Solar Energy I Physics 471 2001-02-1 Instructor : Prof. Dr. AHMET ECEVIT Presented by: Yusuf SIMSEK

1. Introduction 2. The Collector 2. Structure of the Collector 3. 3 Glazed Collector 4. The Energy Storage in the Collector 5. Chimney 5 Chi 6. Solar Chimney Prototype at Manzanares (Spain) 7. Turbines 8. How Does Collector Work?

4 7 8 9 11 13 14 16 17

9. Collector Efficiency 11. The Chimney y 12. The Turbine 13. 13 The Appropriate Charesteristic Curve 14. Typical Dymensions for Solar Chimneys 15. Termodynamics 15 T d 16. Operation 17. Technical Data Quantities 18. Energy Production Costs 19. Conclusion

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Solar chimney converts the solar radiation into electricity. It consists of three simple parts: –– Glass roof collector –– Chimney –– Turbine Basically, air is heated by solar radiation under the g y, y glass roof and it starts to move toward to the chimney. Turbines which are placed at the base of the chimney converts this mechanical power into electricity (Fig. 1.). (Fig 1 )

“A single solar chimney with a suitable large glazed roof area A and a high chimney can be designed to generate 100 to 200 MW continously 24 h a day. Thus even a small number of solar chimneys can replace a large nuclear power station. Solar chimneys operate l l l t ti S l hi t simply and have a number of other advantages: –– The collector can use all solar radiation, direct and diffused. radiation diffused –– Due to the heat storage system the soalr chimney will operate 24h on pure solar energy. energy –– Solar chimneys are particularly reliable and not liable to break down, in comparision with other solar generating p , p g g plants. –– Unlike conventional power stations (and also other solar thermal power station types), solar chimneys do not need cooling water.

–– Even in poor countries it is possible to build a large plant without high foreign currency expenditure by using their own resources and work forces [1]. mainly concrete and glass.” . are available everywhere in sufficient g . y quantities. solar chimneys do not cooling water. water –– The building materials needed for solar chimney.–– Unlike conventional power stations (and also other solar thermal power station types).

Parts of the Solar Chimney Fig 1 Parts Turbine . ground The height of the roof increases adjacent to the chimney base. The Collector Collector is the part of the chimney that produce hot air by the green house effect. so that the air is diverted to the chimney base with minimum friction l f i ti loss. “This covering admits the short “Thi i d it th h t wave solar radiation component and retains long-wave radiation from the heated ground.2. 1. It has a roof made up of plastic film or glass plastic film. The roof material is stretched horizontally two or six meter above the ground. Thus h Th the ground under the roof heats up and d d h fh d transfers its heat to the air flowing radially above it from the outside to the chimney [2].” Chimney Collector C ll t Fig.

k l t b dj ti th b t th d t In this type skeleton attaching plastic film is easy and it is particularly suitable for very large collector surface in remote places because of the small quantites of the materials needed and low transportation cost. “The 45 000 m2 of the prototype were covered with various plastic film and glass to establish the optimum and cheapest material in the long life term [3]. Structure of the Collector The structure of the collector changes to the covering material we used.3.” . If we use plastic film we can construct the skeleton by adjusting the space between the rods as 6 meter.

2. Its rods are more stronger and they are attached like in the picture below (Fig. Glazed Collector A flate glazed roof must have much more durable skeleton.). 2. A collector roof of this kind has a very long life–span. Besause glazing increases the mass of the roof. “With proper maintanence this can easilly be 60 y y years or more [4]. Collector Glass Roof of Solar Chimney Prototype at Manzanares from Inside .” [ ] Fig.4.

3). a typical annual average is 50%. Also the ground under the roof provides natural energy storage at no cost [5].“A flate glazed collector can convert up to 70% of irratiated solar energy into heat. the [5] ” Clearly temperature increases towards to the tower and energy loss increases near the chimney. dependent on air throughput. 3. . We can increase the ability of the collector roof by double glazing about the tower (Fig. Aerial View of Solar Chimney Prototype at Dusk. Fig.” Clearly.

