# Vedic Mathematics

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======= Understanding Hinduism ======= Vedic Mathematics Click on underscored words to open paragraph What is Vedic Mathematics? Books on Vedic Maths Tutorial Vedic Maths Tutorial Vedic Mathematics (Preface, introduction and foreward from the original book on Vedic Mathematics) Revered Guruji used to say that he had reconstructed the sixteen mathematical formulae from the Atharvaveda after assiduous research and ‘Tapas’ (austerity) for about eight years in the forests surrounding Sringeri. Obviously these formulae are not to be found in the present recensions of Atharvaveda. They were actually reconstructed, on the basis of intuitive revelation, from materials scattered here and there in the Atharvaveda. History of Mathematics in India Indic Mathematics: India and the Scientific Revolution By Dr. David Gray The following contributions are By Kevin O'Connor Vedic Maths - Tips & Tricks Converting Kilos to pounds Adding Time Temperature Conversions Decimals Equivalents of Fractions

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Vedic Mathematics

http://www.hinduism.co.za/vedic.htm

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Converting Kilometres to Miles Is it divisible by four? Multiplying by 12 - shortcut _______________

**Vedic Mathematics What is Vedic Mathematics?
**

Vedic Mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of Mathematics which was rediscovered from the Vedas between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960). According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras or word-formulae. For example, 'Vertically and Crosswise` is one of these Sutras. These formulae describe the way the mind naturally works and are therefore a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution. Perhaps the most striking feature of the Vedic system is its coherence. Instead of a hotch-potch of unrelated techniques the whole system is beautifully interrelated and unified: the general multiplication method, for example, is easily reversed to allow one-line divisions and the simple squaring method can be reversed to give one-line square roots. And these are all easily understood. This unifying quality is very satisfying, it makes mathematics easy and enjoyable and encourages innovation. In the Vedic system 'difficult' problems or huge sums can often be solved immediately by the Vedic method. These striking and beautiful methods are just a part of a complete system of mathematics which is far more systematic than the modern 'system'. Vedic Mathematics manifests the coherent and unified structure of mathematics and the methods are complementary, direct and easy. The simplicity of Vedic Mathematics means that calculations can be carried out mentally (though the methods can also be written down). There are many advantages in using a flexible, mental system. Pupils can invent their own methods, they are not limited to the one 'correct' method. This leads to more creative, interested and intelligent pupils. Interest in the Vedic system is growing in education where mathematics teachers are looking for something better and finding the Vedic system is the answer. Research is being carried out in many areas including the effects of learning

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Vedic Mathematics

http://www.hinduism.co.za/vedic.htm

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Vedic Maths on children; developing new, powerful but easy applications of the Vedic Sutras in geometry, calculus, computing etc. But the real beauty and effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics cannot be fully appreciated without actually practising the system. One can then see that it is perhaps the most refined and efficient mathematical system possible. The Vedic Mathematics Sutras This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full list of the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is not given in the text and comes from elsewhere. This formula 'On the Flag' is not in the list given in Vedic Mathematics, but is referred to in the text.

**The Main Sutras
**

By one more than the one before. All from 9 and the last from 10. Vertically and Cross-wise Transpose and Apply If the Samuccaya is the Same it is Zero If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero By Addition and by Subtraction By the Completion or Non-Completion Differential Calculus By the Deficiency Specific and General The Remainders by the Last Digit The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate By One Less than the One Before The Product of the Sum All the Multipliers

**The Sub Sutras
**

Proportionately The Remainder Remains Constant

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0. Rajas & Tamas East-West-North-South Stories . passed down orally for generations and written down about 5. The results have been impressive: maths lessons are much livelier and more fun.co.Festival Ramayana Hanuman Raksha Bandhan Krishna Janmashtami Deepavali
The First by the First and the Last by the Last For 7 the Multiplicand is 143 By Osculation Lessen by the Deficiency Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and set up the Square of the Deficiency Last Totalling 10 Only the Last Terms The Sum of the Products By Alternative Elimination and Retention By Mere Observation The Product of the Sum is the Sum of the Products On the Flag
Try a Sutra
Mark Gaskell introduces an alternative system of calculation based on Vedic philosophy At the Maharishi School in Lancashire we have developed a course on Vedic mathematics for key stage 3 that covers the national curriculum. including maths.Samskaras Sacred Thread Food Your Constitution Trees have Life Prana-Vyana-Samana Krishna Ganapati . are dealt with in the texts.Gopalnanda Brahma . architecture.Sutras Temples Sun .htm
kingcraft Chastisements Thanks Giving Ethics Good and Evil Vices Malevolent & Wicked Nature of Man Culture and Civilization Kosas-sheaths Good and Pure Sattwa.Incense .000 years ago.Lamps Prasad Sacraments . The remarkable system of Vedic maths was rediscovered from ancient Sanskrit texts early last century. The system is based
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. Medicine. astronomy and many other branches of knowledge. may have more to offer in the field of maths. the children enjoy their work more and expectations of what is possible are very much higher.Episodes Procrastination Gifts Fasting (Religious) Tirtha Sacred Waters . The Vedas are the most ancient record of human experience and knowledge.Surya Makar sankranti Vasant Panchami Siva Nataraj Holi .Ganga Tilak Ideal behind the idol Rituals Hinduism & Sri Ramakrishna Funerals Tarpana Aarati Flowers . Academic performance has also greatly improved: the first class to complete the course managed to pass their GCSE a year early and all obtained an A grade. Perhaps it is not surprising that the country credited with introducing our current number system and the invention of perhaps the most important mathematical symbol. Vedic maths comes from the Vedic tradition of India.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.za/vedic.hinduism.

such as: "by one more than the one before" and "all from nine and the last from 10".htm
Adhik Maas Kaaba a Hindu Temple? Islam-stagnant Buddhism Buddhism in China--Japan-Korea Religions in brief Inter-religious Attitude Books Hindu Scriptures Philosophy Schools of Vedanta Hindu Sects Q&A Dasnami Sampradaya Dharma Speech . and 8 is 2 below the base of 10.
This can easily be extended to solve problems such as 3. This particular method can also be expanded into a general method.
The whole approach of Vedic maths is suitable for slow
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.Science Abusive Speech Appreciations Food Charts Drama . dealing with any subtraction sum.000 we simply apply the sutra "all from nine and the last from 10". 36.Shakuntala Vishnu Sahasranama Moon Calendar 2013 Moon Calendar 2015 Moon Calendar 2017 Moon Calendar 2019 Moon Calendar 2021 Vedic Maths India CSS2
on 16 sutras or aphorisms. particularly when dealing with money examples.co. One very useful application is helping children who are having trouble with their tables above 5x5. to get the answer 2. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" has many uses. Each figure in 564 is subtracted from nine and the last figure is subtracted from 10. 7 is 3 below the base of 10. We have had a lot of fun with this type of sum.za/vedic. such as £10 take away £2. For example 7x8.hinduism.000 by one and then apply the sutra.533.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.000 minus 467. if we wished to subtract 564 from 1. For example. These describe natural processes in the mind and ways of solving a whole range of mathematical problems. Many of the children have described how they have challenged their parents to races at home using many of the Vedic techniques and won. We simply reduce the first figure in 3. yielding 436.

408.
We can extend this method to deal with long multiplication of numbers of any size. Multiplication can also be carried out starting from the left.co. All the techniques produce one-line answers and most can be dealt with mentally.000 etc). for example. We multiply vertically 2x4=8. 96 is 4 below the base and 92 is 8 below. Finally we multiply vertically 3x4=12 and add the carried 2 =14. The great advantage of this system is that the answer can be obtained in one line and mentally. Suppose we wish to multiply 32 by 44. or general. This encourages flexibility and innovation on the part of the students. The methods are either "special".
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. Then we multiply crosswise and add the two results: 3x4+4x2=20. so put down 0 and carry 2.htm
learners. I would expect all students to be able to do a "3 by 2" long multiplication in their heads. in that they only apply under certain conditions. so calculators are not used until Year 10.za/vedic.hinduism. This gives enormous confidence to the pupils who lose their fear of numbers and go on to tackle harder maths in a more open manner.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. which can be better because we write and pronounce numbers from left to right. We can cross-subtract either way: 96-8=88 or 92-4=88. 100. as it is so simple and easy to use. Result: 1. By the end of Year 8. This is the first part of the answer and multiplying the "differences" vertically 4x8=32 gives the second part of the answer. Here is an example of doing this in a special method for long multiplication of numbers near a base (10. 1. 96 by 92. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" is often used in long multiplication.

squaring numbers and finding square roots (to several significant figures) is all performed with relative ease and reinforces the methods that they would have recently learned.co. When the children learn about Pythagoras's theorem in Year 9 we do not use a calculator. more efficient and more readily acquired than conventional methods. Lancs WN8 6SP.255.hinduism. It brings out the beauty and patterns in numbers and the world around us. we double the first part of the answer. Skelmersdale.
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. For many more examples. Here we add the differences. the Vedic Maths Tutorial Mark Gaskell is head of maths at the Maharishi School in Lancashire 'The Cosmic Computer' by K Williams and M Gaskell. because 200 is 2x100. With the introduction of a non-calculator paper at GCSE. Tel: 01695 727 986.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Inspiration Books. There is a unity and coherence in the system which is not found in conventional maths.655.za/vedic. The techniques are so simple they can be used when conventional methods would be cumbersome. try elsewhere on this page.htm
This works equally well for numbers above the base: 105x111=11. For 205x211=43. We regularly practise the methods by having a mental test at the beginning of each lesson. (also in an bridged edition). Vedic maths offers methods that are simpler. 2 Oak Tree Court.

guaranteed! www. www. P. Williams. 1979.htm
Saturday school for primary teachers at Manchester Metropolitan University on October 7. K. 1976 ISBN 0722401434 Currently out of print. tricks and tutorials that will boost your math ability.vedic-maths-ebook./p VEDIC MATHEMATICS Master Multiplication tables.za/vedic.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. 1965 (various reprints)./p DISCOVER VEDIC MATHEMATICS This has sixteen chapters each of which focuses on one of the Vedic Sutras or sub-Sutras and shows many applications of
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. Author: B R Baliga.co.uk/ copyright to the ACADEMY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS
_______________________
Books on Vedic Maths
VEDIC MATHEMATICS Or Sixteen Simple Mathematical Formulae from the Vedas The original introduction to Vedic Mathematics. This book of 12 chapters was the result covering a range topics from elementary arithmetic to cubic equations. See website. 1982. division and lots more! We recommed you check out this ebook.vedicmaths. Pickles. it's packed with tips. 367 pages.co. Nicholas.hinduism.org 19th May 2000 Times Educational Supplement (Curriculum Special) http://www. Authors: A. ISBN 81 208 0163 6 (cloth) ISBN 82 208 0163 4 (paper)/p MATHS OR MAGIC? This is a popular book giving a brief outline of some of the Vedic Mathematics methods./p INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON VEDIC MATHEMATICS Following various lecture courses in London an interest arose for printed material containing the course material. Paperback. J. Pamphlet. A4 size. A5 in size. Author: Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaja. Paperback. 166 pages.com A PEEP INTO VEDIC MATHEMATICS Mainly on recurring decimals.tes. Author: Joseph Howse.

