This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Models of communications are ways in which scholars try to explain how communication works. o They were first created in the early 1900s.
Scholars soon realized that it was not enough and came up with a different, more complex, model.
The source and encoder where made the same, as where the decoder and destination. Field of experience was taken into account.
• Someone perceives an event and reacts in a situation through some means to make available materials in some form and context conveying content of some sequence. o Shift in emphasis. o Communication and audience research, perception research and theory, effectiveness and measurement, study of physical/social settings, investigators of media/channels/controls over facilities, administration/distribution/freedom of access to material, structure/organization/style/pattern, study of communicative setting/sequence, content analysis/study of meaning, study of overall changes. o Someone – communication and audience research. Perceives – perception research and theory An event – effectiveness and measurement. And reacts – study of physica/social settings. Through some means – investigators of media/channels/control over facilities. To make available materials – administration, distribution, freedom of access to material. In some form – structure, organization, style, pattern. And context – study of communicative setting, sequence. Conveying content – content analysis, study of meaning. Of some sequence – study of overall changes. Tries to see a connection amongst communication. Know what to say. Know when to say it. Decide where to say it. Judge how best you say it. Remember: what is clear to you is not clear to someone else.
• • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. 2. 3. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Keep it simple. Speak clearly. Make eye contact. Monitor other party’s response. Tune in to yourself. Give consistent verbal and non-verbal signals. Be concrete. Summarise periodically. Clear away prejudice. Listen actively. Attend to content and feelings. Check for accuracy – ask for clarification. Listen for themes and essential facts. Remember that when you disagree, you are likely to switch off. Reflex listening – just listening. Content listening – listening to what is being said. Relational listening – listening to the content and to the emotions. There is also introspective listening – listening to yourself. o Important for survival. We assess for: o Content – relevance, reliability, accuracy, truthfulness. o Relational – different. Through listening, we can pick up the content, emotions and others’ point of view. People are not brought up to be good listeners – it is a learned skill. People’s thoughts can interfere with listening. Listening is not a natural activity. To be able to listen to others, people need to be able to listen to themselves. People may resist listening to others who blame and get angry with them. Being a good listener requires self-discipline. People are more likely to talk to people with whom they feel safe and accepted than with those whom they do not. Some people listen too much because they are afraid of revealing themselves. An important aspect in developing trust is listening and then keeping confidences. Listening is more important than talking. The amount people reveal about themselves is likely to influence the amount others tell them about themselves. Fatigue affects the quality of people’s listening. Effective listening entails making a series of correct choices in receiving what is being said. People who feel very emotional about issues are not good listeners. Listening to others involves paying attention involves paying attention to their voice quality and body language as well as to what they say. Repeatedly not listening to and understanding another can be viewed as a form of psychological violence.
Different levels of listening
• • • • •
People are more likely to hear messages which correspond with their view of themselves than messages which challenge their view. People who are angry are rarely good listeners. The way in which people listen is affected by their prior life experience. People sometimes send mixed messages which are difficult for the listener to understand. We pick up the other person’s point of view through listening – it is keeping the other’s point of view. Speaker: “I’m fed up with my job – there’s just too much tension. We always have to meet deadlines, work overtime, always work under pressure. I go home all wound up and find myself taking it out on my kids and my wife. It’s just not fair on them or on me!” 1. Judgemental: You can’t have the cake and eat it too! The conditions are good and the ay not so bad. I think you’re being over demanding, expecting all to go your way. a. Hostile. b. Puts blame on the speaker. c. Does not offer a solution. 2. Questioning: Which department are you in? is it your boss who creates the tension? Have you felt like this for long? a. Prying. b. Does not offer a solution. 3. Reassuring: Don’t worry – you’re new here. That’s why you’re feeling this way. In the beginning it takes some time to get used to the situation. You’ll probably get used to it soon. a. Does not take into account the feeling of the other person. b. Generic response – does not really care. c. Closure of communication. 4. Advising: Look, I know what you should do. After work, don’t go straight home – go for a brisk walk or to work out in a gym. That way, you’ll get rid of the tension before you get back home. a. Telling someone what to do, bossy. 5. Inappropriate self disclosure: You haven’t worked in this department for long, have you? We all went through this at first. I was so tense when I first started that I couldn’t sleep. But soon I got used to it. a. Use of ‘I’ shifts the attention away from the original speaker. b. Selfish. c. No help. 6. Interpretive: What is happening is that your tension is building up and instead of expressing it at work, you are finding it easier to do it at home with your family. a. Interprets what the other person is trying to say. b. Slightly blaming. 7. Understanding: You’re finding it hard to get used to work here. You find the atmosphere too tense for you and you’re worried about the effect it has on you and your family. a. Best response. b. Mirrors the speaker’s views. c. Understanding with the speaker’s emotions.
• Feedback and listening go together. o Feedback is my point of view – it’s a basic skill. o Feedback talks about concrete action, not attitudes. o Good feedback: Gives reason. Leaves room for explanation and further communication. Talks about your point of view. Does not accuse. Talks about concrete facts. About something that has happened immediately. When, after providing feedback, change does not happen, we go into one of three modes: o 1. Aggressive – I win/You lose. o 2. Passive/Non-Aggressive – I lose/You win. o 3. Assertive – I win/You win. Skills in giving feedback: o Start with the positive. o Be specific. o Be clear about what you want to say. o Select priority areas. o Focus on the behaviour, not the person. o Refer to behaviour which can be changed o Offer alternative. o Be descriptive rather than evaluative. o Own feedback. o Leave recipient with a choice. o Think what it says about you. o Give feedback as soon as possible after the event. Skills in receiving feedback: o Listen to feedback rather than immediately rejecting or arguing about it. o Be clear about what is being said. o Check it out with others rather than relying on one source. o Ask for feedback you want but do not get. o Decide what you will do as a result of feedback. Assertiveness skills: o Know your rights. o Know what you want to say. o Say it directly. o In an appropriate way. o Own your statements. o Be specific. o Look the person in the eye. o Look relaxed. o Don’t laugh nervously. o Don’t whine or be sarcastic. o Say it as soon as possible. o Express positive feelings first. o If possible, practice what you are going to say beforehand. o Review behaviour and its effects on the other person.
Assertiveness is a cycle – you get what you want, so you are more confident and so you can be more assertive. It also works in the opposite way. Remember that non-assertive, assertive and aggressive responses are cultural values – be sensitive to what other cultures might consider them to be. o Common sense of purpose and a clear understanding of goals. Team has all needed resources. Team members have range of skills; know how to deal with tasks. Range of different types of team members. Team members respect and trust each other. Open and clear communication. Sharing of successes and failture. Fair and correct guidance, appraisal and correction. Benefits: o Wide range of skills. o Common sense of purpose. o Clear understanding of shared objectives. o Mutual respect, friendship, trust and loyalty. o Sharing of successes and failures. o Better communication. o More motivation and increased job satisfaction. o Sense of commitment. o Flexibility and co-operation. o Sense of belonging. o Better results. The 3 holistic models of leadership are: o 1. Authoritarian – does everything himself. o 2. Democratic – moves ahead with input from everyone in the group. o 3. Laissez-faire – non-existent leadership.
• • • • • • • • •
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.