0.” .2 kJ/kg) is much higher than that of soil (0. and since the heat capacity of water (4. Since the heat transfer bet een black t bes and water between tubes ater is much larger than that between the black sheet and the soil. The volume of water in the tubes is selected to correspond to a p water layer with a depth of 5 to 20 cm depending on the desired power output. when the air in the collector cools down [6].75 . They are filled with water once and remain closed thereafter. even at low water flow speed in the tubes. The Energy Storage in the Collector “Water filled black tubes are laid down side by side on the black sheeted or sprayed soil under the glass roof collector (Fig. 4).85 kJ/kg) the water inside the tubes stores a part of the solar heat and releases it during the night. so that no evaporation can take place.5.

4:Principle of heat storage underneath the roof using water-filled black tubes. .Fig.

In a solar chimney the collector raises the temperature of the air by about ΔT= 35oC. 5).” Fig. 5. Chimney “The chimney is the plant’s actual thermal engine (Fig. “The upthrust of the air heated in the collector is aproximately proportional to the air temperature rise ΔT in the collector and the volume of the cchimney. Its optimal surfacevolume ratio decreases friction loss and makes it like a pressure tube. This produce an updraught velocity in the chimney of about V=15m/s [7]. Chimney .6.

5mm thick 150m high 10m diameter The d bt f b di Th debt of beading was 150mm The sheets were abuted vertically at intervals of 8. Solar Chimney Prototype at Manzanares . ) “The sheet metal was The only 1. 6. Solar Chimney Prototype at Manzanares (Spain) ( i 6) (Fig.” Fig.6m and shiftened every 4 b exterior 4m by i trussrirelers [8].7.

7.chimney 195 m hi h hi high and 10 m in diameter surrounded by a collector 240 m in diameter. Prototype of the solar chimney at Manzanares. . Fig.

9) and also the number of the turbines can vary.8. According to the size of the turbine. they placed horizontally (Fig. Horizontal Fig.Turbines The turbines. the air current is converted into mechanical energy. Fig. Vertical . 9. 8) or verticaly (Fig. 8. The turbines are always placed at a height of 9 meter at the base of the chimney.

Solar Chimney Power Plants “A solar chimney collector converts available solar l hi ll t t il bl l radiation G onto the collector surface Acoll into heat output.How Does A Collector Work? When solar radiation pass through the transparent roof it is g p absorbed by the ground elements and it converts into heat energy.9. 10). Collector efficiency ncoll can be expressed as ratio of the co heatoutput of the collector as heated air Q and the solar radiation G (measured in W/m2) times Acoll[9].” . Fig. starts and to move toward the chimney and gains a velocity (Fig. When air is heated it starts to rise up and. 10.

Collector Efficiency Heat Output Collector Area Solar Radiation .

Spesific heat capacity of the air Mass flow The temperature differences between the collector and out flow b t th ll t d t fl .

Air speed at collector outflow/chimney inflow C Chimney cross-section area ey c oss sec o a ea Spesific dendsity of air at temperature To + ΔT at collector outflow/chimney inflow .

10. Collector Efficiency .

Additionaly valid for heat balance collector: fective absorption coefficient of Loss correction value (in W/m2K). g the collector for emission and convection loss Thus collector efficiency can also be expressed like this: . allowing p ( ).

In order to find velocity .

These equations are independent of roof height because friction oses and ground storage in the collector area neglected.75-0.8 56 = 5-6 W/m2 G=1000 W/m2 ΔT=300C =% 62 . Typical Values: = 0.

the chimney iciency is relativelly low. at a height of 1000 meters. hence the importance of size in its iciency curve. Comparing with the collector and turbine.The Chimney “The efficiency of the chimney (i.” .11.e. it is essentially determined by the side temperature To at ground level (the lower the better). mney efficiency is somewhat greater than 3% [10]. better) us solar chimneys can make particularly good use of the low e in air temperature produced by heat emitted by the ground ring the night and even the meager solar radiation of a cold i th i ht d th l di ti f ld y. For example. The conversion of heat o kinetic energy) is particularly independent of the rise of air mperature in the collector.

her air is e a s elative to ir inside chimney Pressure in outher enviroment is different from the inside the chimney. 11 Chimney Height fferatial form And . HC P(pressure) under the gravity changes with p respect to h g : acceleration due to gravity g y HC : Chimney height : density ig.