Authors: A.htm
each.5). Kapoor. Comb bound. coordinate geometry (2 and 3 dimensions) transformations (2 and 3 dimensions). ISBN 1 902517 00 8/p VEDIC MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS OF SRI VISHNU SAHASTRANAMA STOTRAM Author: S. It has a detailed introduction and each of the nine chapters covers one of the Vedic formulae. 1991.co. Paperback. starting with simultaneous equations and moving on to algebraic. 180 pages. 139 pages. Author: K.za/vedic. etc./p VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE This is an advanced book of sixteen chapters on one Sutra ranging from elementary multiplication etc. 78 pages. Jaipur. A4.
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. ISBN 1 902517 03 2.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. astronomy etc. A4. A4 size. to the solution of non-linear partial differential equations. Author: K.102 pages. new edition 1999. simple harmonic motion. 1988. Pickles first published 1984). A4 size./p ISSUES IN VEDIC MATHEMATICS Proceedings of the National workshop on Vedic Mathematics 25-28 March 1988 at the University of Rajasthan. ISBN 1 869932 01 3.. The main theme is mental multiplication but addition. Author: K. 200 pages. It deals with (i) calculation of common functions and their series expansions. A5 in size. K. and (ii) the solution of equations. A4. Comb bound . A simple. Nicholas.hinduism./p. ISBN 81 208 0944 0/p THE NATURAL CALCULATOR This is an elementary book on mental mathematics. ISBN 1 869932 04 8. 1984./p TRIPLES This book shows applications of Pythagorean Triples (like 3.4. new edition 1999. The easy text fully explains this method which has applications in trigonometry (you do not need any of those complicated formulae). Williams.168 pages. Williams. Hardback. elegant system for combining these triples gives unexpected and powerful general methods for solving a wide range of mathematical problems.. transcendental and differential equations. Also contains Vedic Maths solutions to GCSE and 'A' level examination questions.K. with far less effort than conventional methods use. subtraction and division are also covered. Williams. Comb bound. P. Comb bound. J. Williams (first published 1984).

A5 in size. The main Vedic methods used in his book are for multiplication. It consists of three books each of which has a Teacher's Guide and an Answer Book. immediate and easily understood proofs. Karnataka-581325 THE COSMIC COMPUTER COURSE This covers Key Stage 3 (age 11-14 years) of the National Curriculum for England and Wales. Authors: K. S. 100 pages + 31 pages of answers. Dr T. Worksheets etc. Gaskell. 1998.za/vedic. These are based on only one assumption (that magnitudes are unchanged by motion) and three additional provisions (a means of drawing figures. Publishing Corporation. the language used and the ability to recognise valid reasoning). introduce new ideas and are carefully correlated with the rest of the course).htm
VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 1 Is a first text designed for the young mathematics student of about eight years of age. 1995. Unkalkar. Paperback. Seshachala Rao. Introductions to vulgar and decimal fractions. Games. Extension Sheets (about 16 per book) for fast pupils or for extra classwork. It presents direct.hinduism. elementary algebra and vinculums are also given. Delhi-110052 INTRODUCTION TO VEDIC MATHEMATICS Authors T. GEOMETRY FOR AN ORAL TRADITION This book demonstrates the kind of system that could have existed before literacy was widespread and takes us from first principles to theorems on elementary properties of circles.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. hundreds of Mental Tests (these revise previous work. Revision Tests. division and subtraction. G. a Unified Field Chart (showing the whole subject of mathematics and how each of the parts are related). Author: J. G. who have mastered the four basic rules including times tables./p JAGATGURU SHANKARACHARYA SHRI BHARATI KRISHNA TEERTHA An excellent book giving details of the life of the man who reconstructed the Vedic system. 1997 B. ISBN 81-208-1318-9. R. All Textbooks and Guides are A4 in size.Glover.T.co. It includes discussion on the
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. The Teacher's Guide contains a Summary of the Book. Answer Books are A5. 1997 Pub: Dandeli Education Socety. Williams and M. Much of the material in Book 1 is suitable for children as young as eight and this is developed from here to topics such as Pythagoras' Theorem and Quadratic Equations in Book 3. Pande.

100 pages. INTRODUCTION TO VEDIC MATHEMATICS – Part II Authors T. ISBN 1 902517 08 3 Vedic Mathematics. thorough and easy to read. Munshi Marg. Kulapati K. P. Author Kenneth Williams. Haridas Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.. Karnataka-581325 VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 3 The third book in this series. Part 1 We found this book to be well-written. Applications of Vedic Mathematics To include prediction of eclipses and planetary positions. Author J. Tirthaji and has plenty of examples and exercises. Authors Kenneth Williams and Mark Gaskell.T. It covers a lot of the basic work in the original book by B.co. Nicholas. These two books make the methods accessible to all interested in exploring geometry. A4 size. Paperback. Unkalkar. Glover . The approach is ideally suited to the twenty-first century.T.M. ISBN 1902517067 VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 2 The second book in this series. THE COSMIC CALCULATOR Three textbooks plus Teacher's Guide plus Answer Book.htm
relevant philosophy of mathematics and is written both for mathematicians and for a wider audience. Author J. P. ISBN 81 208 1670-6 Astronomica. 2002. Mumbai . 2001 Pub: Dandeli Education Socety. 2000. 1999. ISBN 1 902517 05 9 THE CIRCLE REVELATION This is a simplified. popularised version of "Geometry for an Oral Tradition" described above. 1999. 2002. Author S. Published by Motilal Banarsidass. Author: A. K. TEACHER’S MANUALS – ELEMENTARY & INTERMEDIATE
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. G. Paperback. 1999. when audio-visual forms of communication are likely to be dominant. spherical trigonometry etc.hinduism. India.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Glover .za/vedic. A4 size.132 pages.400 007. Author: A. Nicholas. Published by Motilal Banarsidass.

supplementary exercises and answers may particularly benefit and empower the weaker student." Reviewed by Gerard Lennon. Focusing throughout on skills associated with mental mathematics. TEACHER’S MANUAL – ADVANCED Designed for teachers (of children aged 13 to 18 years) who wish to teach the Vedic system. It's practicality. engaging and eminently 'doable'. Author: Kenneth Williams. Each double page shows a neat and quick way of solving some simple problem. the Irish National Teachers Organisation (INTO) magazine. 52 pages. 2002. clear methodology. Principal. Published by Inspiration Books. Ardpatrick NS. Suitable for any age from eight upwards. 9 to 14 years respectively)who wish to teach the Vedic system. Author: K. size A6. examples. The Tutorial below is based on material from this book 'Fun with Figures' Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] _________________
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. "Entertaining. ISBN 1 902517 01 6. inspiring quotes and amusing anecdotes. 2003. Please note the Tutorial below is based on material from this book 'Fun with Figures' Book review of 'Fun with Figures' From 'inTouch'. Williams' pocket volume reveals many fascinating and useful applications of the ancient Eastern system of Vedic Maths. the author wisely places them within practical life-related contexts. Fun with Figures offers several speedy and simple means of solving or double-checking class activities. Paperback.hinduism. 1998.za/vedic.Vedic Mathematics
http://www." "Certainly a valuable investment for parents and teachers of children aged 7 to 12. Williams' book will help neutralise the 'menace' sometimes associated with maths." "Compact. cheerful and liberally interspersed with amusing anecdotes and aphorisms from the world of maths. FUN WITH FIGURES (subtitled: Is it Maths or Magic?) This is a small popular book with many illustrations.htm
Designed for teachers (of children aged 7 to 11 years. Published by Inspiration Books. Tackling many number operations encountered between First and Sixth class.co. Author: Kenneth Williams. Williams. Co Limerick. Jan/Feb 2000.

These tutorials will give examples of simple applications of the sutras.357 = 643 We simply take each figure in 357 from 9 and the last figure from 10. For more advanced applications and a more complete coverage of the basic uses of the sutras. we recommend you study one of the texts available at www. to give a feel for how the Vedic Maths system works.hinduism. In practice many applications of the sutras may be learned and combined to solve actual problems. which is a fun introduction to some of the applications of the sutras for children.
So the answer is 1000 .htm
Vedic Maths Tutorial Vedic Maths is based on sixteen Sutras or principles.za/vedic.vedicmaths.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.co. For example 1000 .357 = 643 And thats all there is to it!
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. These principles are general in nature and can be applied in many ways.B. The following tutorials are based on examples and exercises given in the book 'Fun with figures' by Kenneth Williams.
Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 7 Tutorial 8 (By Kevin O'Connor)
Tutorial 1
Use the formula ALL FROM 9 AND THE LAST FROM 10 to perform instant subtractions.org N. These tutorials do not attempt to teach the systematic use of the sutras.

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. 1000.57 8) 1000 .000 .hinduism. So 1000 .1011 = 7) 100 .283 3) 1000 .321 10) 10.505
= = =
4) 10. Similarly 10.38 = = = = < click
Answers to exercise 1 Tutorial 1
Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]
Tutorial 2
Using VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you do not need the multiplication tables beyond 5 X 5.co.2345 = 5) 10. 10.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.083 = 917
Exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Try some yourself:
1) 1000 .000 .000 .83 becomes 1000 .777 2) 1000 .za/vedic.000 . in which we have more zeros than figures in the numbers being subtracted.000 .000 etc.83.000 .9876 = 6) 10.htm
This always works for subtractions from numbers consisting of a 1 followed by noughts: 100.57 9) 10.1049 = 8951
For 1000 . we simply suppose 83 is 083.

That's all you do: See how far the numbers are below 10.2 to get 5.hinduism. the last figure of the answer.co. the first figure of the answer.za/vedic.htm
Suppose you need 8 x 7 8 is 2 below 10 and 7 is 3 below 10. Exercise 1 Tutorial 2 Multply These: 1) 8 x 8 = 2) 9 x 7 = 3) 8 x 9 = 4) 7 x 7 = 5) 9 x 9 = 6) 6 x 6 =
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. and multiply the deficiencies together. 7 x 6 = 42
Here there is a carry: the 1 in the 12 goes over to make 3 into 4. And you multiply vertically: 2 x 3 to get 6. Think of it like this:
The answer is 56. subtract one number's deficiency from the other number. The diagram below shows how you get it.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.
You subtract crosswise 8-3 or 7 .

htm
Answers to exercise 1 tutorial 2
Here's how to use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE for multiplying numbers close to 100. But with VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you can give the answer immediately. Try some: 1) 87 x 98 = 2) 88 x 97 = 3) 77 x 98 = 4) 93 x 96 = 5) 94 x 92 = 6) 64 x 99 = 7) 98 x 97 = Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 < click Multiplying numbers just over 100.hinduism.12 = 86: you can subtract either way. using the same method as above Both 88 and 98 are close to 100.za/vedic.you might think. And the 24 in the answer is just 12 x 2: you multiply vertically. So 88 x 98 = 8624 Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 This is so easy it is just mental arithmetic. You can imagine the sum set out like this:
As before the 86 comes from subtracting crosswise: 88 . Suppose you want to multiply 88 by 98. Not easy. you will always get the same answer).co.2 = 86 (or 98 . 88 is 12 below 100 and 98 is 2 below 100.
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.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.

