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If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object C, Then A and B are in equilibrium with each other Implication: This law is important because we can now define what temperature is Temperature is a property that can determine whether objects are in thermal equilibrium

Thermal Equilibrium

y We can say that

objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are at the same temperature Or objects with different temperatures are not in thermal equilibrium

1.

2. Temperature dependence of pressure at constant volume (gas thermometers) Pressure changes with temperature (volume of Gas is constant)

Expansion of materials as temperature changes Materials expand when heated. Mercury and alcohol

Thermal expansion

Linear expansion objects increases in length when temperature increases, and contracts when temperature decreases. T ~ L

Heat

At ordinary temperature, atoms oscillate with amplitude of 10-11 m

Volume Expansion volume of an object changes with

temperature

Heat is defined as the transfer of energy across the boundary of a system due to a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings

Atoms oscillate with greater amplitude when temperature increases

10-10 m

Units of Heat

Heat

y Remember when there is temperature difference between

calorie (cal) the amount of energy transfer necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water from 14.5C to 15.5C

two objects, heat flows from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature.

1 calorie = 4.186 J

Sample

The change in phase (solid, liquid, gas) of a substancedue to the addition or removal of heat without changing its temperature

Latent Heat

A 10 g solid ice initially at -2oC is heated. The ice turned to liquid water and have a final temperature of 10oC. How much heat was added?

Ti = 0 0 C

Ice

Liquid Water

Tf = 0 0 C

Heat

y Latent heat of fusion the heat needed to change the

Given: m = 10g Tf = 10oC oC Ti = -2 Q=? Solution: Q total = Q temp change + Q phase change + Q temp change

y Latent heat of vaporization - the heat needed to change

The heat capacity C of a particular sample of a substance is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of that sample by 1 C

y Latent heat of solidification liquid to solid

temperature of a unit mass of material by a unit degree in temperature.

= 910 cal

y Latent heat of sublimation Solid to gas

Water: c = 1.0 cal/g-0C

y Temperature change

y Phase change

y Expansion

Lead: c = 0.031 cal/g-0C

Convection

y Conduction

y Convection

Conduction

y Radiation

1. Material (thermal conductivity ) a. Conductors (metal)

Conduction

2. Temperature Difference

Obviously thermal energy transfer (heat) will only occur if there is difference in temperature 3. Thickness of the material slab and the cross sectional area

Radiation

Conduction

-The flow of thermal energy directly through matter without motion of the material itself. - Kinetic energy transfer between molecules and atoms that comprises the conductor

such as visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. Does not need a medium to propagate y All objects emit continuously in the form of produced by thermal vibrations of the molecules

Higher Temperature

Conductor

Lower Temperature

y Dewer flask

Sample

In the Philippines it is commonly known as termos (Thermos Brand)

Statement: The net heat transferred equals the change in INTERNAL ENERGY of the system and WORK IS DONE BY the system.

Q= U+W

y A statement of Law of Conservation Energy

Heat

Internal Energy

y The some of all the energies of the molecules and atoms that

Laws of Thermodynamics

1. First Law of Thermodynamics

make up the system y Includes translational, rotational kinetic energy and the potential energy between the molecules or atoms that make up the system

In short

Example

-150 C

4 km

Adiabatic Process: NO HEAT IS ADDED Q=0

Therefore

-50 C

3 km

50 C

2 km

1 km 0 km

U=W

150 C

250 C

Adiabatic Process

Work done by the system: decreases systems internal energy (result: Lower Temperature)

Work done into the system: Increases systems internal energy (result: Higher Temperature)

Heat will never of itself flow from a cold object to a hot object

y Kelvin Planck Statement of 2nd Law of thermodynamics:

Adiabatic Process

It is impossible to construct a heat engine that, operating in a cycle, produces no effect other than the absorption of energy from a reservoir and the performance of an equal amount of work

y Example:

Find the efficiency of a heat engine that absorbs 2 000 J of energy from a hot reservoir and exhausts 1 500 J to a cold reservoir? Solution: e = 1 (Qc/Qh) = 1 (1500 J/2000 J) = 0.25 or 25%

Read More

Entropy = from Greek words meaning turning into

= measure of how much energy or heat is unavailable for conversion into work

Entropy

Refrigerator

y http://www.allaboutscience.org/laws-of-thermodynamics-

faq.htm

S = Q/T

Entropy

Entropy is a quantitative measure of DISORDER Restating 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: In any isolated system, entropy increases

Whenever energy is freely transforms from one form to another, the direction of the transformation is towards a state of greater disorder (greater entropy) Implication: Natural System tends towards greater disorder

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