Air density in outer environment HC Air density in the chimney ig. 11 Chimney Height ut of the chimney side of the chimney .

max AC volume so ΔPtot=ΔPd Efficiency of the chimney can be established Power .s ΔPtot increases with chimney height. is consist of two components (dynamic and static) ΔPtot =ΔPS+ΔPd t The static pressure difference drops at the turbine. the dynamic component describes the kinetic energy of the air flow. ΔPS= O Ptot= ΔptotVC.

If the turbine is left out.max is achieved and the whole pressure difference is d to l t th i used t accelerate the air. celli Equation: q T0 ambient temperature at ground level ΔT Temperature rises between collector inflow and collector outflow /chimney inflow . a maximum flow speed of VC.Actual division of the pressure difference into a static and a dynamic component depends on the energy taken up by the turbine.


Thus the power contained in the flow .which is that the chimney efficiency is l hi hi h i h h hi ffi i i amentaly dependent only on chimney height. Flow speed and erature rise in the collector do not come into it.This basic simplified explanation one of the basic charesteristic e solar chimney.

but as a osed pressure-staged wind this aplication gy g p stalled in a pipe. The energy yield of a cased pressure-staged rbine of this kind is about eight times greater than that of a peed-stepped open air peed stepped open-air turbine of the same diameter.12. static pressure is converted to tational energy using a cased turbine. With a view maximum energy yield the aim of the turbine regulation . similarly a hydroelectric power station.The Turbine “Turbine in a solar chimney do not work with staged elocity like a free-running wind energy converter. The utput achieved is proportional to the product of volume flow er unit time and the fall in pressure at the turbine. in which. diameter Air speed before and after the turbine is about the same.

Blade pitch is adjusted during operation to regulate wer output according to the altering air speed and air flow (Fig. This can be adjusted by changing the de angle automatically ( g 12). The put power of the turbine is adjusted by limiting the rotation quency of the turbine. (Fig As soon as the wind speed in the chimney exceed 2. ) .5 m/s the bine is started automaticaly and cut into the public grid. g y (Fig.

The pressure drop Theoretical useful power Powerwt at turbine Powerwt =VC AC ΔPS ctrical Power W = V I lume Flow d finally we get the equation .

The Appropriate Charesteristic Curve pp p Powerwt takes a minimum between these extreme at: P=VΔPS . Characteristic Curve . ΔPtot 2/3 ΔPtot ΔPs g. 13.3.

max .Thus mechanical power taken up by the turbine is: Powerwt.max P = (2/3)ncoll nc Acoll G = (2/3)ncoll(g/CpTo)HoAcollG Powerwt.

8 ncoll : –––––––– 0.81/(1005x293)]x750x3751000x1000 .81m/s2 Collector Diameter Solar Irradiation S l I di ti Mechanical Efficiency Collector Efficiency Heat Capacity of the Air Ambient Temperature Gravity Acceleration y ric: (2/3)(0.6)[9.6 CP : –––––––– 1005j/kgK T0 : –––––––– 200C g : –––––––– 9.8x0.Chimney Height HC: –––––––– 750m Dcoll: –––––––– 2200m G: –––––––– 1000W/ 2 G 1000W/m nwt : –––––––– 0.

Typical Dymensions for Solar Chimneys With Different Power Dymensions D i Power Block Size Collector Diameter Dcoll Chimney Height HC Chimney Diameter DC Annual Energy Production With 2300 kWh/m2y global radiation ih k h/ l b l di i MW m m m 5 1110 445 54 30 2200 750 84 87..4 100 3600 950 115 305.2 200 4000 1500 175 600 GWh/y 13.9 .