107 is just 103 + 4 (or 104 + 3). Use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE to write the answer straight down!
Multiply crosswise and add to get the top of the answer: 2 x 5 = 10 and 1 x 3 = 3. and 12 is just 3 x 4. Then 10 + 3 = 13. The bottom of the fraction is just 3 x 5 = 15.co. just for mental arithmetic Try a few: 1) 102 x 107 = 2) 106 x 103 = 3) 104 x 104 = 4) 109 x 108 = 5) 101 x123 = 6) 103 x102 = Answers to exercise 3 Tutorial 2 < click
Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]
Tutorial 3
The easy way to add and subtract fractions. You multiply the bottom number together.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. So:
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. Similarly 107 x 106 = 11342 107 + 6 = 113 and 7 x 6 = 42 Exercise 3 Tutorial 2 Again.za/vedic.hinduism.htm
103 x 104 = 10712 The answer is in two parts: 107 and 12.

75 = 5625 75² means 75 x 75.co. The first part is the first number.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.za/vedic. multiplied
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.hinduism. The last part is always 25.htm
Subtracting is just as easy: multiply crosswise as before. The answer is in two parts: 56 and 25. 7. but the subtract:
Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 Try a few:
Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 < click Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]
Tutorial 4
A quick way to square numbers that end in 5 using the formula BY ONE MORE THAN THE ONE BEFORE.

Vedic Mathematics
http://www. 32 x 38 = 1216 Both numbers here start with 3 and the last figures (2 and 8) add up to 10.za/vedic.hinduism. which is 8: so 7 x 8 = 56
Similarly 85 = 7225 because 8 x 9 = 72. Diagrammatically:
2 2
2
And 81 x 89 = 7209
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.co. And we multiply the last figures: 2 x 8 = 16 to get the last part of the answer. Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 Try these: 1) 452 = 2) 652 = 3) 952 = 4) 35 = 5) 15 = Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 < click Method for multiplying numbers where the first figures are the same and the last figures add up to 10.htm
by the number "one more". So we just multiply 3 by 4 (the next number up) to get 12 for the first part of the answer.

We first put.co. And thats all there is to it.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. or imagine.hinduism. Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Practise some: 1) 43 x 47 = 2) 24 x 26 = 3) 62 x 68 = 4) 17 x 13 = 5) 59 x 51 = 6) 77 x 73 = Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]
Tutorial 5
An elegant way of multiplying numbers using a simple pattern 21 x 23 = 483 This is normally called long multiplication but actually the answer can be written straight down using the VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISEformula. 23 below 21:
There are 3 steps: a) Multiply vertically on the left: 2 x 2 = 4. b) Multiply crosswise and add: 2 x 3 + 1 x 2 = 8 This gives the middle figure. c) Multiply vertically on the right: 1 x 3 = 3 This gives the last figure of the answer. This gives the first figure of the answer.za/vedic.htm
We put 09 since we need two figures as in all the other examples. Similarly 61 x 31 = 1891
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.

za/vedic. there only involve one small extra step.hinduism.46..htm
6 x 3 = 18. 6 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 9. 21 x 26 = 546
The method is the same as above except that we get a 2-figure number. just write down the answer: 1) 14 x 21 2) 22 x 31 3) 21 x 31 4) 21 x 22 5) 32 x 21 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Multiply any 2-figure numbers together by mere mental arithmetic! If you want 21 stamps at 26 pence each you can easily find the total price in your head. There were no carries in the method given above.co./p> However. So 21 stamps cost £5. in the middle step. 1 x 1 = 1 Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Try these.
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. 14.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. so the 1 is carried over to the left (4 becomes 5).

Vedic Mathematics

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Practise a few: 1) 21 x 47 2) 23 x 43 3) 32 x 53 4) 42 x 32 5) 71 x 72 Answers to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 33 x 44 = 1452 There may be more than one carry in a sum:

Vertically on the left we get 12. Crosswise gives us 24, so we carry 2 to the left and mentally get 144. Then vertically on the right we get 12 and the 1 here is carried over to the 144 to make 1452.

6) 32 x 56 7) 32 x 54 8) 31 x 72 9) 44 x 53 10) 54 x 64 Answers to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 Any two numbers, no matter how big, can be multiplied in one line by this method. Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]

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Vedic Mathematics

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Tutorial 6

Multiplying a number by 11. To multiply any 2-figure number by 11 we just put the total of the two figures between the 2 figures. 26 x 11 = 286 Notice that the outer figures in 286 are the 26 being multiplied. And the middle figure is just 2 and 6 added up. So 72 x 11 = 792 Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 43 = 2) 81 = 3) 15 = 4) 44 = 5) 11 = Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 77 x 11 = 847 This involves a carry figure because 7 + 7 = 14 we get 77 x 11 = 7 47 = 847.

1

Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 11 x 88 = 2) 11 x 84 = 3) 11 x 48 = 4) 11 x 73 = 5) 11 x 56 = Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6

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Vedic Mathematics

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234 x 11 = 2574 We put the 2 and the 4 at the ends. We add the first pair 2 + 3 = 5. and we add the last pair: 3 + 4 = 7. Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 151 = 2) 527 = 3) 333 = 4) 714 = 5) 909 = Answers to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]

Tutorial 7

Method for dividing by 9. 23 / 9 = 2 remainder 5 The first figure of 23 is 2, and this is the answer. The remainder is just 2 and 3 added up! 43 / 9 = 4 remainder 7 The first figure 4 is the answer and 4 + 3 = 7 is the remainder - could it be easier? Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 Divide by 9: 1) 61 / 9 = 2) 33 / 9 = remainder remainder

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co.htm
3) 44 / 9 = 4) 53 / 9 = 5) 80 / 9 =
remainder remainder remainder
Answers to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 134 / 9 = 14 remainder 8 The answer consists of 1. and 8 is the total of all three figures 1+ 3 + 4 = 8.hinduism. 4 is the total of the first two figures 1+ 3 = 4.za/vedic. Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 Divide by 9: 6) 232 = 7) 151 = 8) 303 = 9) 212 = 10) 2121 = remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder
Answers to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 842 / 9 = 8 2 remainder 14 = 92 remainder 14
1
Actually a remainder of 9 or more is not usually permitted because we are trying to find how many 9's there are in 842.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. 14 has one more 9 with 5 left over the final answer will be 93 remainder 5 Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 Divide these by 9: 1) 771 / 9 = 2) 942 / 9 = 3) 565 / 9 = remainder remainder remainder
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.4 and 8. 1 is just the first figure of 134. Since the remainder.

co.htm
4) 555 / 9 = 5) 2382 / 9 = 6) 7070 / 9 =
remainder remainder remainder
Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Answers Answers to exercise 1 Tutorial 1 1) 223 2) 717 3) 495 4) 7655 5) 0124 6) 8989 7) 43 8) 943 9) 9679 10) 9962 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Answers to exercise 1 tutorial 2 1) 64 2) 63 3) 72 4) 49 5) 81 6)2 6= 36
1
Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 2 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 1) 8526 2) 8536 3) 7546 4) 8928 5) 8648 6) 6336 7) 9506 (we put 06 because.za/vedic. we need two figures in each part) Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2
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.hinduism.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. like all the others.

hinduism.za/vedic. not 6) Return to Exercise 3 Tutorial 2 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 1) 29/30 2) 7/12 3) 20/21 4) 19/30 5) 1/20 6) 13/15 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 1) 2025 2) 4225 3) 9025 4) 1225 5) 225 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 1) 2021 2) 624 3) 4216 4) 221 5) 3009 6) 5621 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 1) 294 2) 682 3) 651 4) 462 5) 672
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Answers to exercise 3 Tutorial 2 1) 10914 2) 10918 3) 10816 4) 11772 5) 12423 6) 10506 (we put 06.co.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.

htm
Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5
Answers to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 1) 987 2) 989 3) 1696 4) 1344 5) 5112 Return to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 6) 1792 7) 1728 8) 2232 9) 2332 10) 3456 Return to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 1) 473 2) 891 3) 165 4) 484 5) 121 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 1) 968 2) 924 3) 528 4) 803 5) 616 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 1) 1661 2) 5797 3) 3663 4) 7854 5) 9999
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.hinduism.Vedic Mathematics
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Tips & Tricks
Courtesy www.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.vedic-maths-ebook.co.za/vedic. 2 + 1.hinduism. 2 + 1 + 2 + 1) Return to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 1) 714 r15 = 84 r15 = 85 r6 2) 913 r 15 = 103 r15 = 104 r6 3) 516 r16 = 61 r16 = 62 r7 4) 510 r15 = 60 r15 = 61 r6 5) 714 r21 = 84 r21 = 86 r3 6) 2513 r15 = 263 r15 = 264 r6 7) 7714 r14 = 784 r14 = 785 r5 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 copyright to the ACADEMY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS ____________________________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]
Tutorial 8 Vedic Maths .com By Kevin O'Connor * Copyright Notice Is it divisible by four?
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Return to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 1) 6 r 7 2) 3 r 6 3) 4 r 8 4) 5 r 8 5) 8 r 8 Return to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 Answers to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 1) 25 r 7 2) 16 r 7 3) 33 r 6 4) 23 r 5 5) 235 r 6 (we have 2. 2 + 1 + 2.

Back to the question. there is no way it will go in evenly. Let’s try 4 into 3436546 So..htm
This little math trick will show you whether a number is divisible by four or not. take the last number. 4 will not go evenly into 1233 or 1235 Now we know that for 4 to divide evenly into any number the number has to end with an even number. for example. 4 into 1234. Let's look at 1234 Does 4 divide evenly into 1234? For 4 to divide into any number we have to make sure that the last number is even If it is an odd number. this is how it works.
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. So 4 + (2 X 3) = 10 4 goes into 10 two times with a remainder of 2 so it does not go in evenly.. Therefore 4 goes into 234436 evenly.co.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Therefore 4 into 1234 does not go in completely. So. 4 6 + (2 X 4) = 14 4 goes into 14 three times with two remainder. from our example. Let's try one more.hinduism. So it doesn't go in evenly. 4 into 212334436 6 + (2 X 3) = 12 4 goes into 12 three times with 0 remainder. So. 6 and add it to two times the penultimate number. the solution: Take the last number and add it to 2 times the second last number If 4 goes evenly into this number then you know that 4 will go evenly into the whole number.za/vedic.

then you can use it in working out whether the year you are calculating is a leap year or not.htm
So what use is this trick to you? Well if you have learnt the tutorial at Memorymentor.com Now multiply the 7 by the 2 of twelve giving 14.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Therefore 7 X 12 = 84 Let's try another: 17 X 12 Remember. multiply the 17 by the 1 in 12 and multiply by 10 (Just add a zero to the end) 1 X 17 = 17. Bases are the fundamentals to easy calculations for all multiplication tables. Multiplying by 12 . in this case 7.com about telling the day in any year.shortcut So how does the 12's shortcut work? Let's take a look. Multiply by 10 giving 240. Multiply this 7 by 10 giving 70.hinduism. Add this to 70 giving 84. 12 X 7 The first thing is to always multiply the 1 of the twelve by the number we are multiplying by. So 17 X 12 = 204 lets go one more 24 X 12 Multiply 24 X 1 = 24. Multiply 17 by 2 giving 34. Add to 240 giving us 288 24 X 12 = 288 (these are Seriously Simple Sums to do aren’t they?!)
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. So 1 X 7 = 7. multiplied by 10 giving 170.za/vedic. Multiply 24 by 2 = 48.co. (Why? We are working with BASES here.vedic-maths-ebook. To find out more check out our Vedic Maths ebook at www. Add 34 to 170 giving 204.

