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Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object C, Then A and B are in equilibrium with each other Implication: This law is important because we can now define what temperature is Temperature is a property that can determine whether objects are in thermal equilibrium

Heat and Thermodynamics

Thermal Equilibrium
y We can say that

Why would someone designing a pipeline include these strange loops?

The flow of electrons in a material vary with temperature (resistance thermometers)

objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are at the same temperature Or objects with different temperatures are not in thermal equilibrium

Resistance is measured as temperature is varied

Ways of measuring temperatures


Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

2. Temperature dependence of pressure at constant volume (gas thermometers) Pressure changes with temperature (volume of Gas is constant)

Expansion of materials as temperature changes Materials expand when heated. Mercury and alcohol

Pressure is zero at T = -273.15 C

Sample application of thermal expansion

Thermal expansion
Linear expansion objects increases in length when temperature increases, and contracts when temperature decreases. T ~ L

Note: Different materials have different coefficients of thermal expansion

Circuit breaker. The switch is off if the temperature increases.

At ordinary temperature, atoms oscillate with amplitude of 10-11 m


Volume Expansion volume of an object changes with

Heat is defined as the transfer of energy across the boundary of a system due to a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings
Atoms oscillate with greater amplitude when temperature increases

10-10 m

Units of Heat

y Remember when there is temperature difference between

calorie (cal) the amount of energy transfer necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water from 14.5C to 15.5C

two objects, heat flows from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature.

Joule (J) is also a unit of heat

1 calorie = 4.186 J

The change in phase (solid, liquid, gas) of a substancedue to the addition or removal of heat without changing its temperature

Latent Heat

Mechanical equivalent of heat

A 10 g solid ice initially at -2oC is heated. The ice turned to liquid water and have a final temperature of 10oC. How much heat was added?

Ti = 0 0 C

Liquid Water
Tf = 0 0 C

Heat capacity and specific Heat

y Latent heat of fusion the heat needed to change the

Given: m = 10g Tf = 10oC oC Ti = -2 Q=? Solution: Q total = Q temp change + Q phase change + Q temp change

phase of matter from Solid to Liquid

y Latent heat of vaporization - the heat needed to change

The heat capacity C of a particular sample of a substance is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of that sample by 1 C

= mcice T + mLf + mcwater T

= (10g)(0.5 cal/g-oC)(0-(-2)) + (10g)(80cal/g) + (10g)(1 cal/g-oC)(10-0)

y Latent heat of solidification liquid to solid

the phase of matter from Liquid to Gas

Q=C T Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the

temperature of a unit mass of material by a unit degree in temperature.

= 10 cal + 800 cal + 100 cal

= 910 cal
y Latent heat of sublimation Solid to gas

y Note: See manual for more sample calculations

Q = mc T m = mass c = specific heat T = change in temperature

Addition or Removal of Heat causes.

Specific heat of some common materials

Water: c = 1.0 cal/g-0C

y Temperature change

y Phase change

y Expansion

Ice: c = 0.5 cal/g-0C

Lead: c = 0.031 cal/g-0C

y Change in internal energy

y Conduction
y Convection

y Radiation

Modes of Heat Transfer

y Convection is the transfer of heat by mass motion of a fluid

from one region of space to another.

Factors that affect the rate of thermal conduction

1. Material (thermal conductivity ) a. Conductors (metal)


b. Insulators (wood, asbestos, gases)

2. Temperature Difference

Obviously thermal energy transfer (heat) will only occur if there is difference in temperature 3. Thickness of the material slab and the cross sectional area


Factors that affect the rate of thermal conduction

-The flow of thermal energy directly through matter without motion of the material itself. - Kinetic energy transfer between molecules and atoms that comprises the conductor

y Radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves

such as visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. Does not need a medium to propagate y All objects emit continuously in the form of produced by thermal vibrations of the molecules

Higher Temperature


Lower Temperature

First Law of Thermodynamics

y Dewer flask

In the Philippines it is commonly known as termos (Thermos Brand)

Statement: The net heat transferred equals the change in INTERNAL ENERGY of the system and WORK IS DONE BY the system.

Q= U+W

Q = heat U = internal energy W = work done

First Law of Thermodynamics

y A statement of Law of Conservation Energy

(In this case Heat is converted to mechanical energy)

Internal energy increases and work is done is done by the system


Internal Energy
y The some of all the energies of the molecules and atoms that

Laws of Thermodynamics
1. First Law of Thermodynamics

make up the system y Includes translational, rotational kinetic energy and the potential energy between the molecules or atoms that make up the system

Q= U+W 2. Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy Heat Engines

In short
-150 C

4 km

First Law of Thermodynamics; Adiabatic Process

Adiabatic Process: NO HEAT IS ADDED Q=0

No heat engine can completely convert heat in to mechanical work

-50 C

3 km

50 C

2 km
1 km 0 km


Heat engine - device that converts internal energy to mechanical energy

150 C

250 C

Sample of Heat Engine

Adiabatic Process
Work done by the system: decreases systems internal energy (result: Lower Temperature)

Work done into the system: Increases systems internal energy (result: Higher Temperature)

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Heat will never of itself flow from a cold object to a hot object
y Kelvin Planck Statement of 2nd Law of thermodynamics:

Adiabatic Process

It is impossible to construct a heat engine that, operating in a cycle, produces no effect other than the absorption of energy from a reservoir and the performance of an equal amount of work

y Example:

Find the efficiency of a heat engine that absorbs 2 000 J of energy from a hot reservoir and exhausts 1 500 J to a cold reservoir? Solution: e = 1 (Qc/Qh) = 1 (1500 J/2000 J) = 0.25 or 25%

Read More
Entropy = from Greek words meaning turning into
= measure of how much energy or heat is unavailable for conversion into work





y Conceptual Physics by G. Hewitt

= measure of the amount of disorder

y College Physics by Serway and Vaughn

S = Q/T

Entropy is a quantitative measure of DISORDER Restating 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: In any isolated system, entropy increases
Whenever energy is freely transforms from one form to another, the direction of the transformation is towards a state of greater disorder (greater entropy) Implication: Natural System tends towards greater disorder

Ideal efficiency of a heat engine