1

Cloud compuLlng
AZAB INSTIT0TE 0F ENuINEERINu ANB
TECBN0L0uY
DLÞAk1MLN1 CI CCMÞU1Lk SCILNCL AND LNGINLLkING



LCSŴ6S4 SLMINAk
keport on
"CLCUD CCMÞU1ING"



SU8MI11LD 1Cť SU8MI11LD 8¥ť
MrŦ Uday S|ngh Ahraz Akhtar
CSL DLÞ1Ŧ 8Ŧ1ech 3rd ¥ear
AIL1 ko|| NoŦť080S31000S


Cloud compuLlng
8CNAIILD CLk1IIICA1L


CerLlfled LhaL Lhls semlnar reporL LlLled ºC|oud Comput|ng" ls Lhe
bonaflde work done by Ahraz Akhtar who carrled ouL Lhe work
under my supervlslonŦ







Mr. Uday Singh Mrs. Madhulika Sharma

SEMINAR GUIDE Head oI Department
Lecturer, Dept. oI Computer Science
Dept. oI Computer Science AIET
AIET Lucknow
Lucknow










Cloud compuLlng
Acknow|edgement


l am Lhankful Lo my semlnar gulde MrŦ Uday S|ngh for hls proper
guldance and valuable suggesLlonsŦ l am also greaLly Lhankful Lo
MrsŦ Madhu||ka Sharmaţ Lhe head of the D|v|s|on of Computer Sc|ence
and Lng|neer|ng and oLher faculLy members for glvlng me an
opporLunlLy Lo learn and do Lhls semlnarŦ lf noL for Lhe above
menLloned peopleţ my Semlnar would never have been compleLed ln
such a successfully mannerŦ l once agaln exLend my slncere Lhanks Lo all
of LhemŦ

Ahraz AkhLar









Cloud compuLlng
A8S1kAC1

CompuLers have become an lndlspensable parL of llfeŦ We need
compuLers everywhereţ be lL for workţ research or ln any such fleldŦ As
Lhe use of compuLers ln our dayŴLoŴday llfe lncreasesţ Lhe compuLlng
resources LhaL we need also go upŦ lor companles llke Coogle and
MlcrosofLţ harnesslng Lhe resources as and when Lhey need lL ls noL a
problemŦ 8uL when lL comes Lo smaller enLerprlsesţ affordablllLy
becomes a huge facLorŦ WlLh Lhe huge lnfrasLrucLure come problems
llke machlnes fallureţ hard drlve crashesţ sofLware bugsţ eLcŦ 1hls mlghL
be a blg headache for such a communlLyŦ

CompuLlng offers a soluLlon Lo Lhls slLuaLlonŦ Cloud compuLlng ls a
paradlgm shlfL ln whlch compuLlng ls moved away from personal
compuLers and even Lhe lndlvldual enLerprlse appllcaLlon server Lo a
'cloud' of compuLersŦ A cloud ls a vlrLuallzed server pool whlch can
provlde Lhe dlfferenL compuLlng resources of Lhelr cllenLsŦ users of Lhls
sysLem need only be concerned wlLh Lhe compuLlng servlce belng asked
forŦ 1he underlylng deLalls of how lL ls achleved are hldden from Lhe
userŦ 1he daLa and Lhe servlces provlded reslde ln masslvely scalable
daLa cenLers and can be ublqulLously accessed from any connecLed
devlce all over Lhe worldŦ


Cloud compuLlng ls Lhe sLyle of compuLlng where masslvely scaled l1
relaLed capablllLles are provlded as a servlce across Lhe lnLerneL Lo
mulLlple exLernal cusLomers and are bllled by consumpLlonŦ Many cloud
compuLlng provlders have popped up and Lhere ls a conslderable
growLh ln Lhe usage of Lhls servlceŦ Coogleţ MlcrosofLţ ?ahooţ l8M and
Amazon have sLarLed provldlng cloud compuLlng servlcesŦ



