Mg2+ (aq) + its extremely high lattice energy 2OH (aq)
- Large amounts of energy are required to break the numerous strong covalent bonds, solvation cannot occur.

SiO2

P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l)  4H3PO4(aq)

Reaction with acid*

Form salt and water
Na2O(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

Forms Al3+ (aq) Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq)  2AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2O(l) White ppt dissolves in excess NaOH to form colorless complex, Al(OH)4 (aq)
Al2O3(s) + 3H2O(l) + 2NaOH(aq)  2NaAl(OH)4(aq)

No reaction

Reaction with alkali*

No reaction

Reacts with conc. NaOH to form Na2SiO3 (aq)
SiO2(s) + 2NaOH(aq)  Na2SiO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Forms salt and water
P4O6(s) + 12 NaOH(aq)  4 Na3PO3(aq) + 6 H2O(l) P4O10(s) + 12 NaOH(aq)  4 Na3PO4(aq) + 6 H2O(l) SO2(g) + 2 NaOH(aq)  Na2SO3(aq) + H2O(l) SO3(g) + 2 NaOH(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)

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Melting Points of Period 3 oxides

pH of resulting solution when Period 3 oxides react with water

Graph 7
13

Graph 8

7

2

pH of solution

pH of resulting solution when Period 3 chlorides react with water

Graph 9
oxides 7

chlorides

0

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

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Properties of Period 3 Chlorides
Period 3 chloride Oxidation No. Structure Reaction with water* NaCl +1 MgCl2 +2 AlCl3 +3 SiCl4 +4 Simple molecular structure
Slight Hydrolysis acidic solution Al2Cl6(s) + 12H2O(l)  2[Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) + 6Cl-(aq) [Al(H2O)6]3+(aq)  [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+(aq) + H+(aq) Complete Hydrolysis acidic solution SiCl4 + 2H2O  SiO2 + 4HCl Complete Hydrolysis acidic solution PCl3 + 3H2O  H3PO3 + 3HCl PCl5 + 4H2O  H3PO4 + 5HCl

PCl3, PCl5 +3, +5

Giant Ionic Lattice structure
Hydration only No hydrolysis neutral solution NaCl (s) +aq  Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) Slight hydrolysis slightly acidic solution MgCl2 (s) + 6H2O  [Mg(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) [Mg(H2O)6]2+(aq) [Mg(H2O)5(OH)]+(aq) + H+(aq) Neutral pH = 7 Slightly acidic pH = 6.5

Acidic pH = 3

Acidic pH = 2

Acidic pH = 2

©MJC 2011

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©MJC 2011

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