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# General Physics I

General Physics I

## Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

States of Matter

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

States of Matter

## A solid is a rigid body takes a lot of energy to change its shape.

Solids can be classified into two types: i) Crystalline solids have atoms that are structured in an orderly fashion. ii) Amorphous solids have randomly arranged atoms. b) A liquid is fluid in nature moderate energy required to change its shape. c) A gas is also fluid in nature little energy required to change its shape.

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

States of Matter

If a gas gets hot enough, electrons circling the nucleus of the atoms in the gas are ripped away from the nucleus
the gas becomes ionized

## ionized gas is called a plasma.

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Density

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Pressure

The unit of pressure is the Pascal 1 N/m2 = 1 Pa If an object is immersed in a gas or a liquid, the gas or liquid exerts a pressure on the object. This is because the molecules of the gas or liquid are continually hitting and giving an impulse to the walls of the object. The larger the area of the wall, the more molecules in a given time hit the wall and therefore the greater the impulse.

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

## The Deformation of Solids

The amount of shape change (deformation) for a given amount of energy supplied to a solid is called the elasticity of the solid.
a) Stress is related to the force causing the deformation:

## c) For small stresses, strain is directly proportional to stress:

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

## Change of Pressure with Depth

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Atmospheric Pressure
The same is true for the atmosphere
The force on an area is the weight of the column of air above it. A difference with the case of a liquid is that the density of air decreases with height. The pressure of air at the surface of the Earth is 1.01 x 105 Pa = 14.7 lb/in2

## A liquid is essentially incompressible so its density doesnt change with pressure

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Pascals Principle
Pascals Principle states: Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the containing vessel. Since we often measure pressure in fluids that are open to air at one end of a container, we can use Pascals principle to write

## where P is the atmospheric pressure at the Earths surface

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Pressure Measurement

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Pascals Principle

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Buoyancy
Archimedes Principle: Any body completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Buoyancy

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Floating

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Archimedes Principle

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Sink of Float

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids

General Physics I

Equation of Continuity
The continuity condition requires the mass flux of a fluid through a pipe is constant: Mass Flux = Av = constant [kg/s], A: cross-sectional area of pipe at two different points (1) and (2). v: velocity of fluid at two different points (1) and (2). Av: flow rate. The above equation is known as the equation of continuity the smaller you make the cross-sectional area of a pipe, the faster the fluid flow.

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Lecture 9: Solids and Fluids