Cloud compuLlng
1Ŧ IN1kCDUC1ICN

C|oud comput|ng descrlbes compuLaLlonţ sofLwareţ daLa accessţ and
sLorage servlces LhaL do noL requlre endŴuser knowledge of Lhe physlcal
locaLlon and conflguraLlon of Lhe sysLem LhaL dellvers Lhe servlcesŦ
Þarallels Lo Lhls concepL can be drawn wlLh Lhe elecLrlclLy grld where
endŴusers consume power resources wlLhouL any necessary
undersLandlng of Lhe componenL devlces ln Lhe grld requlred Lo provlde
sald servlceŦ
Cloud compuLlng descrlbes a new supplemenLţ consumpLlonţ and
dellvery model for l1 servlces based on lnLerneL proLocolsţ and lL
Lyplcally lnvolves provlslonlng of dynamlcally scalable and ofLen
vlrLuallzed resourceŦ lL ls a byproducL and consequence of Lhe easeŴofŴ
access Lo remoLe compuLlng slLes provlded by Lhe lnLerneLŦ 1hls
frequenLly Lakes Lhe form of webŴbased Lools or appllcaLlons LhaL users
can access and use Lhrough a web browser as lf lL were a program
lnsLalled locally on Lhelr own compuLerŦ
1he Lerm ƍcloudƍ ls used as a meLaphor for Lhe lnLerneLţ based on Lhe
cloud drawlng used ln Lhe pasL Lo represenL Lhe Lelephone neLworkţ
and laLer Lo deplcL Lhe lnLerneL ln compuLer neLwork dlagrams as an
absLracLlon of Lhe underlylng lnfrasLrucLure lL represenLsŦ
MosL cloud compuLlng lnfrasLrucLures conslsL of servlces dellvered
Lhrough common cenLers and bullL on serversŦ Clouds ofLen appear as
slngle polnLs of access for consumersƌ compuLlng needsŦ Commerclal
offerlngs are generally expecLed Lo meeL quallLy of servlce (CoS)
requlremenLs of cusLomersţ and Lyplcally lnclude servlce level
agreemenLs (SLAs)Ŧ



Cloud compuLlng
Ŧ CnAkAC1LkS1ICS

1he key characLerlsLlc of cloud compuLlng ls LhaL Lhe compuLlng ls ƍln
Lhe cloudƍ lŦeŦ Lhe processlng (and Lhe relaLed daLa) ls noL ln a speclfledţ
known or sLaLlc place(s)Ŧ 1hls ls ln conLrasL Lo a model ln whlch Lhe
processlng Lakes place ln one or more speclflc servers LhaL are knownŦ
All Lhe oLher concepLs menLloned are supplemenLary or
complemenLary Lo Lhls concepLŦ



Cloud CompuLlng ConcepLual ulagram



Cloud compuLlng
3Ŧ AkCnI1LC1UkL

C|oud arch|tectureţ Lhe sysLems archlLecLure of Lhe sofLware sysLems
lnvolved ln Lhe dellvery of cloud compuLlngţ Lyplcally lnvolves mulLlple
clooJ compooeots communlcaLlng wlLh each oLher over appllcaLlon
programmlng lnLerfacesţ usually web servlces and ŴLler archlLecLureŦ
ComplexlLy ls conLrolled and Lhe resulLlng sysLems are more
manageable Lhan Lhelr monollLhlc counLerparLsŦ
1he Lwo mosL slgnlflcanL componenLs of cloud compuLlng archlLecLure
are known as Lhe fronL end and Lhe back endŦ 1he fronL end ls Lhe parL
seen by Lhe cllenLţ lŦeŦ Lhe compuLer userŦ 1hls lncludes Lhe cllenL's
neLwork (or compuLer) and Lhe appllcaLlons used Lo access Lhe cloud
vla a user lnLerface such as a web browserŦ 1he back end of Lhe cloud
compuLlng archlLecLure ls Lhe 'cloud' lLselfţ comprlslng varlous
compuLersţ servers and daLa sLorage devlcesŦ

