AŦ Þresentat|on
Þeople are generally aware LhaL success ln one's llfe and career depends Lo a greaL
exLenL on one's
ablllLy Lo communlcaLe effecLlvelyŦ 8ecause Lhe flrsL lmpresslon one makes ls very
lmporLanLţ each
person has Lo know cerLaln rules of greeLlngţ of presenLlng oneself and of havlng a
brlef openlng
A1Ŧ íxcbooqloq wotJs wltb o oew ocpoolotooceŦ keoJ tbe followloq Jloloqoe ooJ tty to
wtlte Jowo
o slmllot ooe tokloq ploce betweeo yoot fomlly ooJ tbe fomlly of o ftleoJ of yootsŦ
!ohn SmlLh ť MrŦ 8rownţ you know my wlfeţ Maryţ don'L you?
Mlchael 8rown ť noţ l don'L Lhlnk we have meLŦ l dldn'L have Lhe pleasureŦ
Mary SmlLh ť Pow do you doŦ lL's an honour for me Lo meeL youţ MrŦ 8rownŦ
Mlchael 8rown ť Pow do you doŦ 1he honour ls on my sldeŦ now allow me Lo lnLroduce
you Lo my
famllyŦ 1hls ls my wlfeţ Angelaţ and Lhls ls my daughLerţ !aneŦ
Angela 8rown ť l am dellghLed Lo make your acqualnLanceŦ
!ane 8rown ť Clad Lo meeL youţ madamţ slrŦ
Mary SmlLh ť ?ou have such a lovely daughLerŦ Pave you already graduaLed Lhe
!ane 8rown ť ?esţ l graduaLed Lhe hlghschool lasL yearţ and now l am a sLudenLŦ
Mlchael 8rown ť She sLudles soclal communlcaLlon and publlc relaLlonsŦ Cur chlld has
wanLed Lo do someLhlng new and lnLeresLlngţ so Lhls fleld sulLs herŦ
!ohn SmlLh ť When we were youngţ we also dreamL of dolng Lhe mosL fanLasLlc LhlngsŦ
We also
lefL our son Lhe freedom of cholce and now he sLudles Lhe arL of palnLlngŦ
Angela 8rown ť 1hls glves me an ldeaŦ As MrŦ SmlLh and my husband are colleaguesţ
why don'L
we meeL some Llme aL our place Lo flnd ouL more abouL Lhe plans for fuLure of our
Mary SmlLh ť 1hank you for your klnd lnvlLaLlonţ Lhen we shall pay you a vlslL soon and
hope you wlll reLurn Lhe vlslL Lo usŦ
A2Ŧ uesctlbloq o petsoo
¥oo ote oo tbe beocb ooJ yoo see oo empty blooket oo wblcb tbete ote o few objects
spteoJ otoooJŦ
¥oo look ot tbem ooJ yoo wooJet wbo ls tbe petsoo tbot owos tbese objectsŦ AoJ yoo
ote woltloq
fot lt to oppeotŧ
1be llst of objects ls tbe followloqť
r some chewlngŴgum
r a fllm
r a comb
r a belL bag
r some car keys
r a camera
r a plcLure of Lwo old persons
r some sunŴLan loLlon
r a palr of headŴphones
r a mlrror
r a Lowel
r a pencll
r a book
r a leLLer-ow ose yoot lmoqlootlooť
r ls Lhls person a man or a woman?
r Where does he/she come from?
r Pow old ls he/she?
r WhaL ls hls/her [ob?
r ls he/she marrled or slngle?
r WhaL ls he/she dolng aL Lhe momenL?
r WhaL colour are hls/her eyes?
1ty to wtlte o Jesctlptloo of tbls petsoo´s llfeţ os yoo lmoqloe ltŦ
AJŦ Memotles
lo tbe followloq ftoqmeot tbe fomoos octtess 5opblo loteo tecolls bet fltst meetloqs
wltb o fllm
Jltectotţ wltb tbe wotlJ of movles ooJţ lost bot oot leostţ wltb qlotyŦ 1tooslote tbe textţ
tbeo tty to
wtlte Jowo sevetol memotles oboot lmpottoot eocoootets lo yoot llfeŦ
1hey were golden daysţ Lhe 30sŦ vlLLorlo ue Slca and Carlo ÞonLlţ my Carloţ were dolng
a pro[ecL
called 1be ColJ of -oplesŦ ue Slca saldţ ºl need a neapollLan glrl"Ŧ Carlo Lold hlm ºl
know a glrlţ
she's called Sofla Sclcolone"Ŧ l was glven Lhe role of Lhe plzzololo (plzza sLreeL vendor)Ŧ
lL was
1932Ŧ l was 17ţ and l was compleLely drunk wlLh happlnessŦ
lor us 8ome was an enchanLlng placeţ a clLy of Lrams and palacesŦ l felL llke Lhls
because l was very
youngţ buL Lhere were people 40ţ 30 years old who felL llke meţ Looţ because of whaL
Lhey had gone
Lhrough durlng Lhe warŦ 1hey felL Lhey could afford maybe Lo sLarL a new llfeŦ
ue Slca was a senslLlve man wlLh greaL lnsLlncLs and a greaL sense of humourŦ We
spoke Lhe same
language Ŷ almosL Lhe way as when you're marrled a long Llme and you look aL your
husband andţ
wlLh [usL a glance or a gesLureţ you knowŦ
1hen Lhere was Anna MagnanlŦ When ue Slca was plannlng Lo fllm Moravla's new book
womeoţ he wanLed Magnanl Lo play Lhe moLherţ and l could play Lhe daughLerŦ When
ue Slca wenL
Lo see Magnanlţ she cocked LhaL hlp of hers and saldţ ºnoţ l can'L play wlLh SophlaŦ
WhaL are we
golng Lo do LogeLher on Lhe seL? We are golng Lo klll each oLher!" As ue Slca was
leavlngţ she
cocked LhaL hlp agaln and Lhrew up her chln wlLh LhaL beauLlfully freeŴsplrlLed alr we
all knew so
wellŦ ºPah! Why don'L you Lry Lo glve Sophla Lhe role of Lhe moLher?" Wellţ l dld play
LhaL roleŦ
1he moLher became youngerţ and Lhe daughLer (played by Lleonora 8rown) became a
glrl of 13Ŧ
And l never played a role beLLer!
