Vanderbilt University

Studies of the Spin Dynamics of Charge Carriers in Semiconductors and their Interfaces

S. K. Singh, T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis and N. H. Tolk
Department of Physics and Astronomy Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235

∗ Buffalo Consortium Meeting 11/4/00 ∗ Funded in part by DARPA/ONR

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Objectives
✹ Measure Important Parameters in Magnetic Semiconductors:
x Band-Offset : Using Internal Photo-Emission (IPE) and SHG Techniques. x Ultrafast Spin Dynamics: Time-Resolved Photoluminescense and Reflectivity, Faraday Rotation. x Probing Electron-Hole Dynamics: Time-Dependent Second Harmonic Generation (SHG).

✹ Develop Theoretical Models of Ultrafast Spin Dynamics.

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Vanderbilt Capabilities
x Series of Ultrafast, High-Power, Tunable Lasers: FIR and UV OPAs (Optical Parameteric Amplifier) Range: 0.06 – 6 eV Pulse Energy: 10 µJ Rep. Rate: 1 KHz Pulse Width: 150 fs or 3.5 ps Free Electron Laser Range: 0.1 – 1 eV Rep. Rate: 30 Hz

Pulse Energy: ~ 50 mJ Pulse Width: 4 - 6 µs

Several Ti:Sapphire and Other Lasers x 9 T Superconducting Magnet Having Four Optical Windows. x Fast Electronics, Optics, etc.

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Band-Offset Measurements in Si/Si0.45Ge0.5
300

Photons Si

Photo Signal (mV)

250 200 150 100 50

V
0.95 eV 1.12 eV hν ν

Si0.45Ge0.55 (100 nm)

0

1.2

1.25

1.3

1.35

1.4

1.45

Wavelength (microns)

Si

Si0.45Ge0.55

• IPE is a sensitive technique to measure band offset
(within 10 meV).

Þ Can be used to measure band offsets in Magnetic
Semiconductors (e.g. InMnAs/GaMnSb)

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Proposed Band-Offset Measurements in III1-XMnXV /III-V based Semiconductor
CB
0.87 eV 0.8 eV Holes Fermi Level Electrons 0.4 eV 0.15 eV

0.47 eV

VB

In1-XMnX As

GaSb

• Band offsets can be measured as a function of
Magnetic field.

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Proposed Lifetime Measurements of Spin-Polarized Carriers in Magnetic Semiconductors (e.g. In1-XMnXAs/GaSb)

CB GaSb VB σ+
~ 0.5 eV

GaSb

0.8 eV

K Create Photo-Excited Spin- Polarized Carriers in InAs Quantum Well. K Probe Spin-Scattering Mechanisms: Time-Resolved Photoluminescense in Magnetic Field. K Faraday Rotation K Study Role of Mn ion in Spin Scattering

σ—

In1-XMnXAs

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Theory: Electric-Field-Induced-SH (EFISH)

General Equation for SHG:
(2 ) (2 ) (2 ) P (2ω) = χ d,B E(ω)E(ω) + χ d,S E(ω)E(ω) + χ q,B E(ω)∇E(ω) + ω ) χ (d3,B ε (ω ~ 0 ) E(ω)E(ω)

) χ (d3,B ε (ω ~ 0 ) E(ω)E(ω) : Electric − Field − Induced SH

ε (ω ~ 0 ) : Space Ch arg e Field at the Interface

E(ω): Electric Field of Fundamental Beam

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System With Inversion Symmetry
Under Electric Dipole Approximation

P(2 ω) = χ ( 2 ) E(ω)E(ω)
Inversion

− P(2 ω) = χ (2 ) (−E(ω))(−E(ω))

χ

(2 )

= 0 in

Bulk

But not at surfaces or with static electric field where symmetry is broken

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Experimental Setup
PMT

Prism
RG-Filter

UG-Filter Iris

Ti:Sapphire Laser λ = 700-920 nm, τp = 100 fs, Pav = 400 mW

Polarizers Lenses

ω

2ω ≅ 3eV

Sample
(2ω )

I

(t) ∝ χ

Rotation Table 2 (ω )2 (2) (3)

+ χ E(t) I

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Electron-Hole Dynamics at Si/SiO2 Interface
eO2
SHG Signal (Counts/100 mSec)

Electrons

8000 6000 4000 Laser Blocked 2000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

1.1 eV

Si
9 eV

1.5 eV

EDC
Holes

SiO2

Tim e (Sec)

EDC Field Þ Charge Separation ( Carrier Injection)
§ Electrons trapped at Surface § New Charged Traps in Oxide due to Radiation

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Comparison of SiO2 and ZrSiOx Oxides
SHG from Si-Dielectrics
1200

1000

SHG Intensity (a.u.)

800

600

• Qualitative difference
Si (100)-SiO2 215 mW
0 0 200 400 600 800

400

200

in the shape of the curves in SiO2 and ZrSiOx : Þ Difference in electron and hole injection rate?

1400

1200

SHG Intensity (a.u.)

1000

800

600

400

Si (100)-ZrSiOx 137 mW
0 0 200 400 600 800

200

Time(second)

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SHG measurements to probe electron-hole Dynamics in Magnetic Semiconductor

Electrons

hν ν
In0.94Mn0.06As GaSb GaAs 12 nm 500 nm 300 nm

hν ν

GaAs (100)

CB VB In1-xMnxAs

hν ν

EF GaSb

K SHG measurements can probe dynamic electric field due to electron-hole migration, induced by photons. Þ Understand photo-induced Ferromagnetism.

Holes
Koshihara et al., PRL 78, 4617 (1997)

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Summary
• Band-Offset : Internal Photo-Emission (IPE) and SHG Techniques. • Lifetime of Photo-Excited Spin-Polarized Carriers: Faraday Rotation, Time-Resolved Photoluminescense and Reflectivity. • Probing Electron-Hole Dynamics: Time-Dependent Second Harmonic Generation (SHG).

• Develop Theoretical Models of Ultrafast Spin Dynamics.

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Samples
• InAs/GaMnSb, InMnAs/GaMnSb : BO • InAs/GaSb : BO, SHG • InMnAs/GaSb : SHG • GaSb/InMnAs/GaSb QW : LT
BO: Band Offset LT: Life Time SHG: Second Harmonic Generation

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