Cloud CompuLlng Sample ArchlLecLure


Cloud compuLlng
4Ŧ kL¥ CnAkAC1LkS1ICS

O Ag|||tyŴ lmproves wlLh usersƌ ablllLy Lo rapldly and lnexpenslvely
reŴprovlslon Lechnologlcal lnfrasLrucLure resourcesŦ
O CostŴ ls clalmed Lo be greaLly reduced and ln a publlc cloud
dellvery model caplLal expendlLure ls converLed Lo operaLlonal
expendlLureŦ
O Dev|ce and |ocat|on |ndependenceŴ

enable users Lo access
sysLems uslng a web browser regardless of Lhelr locaLlon or whaL
devlce Lhey are uslng (eŦgŦţ ÞCţ moblle)Ŧ As lnfrasLrucLure ls offŴslLe
(Lyplcally provlded by a LhlrdŴparLy) and accessed vla Lhe lnLerneLţ
users can connecL from anywhereŦ
O Mu|t|ŴtenancyŴ enables sharlng of resources and cosLs across a
large pool of users Lhus allowlng forť
Centra||zat|on of lnfrasLrucLure ln locaLlons wlLh lower cosLs
(such as real esLaLeţ elecLrlclLyţ eLcŦ)
ÞeakŴ|oad capac|ty lncreases (users need noL englneer for
hlghesL posslble loadŴlevels)
Ut|||zat|on and eff|c|ency lmprovemenLs for sysLems LhaL are
ofLen only 10Ŷ0Ʒ uLlllzedŦ
O ke||ab|||tyŴ ls lmproved lf mulLlple redundanL slLes are usedţ
whlch makes well deslgned cloud compuLlng sulLable for buslness
conLlnulLy and dlsasLer recoveryŦ noneLhelessţ many ma[or cloud
compuLlng servlces have suffered ouLagesţ and l1 and buslness
managers can aL Llmes do llLLle when Lhey are affecLedŦ


Cloud compuLlng
O Sca|ab|||tyŴ vla dynamlc (ƍonŴdemandƍ) provlslonlng of
resources on a flneŴgralnedţ selfŴservlce basls near realŴLlmeţ
wlLhouL users havlng Lo englneer for peak loadsŦ Þerformance ls
monlLored and conslsLenL and loosely coupled archlLecLures are
consLrucLed uslng web servlces as Lhe sysLem lnLerfaceŦ
O Secur|tyŴ could lmprove due Lo cenLrallzaLlon of daLaţ lncreased
securlLyŴfocused resourcesţ eLcŦţ buL concerns can perslsL abouL
loss of conLrol over cerLaln senslLlve daLaţ and Lhe lack of securlLy
for sLored kernelsŦ SecurlLy ls ofLen as good as or beLLer Lhan
under LradlLlonal sysLemsţ ln parL because provlders are able Lo
devoLe resources Lo solvlng securlLy lssues LhaL many cusLomers
cannoL affordŦ
O Ma|ntenanceŴ of cloud compuLlng appllcaLlons ls easlerţ slnce
Lhey donƌL have Lo be lnsLalled on each userƌs compuLerŦ 1hey are
easler Lo supporL and Lo lmprove slnce Lhe changes reach Lhe
cllenLs lnsLanLlyŦ
O Meter|ngŴ means LhaL cloud compuLlng resources usage should
be measurable and should be meLered per cllenL and appllcaLlon
on a dallyţ weeklyţ monLhlyţ and yearly baslsŦ