A4Ŧ cboose ooe of tbe followloq toplcs ooJ wtlte o Jloloqoeť
aŦ ?ou are sLrolllng downLownŦ Suddenly you meeL an old frlend of yours whom you
have noL seen
slnce you were ln elemenLary schoolŦ ?ou are surprlsed Lo learn LhaL he has become a
bŦ ?ou are walklng down Lhe sLreeLŦ Suddenly you see a frlend ln fronL of youŦ ?ou run
up Lo hlm
and say helloţ buL when he Lurns around you dlscover LhaL he ls a sLrangerŦ
cŦ ?ou are a Leacher ln Lhe flrsL day of schoolŦ ÞresenL yourself ln fronL of Lhe class and
prompL Lhe
conversaLlon wlLh Lhe sLudenLsŦ
locus on communicotion

Ŧ 1he Ind|cat|ve Mood
ln Lhe exerclses and LexLs aboveţ whlle presenLlng characLers and lnLroduclng peopleţ
we used Lhe
Lenses of Lhe lndlcaLlve MoodŦ We pracLlsed presenL and pasLţ Lenses whlch we have ln
8omanlan languageţ Looţ buL also presenL perfecLţ whlch we cannoL flnd ln 8omanlanŦ
1Ŧ let´s compote tbe komooloo oxls of teoses (wblcb ls ooly ooe) wltb tbe íoqllsb oxes
(two of
tbem) ooJ Jlscoss tbelt Jlffeteot loqlcŦ
now ls tbe komooloo moooet? We have a un|que ax|s of tensesţ wlLh a maln polnL
(prezenL) wlLh
Lwo derlvaLlonsţ one golng up (vllLor) and one golng down (LrecuL)Ŧ Cf courseţ we know
Lhere are
varlous klnds of pasL Lense Ŷ ºperfecL slmplu"ţ ºperfecL compus" and ºlmperfecL" Ŷ and
Lhey dlffer
from Lhe polnL of vlew of usage (Lhe flrsL ls lnformalţ colloqulalŤ Lhe second ls Lhe mosL
presenL ln
wrlLLen communlcaLlonŤ Lhe Lhlrd lnvolvesţ ln a wayţ conLlnulLy)ţ buL Lhey cover Lhe
same poslLlon ln
Lhe schemeŦ 1here ls an lnLermedlaLe Lense whlch funcLlons beLween presenL and
fuLure (called
ºvllLor anLerlor" or ºvllLor aproplaL")ţ expresslng an acLlon ln Lhe fuLure Laklng place
before anoLher
facL of Lhe fuLureŦ And Lhere ls anoLher relaLlonal Lenseţ named ºmal mulL ca perfecL"ţ
represenLs an acLlon ln Lhe pasL happenlng before someLhlng else ln Lhe pasLŦ 1he
8omanlan golden
rule ls LhaL there |s no ru|eť we are allowed Lo use any Lwo Lenses on Lhe axls LogeLherţ
resLrlcLlonsŦ LeL us have some exomplesť
Ŵ ´ptezeot´ lo comblootloo wltb ´ttecot´ ť ºA spus cá vlneŦ"
Ŵ ´ttecot´ lo comblootloo wltb ´vlltot´ ť ºA spus cá va venlŦ"
Ŵ ´mol molt co petfect´ lo comblootloo wltb ´vlltot´ ť ºSpusese cá va venlŦ"
Soţ Lhe 8omanlan sLrucLure seems Lo be very permlsslveţ Lhe lndlcaLlve mood belng
percelved as
a successlon of Lenses slLuaLed ln a cerLaln order on a conLlnuous axlsŦ
now ls tbe íoqllsb moooet? ln Lngllsh Lhere are two axesţ each one wlLh a maln Lenseť
the f|rst
ax|s wlLh present tense and the second ax|s wlLh past tense as Lhe cenLral polnLsŦ 1he
lmporLanL Lhlng ls not to pass from one ax|s to anotherţ because Lhey are parallelţ and
we know
LhaL parallels never meeLŦ
Soţ on the f|rst ax|s we have a compleLe sLrucLure of future Ŷ present Ŷ the past of the
tense (present perfect)Ŧ We also haveţ llke ln 8omanlanţ an lnLermedlary Lense
beLween presenL
and fuLureţ future perfectŦ
Ŵ fototeť sub[ecL + shall/wlll + lnflnlLlve (ºshall" ls used for Lhe 1sL personţ slngular and
Ŵ fotote petfectť sub[ecL + shall/wlll + have + 3rd form of Lhe verb (Ŵed for regular verbs)Ť