86 x 2 = 172 Step two. Let’s start off with looking at converting Kilos to pounds. 100 + 10 = 110 50 Kilos = 110 pounds Adding Time Here is a nice simple way to add hours and minutes together: Let's add 1 hr and 35 minutes and 3 hr 55 minutes together. add step two's answer to step one's answer. multiply the kilos by TWO.hinduism.2 86 Kilos = 189. 100/10 = 10 Step three. What you do is this: make the 1 hr 35 minutes into one number. just put a decimal point one place in from the right. 172 / 10 = 17. just double the kilos. and Vice Versa. just put a decimal point one place in from the right. divide the answer by ten. add step two’s answer to step one’s answer.co. just double the kilos. 50 x 2 = 100 Step two. To do this. 172 + 17. To do this. divide the answer by ten.2 Step three. To do this. which will give us
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Converting Kilos to pounds In this section you will learn how to convert Kilos to Pounds. To do this.2 = 189.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.2 pounds Let's try: 50 Kilos to pounds: Step one. 86 kilos into pounds: Step one.za/vedic. multiply the kilos by TWO.

Fahrenheit to Celsius: Take 30 away from the Fahrenheit. No matter what the hours and minutes are. Celsius to Fahrenheit just do the reverse: Double it. but it will give you an idea of the temperature you are looking at. What you need to do to this and all sub totals is add the time constant of 40. The answer you will get will not be an exact one. 3 hours 55 minutes. So 74 Fahrenheit = 22 Celsius. then add 30 is 90 30 Celsius = 90 Fahrenheit Remember.co.
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.za/vedic.hinduism. giving us 355 Now you want to add these two numbers together: 135 355 ___ 490 So we now have a sub total of 490. 30 Celsius double it. Example: 74 Fahrenheit . and then divide the answer by two. This is your answer in Celsius. and then add 30. 490 + 40 = 530 So we can now see our answer is 5 hrs and 30 minutes! Temperature Conversions This is a shortcut to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa. the answer is not exact but it gives you a rough idea.30 = 44.htm
135 and do the same for the other number. Then divide by two.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. is 60. 22 Celsius. just add the 40 time constant to the sub total.

4 3/5 = . 8ths aren't that hard to learn.2 2/5 = .25 3/8 = . What about 7ths? We'll come back to them at the end... 3/6 = 1/2 = .za/vedic..8 There are only two new decimal equivalents to learn with the 6ths: 1/6 = .. double it.375
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.co.333. Take the numerator (the number on top).125 if needed: 1/8 = . You also know 2 of the 4ths.8333.666..Vedic Mathematics
http://www.333.125 2/8 = 1/4 = .6 4/5 = .htm
Decimals Equivalents of Fractions With a little practice..5 3/4 = . as they're just smaller steps than 4ths..hinduism. there are 3 you should know already: 1/2 = . as well.. and add .333.75 Fifths are very easy. of which you already know one: 1/3 = ..25 Starting with the thirds.25 2/4 = 1/2 = . and stick a decimal in front of it. 5/6 = . so there's only one new one to learn: 1/4 = . 2/6 = 1/3 = .. find the nearest 4th.. They're very unique. If you have trouble with any of the 8ths.. it's not hard to recall the decimal equivalents of fractions up to 10/11! First...666.5 1/3 = . 1/4 = . 2/3 = . 1/5 = .1666.5 4/6 = 2/3 = .

. I almost forgot! We haven't done 7ths yet. 6/9 = .111.222.2 3/10 = . 10ths are very easy... 3/11 = .. assuming you know your multiples of 9: 1/11 = ..5 6/10 = . 5/9 = ....818181. have we? One-seventh is an interesting number:
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.909090.. 7/11 = . 8/11 = ...6 7/10 = .. 2/9 = .hinduism.. 4/11 = ..363636. 2/11 = ..5 5/8 = . 7/9 = ..444.htm
4/8 = 1/2 = ..333.. 6/11 = . 3/9 = . 8/9 = .. As long as you can remember the pattern for each fraction.. 4/9 = .888.7 8/10 = . 5/11 = .. it is quite simple to work out the decimal place as far as you want or need to go! Oh. as well.545454.9 Remember how easy 9ths were? 11th are easy in a similar way..3 4/10 = ....za/vedic. 9/11 = ....1 2/10 = ...090909.625 6/8 = 3/4 = .8 9/10 = .181818.co.777...75 7/8 = ..666..727272.. 10/11 = . Just put a decimal in front of the numerator: 1/10 = .272727.636363.4 5/10 = .454545.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.555..875 9ths are almost too easy: 1/9 = .

work out where to begin the decimal number.. giving us . 6/7 = .142857. 4/7 = .. For 4/14.14 as the starting point. you'll have to adjust upward by 1: For 4/7. giving us . if you're up to it!) to be divided by a 1-digit number. you can think.714285. which is 13 * 7. giving us .. or: 13. For 3/7.
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.. then give them a calculator and ask for a 2-digit number (3-digit number... For 5/7. think "(5 * 14) + 1". giving us . the closest multiple of 7 is 91. and you'll have the decimal equivalents of everything from 1/2 to 10/11 at your finger tips! If you want to demonstrate this skill to other people.. it isn't difficult to. "Hmm. for example.571428.. think "(4 * 14) + 1".142857 See if you notice any pattern in the 7ths: 1/7 = .142857142857142857. 5/7 = . For now.857142.428571. 3/7 = . think "2 * 14".za/vedic. Look at this: For 1/7. giving us .71 as the starting point. 5/14 and 6/14.57 as the starting point. think "1 * 14"..hinduism.co.85 as the starting point.. just think of one-seventh as: .htm
1/7 = . Notice that the 6 digits in the 7ths ALWAYS stay in the same order and the starting digit is the only thing that changes! If you know your multiples of 14 up to 6..Vedic Mathematics
http://www. If they give you 96 divided by 7. and you know your multiplication tables up to the hundreds for each number 1-9..42 as the starting point.. with 5 left over.. Practice these.285714. For 6/7..7142857!" Converting Kilometres to Miles This is a useful method for when travelling between imperial and metric countries and need to know what kilometres to miles are. giving us .28 as the starting point. So the answer is 13 and 5/7. think "(6 * 14) + 1".. 2/7 = . think "3 * 14". For 2/7.

However you CANNOT charge for it.htm
The formula to convert kilometres to miles is number of (kilometres / 8 ) X 5 So lets try 80 kilometres into miles 80/8 = 10 multiplied by 5 is 50 miles! Another example 40 kilometres 40 / 8 = 5 5 X 5= 25 miles Vedic Mathematics Master Multiplication tables. division and lots more! We recommed you check out this ebook.vedic-maths-ebook. tricks and tutorials that will boost your math ability. nor can you edit its contents. The author’s contact details must stay intact in both the footer and header pages.com
Copyright Notice This e-book is free! This publication is protected by international copyright laws.vedic-maths-ebook.za/vedic. You have the author’s permission to transmit this ebook and use it as a gift or as part of your advertising campaign.co.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Courtesy www.hinduism.com By Kevin O'Connor _________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]
Vedic Mathematics
By Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaj (1884-1960)
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. it's packed with tips. guaranteed! www.

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Book ref: ISBN 0 8426 0967 9 Published by Motilal Banarasidas From the Introduction by Smti Manjula Trivedi 16-03-1965. easy to apply and easy to remember. Trigonometry – plane and spherical. a fourth. 50. The Sutras are easy to understand. Conics – geometrical and analytical. or even a much smaller fraction of the time required according to modern (i. From the Preface by the author Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaj Extracts: We may however. Obviously these formulae are not to be found in the present recensions of Atharvaveda. 100 or even more numerous and cumbrous ‘steps’ of working (according to the current Western methods) can be answered in a single and simple step of work by the Vedic method! And little children (of only 10 or 12 years of age) merely look at the sums written on the blackboard and immediately shout out and dictate the answers. from materials scattered here and there in the Atharvaveda. as a matter of fact. Astronomy.co.) In fact. Calculus – differential and integral etc.e. Geometry – plane and solid. They were actually reconstructed. there is no part of mathematics.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Algebra. current) Western methods.hinduism. And this is because. each digit automatically yields its predecessor and its successor! And the children have merely
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. that is beyond their jurisdiction. a tenth.za/vedic. on the basis of intuitive revelation. And in some very important and striking cases. pure or applied. at this point draw the earnest attention of every one concerned to the following salient items thereof: The Sutras (aphorisms) apply to and cover each and every part of each and every chapter of each and every branch of mathematics (including Arithmetic. the time taken by the Vedic method will be a third. An extract: Revered Guruji used to say that he had reconstructed the sixteen mathematical formulae from the Atharvaveda after assiduous research and ‘Tapas’ (austerity) for about eight years in the forests surrounding Sringeri. sums requiring 30. and the whole work can be truthfully summarised in one word ‘Mental’! Even as regards complex problems involving a good number of mathematical operations (consecutively or even simultaneously to be performed).

Ayurveda (anatomy. we need merely state from our actual experience that 8 months (or 12 months) at an average rate of 2 or 3 hours per day should suffice for completing the whole course of mathematical studies on these Vedic lines instead of 15 or 20 years required according to the existing systems of the Indian and also of foreign universities. and money on and which even now it solves with the utmost difficulty and that also after vast labour involving large numbers of difficult. energy. slate etc. tedious and cumbersome ‘steps’ of working) can be easily and readily solved with the help of these ultra-easy Vedic Sutras (or mathematical aphorisms) contained in the Parisista (the appendix portion) of the Atharvaveda in a few simple steps and by methods that can be conscientiously described as mere ‘mental arithmetic’.e. not for fighting with one another after our transportation to heaven but in order to quell and subdue all invaders from abroad and all insurgents from within. It is thus in the fitness of things that the Vedas include 1. 3.hinduism. It is magic until you understand it. Gandharva Veda (the science of art and music) and 4. astronomy. are inherent parts of the Vedas i.. not for the purpose of achieving perfect health and strength in the after-death future but in order to attain them here and now in our present physical bodies. the doctors. architecture etc. are reckoned as ‘spiritual’ studies and catered for as such therein. On seeing this kind of work actually being performed by the little children. and it is mathematics thereafter’. grammar.za/vedic. physiology. sanitary science. Sthapatya Veda (engineering.). prosody. Similar is the case with Vedangas (i.co.) which according to the Indian
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to go on tossing off (or reeling off) the digits one after another (forwards or backwards) by mere mental arithmetic (without needing pen or pencil.). hygiene. surgery etc. be it noted. All these subjects..Vedic Mathematics
http://www. And then we proceed to substantiate and prove the correctness of this reply of ours! As regards the time required by the students for mastering the whole course of Vedic Mathematics as applied to all its branches.e. professors and other ‘big-guns’ of mathematics are wonder-struck and exclaim: ‘Is this mathematics or magic’? And we invariably answer and say: ‘It is both.Dhanurveda (archery and other military sciences). and all branches of mathematics in general). lexicography etc. medical science. And we were agreeably astonished and intensely gratified to find that exceedingly tough mathematical problems (which the mathematically most advanced present day Western scientific world had spent huge amount of time. 2. paper.