10

Cloud compuLlng
SŦ LA¥LkS
1he lnLerneL funcLlons Lhrough a serles of neLwork proLocols LhaL form
a sLack of layersţ as shown ln Lhe flgure (or as descrlbed ln more deLall
ln Lhe CSl model)Ŧ Cnce an lnLerneL ÞroLocol connecLlon ls esLabllshed
among several compuLersţ lL ls posslble Lo share servlces wlLhln any one
of Lhe followlng layersŦ
1Ŧ CLILN1Ŵ A cloud cllenL conslsLs of compuLer hardware and/or
compuLer sofLware LhaL relles on cloud compuLlng for appllcaLlon
dellveryţ or LhaL ls speclflcally deslgned for dellvery of cloud servlces
and LhaLţ ln elLher caseţ ls essenLlally useless wlLhouL lLŦ Lxamples
lnclude some compuLersţ phones and oLher devlcesţ operaLlng sysLems
and browsersŦ
. AÞÞLICA1ICN- Cloud appllcaLlon servlces or ƍoftwote os o
etvlce (oo%ƍ dellver sofLware as a servlce over Lhe lnLerneLţ
ellmlnaLlng Lhe need Lo lnsLall and run Lhe appllcaLlon on Lhe
cusLomerƌs own compuLers and slmpllfylng malnLenance and supporLŦ
key characLerlsLlcs lncludeť
O neLworkŴbased access Loţ and managemenL ofţ commerclally
avallable (lŦeŦţ noL cusLom) sofLware
O AcLlvlLles LhaL are managed from cenLral locaLlons raLher Lhan aL
each cusLomerƌs slLeţ enabllng cusLomers Lo access appllcaLlons
remoLely vla Lhe Web
O AppllcaLlon dellvery LhaL Lyplcally ls closer Lo a oneŴLoŴmany
model (slngle lnsLanceţ mulLlŴLenanL archlLecLure) Lhan Lo a oneŴ
LoŴone modelţ lncludlng archlLecLureţ prlclngţ parLnerlngţ and
managemenL characLerlsLlcs
O CenLrallzed feaLure updaLlngţ whlch obvlaLes Lhe need for
downloadable paLches and upgradesŦ
11

Cloud compuLlng
3Ŧ ÞLA1ICkMŴ Cloud plaLform servlces or ƍ9lotfotm os o etvlce
(9oo%ƍ dellver a compuLlng plaLform and/or soluLlon sLack as a servlceţ
ofLen consumlng clooJ loftosttoctote and susLalnlng clooJ oppllcotloosŦ
lL faclllLaLes deploymenL of appllcaLlons wlLhouL Lhe cosL and
complexlLy of buylng and managlng Lhe underlylng hardware and
sofLware layersŦ

4Ŧ INIkAS1kU1UkLŴ Cloud lnfrasLrucLure servlcesţ also known as
ƍoftosttoctote os o etvlce (oo%ƍţ dellvers compuLer lnfrasLrucLure Ŵ
Lyplcally a plaLform vlrLuallzaLlon envlronmenL Ŵ as a servlceŦ CllenLs
lnsLead buy Lhose resources as a fully ouLsourced servlceŦ Suppllers
Lyplcally blll such servlces on a uLlllLy compuLlng basls and amounL of
resources consumed (and Lherefore Lhe cosL) wlll Lyplcally reflecL Lhe
level of acLlvlLyŦ
. SERVER- 1he setvets layer conslsLs of compuLer hardware
and/or compuLer sofLware producLs LhaL are speclflcally deslgned for
Lhe dellvery of cloud servlcesţ lncludlng mulLlŴcore processorsţ cloudŴ
speclflc operaLlng sysLems and comblned offerlngsŦ
1