Ŵ pteseotť sub[ecL + lnflnlLlve (Ŵs/Ŵes for Lhe 3rd person slngular)Ť
Ŵ pteseot petfectť sub[ecL + have/has + 3rd form of Lhe verbŦ
lteseot petfect represenLsţ as we have menLloned aboveţ Lhe pasL of Lhe presenLţ used
because ln
Lngllsh lL ls noL permlLLed Lo use presenL llnked wlLh Lhe proper pasLŦ 1here are Lhree
slLuaLlons ln
whlch presenL perfecL occursť
1Ŧ an acLlon ln Lhe pasL whlch conLlnues ln Lhe presenL
speclflc adverbsť alwaysţ everţ neverţ ofLenţ rarelyţ seldomţ slnceţ for
examplesť l have never meL a person llke youŦ l haven'L seen hlm for flve yearsŦ
2Ŧ an acLlon ln Lhe pasL whlch ls very close Lo Lhe presenL
speclflc adverbsť [usLţ yeLţ recenLlyţ laLely
examplesť l have [usL arrlvedŦ l have had a loL of work Lo do recenLlyŦ
locus on communicotion
3Ŧ an acLlon ln Lhe pasL whose resulLs can be percelved ln Lhe presenL
speclflc dlfference from pasL Ŷ exampleť l losL my pencll yesLerdayŦ l have losL my
yesLerday and l am looklng for lL nowŦ
n the second ax|sţ we also have a compleLe sLrucLureţ symmeLrlcal Lo LhaL of Lhe flrsL
composed by future |n the past (an act|on tak|ng p|ace before a past one) Ŷ past
tense Ŷ past
perfect (an act|on |n the past tak|ng p|ace after a past one)Ŧ 1here ls also Lhe
lnLermedlary Lense
beLween pasL Lense and fuLure ln Lhe pasLţ fuLure perfecL ln Lhe pasLţ rarely usedŦ
Ŵ fotote lo tbe postť sub[ecL + should/would + lnflnlLlve (ºshould" ls used for Lhe 1sL
slngular and plural)Ť
Ŵ fotote petfect lo tbe postť sub[ecL + should/would + have + 3rd form of Lhe verbŤ
Ŵ postť sub[ecL + 2nd form of Lhe verb (Ŵed for regular verbs)Ť
Ŵ post petfectť sub[ecL + had + 3rd form of Lhe verbŦ
lotote lo tbe post ls a Lechnlcal Lenseţ lL ls mechanlcally used whenever we Lry Lo
express a fuLure
acLlon ln a pasL conLexLŦ ln a LranslaLlonţ whereas ln 8omanlan we need a slngle axlsţ ln
Lngllsh we
need boLh axesŦ
Lxampleť Spune cá va venlŦ Ŷ Pe says he wlll comeŦ
A spus cá va venlŦ Ŷ Pe sald he would comeŦ
lost petfect represenLs ln a way Lhe 8omanlan ºmal mulL ca perfecL"Ŧ 8uL Lhe
dlfference ls LhaL ln
8omanlan we can use elLher ºLrecuL" or ºmal mulL ca perfecL"ţ whlle ln Lngllsh pasL
perfecL has a
sLronger meanlng of anLerlorlLyŦ
Lxamplesť ºA spus cá plouase" ls Lhe same wlLh ºA spus cá a plouaL" and ls LranslaLed
lnLo Lngllsh
as ºPe sald lL had ralned"Ŧ ºPe sald lL ralned" represenLs Lwo acLlons Laklng place ln Lhe
same Llme
and ls LranslaLed lnLo 8omanlan as ºA spus cá plouá"Ŧ
1he koman|an ax|s 1he Lng||sh axes
vllLor luLure luLure ln Lhe ÞasL
vllLor anLerlor luLure ÞerfecL luLure ÞerfecL
ln Lhe ÞasL
ÞrezenL ÞresenL ÞasL
Mal mulL ca perfecL ÞresenL ÞerfecL ÞasL ÞerfecL
locus on communicotion

2Ŧ lot tbe vetbs lo btockets loto tbe cottect teoseť
a)Ŧ 1Ŧ lL (be) for Lhe flrsL Llme LhaL !ohn and Mary ever (be) so laLeŦ 2Ŧ lL was noL unLll
she (say) ºyes"
LhaL she (wonder) wheLher she (do) wrongŦ AfLer allţ she really (noL know) hlmŦ 3Ŧ Pe
asked Lhe
buLler wheLher he (noLlce) anyLhlng dlfferenL abouL hls masLer Lhe prevlous nlghLŦ
!ackson (reply)
LhaL he (noLlce) noLhlng of Lhe klndŦ 4Ŧ ºPow long you (be) wlLh hlm?" º23 yearsţ SlrŦ