now fast becoming extinct. play the decisive role. The Vedic seers were. of diehard believers who think that the Vedas represent an inexhaustible mine of profoundest wisdom in matters of both spiritual and temporal. they had their varied objective science both pure and applied.htm
cultural conceptions. again. not mere ‘navel-gazers’ or ‘nose-tip gazers’. but was direct gift of revelation to seers and sages who in their higher reaches of Yogic realisation were competent to receive it from a source. For example. and that this store of wisdom was not. but different from these now availing.e. Suppose in a time of drought we require rains by artificial means. The modern scientist has his own theory and art (technique) for producing the result. called Yajna. The Sutras lay down the shortest and surest lines. the late Shankaracharya shows the rare combination of the probing insight of revealing intuition of a Yogi with the analytic acumen and synthetic talent of a mathematician.hinduism.co. In his deep-layer explorations of cryptic Vedic mysteries relating especially to their calculus of shorthand formulae and their neat and ready application to practical problems. he had developed the six auxiliaries of the Vedas in each of which mathematical skill and adroitness.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. gathered by the laborious inductive and deductive methods of ordinary systemic enquiry. Yantra. He had his science and technique.g. as regards its assets of fundamental validity and value at least. e. Whether or not the Vedas are believed as repositories of perfect wisdom. the correct time or
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. They proved themselves adepts in all levels and branches of knowledge. the correct configuration of the Yantra (in the making of the Vedi etc. With the late Shankaracharya we belong to a race.. For this purpose. theoretical and practical. the quadrate of a circle). perfect and immaculate. Let us take a concrete illustration. are also inherent parts and subjects of Vedic (i.za/vedic. religious) study. it is unquestionable that the Vedic race lived not as merely pastoral folk possessing a half or a quarter developed culture and civilisation. The old seer scientist had his both also. From the Foreward by Swami Pratyagatmananda Saraswati Varanasi. The correct intonation of the Mantra. in which Mantra. occult or otherwise. 22-03-1965 An extract: Vedic Mathematics by the late Shankaracharya (Bharati Krsna Tirtha) of Govardhan Pitha is a monumental work. and other factors must co-operate with mathematical determinateness and precision.

not all ancient civilizations based their numbers on a ten-base system. for drains to be constructed of precise measurements. The old Yajnik had his Sutras.hinduism. and 500 have been identified. we take our decimal system for granted.367 inches points to the degree of precision demanded in those times.za/vedic.1. a sexagesimal (base 60) system was in use. 10.05. the correct rhythams etc. and for homes to be constructed according to specified guidelines. Although today. All had to be perfected so as to produce the desired results effectively and adequately. 0.5. A bronze rod marked in units of 0.htm
astral conjunction factor. as have scales with decimal divisions. as in many other early agricultural civilizations. The existence of a gradated system of accurately marked weights points to the development of trade and commerce in Harappan society.2. Such scales were particularly important in ensuring proper implementation of town planning rules that required roads of fixed widths to run at right angles to each other. 2. 100. 200. 0.co. 0. the
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. A particularly notable characteristic of Harappan weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy. as indicated by an analysis of Harappan weights and measures. Numbers in vey early societies were typically represented by groups of lines. though later different numbers came to be assigned specific numeral names and symbols (as in India) or were designated by alphabetic letters (such as in Rome). In ancient Babylon. 5. Weights corresponding to ratios of 0. 1. 20. the first expression of mathematical understanding appears in the form of counting systems. Mathematical Activity in the Vedic Period In the Vedic period. Each of these required the calculus of mathematics. The modern technician has his logarithmic tables and mechanic’s manuals. _________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Pages from the history of the Indian sub-continent: Science and Mathematics in India
History of Mathematics in India
In all early civilizations.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. 50. records of mathematical activity are mostly to be found in Vedic texts associated with ritual activities. However. The Decimal System in Harappa In India a decimal system was already in place during the Harappan period.

problems of mensuration came up that required solutions. Examples of geometric knowledge (rekhaganit) are to be found in the Sulva-Sutras of Baudhayana (800 BC) and Apasthmaba (600 BC) which describe techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during the Vedic era. Arithmetic operations (Ganit) such as addition. Babylon and China .hinduism. Mathematics was thus brought into the service of both the secular and the ritual domains. squares. A similar observation pertaining to oblongs is also noted. Since plots could not all be of the same shape . As land was redistributed or consolidated. possibly in the Harappan period. The system of land grants and agricultural tax assessments required accurate measurement of cultivated areas. Baudhayana's Sutra displays an understanding of basic geometric shapes and techniques of converting one geometric shape (such as a rectangle) to another of equivalent (or multiple. Thus.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. but could be adjusted upwards or downwards based on a variety of factors.htm
study of arithmetic and geometry was also impelled by secular considerations. Modern methods of multiplication and addition probably emerged from the techniques described in the Sulva-Sutras.co. Apasthamba's sutra (an
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.za/vedic. multiplication. others are accurate and reveal a certain degree of practical ingenuity as well as some theoretical understanding of basic geometric principles.the Greek mathematician and philosopher who lived in the 6th C B.local administrators were required to convert rectangular plots or triangular plots to squares of equivalent sizes and so on. It is likely that these texts tapped geometric knowledge that may have been acquired much earlier. or fractional) area (such as a square). subtraction. cubes and roots are enumerated in the Narad Vishnu Purana attributed to Ved Vyas (pre-1000 BC). fractions. An early statement of what is commonly known as the Pythagoras theorem is to be found in Baudhayana's Sutra: The chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the size. His Sutra also contains geometric solutions of a linear equation in a single unknown.C was familiar with the Upanishads and learnt his basic geometry from the Sulva Sutras. Tax assessments were based on fixed proportions of annual or seasonal crop incomes. In order to ensure that all cultivators had equivalent amounts of irrigated and non-irrigated lands and tracts of equivalent fertility individual farmers in a village often had their holdings broken up in several parcels to ensure fairness. to some extent early mathematical developments in India mirrored the developments in Egypt. While some of the formulations are approximations. This meant that an understanding of geometry and arithmetic was virtually essential for revenue administrators. Examples of quadratic equations also appear. Pythagoras .

Ingerman in his paper titled Panini-
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." (Many centuries later.za/vedic. or else were transmitted orally through the Gurukul system. Others believe that once the scientific method came to be formalized in the NyayaSutras . Besides expounding a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics. in The crest of the peacock argues that the algebraic nature of Indian mathematics arises as a consequence of the structure of the Sanskrit language. the study of Ganit i.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. In any case. Jain texts from the 6th C BC such as the Surya Pragyapti describe ellipses.proofs for such results must have been provided. Apasthamba also looked at the problems of squaring a circle.htm
expansion of Baudhayana's with several original contributions) provides a value for the square root of 2 that is accurate to the fifth decimal place. and only the final results were tabulated in the texts.e. Some believe that these results came about through hit and trial . The Vedang Jyotish (1000 BC) includes the statement: "Just as the feathers of a peacock and the jewel-stone of a snake are placed at the highest point of the body (at the forehead). G G Joseph. The construction of compound words and sentences was elaborated through ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to formal language theory. Jain mathematician from Mysore. Panini's constructions can also be seen as comparable to modern definitions of a mathematical function. phonology and morphology. mathematics)".) Panini and Formal Scientific Notation A particularly important development in the history of Indian science that was to have a profound impact on all mathematical treatises that followed was the pioneering work by Panini (6th C BC) in the field of Sanskrit grammar and linguistics. the position of Ganit is the highest amongst all branches of the Vedas and the Shastras.hinduism. Panini provided formal production rules and definitions describing Sanskrit grammar in his treatise called Asthadhyayi. parts of speech such as nouns and verbs were placed in classes. Today. Basic elements such as vowels and consonants. dividing a segment into seven equal parts. but these have either been lost or destroyed. Mahaviracharya further emphasized the importance of mathematics: "Whatever object exists in this moving and non-moving world. and a solution to the general linear equation. similarly.co.as rules of thumb.e mathematics was given considerable importance in the Vedic period. cannot be understood without the base of Ganit (i. Modern-day commentators are divided on how some of the results were generated. or as generalizations of observed examples.

Philosophy and Mathematics Philosophical doctrines also had a profound influence on the development of mathematical concepts and formulations. Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities: infinite in one direction. The operations are repeated to produce new sets. Buddhist mathematics was classified either as Garna (Simple Mathematics) or Sankhyan (Higher Mathematics). Infinite numbers were created through recursive formulae. emptiness
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.e. This led to a deep interest in very large numbers and definitions of infinite numbers. In Satkhandagama various sets are operated upon by logarithmic functions to base two.htm
Backus form finds Panini's notation to be equivalent in its power to that of Backus . by squaring and extracting square roots. Buddhist literature also demonstrates an awareness of indeterminate and infinite numbers. space and time were considered limitless in Jain cosmology. Permutations and combinations are listed in the Bhagvati Sutras (3rd C BC) and Sathananga Sutra (2nd C BC).i. log base 3 and log base 4 respectively. Thus Panini's work provided an example of a scientific notational model that could have propelled later mathematicians to use abstract notations in characterizing algebraic equations and presenting algebraic theorems and results in a scientific format. Jain set theory probably arose in parallel with the Syadvada system of Jain epistemology in which reality was described in terms of pairs of truth conditions and state changes. Since Jain epistemology allowed for a degree of indeterminacy in describing reality. in two directions.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.inventor of the Backus Normal Form used to describe the syntax of modern computer languages. Trik Aached. The Anuyoga Dwara Sutra demonstrates an understanding of the law of indeces and uses it to develop the notion of logarithms. and by raising to finite or infinite powers. as in the Anuyoga Dwara Sutra. infinite everywhere and perpetually infinite. in area. it probably helped in grappling with indeterminate equations and finding numerical approximations to irrational numbers.co. Numbers were deemed to be of three types: Sankheya (countable). Terms like Ardh Aached . and Chatur Aached are used to denote log base 2. In other works the relation of the number of combinations to the coefficients occurring in the binomial expansion is noted. Philosophical formulations concerning Shunya .za/vedic.hinduism. Asankheya (uncountable) and Anant (infinite). Like the Upanishadic world view.

algebraic definitions of the zero and it's relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of Brahmagupta in the 7th C AD. and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Between the 7th C and the 11th C. and it was the Indian notational system that reached the Western world through the Arabs and has now been accepted as universal.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. square root etc) eventually became the foundation stones of modern mathematical notation.hinduism. and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory. The Indian Numeral System Although the Chinese were also using a decimal based counting system. In the Western world.co. But in India. Importance of Astronomy
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. and along with the symbols denoting various mathematical functions (such as plus. It's simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions." Brilliant as it was. Influence of Trade and Commerce. minus. almost everything was in place to favor such a development. the cumbersome roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle. the Chinese lacked a formal notational system that had the abstraction and elegance of the Indian notational system. as might have the rationalist doctrines and the exacting epistemology of the Nyaya Sutras. this invention was no accident. and the innovative abstractions of the Syadavada and Buddhist schools of learning.za/vedic. Panini's studies in linguistic theory and formal language and the powerful role of symbolism and representational abstraction in art and architecture may have also provided an impetus.htm
or the void may have facilitated in the introduction of the concept of zero. Indian numerals developed into their modern form. Several factors contributed to this development whose significance is perhaps best stated by French mathematician. Although scholars are divided about how early the symbol for zero came to be used in numeric notation in India. There was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers. (Ifrah arguing that the use of zero is already implied in Aryabhatta) tangible evidence for the use of the zero begins to proliferate towards the end of the Gupta period. While the zero (bindu) as an empty place holder in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier. Laplace: "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India.