Cloud compuLlng
6Ŧ DLÞLC¥MLN1 MCDLLS
Þub||c C|oudsŴ 9obllc clooJ or extetool clooJ descrlbes cloud
compuLlng ln Lhe LradlLlonal maln sLream senseţ whereby resources are
dynamlcally provlsloned on a flneŴgralnedţ selfŴservlce basls over Lhe
lnLerneLţ vla web appllcaLlons/web servlcesţ from an offŴslLe LhlrdŴparLy
provlder who bllls on a flneŴgralned uLlllLy compuLlng baslsŦ
Commun|ty C|oudsŴ A commoolty clooJ may be esLabllshed where
several organlzaLlons have slmllar requlremenLs and seek Lo share
lnfrasLrucLure so as Lo reallze some of Lhe beneflLs of cloud compuLlngŦ
WlLh Lhe cosLs spread over fewer users Lhan a pobllc clooJ (buL more
Lhan a slngle LenanL) Lhls opLlon ls more expenslve buL may offer a
hlgher level of prlvacyţ securlLy and/or pollcy compllanceŦ Lxamples of
commoolty clooJ lnclude Coogleƌs ƍCov CloudƍŦ
nybr|d C|ouds- 1here ls some confuslon over Lhe Lerm ƍhybrldƍ
when applled Lo Lhe cloud Ŵ a sLandard deflnlLlon of Lhe Lerm ƍPybrld
Cloudƍ has noL yeL emergedŦ 1he Lerm ƍhybrld cloudƍ has been used Lo
mean elLher Lwo separaLe clouds [olned LogeLher (publlcţ prlvaLeţ
lnLernal or exLernal)ţ or a comblnaLlon of vlrLuallzed cloud server
lnsLances used LogeLher wlLh real physlcal hardwareŦ 1he mosL correcL
deflnlLlon of Lhe Lerm ƍhybrld cloudƍ ls probably Lhe use of physlcal
hardware and vlrLuallzed cloud server lnsLances LogeLher Lo provlde a
slngle common servlceŦ 1wo clouds LhaL have been [olned LogeLher are
more correcLly called a ƍcomblned cloudƍŦ
A combloeJ clooJ envlronmenL conslsLlng of mulLlple lnLernal and/or
exLernal provlders

ƍwlll be Lyplcal for mosL enLerprlsesƍŦ

8y lnLegraLlng
mulLlple cloud servlces users may be able Lo ease Lhe LranslLlon Lo
pobllc clooJ servlces whlle avoldlng lssues such as ÞCl compllanceŦ
żŽ

1

Cloud compuLlng
AnoLher perspecLlve on deploylng a web appllcaLlon ln Lhe cloud ls
uslng Pybrld Web PosLlngţ where Lhe hosLlng lnfrasLrucLure ls a mlx
beLween cloud hosLlng and managed dedlcaLed servers Ŵ Lhls ls mosL
commonly achleved as parL of a web clusLer ln whlch some of Lhe
nodes are runnlng on real physlcal hardware and some are runnlng on
cloud server lnsLancesŦ
A hybrld sLorage cloud uses a comblnaLlon of publlc and prlvaLe sLorage
cloudsŦ Pybrld sLorage clouds are ofLen useful for archlvlng and backup
funcLlonsţ allowlng local daLa Lo be repllcaLed Lo a publlc cloudŦ
Þr|vate C|oudŴ 9tlvote clooJ and lotetool clooJ have been descrlbed
as neologlsmsţ however Lhe concepLs Lhemselves preŴdaLe Lhe Lerm
clooJ by 0 yearsŦ Lven wlLhln modern uLlllLy lndusLrlesţ hybrld models
sLlll exlsL desplLe Lhe formaLlon of reasonably wellŴfuncLlonlng markeLs
and Lhe ablllLy Lo comblne mulLlple provldersŦ
Some vendors have used Lhe Lerms Lo descrlbe offerlngs LhaL emulaLe
cloud compuLlng on prlvaLe neLworksŦ 1hese (Lyplcally vlrLuallzaLlon
auLomaLlon) producLs offer Lhe ablllLy Lo hosL appllcaLlons or vlrLual
machlnes ln a companyƌs own seL of hosLsŦ 1hese provlde Lhe beneflLs
of uLlllLy compuLlng Ŵshared hardware cosLsţ Lhe ablllLy Lo recover from
fallureţ and Lhe ablllLy Lo scale up or down dependlng upon demandŦ
ÞrlvaLe clouds have aLLracLed crlLlclsm because users ƍsLlll have Lo buyţ
bulldţ and manage Lhemƍ and Lhus do noL beneflL from lower upŴfronL
caplLal cosLs and less handsŴon managemenLţ essenLlally ƍżlacklngŽ Lhe
economlc model LhaL makes cloud compuLlng such an lnLrlgulng
concepLƍŦLnLerprlse l1 organlzaLlons use Lhelr own prlvaLe cloud(s) for
mlsslon crlLlcal and oLher operaLlonal sysLems Lo proLecL crlLlcal
lnfrasLrucLuresŦ