Lver slnce he
(sLarL) Lo be anyLhlng aL all"Ŧ 3Ŧ l Lold you we (have) guesLs aL o'clock and MrŦ !ohnson
(be) Lhe
flrsL and (smoke) a loL of clgareLLesŦ
b)Ŧ AgenL Cooper (wake) up aL sharpţ as he always (do)ţ no maLLer where he (be) or
whaL he (do)
Lhe prevlous dayŦ Pls flrsL LhoughL was Lhe reallsaLlon LhaL he (wear) Lhe plnsLrlped
sulLţ and when
hls eyes (fall) on Lhe reporLs plled around hlmţ Lhe evenLs of Lhe prevlous evenlng
(come) back Lo
hlmŦ Pe (go) Lo hls club for supperţ [usL (flnlsh) hls LurLle soup and (look) forward Lo Lhe
dlshţ when hls meal rudely (be) lnLerrupLed by a call from hls superlorŦ Cnce he (drlnk)
hls black
coffeeţ Cooper (Lhlnk) carefully whaL Lo puL onŦ Pe (see) MŦ aL 9 o'clock LhaL mornlng
and (be) keen
on lmpresslng Lhe laLLerŦ Clanclng aL hlmself ln Lhe mlrrorţ lL (sLrlke) hlm LhaL he (puL)
on welghL
recenLlyŦ Pe (have) Lo pay more heed Lo hls dleL ln Lhe fuLureŦ
JŦ 1tooslote loto íoqllsbť
a)Ŧ 1Ŧ Coplll se [oacá in parc in flecare zlŦ 2Ŧ uumlnlca LrecuLá am scrls câLeva scrlsorlţ
apol am
asculLaL un concerL la radloŦ 3Ŧ ue când e;Ll alcl? Am venlL azl dlmlnea(á ;l de aLuncl Le
4Ŧ Ŵ ue ce nu por(l ochelarll? Ŷ lŴam plerduLŦ 3Ŧ ÞrleLenll no;Lrl nu vor venl in vacan(á la
b)Ŧ AcesL báleLţ care sŴa náscuL acumţ e nepoLul meuŦ ÞenLru cá sá vede(l domnllle
voasLreť eu am
avuL ;ase feLeţ dlnLre care cea mal mareţ pe care má gândeam sŴo márlL dupá glnereŴ
meuţ dupá ce va
fl le;lL dascálţ sŴa márlLaL dupá dascálul dln SLrânLeaţ a doua sŴa márlLaL dupá MlLrea lul
8uducţ care
acum e cLlLor la blserlcáţ pe a Lrela a luaLŴo glnereŴmeuţ popa dln Cládenlţ cele douá
mal mlcl laLáŴle
alclţ lará Mlll sŴa márlLaL dupá glnereŴmeuţ proLopopulţ ;l a náscuL pe acesL copllţ care
acum e
nepoLul meuŦ (loan Slavlcl Ŷ oJoleo 1olcbll)
4 Ŧuo tbe followloq exetclsesť
aŦ WrlLe down a funny advenLure from your chlldhoodţ uslng Lhe Lenses of Lhe pasL
axlsŦ 1hen
reLell Lhe sLory as lf lL happened ln Lhe presenLţ uslng Lhe Lenses of Lhe presenL axlsŦ
bŦ WrlLe a Lelephone conversaLlon you have had wlLh your parenLs or your
grandparenLsŦ 1hen reLell
Lhe sLoryţ uslng Lhe pasL axlsŦ
Ŧ ln Lhe conLemporary worldţ Lhe necesslLles of llfe lnclude noL only baslc suppllesţ
llke food or
waLerţ buL also Lhe deep human need for communlcaLlon and lnformaLlonŦ We all
communlcaLe or
lnform ourselves or each oLherţ buL few of us Lry Lo deflne Lhe Lerms or descrlbe Lhe
sLages of
communlcaLlon or even serlously Lhlnk abouL Lhe resulLs of Lhelr gesLures or
senLencesŦ As Lhls
handbook has been concelved for Lhe sLudenLs ln soclal communlcaLlon and publlc
relaLlonsţ Lhe flrsL
course has Lo comprlse a serles of LexLs and exerclses of lnlLlaLlon ln Lhe fleldŦ
locus on communicotion
c1Ŧlleose ooswet tbe followloq poestloosţ osloq yoot expetleoces ooJ memotlesŦ 1ty to
oseţ os
cottect os posslbleţ tbe teoses of tbe loJlcotlve mooJŦ loy otteotloo to tbe Jlffeteoces
betweeo tbe
lteseot letfect ooJ tbe lost 1eoseŦ
a) uo you have a besL frlend? uo you Lell hlm/her everyLhlng? uo you hlde anyLhlng
hlm/her? lf soţ why?