This is borne out by numerous references in the Jataka tales and several other folk-tales. Nizamabad. some later astronomers continued to believe in a static earth and rejected his rational explanations of the eclipses. religion and astrology also played a role in creating an interest in astronomy and a negative fallout of this irrational influence was the rejection of scientific theories that were far ahead of their time. The young person who wished to embark on a commercial venture was inevitably required to first gain some grounding in astronomy. This also led to the exchange of texts on astronomy and mathematics amongst scholars and the transmission of knowledge from one part of India to another. particularly on those from the Asmaka school. Mathematics played a vital role in Aryabhatta's revolutionary
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. But in spite of such setbacks.Aryabhatta (born in 476 AD. This led to a proliferation of teachers of astronomy. Although Bhaskar I (born Saurashtra. He correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth. Sanskrit served as the common medium of scientific communication. Kusumpura.particularly knowledge of the tides and the stars was of great import to trading communities who crossed oceans or deserts at night.htm
The growth of trade and commerce.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. He also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and provided a valid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses rejecting the superstitions and mythical belief systems surrounding the phenomenon. particularly lending and borrowing demanded an understanding of both simple and compound interest which probably stimulated the interest in arithmetic and geometric series. and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. Knowledge of astronomy . Andhra ) recognized his genius and the tremendous value of his scientific contributions. and follower of the Asmaka school of science.hinduism. who in turn received training at universities such as at Kusumpura (Bihar) or Ujjain (Central India) or at smaller local colleges or Gurukuls. Virtually every Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians (who may have lived and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier).co. Bihar) provided a systematic treatment of the position of the planets in space.za/vedic. At the same time. Aryabhatta had a profound influence on the astronomers and mathematicians who followed him. Brahmagupta's description of negative numbers as debts and positive numbers as fortunes points to a link between trade and mathematical study. One of the greatest scientists of the Gupta period . The science of astronomy was also spurred by the need to have accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops. 6th C.

and discussed in further detail topics such as the longitudes of the planets.i. tatkalika gati to designate the infinitesimal. Applied Mathematics. He also did pioneering work on indeterminate equations and considered for the first time quadrilaterals with all the four sides unequal and none of the opposite sides parallel. Brahmagupta did important work in enumerating the basic principles of algebra. Bhaskar I continued where Aryabhatta left off. the circumferance of the earth (62832 miles) and the length of the solar year (within about 13 minutes of the modern calculation) were remarkably close approximations. and express it in the form of a basic differential equation. His calculations on pi. Later mathematicians used their intuitive understanding of integration in deriving the areas of curved surfaces and the volumes enclosed by them.htm
understanding of the solar system. Aryabhatta had to solve several mathematical problems that had not been addressed before.e. Aryabhatta was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals . In making such calculations. or near instantaneous motion of the moon. Ujjain) who compiled previously written texts on astronomy and made important additions to Aryabhatta's trigonometric formulas. Amongst his most important contributions was his formula for calculating the sine function which was 99% accurate. risings and settings of the planets. In the 7th century.hinduism. these studies required still more advanced mathematics and Bhaskar I expanded on the trigonometric equations provided by Aryabhatta. Aryabhatta's equations were elaborated on by Manjula (10th C) and Bhaskaracharya (12th C) who derived the differential of the sine function. and the lunar crescent.za/vedic.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Emergence of Calculus In the course of developing a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse. Again. His work on solutions to quadratic indeterminate equations anticipated the work of Euler and Lagrange. he also listed the algebraic properties of negative numbers. Solutions to Practical Problems
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. conjunctions of the planets with each other and with bright stars. Another important astronomer/mathematician was Varahamira (6th C. and like Aryabhatta correctly assessed pi to be an irrational number.co. including problems in algebra (beej-ganit) and trigonometry (trikonmiti). In addition to listing the algebraic properties of zero. His works on permutations and combinations complemented what had been previously achieved by Jain mathematicians and provided a method of calculation of nCr that closely resembles the much more recent Pascal's Triangle.

the lunar crescent etc. the seasons. In the late 9th C. wages. Vijayanandi (of Benares. Some of these examples involved fairly complicated solutions and his Patiganita is considered an advanced mathematical work. The leading light of 12th C Indian mathematics was Bhaskaracharya who came from a long-line of mathematicians and was head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain. His Chakrawaat method of solving indeterminate solutions preceded European solutions by several centuries. first visibilities of the planets. an astronomical text. and formulas for the sum of certain finite series are provided. Yativrsabha's work Tiloyapannatti (6th C) gives various units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures.za/vedic. In the second part of this treatise. there are several chapters relating to the study of the sphere and it's properties and applications to geography.cos a sin b. mixtures. purchase and sale. and in his Siddhanta Shiromani he postulated that the earth had a gravitational force. including progressions with fractional numbers or terms. He left several important mathematical texts including the Lilavati and Bijaganita and the Siddhanta Shiromani. Of particular interest are his trigonometric equations: sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b. rates of travel. Sridhara (probably Bengal) provided mathematical formulae for a variety of practical problems involving ratios.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Mathematical investigation continued into the 10th C. whose Karanatilaka was translated by Al-Beruni into Arabic) and Sripati of Maharashtra are amongst the prominent mathematicians of the century. He also derived formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle (something that had also been looked at by Brahmagupta) The solution of indeterminate equations also drew considerable interest in the 9th century.b) = sin a cos b . Sections of the book were also devoted to arithmetic and geometric progressions. barter. and filling of cisterns.co.hinduism. and several mathematicians contributed approximations and solutions to different types of indeterminate equations. Mahaviracharya ( Mysore) wrote Ganit Saar Sangraha where he described the currently used method of calculating the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of given numbers. In the 9th C. eccentric epicyclical model of the planets. and broached the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. He also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry. simple interest.htm
Developments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. sin(a . He was the first to recognize that certain types of quadratic equations could have two solutions.
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. planetary mean motion.

htm
The Spread of Indian Mathematics The study of mathematics appears to slow down after the onslaught of the Islamic invasions and the conversion of colleges and universities to madrasahs. Benaras survived as a center for mathematical study. Arabic and Persian translations of Greek and Egyptian scientific texts became more readily available in India. Madhava (14th C. His series expansion of the cos and sine functions anticipated Newton by almost three centuries. Rangachari and Joseph considered his contributions instrumental in taking
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. an 11th C Spanish scholar and court historian was amongst the most enthusiastic in his praise of Indian civilization. Said Al-Andalusi. Rajagopal. At the same time. Cordoba) were amongst the many who based their own scientific texts on translations of Indian treatises. Historians of mathematics. But this was also the time when Indian mathematical texts were increasingly being translated into Arabic and Persian. Ibn-Sina (Avicenna). Spain). Al-Uqlidisi (10th C. 11th C. Al-Kindi (9th C. Records of the Indian origin of many proofs. author of Kitab fi al-hisab al-hindi). eventually. thought and insight”. Scholars such as Ibn Tariq and Al-Fazari (8th C. Baghdad). but the enormous contributions of Indian mathematics was generously acknowledged by several important Arabic and Persian scholars. The Kerala School Although it appears that original work in mathematics ceased in much of Northern India after the Islamic conquests. Damascus. and eventually penetrating all of Europe. author of The book of Chapters in Indian Arithmetic). Al-Nasawi (Khurasan. Persia). and specially remarked on Indian achievements in the sciences and in mathematics. and Ibn-Al-Saffar (11th C. Indian algebra and trigonometry reached Europe through a cycle of translations. Al-Khwarizmi (9th C. Kochi) made important mathematical discoveries that would not be identified by European mathematicians till at least two centuries later. born Khiva. Although Arab scholars relied on a variety of sources including Babylonian. Syrian. died Afghanistan). Ibn al-Samh (Granada. Greek and some Chinese texts. Al-Beruni (11th C.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.co.za/vedic. Maghreb. and an important school of mathematics blossomed in Kerala. especially in Spain. Basra).hinduism. concepts and formulations were obscured in the later centuries. travelling from the Arab world to Spain and Sicily. Al-Qayarawani (9th C. Abbasid scholar Al-Gaheth wrote: " India is the source of knowledge. 11th C. Indian mathematical texts played a particularly important role. Khiva). Al-Razi (Teheran). Al-Maoudi (956 AD) who travelled in Western India also wrote about the greatness of Indian science. Of course.

Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Important discoveries by the Kerala mathematicians included the Newton-Gauss interpolation formula. It is also notable that Jyesthadeva's Yuktibhasa which contained commentaries on Nilkantha's Tantrasamgraha included elaborations on planetary theory later adopted by Tycho Brahe.hinduism. the formula for the sum of an infinite series. Kerala) extended and elaborated upon the results of Madhava while Jyesthadeva (16th C.
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. Kerala) gave integer solutions to twenty-one types of systems of two algebraic equations. No other branch of science is complete without mathematics. a significant body of mathematical works were produced in the Indian subcontinent. author of Chandasutra explored the relationship between combinatorics and musical theory anticipating Mersenne (1588-1648) author of a classic on musical theory. Charles Whish (1835. Nilkantha (15th C. Kerala) provided detailed proofs of the theorems and derivations of the rules contained in the works of Madhava and Nilkantha.(as in temple shikaras. that of modern classical analysis. and a series notation for pi. the relationship between geometry and architectural decoration was developed to it's greatest heights by Central Asian. Notes: Mathematics and Music: Pingala (3rd C AD). Mathematics and Architecture: Interest in arithmetic and geometric series may have also been stimulated by (and influenced) Indian architectural designs . Chitrabhanu (16th C. Not only did India provide the financial capital for the industrial revolution (see the essay on colonization) India also provided vital elements of the scientific foundation without which humanity could not have entered this modern age of science and high technology. gopurams and corbelled temple ceilings). Tirur.za/vedic. The science of mathematics played a pivotal role not only in the industrial revolution but in the scientific developments that have occurred since. Of course. Turkish.htm
mathematics to the next stage. using both algebraic and geometric methods in developing his results.co. Yet. Persian. and mathematics that anticipated work by later Europeans. published in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) was one of the first Westerners to recognize that the Kerala school had anticipated by almost 300 years many European developments in the field. Arab and Indian architects in a variety of monuments commissioned by the Islamic rulers. few modern compendiums on the history of mathematics have paid adequate attention to the often pioneering and revolutionary contributions of Indian mathematicians. But as this essay amply demonstrates.