1

Cloud compuLlng
Ŧ CLCUD LNGINLLkING
Cloud englneerlng ls Lhe appllcaLlon of a sysLemaLlcţ dlsclpllnedţ
quanLlflableţ and lnLerdlsclpllnary approach Lo Lhe ldeaLlonţ
concepLuallzaLlonţ developmenLţ operaLlonţ and malnLenance of cloud
compuLlngţ as well as Lhe sLudy and applled research of Lhe approachţ
lŦeŦţ Lhe appllcaLlon of englneerlng Lo cloudŦ lL ls a maLurlng and
evolvlng dlsclpllne Lo faclllLaLe Lhe adopLlonţ sLraLeglzaLlonţ
operaLlonallzaLlonţ lndusLrlallzaLlonţ sLandardlzaLlonţ producLlzaLlonţ
commodlLlzaLlonţ and governance of cloud soluLlonsţ leadlng Lowards a
cloud ecosysLem
Ŧ
Cloud englneerlng ls also known as cloud servlce
englneerlngŦ

8Ŧ CLCUD S1CkAGL
Cloud sLorage ls a model of neLworked compuLer daLa sLorage where
daLa ls sLored on mulLlple vlrLual serversţ generally hosLed by Lhlrd
parLlesţ raLher Lhan belng hosLed on dedlcaLed serversŦ PosLlng
companles operaLe large daLa cenLersŤ and people who requlre Lhelr
daLa Lo be hosLed buy or lease sLorage capaclLy from Lhem and use lL
for Lhelr sLorage needsŦ 1he daLa cenLer operaLorsţ ln Lhe backgroundţ
vlrLuallze Lhe resources accordlng Lo Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe cusLomer
and expose Lhem as vlrLual serversţ whlch Lhe cusLomers can
Lhemselves manageŦ Þhyslcallyţ Lhe resource may span across mulLlple
serversŦ


1

Cloud compuLlng
Ŧ 1nL IN1LkCLCUD
1he lnLercloud ls an lnLerconnecLed global ƍcloud of cloudsƍ and an
exLenslon of Lhe lnLerneL ƍneLwork of neLworksƍ on whlch lL ls basedŦ
1he Lerm was flrsL used ln Lhe conLexL of cloud compuLlng ln 00 when
kevln kelly sLaLed LhaL ƍevenLually weƌll have Lhe lnLercloudţ Lhe cloud
of cloudsŦ 1hls lnLercloud wlll have Lhe dlmenslons of one machlne
comprlslng all servers and aLLendanL cloudbooks on Lhe planeLŦ lL
became popular ln 00 and has also been used Lo descrlbe Lhe
daLacenLer of Lhe fuLureŦ
1he lnLercloud scenarlo ls based on Lhe key concepL LhaL each slngle
cloud does noL have lnflnlLe physlcal resourcesŦ lf a cloud saLuraLes Lhe
compuLaLlonal and sLorage resources of lLs vlrLuallzaLlon lnfrasLrucLureţ
lL could noL be able Lo saLlsfy furLher requesLs for servlce allocaLlons
senL from lLs cllenLsŦ 1he lnLercloud scenarlo alms Lo address such
slLuaLlonţ and ln Lheoryţ each cloud can use Lhe compuLaLlonal and
sLorage resources of Lhe vlrLuallzaLlon lnfrasLrucLures of oLher cloudsŦ
Such form of payŴforŴuse may lnLroduce new buslness opporLunlLles
among cloud provlders lf Lhey manage Lo go beyond LheoreLlcal
frameworkŦ neverLhelessţ Lhe lnLercloud ralses many more challenges
Lhan soluLlons concernlng cloud federaLlonţ securlLyţ lnLeroperablllLyţ
quallLy of servlceţ vendorƌs lockŴlnsţ LrusLţ legal lssuesţ monlLorlng and
bllllngŦ
1he concepL of a compeLlLlve uLlllLy compuLlng markeL whlch comblned
many compuLer uLlllLles LogeLher was orlglnally descrlbed by uouglas
Þarkhlll ln hls 1 bookţ Lhe ƍChallenge of Lhe CompuLer uLlllLyƍŦ 1hls
concepL has been subsequenLly used many Llmes over Lhe lasL 0 years
and ls ldenLlcal Lo Lhe lnLercloudŦ