3 629.5 sure Loss by Friction llector And ll A d himney) Pa 28.4 .7 perature rise Collector aft Velocity in Chimney Chi ful load) m/s 9.9 80.0 100 35.15.3 767.6 15.6 62. Thermodynamics With 2300 kWh/m2y global radiation MW oK r Block Size 5 25.1 12.8 al Pressure ifference iff Pa 388.1 902.6 30 31.6 ure Drop at turbine Pa 314.1 1100.

45% 77.10% 80.00% 52.24% 1.00% 0.63% 54.Pressure Loss at Chimney Top Pa 40.1 117.30% 1.65% 3.5 Average Annual Efficiency Collector y Chimney Turbines Whole System % % % % 56.72% 2.10% 1.33% 78.4 75.31% .

9 14.0 8723 3052 34.8% 34 8% 32.16.3% 33 3% 8.4 8423 2780 31.0 .7 305.7% 31 7% 1.4 23.5 87.0 8506 2913 33. Operation Power Block Size MW 5 30 100 Annual Energy Production Total Per m2 Annual Operating Hours Full Load Hours Capacity Factor Night Energy Production GWh/y kWh/m2y h/y y h/y % GWh/y 13.2 30.

17. Technical Data Quantities MW m m m m2 m2 m2 5 1110 162 76 967700 328880 61900 30 2200 252 118 3801000 1318000 2433000 100 3600 346 159 10180000 3570000 6510000 Power Block Size Collector Diameter ass Collector Roofnterior Diameter otal Covered Area Glass Roof Area Total Double Glazed 2x4mm Single Glazed .

5 20. 4 C ll t D t Q titi T bl 4: Collector Data Quantities .5 13.7 Glass Roof Height (external) Glass Roof Height (internal ) otal Quantity 4mm Raw Glass Table.0 10.0 1.5 5.1 10080000 20000 6.5 15.Glass Roof Area Chimney Area m2 m2 m m km2 947700 4500 2.3 3801000 11000 4.

the glass industry and turbine manufacturers a rather exact cost estimate for a 200 MW solar chimney could be compiled. Energy Production Costs “With the support of construction companies. 5) [12].18. We asked a big utility "Energie in Baden-Württemberg" to determine the energy production costs compared to coal.and combined cycle power plants based on equal and common methods (Table. .


coal and .Fig. 14. Energy production costs from solar chimneys.

with inexhaustible sand nd stone solar chimneys can reproduce themselves. Solar c eys redominantly consist of concrete and glass which are made from sand and stone plus self-generated energy.” . ot even o the co st uct o So a chimneys esou ces.CONCLUSION “No ecological harm and no consumption of esources. A ruly sustainable source of energy! [13]. not e e for t e construction. Consequently in desert areas .

(1995). Solar Chimney: Electricity from the Sun. Schlaich. The use of three “old“ technologies.nsf/def htt // i 0 i / i /P bli ti /R h f/d f aultview/0DED34BF3EB9A985C12569840055F09E/$F ile/SolarChimney_short_version. Edition Axel Menges. (1995). Solar Chimney: Electricity from the Sun. Edition Axel Menges. Solar Chimney: Electricity from the Sun. Stuttgart.28. J.17. Retrieved 1 December 2001 J. Stuttgart. p. p. . J. (1995).REFERENCES: The Solar Chimney. Edition Axel Menges.16. http://wire0.ises. Stuttgart.pdf y_ _ p Schlaich. p. Schlaich.

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Retrieved 30 November 2001 from. The energy storage. Aerial View of Solar Chimney Prototype at Dusk. Retrieved 1 December 2001 from. Retrieved 30 November 2001 from. Principle of heat storage underneath the roof using water-filled black tubes. .org/wire/independents/imagelibrary. http://wire0.jpg 3.nsf/defaultview /0DED34BF3EB9A985C12569840055F09E . http://wire0. Collector glass roof of solar chimney prototype at Manzanares from inside.ises.ises.2.nsf/25bcb7 328e30a3e 2c12567530049c67f/A892385128ECAD96C12569840050A66F /$File/glass_roof_from_inside.nsf/H/O? Open&840A07E8A8A6A557C1256984004EEDF8

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