b) Are you an easy communlcaLor or a person who has dlfflculLles ln expresslng hls
LhoughLs and
feellngs for Lhe oLhers? 1ry Lo llsL Lhe good and Lhe bad parLs of each LypeŦ
c) uo you llke belng ln a crowd or belng lonely? Why? Pave you ever felL lonely ln a
crowd and
crowded wlLh yourself alone? When?
d) Pow ls your relaLlonshlp wlLh your parenLs? uo you percelve a clash beLween
generaLlons or can
you say LhaL you geL along well?
e) Could you be a publlc speaker? Why? Pave you ever spoken on behalf of a
communlLy (your
class ln hlghschoolţ your group of sLudenLs ln Lhe faculLy)? ln whaL slLuaLlon?
f) Would you llke Lo be a professlonal spokesman? Why? lf you were oneţ would you
llke Lo
lmpress Lhrough Lhe slncerlLy of your LhoughLs or Lhrough Lhe arL of rheLorlc you make
use of?
Lxplaln your opLlonŦ
c2Ŧ keoJţ ttooslote ooJ commeot opoo tbe followloq textţ oJJloq exomples fot eocb
Jevlce ot
AL a general levelţ communlcaLlon evenLs lnvolve Lhe followlngť o sootceţ o ptocess of
eocoJloqţ o
messoqeţ o cboooelţ o ptocess of JecoJloqţ o tecelvetţ tbe poteotlol fot feeJbock and
tbe oolseŦ
1o begln wlLhţ tbe sootce lnlLlaLes Lhe process by havlng a LhoughL or an ldea LhaL he or
she wlshes
Lo LransmlL Lo some oLher enLlLyŦ naLurallyţ sources dlffer ln Lhelr communlcaLlon
sklllsŦ 1he source
may or may noL have knowledge abouL Lhe recelver of Lhe messageŦ Sources can be
lndlvldualsţ groupsţ or even organlsaLlonsŦ
1be eocoJloq ptocess refers Lo Lhe acLlvlLles LhaL a source goes Lhrough Lo LranslaLe
LhoughLs and
ldeas lnLo a form LhaL may be percelved by Lhe sensesŦ When you have someLhlng Lo
sayţ your braln
and your Longue work LogeLher Lo form words and spoken senLencesŦ When you wrlLe
a leLLerţ your
braln and your flngers coŴoperaLe Lo produce paLLerns of lnk or some oLher subsLance
on paper LhaL
can be seenŦ Lncodlng ln a communlcaLlon seLLlng can Lake place once or more LlmesŦ
1be messoqe ls Lhe acLual physlcal producL LhaL Lhe source encodesŦ When we Lalkţ our
speech ls Lhe
messageŦ Puman belngs usually have a large number of messages aL Lhelr dlsposalţ
from whlch Lhey
choose Lo send slmple or very complex onesŦ Messages can be cheap Lo produce or
very expenslveŦ
Some messages are more under Lhe conLrol of Lhe recelver Lhan oLhersŦ
cboooels refer Lo Lhe ways ln whlch Lhe message Lravels Lo Lhe recelverŦ Sound waves
carry spoken
wordsŤ llghL waves carry vlsual messagesŦ 1here are naLural and arLlflclal channelsŦ
Some messages
use more Lhan one channel Lo Lravel Lo Lhe recelverŦ
1be JecoJloq ptocess ls Lhe opposlLe of Lhe encodlng processŦ lL conslsLs of acLlvlLles
LhaL LranslaLe
or lnLerpreL physlcal messages lnLo a form LhaL has evenLual meanlng for a recelverŦ
8oLh humans
and machlnes can be LhoughL of as decodersŦ Llke encodlngţ decodlng can also happen
more Lhan
onceŦ Andţ ln Lhe same wayţ some people are beLLer encoders Lhan oLhersŦ
1be tecelvet ls Lhe LargeL of Lhe messageţ lLs ulLlmaLe goalŦ 1he recelver can be a slngle
personţ a
groupţ an lnsLlLuLlon or even a largeţ anonymous collecLlon of peopleŦ 1he recelvers of
Lhe message
locus on communicotion
can be deLermlned by a source or can selfŴselecL Lhemselves lnLo Lhe audlenceŦ 1he
sender and Lhe
recelver can be ln each oLher's lmmedlaLe presence or can be separaLed by space or
leeJbock Lakes lnLo accounL Lhe responses of Lhe recelver LhaL shape and alLer Lhe
messages of Lhe sourceŦ leedback represenLs Lhe reversal of Lhe flow of
communlcaLlonŦ1he orlglnal
source becomes Lhe recelver and Lhe orlglnal recelver becomes Lhe new sourceŦ 1here