1

Cloud compuLlng
10Ŧ ISSULS
Privacy
1he cloud model has been crlLlclzed by prlvacy advocaLes for Lhe
greaLer ease ln whlch Lhe companles hosLlng Lhe cloud servlces conLrolţ
and Lhusţ can monlLor aL wlllţ lawfully or unlawfullyţ Lhe communlcaLlon
and daLa sLored beLween Lhe user and Lhe hosL companyŦ lnsLances
such as Lhe secreL nSA programţ worklng wlLh A1Ǝ1ţ and verlzonţ
whlch recorded over 10 mllllon phone calls beLween Amerlcan clLlzensţ
causes uncerLalnLy among prlvacy advocaLesţ and Lhe greaLer powers lL
glves Lo LelecommunlcaLlon companles Lo monlLor user acLlvlLyŦ
Compliance
ln order Lo obLaln compllance wlLh regulaLlons lncludlng llSMAţ PlÞAA
and SCx ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ Lhe uaLa ÞroLecLlon ulrecLlve ln Lhe Lu
and Lhe credlL card lndusLryƌs ÞCl uSSţ users may have Lo adopL
commoolty or bybtlJ deploymenL modes whlch are Lyplcally more
expenslve and may offer resLrlcLed beneflLsŦ 1hls ls how Coogle ls able
Lo ƍmanage and meeL addlLlonal governmenL pollcy requlremenLs
beyond llSMAƍ and 8ackspace Cloud are able Lo clalm ÞCl compllanceŦ
CusLomers ln Lhe Lu conLracLlng wlLh cloud provlders esLabllshed
ouLslde Lhe Lu/LLA have Lo adhere Lo Lhe Lu regulaLlons on exporL of
personal daLaŦ
egal
ln March 00ţ uell applled Lo Lrademark Lhe Lerm ƍcloud compuLlngƍ
(uŦSŦ 1rademark ţ1ţ0) ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesŦ 1he ƍnoLlce of
Allowanceƍ Lhe company recelved ln !uly 00 was canceled ln AugusLţ
resulLlng ln a formal re[ecLlon of Lhe Lrademark appllcaLlon less Lhan a
week laLerŦ Slnce 00ţ Lhe number of Lrademark flllngs coverlng cloud
1

Cloud compuLlng
compuLlng brandsţ goods and servlces has lncreased aL an almosL
exponenLlal raLeŦ As companles soughL Lo beLLer poslLlon Lhemselves
for cloud compuLlng brandlng and markeLlng efforLsţ cloud compuLlng
Lrademark flllngs lncreased by Ʒ beLween 00 and 00Ŧ ln 00ţ
11 cloud compuLlng Lrademarks were flledţ and Lrademark analysLs
predlcL LhaL over 00 such marks could be flled durlng 010Ŧ
pen source
Cpen source sofLware has provlded Lhe foundaLlon for many cloud
compuLlng lmplemenLaLlonsŦ ln november 00ţ Lhe lree SofLware
loundaLlon released Lhe Affero Ceneral Þubllc Llcenseţ a verslon of
CÞLv lnLended Lo close a percelved legal loophole assoclaLed wlLh free
sofLware deslgned Lo be run over a neLworkŦ
pen standards
MosL cloud provlders expose AÞls whlch are Lyplcally wellŴdocumenLed
(ofLen under a CreaLlve Commons llcense) buL also unlque Lo Lhelr
lmplemenLaLlon and Lhus noL lnLeroperableŦ Some vendors have
adopLed oLhersƌ AÞls and Lhere are a number of open sLandards under
developmenLţ lncludlng Lhe CClƌs Cpen Cloud CompuLlng lnLerfaceŦ
1he Cpen Cloud ConsorLlum (CCC) ls worklng Lo develop consensus on
early cloud compuLlng sLandards and pracLlcesŦ
Security
1he relaLlve securlLy of cloud compuLlng servlces ls a conLenLlous lssue
whlch may be delaylng lLs adopLlonŦ lssues barrlng Lhe adopLlon of
cloud compuLlng are due ln large parL Lo Lhe prlvaLe and publlc secLors
unease surroundlng Lhe exLernal managemenL of securlLy based
servlcesŦ lL ls Lhe very naLure of cloud compuLlng based servlcesţ prlvaLe
or publlcţ LhaL promoLe exLernal managemenL of provlded servlcesŦ
1