G Kumari: Some significant results of algebra of pre-Aryabhata era.Studies in the History of Science in India (Anthology edited by Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya) 2. any desired number can be written.two European mathematicians obtained their copies of works by the Kerala mathematicians from Thrissur. 1974).za/vedic. Sci. Ed. 5. (Siwan) 14 (1) (1980).G G Joseph: The crest of the peacock (Princeton University Press. "Nauka" (Moscow. 302. 4. 1932). B Datta: The science of the Sulba (Calcutta. 220-222. R P Kulkarni: The value of pi known to Sulbasutrakaras. (Fibonaci learnt about Indian numerals from his Arab teachers in North Africa) Influence of the Kerala School: Joseph (Crest of the Peacock) suggests that Indian mathematical manuscripts may have been brought to Europe by Jesuit priests such as Matteo Ricci who spent two years in Kochi (Cochin) after being ordained in Goa in 1580. F A Medvedev and E I Slavutin: Studies in the history of mathematics.A P Juskevic. and it is not inconceivable that Jesuit monks may have also taken copies to Pisa (where Galileo. B5-B13.Vedic Mathematics
http://www.with these nine and with the sign 0 which in Arabic is sifr. or Padau (where James Gregory studied) or Paris (where Mersenne who was in touch with Fermat and Pascal.
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.. 2000).htm
Transmission of the Indian Numeral System: Evidence for the transmission of the Indian Numeral System to the West is provided by Joseph (Crest of the Peacock): Quotes Severus Sebokht (662) in a Syriac text describing the "subtle discoveries" of Indian astronomers as being "more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians" and "their valuable methods of computation which surpass description" and then goes on to mention the use of nine numerals. acted as an agent for the transmission of mathematical ideas). · Quotes from Liber abaci (Book of the Abacus) by Fibonacci (1170-1250): The nine Indian numerals are . Kochi is only 70km from Thrissur (Trichur) which was then the largest repository of astronomical documents. Whish and Hyne . 32-41. Cavalieri and Wallis spent time).hinduism. References: 1.. Indian Journal Hist.co. 6. Math. 13 (1) (1978). S S Demidov. 3.

31-65. K Shankar Shukla: Bhaskara I.co. 16. Sci. L C Jain: System theory in Jaina school of mathematics. G Ifrah: A universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London. 18. K S Shukla: Hindu mathematics in the seventh century as found in Bhaskara I's commentary on the Aryabhatiya. 267-294. Hist. (Siwan) 18 (3) (1984). Communications of the ACM 10 (3)(1967). Sci. Sci. Die philosophischen Abhandlungen des al-Kindi.P Jha: Contributions of the Jainas to astronomy and mathematics. 1998). 1972). Suter: Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber 21.hinduism. L C Jain and Km Meena Jain: System theory in Jaina school of mathematics. R C Gupta: The first unenumerable number in Jaina mathematics. Ganita Bharati 14 (1-4) (1992).
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. 24 (3) (1989). Bhaskara I and his works III. 115-130. 17. 8. 11-24. K Shankar Shukla: Bhaskara I. 137. 850 A. R C Gupta: Varahamihira's calculation of nCr and the discovery of Pascal's triangle.htm
7. 9b.). 14 (1) (1979). Bhaskara I and his works II. H. Indian J. B S Jain: On the Ganita-Sara-Samgraha of Mahavira (c. 45-49. P Z Ingerman: 'Panini-Backus form'. 20 (1932). K V Sarma: A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur. II. 1959). 98-107. B Datta: On Mahavira's solution of rational triangles and quadrilaterals. 17-32. 12 (1) (1977). Munster. Suter: Mathematiker 20. K Shankar Shukla: The Patiganita of Sridharacarya (Lucknow. Indian J.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. 14. 9. 10. Calcutta Math.D. 15. 13.za/vedic. Hist. Soc. 1963). Bull. Ganita Bharati 14 (1-4) (1992). Math. 1960). Ed. 163-180 12. Indian J. Ganita 22 (1) (1971). 19. 1897 22. Hist. Laghu-Bhaskariya (Sanskrit) (Lucknow. Maha-Bhaskariya (Sanskrit) (Lucknow. 11.

R C Gupta: The Madhava-Gregory series. Delhi) 31. 1984. 91-99. (Historia Mathematica.co.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. K V Sarma. History Exact Sci. 1985) 33. a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism. (Indian National Science Academy) 30.za/vedic. Arch. 67-70. S Parameswaran: Madhavan. of Science.hinduism. 229-44. and S Hariharan: Yuktibhasa of Jyesthadeva : a book of rationales in Indian mathematics and astronomy . New Delhi. 89-102. 12. ed. Bose. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by
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.N. Bag: Mathematics in Ancient and Medieval India (1979. 25.htm
23. Arch. Sen. the father of analysis. T. 185-207 26. C T Rajagopal and M S Rangachari: On an untapped source of medieval Keralese mathematics. Varanasi) 29. Technology and Development Studies. NISTAD) 32. Singh: "The so-called Fibonacci numbers in ancient and medieval India. Education 7 (1973). Subarayappa: Concise History of Science in India. 35 (1986). National Instt. Ganita-Bharati 18 (1-4) (1996). Indian J. Singh: Foundations of Logic in Ancient India.K. P. David Gray writes: "The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias. Linguistics and Mathematics ( Science and technology in Indian Culture. 28. 18 (1978). 26 (2) (1991). Hist. 27.an analytical appraisal. Chin Keh-Mu: India and China: Scientific Exchange (History of Science in India Vol 2. A. Math.) _________________ Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Another view on Indian Mathematics:
Indic Mathematics: India and the Scientific Revolution (1)
Dr. A Rahman. Sci. B67-B70 24. Saraswati: Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India (1979.A. C T Rajagopal and M S Rangachari: On medieval Keralese mathematics. History Exact Sci.

htm
non-Western civilizations. and to India in particular.com/indianhistory. This awakening was in part made possible
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." -Indic Mathematics Related Essays: The following essays can be found at http://india_resource. when Europe was awakening from its dark ages.tripod. the renaissance.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. Bhaskara and Maadhava. Brahmagupta.hinduism. easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of Eurocentric bias. To do so is to distort history. Math and Ethnocentrism The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias. Mahavira. when Europe was awakening from its dark ages. the age of the classical Greeks. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era.co. He concludes by asserting that "the role played by India in the development (of the scientific revolution in Europe) is no mere footnote.za/vedic. go back to the earliest epoch of the "Western" scientific tradition. summarizing the contributions of luminaries such as Aryabhatta." Dr Gray goes on to list some of the most important developments in the history of mathematics that took place in India.html Development of Philosophical Thought and Scientific Method in Ancient india Philosophical Development from Upanishadic Theism to Scientific Realism History of the Physical Sciences in India _________________
Indic Mathematics India and the Scientific Revolution(2)
By David Gray. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-Western civilizations. and to India in particular. a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations. the age of the classical Greeks. the renaissance. and to deny India one of its greatest contributions to world civilization. go back to the earliest epoch of the "Western" scientific tradition. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era. PhD 1.

toward a tendency to read more advanced mathematical concepts into the relatively simplistic geometrical formulations of Greek mathematicians such as Euclid." argued that "the standard treatment of the history of non-European mathematics is a product of historiographical bias (conscious or otherwise) in the selection and interpretation of facts. who transmitted to Europe both their own lost heritage as well as the advanced mathematical traditions formulated in India. without which advanced mathematical calculation is impossible.e. 2.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. but an inadequate history as well. In so far as the contributions from non-Western civilizations are ignored." (1987:14) Due to the legacy of colonialism. even distorted. results in ignoring. devaluing or distorting contributions arising outside European mathematical traditions. which is by no means a purely European development. George Ghevarughese Joseph. but has distorted the history of Western mathematics as well. Vedic Altars and the "Pythagorean theorem" A perfect example of this sort of misattribution involves the
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.co. one which fails to take into account the full history of the development of modern mathematics. as Sabetai Unguru has argued. to the Greeks. as a consequence. or. This tendency has not only led to the devaluation of non-Western mathematical traditions. i. which were actually introduced to Europe over a millennium later by the Arabs. which. despite the fact that the Greeks lacked not only mathematic notation. the contributions of non-European civilizations were often ignored. in that they were often misattributed as European. Greek. Such ethnocentric revisionist history resulted in the attribution of more advanced algebraic concepts.za/vedic. This has led.htm
by the rediscovery of mathematics and other sciences and technologies through the medium of the Arabs. as Joseph argued. the tendency of some math historians to jump from the Greeks to renaissance Europe results not only in an ethnocentric history.hinduism. And while the contributions of the Greeks to mathematics was quite significant. considered inferior or irrelevant to Western mathematical traditions. there is the problem of accounting for the development of mathematics purely within the Western cultural framework. but even the place-value system of enumeration. in an important article entitled "Foundations of Eurocentrism in Mathematics. the exploitation of which was ideologically justified through a doctrine of racial superiority. contributions. they were typically devalued. and when their contributions were so great as to resist such treatment.

(1978:323). it is not often questioned. it is quite possible that both the Greeks and the Indians developed geometry. Several of these treat the topic of altar construction. that both seem to have developed geometry out of the practical problems involving their construction of elaborate sacrificial altars. where it evidently
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. whose largest unit of enumeration was the myriad (10. (See Seidenberg 1962 and 1983 3.za/vedic.hinduism. The oldest and most complete of these is the previously mentioned Shulva Sutra of Baudhaayana. which gave more detailed instructions concerning Vedic ritual. despite the fact that this numeral system is commonly called the Arabic numerals in Europe. and was in fact proved in Baudhayana's Shulva Sutra.htm
so-called Pythagorean theorem. Knowledge of mathematics. Despite the scarcity of evidence backing this attribution. However. As this text was composed about a century before Pythagoras. On the other hand.000) or in China.000 was also the largest unit of enumeration until recent times. Nor was it developed by the Arabs. the theory that the Greeks were the source of Geometric algebra is untenable. This knowledge was further elaborated in the kalpa sutras. the base ten system of calculation which uses nine numerals and zero to represent numbers ranging from the most minuscule decimal to the most inconceivably large power of ten. Rather. where 10. perhaps due to the mantra-like frequency with which it is repeated. a text dated to circa 600 BCE. where this system was first introduced by the Arabs in the thirteenth century. in fact.co. Seidenberg. but which was first proven in Greek sources in Euclid's Geometry. shows that the thesis that Greece was the origin of geometric algebra was incorrect. Zero and the Place Value System Far more important to the development of modern mathematics than either Greek or Indian geometry was the development of the place value system of enumeration. written centuries later. This system of enumeration was not developed by the Greeks. "for geometric algebra existed in India before the classical period in Greece. Seidenberg has argued. transmitted via the Persians who traded both with the Greeks and the Indians. while the hypothesis that India was have been a source for Greek geometry.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. looks increasingly plausible." (1978:323) It is now generally understood that the so-called "Pythagorean theorem" was understood in ancient India. and mathematics was thus one of the topics covered in the brahmanas. in his 1978 article. was necessary for the precise construction of the complex Vedic altars. this system was invented in India. the well-known theorem which was attributed to Pythagoras who lived around 500 BCE. and geometry in particular.