ls tbe posltlve
feeJbock from Lhe recelverţ whlch encourages Lhe communlcaLlon behavlour ln
progressţ and Lhere
ls tbe oeqotlve ooeţ whlch aLLempLs Lo change Lhe communlcaLlon or even Lo
LermlnaLe lLŦ leedback
can be lmmeJlote or JeloyeJŦ
1he lasL facLor Lo be consldered ls oolseţ whlch ls anyLhlng LhaL lnLerferes wlLh Lhe
dellvery of Lhe
messageŦ 1here are Lhree dlfferenL Lypes of nolseť semootlc (occurlng when dlfferenL
people have
dlfferenL meanlngs for dlfferenL words and phrases)ţ mecboolcol (Lhe faulL of Lhe
machlne LhaL ls
belng used Lo asslsL communlcaLlon) and eovltoomeotol (from sources of nolse LhaL
are exLernal Lo
Lhe communlcaLlon process buL lnLerfere wlLh lL)Ŧ As nolse lncreasesţ message fldellLy
(how closely
Lhe message LhaL ls senL resembles Lhe message LhaL ls recelved) goes downŦ
1hese are Lhe componenLs of Lhe communlcaLlon process ln lLs slmplesL and clearesL
deflnlLlonŦ Cf
course Lhere are oLher posslbleţ more reflnedţ more complex ways of concelvlng
communlcaLlonţ as
for exampleţ lL ls dlfflculL Lo make arLlsLlc communlcaLlon enLer Lhese LermsŦ
cJŦ we osoolly Jeol wltb commoolcotloo betweeo peopleţ JevelopeJ ovet ceototles of
bot teseotcbets bove poloteJ oot tbe lmpottooce of ttoosmlttloq messoqes ooJ
exptesslveoess olso
lo tbe wotlJ of oolmolsŦ 1bese ooes commoolcote loslJe tbelt specles ooJ sometlmes
wltb otbet
speclesŦ lo tbls llqbtţ teoJ tbe followloq textť
Cur Lwo peL donkeys were rellable waLchmenţ and Lhelr hearlng was as sharp as Lhelr
eyeslghLŦ l
have seen Lhem many a Llme look up from Lhe grass Lhey were eaLlng and sLare hard
lnLo Lhe dlsLance
wlLh ears ralsedŤ and ln a mlnuLe or so l would see someone comlng down Lhe road
Lowards Lhe
beach or observe a flgure movlng ln a fleld a long way awayŦ
When someLhlng unusual happenedţ lredţ Lhe younger anlmalţ would make so much
nolse LhaL he
could be heard ln Lhe nexL vlllage and beyondŦ Cbvlously Lhls could be embarrasslng
when Lhe
weaLher was sLlllţ for noL everyone en[oys Lhe sound of a donkey ln full cryŦ
AL nlghL boLh donkeys were usually sllenLŦ 1hey were undlsLurbed by Lhe wlld anlmals
hunLlng ln
Lhe flelds afLer darkŦ 1hey remalned sleeplly relaxedŦ ?eL l was sure LhaL Lhey would
always ralse
Lhe alarm lf Lhere was a sLranger abouLţ or some acLlvlLy whlch puzzled LhemŦ
Cne clear AugusL nlghLţ for lnsLanceţ l was woken up around Lhree ln Lhe mornlng by
lred maklng a
greaL deal of nolseŦ lL was a very quleL nlghL and l lmmedlaLely LhoughL of all Lhe
people ln Lhe
nelghbourhood who mlghL also have been awakened by hlmŦ lL was a Lerrlble nolseţ
and lL wenL on
and onţ and so l reallsed LhaL someLhlng very unusual was boLherlng hlmŦ 1hen he
sLopped Ŵ and l
heard volcesŦ
Cn sLlll nlghLs we ofLen heard Lhe volces of Lhe crews of flshlng boaLs passlng across
Lhe bayţ
someLlmes speaklng ln lrenchţ buL Lhey soon faded away lnLo Lhe dlsLanceŦ Cn Lhls
nlghL Lhey dld
noL fade awayŦ And as l lay ln bed reallslng LhaL Lhey had gone on for far Loo long Lo
belong Lo a
movlng boaLţ l knew LhaL l had Lo geL up and lnvesLlgaLeŦ
l pulled on some cloLhesţ wenL ouLsldeţ and shone my Lorch lnLo Lhe fleld by Lhe
coLLage where l had
puL Lhe donkeysŦ 1he llghL shone on lred who was sLandlng wlLh hls head faclng
Lowards Lhe seaţ
ears uprlghL llke a v slgnţ showlng such an lnLense lnLeresL ln whaL was mysLerlously
happenlng LhaL
l felL llke saylng Lo hlmť ºPereţ Lake Lhe Lorchţ go and flnd ouL whaL lL's all abouLŦ"
locus on communicotion
Aoswet tbe followloq poestloosť
1Ŧ Why were Lhe wrlLer's Lwo donkeys good aL keeplng waLch?