Cloud compuLlng
1hls dellvers greaL lncenLlve amongsL cloud compuLlng servlce
provlders ln produclng a prlorlLy ln bulldlng and malnLalnlng sLrong
managemenL of secure servlcesŦ
CrganlzaLlons have been formed ln order Lo provlde sLandards for a
beLLer fuLure ln cloud compuLlng servlcesŦ Cne organlzaLlon ln
parLlcularţ Lhe Cloud SecurlLy Alllance ls a nonŴproflL organlzaLlon
formed Lo promoLe Lhe use of besL pracLlces for provldlng securlLy
assurance wlLhln cloud compuLlng.
vailability and performance
ln addlLlon Lo concerns abouL securlLyţ buslnesses are also worrled
abouL accepLable levels of avallablllLy and performance of appllcaLlons
hosLed ln Lhe cloudŦ
1here are also concerns abouL a cloud provlder shuLLlng down for
flnanclal or legal reasonsţ whlch has happened ln a number of casesŦ
Sustainability and siting
AlLhough cloud compuLlng ls ofLen assumed Lo be a form of ƍgreen
compuLlngƍţ Lhere ls as of yeL no publlshed sLudy Lo subsLanLlaLe Lhls
assumpLlonŦ SlLlng Lhe servers affecLs Lhe envlronmenLal effecLs of
cloud compuLlngŦ ln areas where cllmaLe favors naLural coollng and
renewable elecLrlclLy ls readlly avallableţ Lhe envlronmenLal effecLs wlll
be more moderaLeŦ 1hus counLrles wlLh favorable condlLlonsţ such as
llnlandţ Sweden and SwlLzerlandţ are Lrylng Lo aLLracL cloud compuLlng
daLa cenLersŦ
SmarL8ayţ marlne research lnfrasLrucLure of sensors and compuLaLlonal
Lechnologyţ ls belng developed uslng cloud compuLlngţ an emerglng
approach Lo shared lnfrasLrucLure ln whlch large pools of sysLems are
llnked LogeLher Lo provlde l1 servlcesŦ
1

Cloud compuLlng
11Ŧ CCNCLUSICN

Cloud compuLlng ls a powerful new absLracLlon for large scale daLa
processlng sysLems whlch ls scalableţ rellable and avallableŦ ln cloud
compuLlngţ Lhere are large selfŴmanaged server pools avallable whlch
reduces Lhe overhead and ellmlnaLes managemenL headacheŦ

Cloud compuLlng servlces can also grow and shrlnk accordlng Lo needŦ
Cloud compuLlng ls parLlcularly valuable Lo small and medlum
buslnessesţ where effecLlve and affordable l1 Lools are crlLlcal Lo
helplng Lhem become more producLlve wlLhouL spendlng loLs of money
on lnŴhouse resources and Lechnlcal equlpmenLŦ Also lL ls a new
emerglng archlLecLure needed Lo expand Lhe lnLerneL Lo
become Lhe compuLlng plaLform of Lhe fuLureŦ










0

Cloud compuLlng
11Ŧ kLILkLNCLS

1Ŧ wwwŦw|k|ped|aŦorg
Ŧ wwwŦs||deshareŦnet
3Ŧ wwwŦtechnobuffa|oŦcom

    

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