the Sanskrit system gave no special importance to any number. hundred thousand. To put it plainly. (Subbarayappa 1970:49) Later Buddhist and Jain authors extended this list as high as the fifty-third power. The Yajurveda Samhitaa.htm
was of quite ancient origin. Nor did this system exhaust Indian ingenuity. Pingala. Not only are the units ten. there is little doubt that our place-value numeral system developed in India (2000:399-409). from a very early date.za/vedic. expressed them taking the powers of ten and the names of the first nine units individually. million etc. Instead of naming the numbers in groups of three. the Sanskrit numeral system contained the very key to the discovery of the place-value system. well suited to scientific and mathematical reasoning. The place value system of enumeration is in fact built into the Sanskrit language. continue to act as auxillary bases). (2000:429) As Ifrah has shown at length. one of the Vedic texts predating Euclid and the Greek mathematicians by at least a millennium. who lacking a system of enumeration were unable to develop abstract mathematical concepts. four or eight orders of units. etc. koti. the Indians. sahasra) named as in English. described in his Chandahzaastra. That is exactly what is required in order to gain a precise idea of the place-value system. hundred million (ayuta. to express a given number. vyarbuda). and so forth up to the fifty-third power. zata. lakSa. or the Greeks and Chinese (whose limit was ten thousand) and even to our own system (where the names thousand. who lived circa the first century BCE. Ifrah has commented that: By giving each power of ten an individual name. lists names for each of the units of ten up to 10 to the twelfth power (paraardha). and this system is embedded in the Sanskrit language. ten million. one only had to place the name indicating the order of units between the name of the order of units immediately immediately below it and the one immediately above it. hundred and thousand (daza.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. far exceeding their Greek contemporaries. but also ten thousand. developed a system of binary enumeration convertible to decimal numerals. million. the rule being presented in a natural way and thus appearing self-explanatory. In other words. His system is quite similar to that of Leibniz.hinduism. Thus the Sanskrit system is obviously superior to that of the Arabs (for whom the thousand was the limit). providing distinct names where English makes use of auxillary bases such as thousand. who lived roughly fourteen hundred years later. where each power of ten is given a distinct name. (See Van Nooten)
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. several aspects of which make it a very logical language.co. as van Nooten has shown.

Vedic Mathematics
http://www. who was born in 476 CE. decimal system of enumeration came to the attention of the Arabs in the seventh or eighth century. reached the same conclusion. rather than the cruder method of calculating chords devised by the
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.za/vedic. (See Kak p.htm
India is also the locus of another closely related an equally important mathematical discovery. The Indian numeral system and its place value. Aaryabhat. beginning roughly one thousand years before the European Renaissance. He argued for the diurnal rotation of the earth. but their eventual adoption of this system led to the scientific revolution that began to sweep Europe beginning in the thirteenth century.a wrote his Aaryabhat.a's greatest contributions was the calculation of sine tables. It reached Europe in the twelfth century when Adelard of Bath translated al-Khwarizmi's works into Latin. evidently independently. India achieved its own scientific renaissance of sorts during its classical era. (Subbarayappa 1970:49) But the Europeans were at first resistant to this system.hinduism. when he was only 23 years old.a. being attached to the far less logical roman numeral system. He made this suggestion approximately one thousand years before Copernicus. With regard to the former. (Ifrah 2000:417-1 9) This concept.iiya. 4. one of Aaryabhat. the text is notable for its for its awareness of the relativity of motion. became the basis for a classical era renaissance in Indian mathematics. which no doubt was of great use for his astronomical calculations.co. which has been definitely dated to Monday 25 August 458 CE. the numeral zero. The oldest known text to use zero is a Jain text entitled the Lokavibhaaga. In developing a way to calculate the sine of curves. represented by figures such as al-Khwarizmi. With regard to mathematics. and served as the basis for the well known advancement in Arab mathematics. combined by the place-value system of enumeration. 16) This awareness led to the astonishing suggestion that it is the Earth that rotates the Sun. Luminaries of Classical Indian Mathematics Aryabhata The world did not have to wait for the Europeans to awake from their long intellectual slumber to see the development of advanced mathematical techniques. as an alternate theory to the rotation of the fixed stars and sun around the earth (Pingree 1981:18). In 499. Probably the most celebrated Indian mathematicians belonging to this period was Aaryabhat. a text covering both astronomy and mathematics.

a "invented a unique method of recording numbers which required perfect understanding of zero and the place-value system. He calculated pi to four decimal places. cube-roots. and became very influential in Arab mathematics.za/vedic. Brahmagupt Born in 598 CE in Rajastan in Western India. he composed a four-part text entitled the Siddhanta Ziromani.htm
Greeks.e. in which he developed a solution for a certain type of second order indeterminate equation.hinduism.1416. as well as problems relating to the casting of shadows. and the series extending beyond these. (Pingree 1981:60) Bhaaskara Bhaaskara was one of the many outstanding mathematicians hailing from South India. a development which did not occur in Europe until roughly one thousand years later.a's mathematics was far ranging. when the Europeans translated Indian influenced Arab mathematical texts. squares. His best known work is the Brahmasphuta Siddhanta. as the topics he covered include geometry. which became the standard algebra textbook in Sanskrit. trigonometry. Brahmagupta founded an influential school of mathematics which rivaled Aaryabhat. and translated into Arabic. (Pingree 1981:57) In addition. Aaryabhat. cubes. algebra.. who wrote on a wide range of mathematical topics. i. This text was translated into Arabic in the eighth century. whence it influenced the development of both Arabic and European mathematical traditions. Aaryabhat. 3. judging by the large numbers of commentaries written upon it. he thus went beyond geometry and contributed to the development of trigonometry. He also developed methods of solving quadratic and indeterminate equations using fractions. written in 628 CE.a's.Vedic Mathematics
http://www." (Ifrah 2000:419) Given the astounding range of advanced mathematical concepts and techniques covered in this fifth century text. square-roots.co.ita. (See Kak p. These include the mathematics of zero. Born in 1114 CE in Karnataka. 16) Mahavira Mahaaviira was a Jain mathematician who lived in the ninth century. It contains descriptions of advanced mathematical techniques involving
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. He also wrote on plane and solid geometry. it should be of no surprise that it became extremely well known in India. Included in this compilation is the Biijagan. It was studied by the Arabs in the eighth century following their conquest of Sind.

He calculated the sine. he wrote a highly sophisticated mathematical text that proceeded by several centuries the development of such techniques in Europe. important revolutions in scientific thought occurred in complex. he made history in mathematics with his writings on trigonometry.akaara) method of solving indeterminate equations with continued fractions. and equations involving the product of different unknowns. The best known member of this school Maadhava (c. hierarchical societies in which certain elite groups were granted freedom from manual labor. who lived in Sangamagraama in Kerala. In the case of classical India. p. unbiased standard.ti) dealing with indeterminate equations of the second degree. (Pingree 1981:490) This is by no means a complete list of influential Indian mathematicians or Indian contributions to mathematics. developing the world's first consistent system of trigonometry. irrational numbers. including those involving multiple unknowns.co. Primarily an astronomer. a history which was truly multicultural. deriving its inspiration from a variety of cultural roots.
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. as Frits Staal has suggested in his important (1995) article. but rather a survey of the highlights of what is. The classical Indian mathematical renaissance was an important precursor to the European renaissance. There are in fact.za/vedic. which were in turn highly influenced by these Indian traditions. profound similarities between the social contexts of classical India and renaissance Europe. although it would be better to term this a rediscovery. cosine and arctangent of the circle.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. these groups included certain brahmins as well as the Buddhist and Jain monks. "The Sanskrit of Science". and to ignore this fact is to fail to grasp the history of latter. It treats at length the "pulverizer" (kut. as well as the so-called "Pell's equation (vargaprakr. 64) In short. Maadhava The Kerala region of South India was home to a very important school of mathematics. In both cases. 1444-1545). since much of the Renaissance advances of mathematics in Europe was based upon the discovery of Arab mathematical texts.t. (See Hayashi 1997:784-786) He also correctly calculated the value of p to eleven decimal places. He also wrote on the solution to numerous kinds of linear and quadratic equations. and thus the opportunity to dedicate themselves to intellectual pursuits. judged by any fair. important both for its own internal elegance as well as its influence on the history of European mathematical traditions. an illustrious tradition.htm
both positive and negative integers as well as zero.hinduism. (Pingree 1981.

Takao. Subhash. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science. Seidenberg. David Bellos. In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 18. "An Overview of Ancient Indian Science". easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of Eurocentric bias.a? The answer appears to be that Europeans were trapped in the relatively simplistic and concrete geometrical mathematics developed by the Greeks. New York: John Wiley & Sons. van Nooten. pp.htm
while in renaissance Europe they included both the monks as well as their secular derivatives.co. Georges. did Europe take over thousand years to attain the level of abstract mathematics achieved by Indians such as Aaryabhat. E. Harding. pp. one might ask.za/vedic. trans. 301-42. "The Origin of Mathematics". In Race & Class 28. In T. 784-786. and to deny India one of it's greatest contributions to world civilization. David. R.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. later.4. 21-39. George Ghevarughese. "Foundations of Eurocentrism in Mathematics". Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Why. 1962. pp. Kak. Jyotih. A. It was not until they had. In Helaine Selin. "The Ritual Origin of Geometry". p. Computing Science in Ancient India. the university scholars. The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. Rao and Subhash Kak. Rao and Subhash Kak.zaastra: Astral and Mathematical Literature. 1981. 4. The role played by India in the development is no mere footnote. 2000. eds. assimilated and accepted the place-value system of enumeration developed in India that they were able to free their minds from the concrete and develop more abstract systems of thought.
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. 1987. pp.hinduism. Joseph. Inc. Ifrah. This development thus triggered the scientific and information technology revolutions which swept Europe and. 1978. 1997. pp. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. "Number Theory in India". F. 6-21. ______. Works Cited Hayashi. received. eds. Pingree. Technology. "Binary Numbers in Indian Antiquity". 488-527. pp. Computing Science in Ancient India. N. R. ed. N. the world. B. To do so is to distort history. 13-28. via the Arabs. In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 1. In T.3. Sophie Wood and Ian Monk.

za/vedic. Agni: The Vedic Ritual of the Fire Altar.hinduism. et al. In Lokesh Chandra. pp. http://www. eds. Unguru. pp.Vedic Mathematics
http://www. 1995. 1975. Subbarayappa. Sabetai. Madras: Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee.htm
______. 73-127. "The Sanskrit of Science". Frits. pp. India's Contribution to World Thought and Culture.infinityfoundation. In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 15. B. V. 2. "India's Contributions to the History of Science". 47-66.co.com/ECITmathframeset. pp. In Journal of Indian Philosophy 23. "On the Need to Rewrite the History of Greek Mathematics". 1986.html =============== Related articles Nature uses maths Oldest Civilisation Speech Science Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages]
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. vol. 67-114. Staal. 1983. ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.1. In Frits Staal. 1970.. 95-126. "The Geometry of Vedic Rituals".