A 1hey were dangerous anlmalsŦ
8 1he nolse Lhey made was frlghLenlngŦ
C 1hey could hear Lhlngs a long way awayŦ
u 1hey were nervous and exclLableŦ
2Ŧ When lred was dlsLurbed by someLhlng unusual he would
A sound llke a baby crylngŦ
8 make a very loud nolseŦ
C run Lowards Lhe beachŦ
u sLand sLlll for several mlnuLes Ŧ
3Ŧ When Lhe wrlLer was woken up aL 3Ŧ00 aŦmŦ he
A lmmedlaLely felL frlghLenedŦ
8 LhoughL he oughL Lo wake Lhe nelghboursŦ
C shouLed aL Lhe donkeys Lo be quleLŦ
u lay ln bed and llsLened for a whlleŦ
4Ŧ WhaL had alarmed Lhe donkeys LhaL parLlcular AugusL nlghL?
A a lrench flshlng boaL
8 wlld anlmals
C volces nearby
u a sLrange llghL
c4Ŧ íxplolo tbe type of oolse wblcb leJ to tbe followloq foooy mlscommoolcotloosť
aŦ uurlng Lhe 193 ChrlsLmas seasonţ an 00 (call and wln) number was seL up so LhaL
could call SanLa Claus and Lell hlm whaL Lhey wanLed for ChrlsLmasŦ unforLunaLelyţ Lhe
llnes goL crossed and Lhe llLLle Loddlers were connecLed Lo a Las vegas bookle who
lnformed Lhem abouL Lhe beLLlng llne on fooLball gamesŦ
bŦ A leadlng naLlonal shoe company premlered Lhls slogan ln 197ť ºWe'll only sell you
Lhe rlghL
cŦ A SeaLLle newspaper publlshed a commemoraLlon column ln whlch ulanaţ Þrlncess
of Walesţ
was referred Lo as Lhe ºÞrlncess of Whales"Ŧ
dŦ When ChevroleL lnLroduced lLs nova model ln SouLh Amerlca Lhey were puzzled by
Lhe low
salesŦ Someone Lhen polnLed ouL LhaL ºno va" was Spanlsh for ºlL doesn'L work"Ŧ
eŦ ln 194 Lhe CocaŴCola company lnLroduced a new adverLlslng campalgn Lo promoLe
a sofL drlnkţ
1abŦ 1he Lheme of Lhe campalgn was ºLeL's LasLe new 1ab"Ŧ 1he commerclals on
blllboards and
flles were a successţ buL on radlo and 1v people heard ºLess LasLeţ new 1ab"Ŧ 1he
company had
Lo remove Lhe ads aL conslderable lossŦ
Ŧ Vocabu|ary pract|ceŦ
u1Ŧ Clve tbe syoooyms ooJ tbe ootooyms of tbe followloq wotJsť
sourceŤ encodlngŤ cheapŤ orlglnalŤ responseŤ nolseŤ Lo lnlLlaLeŤ Lo enLerŤ Lo buyŤ Lo
locus on communicotion
u2Ŧ complete tbe possoqe wltb tbese wotJsť
lnformaLlon Lechnologles accumulaLlon global slgnals producLlvlLy
unlfled sLrucLure developmenL worshlp shape unlons
revoluLlon compeLlLlon sLablllsaLlon labour survlval
1he human race ls on Lhe Lhreshold of a new emerglng clvlllsaLlonť Lhe ŧŧŧ
clvlllsaLlonŦ lL ls an
exLenslon and a successor Lo Lhe agrlculLural and lndusLrlal clvlllsaLlon LhaL have
deLermlned our
ŧŧŧsLrucLure unLll nowŦ AgrlculLural clvlllsaLlon was Lhe flrsL Lo Lake concreLe ŧŧŧŦ lL
esLabllshed ln ferLlle alluvlal areas ln Lhe Mlddle LasL from Lhe ŧŧŧof agrlculLural
facL whlch assured Lhe ŧŧŧof Pomo saplens and Lhe ŧŧŧof large amounLs of soclal
1he lncreaslng dependence of agrlculLural producLlvlLy on Lhe sun and manual labour
had as resulL
Lhe ŧŧŧof Lwo soclal aspecLsť a rellglon of sun ŧŧŧ and a sysLem of agrlculLural slave
lndusLrlal ŧŧŧprovlded Lhe means by whlch lndusLrlal clvlllsaLlon flourlshedŦ lLs orlglns
lay ln
Lhe naLural sclences and Lhe machlnery of Lhe lndusLrlal ŧŧŧmade Lhls posslbleŦ new
sysLems emergedţ wlLh Lhe free ŧŧŧof prlvaLe buslnessţ comodlLy markeLsţ
democracy and labour ŧŧŧŦ 1he monumenLs of Lhe agrlculLural clvlllsaLlon are Lhe
pyramlds and
Lemples and Lhose of Lhe lndusLrlal clvlllsaLlon are facLorles and skyscrapersŦ 1he
clvlllsaLlon depends on compuLer and communlcaLlon ŧŧŧţ belng Lhus lnvlslbleŦ lLs
producLs are
ŧŧŧsymbols and lmagesŦ lL ls globalţ lL does noL Lake lnLo accounL soll or clLyţ because
lL spreads
all over Lhe world ln ŧŧŧformŦ lL alms Lo Lhe muLual undersLandlng and ŧŧŧLhlnklng
clLlzens overrldlng naLlonal lnLeresLs and deepenlng dlfferenL culLuresŦ
uJŦ usloq tbe vetbs to Jecloteţ to ptoclolmţ to ptoooooce ooJ to stoteţ ttooslote tbe
seoteoces loto íoqllsbť
aŦ SŦuŦAŦ a declaraL rázbol lugoslavlelŦ
bŦ vá declar so( ;l so(leŦ
cŦ vá rugám sá declara(l LoL ce ;Ll(l ;l sá nu ascunde(l nlmlcŦ
dŦ ln urma numárárll voLurllor el a fosL declaraL pre;edlnLeŦ
eŦ A fosL declaraL cel mal bun [ucáLor al LurneululŦ
fŦ vom declara pozl(la noasLrá presel dupá pronun(area senLln(elŦ
gŦ Ave(l bunurl de declaraL la vamá?
hŦ Má declar cu LoLul impoLrlva acesLel ac(lunlŦ
lŦ vre(l sá face(l o declara(le acum sau dupá ce vŴa(l consulLaL avocaLul?
[Ŧ lalmoasa ueclara(le de lndependen(á a SLaLelor unlLe ale Amerlcll a fosL proclamaLá
pe 4 lulle
kemembet tbe followloq pbtosesť
Lo declare warŤ Lo declare someLhlng or somebody Lo be someLhlngŤ Lo declare
somebody a wlnnerŤ
Lo lssue a declaraLlonŤ Lo declare one's hands (a da cár(lle pe fa(á)Ť Lo proclalm a
presldenLŤ Lo
proclalm somebody a LralLorŤ a papal proclamaLlonŤ Lo pronounce a
[udgemenL/verdlcL/senLenceŤ Lo
pronounce a sLaLemenLŤ Lo pronounce man and wlfeŤ Lo sLaLe one's oplnlon/vlewŤ Lo
sLaLe a caseŤ Lo
make a sLaLemenLŤ Lo sLaLe one's full parLlcularsŦ
locus on communicotion
u4Ŧ wtlte Jowo tbe oooos Jetlvloq ftom tbe followloq vetbsť
belleveŤ LhreaLenŤ agreeŤ suggesLŤ expressŤ referţ formţ correcLţ lnLendţ analyseţ
correspondţ loseţ
promlssţ lrrlLaLeţ damageţ lnherlLţ decldeţ declareţ lnsulLţ susLalnŦ

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¯¯°nf°  °¾  €°– ¾°¾   J    #¾ ° ¾– f ½°–fn" @    f°– ¾f°¯f¾  @ °¾  ¯f f¾€– °°–  .

@ n  f°–¾f°–fff  @   ° ¾f°  nf    J ° f¾ ¾  ¾¯ °–°¾f   ¾°  f f n°–  ¯f f  °¾  .

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n ¾° f  f¾f°– – .

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¾¯f¾¾ f¾° f°%nff° °%°¯ f¾¾ ½¾f n  ° .

n nff°f.

f¾f°  ¯f f° €.

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  ° n ¾-f¯ °¯ nf   ½     ¾f ¾ ¯ °  °½° f#°f#f¾½f°¾€#  ¾°##  ° .

nf .

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¯¯°nf°   .

  f¾€¯  €f–nf ½ n°  €fnnf¾¾   €¯¾f½ °¾f°   €f– f¯°¾€¾nf ¾½¾  @ °n f¾°– ½ ° °n €f–nf½ n° ¾°f° ¯f°ff  f f¾ ¾   €¾nff¾½ n¾ f –°€¾° f° f¾¾ ¯€f–nf¾f   ° ¾f ½  ¯ f°¾ n° ¾fn¾f°€¾ ¾–°¾ f° .¯½   ½f¾¾f–  ¾  ¾  °€¯f° n°– ¾fnn¯f°– f¾–°f¾½ n °€ ¾n   ½¯ °¾½¾f½ °°¾  °n¯½ °¾f ¾f°f ¾f @ ¯f°fn ¾°  ¾ €f°  ¯ –°–n¾f°    n¾f° ¾f°  °¾°f° f¾nn ¾¾ f–nff° ° ¾fn¾f°ff   ¯°   ¾n °° –nfn¾f°f¾ €¾f n°n   f¾ ¾f ¾ °€  fff f¾° .

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¯¯°nf°   J  ° °°¾ °–€¯ €°–  ¾     f ° f– ¾–– ¾  ½ ¾¾  €  €¯ n n ° ° f°f¾  n ¾½° ¾  ½¯¾¾ f  f¯f– °   n  nf °¾ ¾¾f°  .

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