Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

SYSTEM GROUNDING SCHEMES

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Electrical File Reference: EEX-102.05

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes

CONTENT

PAGE

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................ 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF UNGROUNDED POWER SYSTEMS ............................................ 6 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 6 Voltage Profiles................................................................................................................. 6 Normal Conditions ................................................................................................ 6 Fault Condition Magnitudes ................................................................................. 7 Transient Overvoltages......................................................................................... 8 Current Profiles.................................................................................................................. 9 Normal Conditions ................................................................................................ 9 Fault Condition Magnitudes ...............................................................................10 CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDED POWER SYSTEMS ...............................................11 Types of Grounded Power Systems .............................................................................11 Solidly Grounded (Neutral Point) .......................................................................12 Corner-of-the Delta Grounded ...........................................................................13 Impedance Grounded .........................................................................................14 Solidly Grounded Systems.............................................................................................18 Applications .........................................................................................................18 Advantages..........................................................................................................20 Disadvantages ....................................................................................................20 Low Resistance Grounded Systems.............................................................................21 Applications .........................................................................................................21 Advantages..........................................................................................................21 Disadvantages ....................................................................................................22 High Resistance Grounded Systems............................................................................23 Applications .........................................................................................................23

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Advantages..........................................................................................................23 Disadvantages ....................................................................................................24 Reactance Grounded Systems......................................................................................24 TYPES OF GROUND FAULT DETECTION AND COORDINATION SCHEMES...............25 Single Voltage Levels Versus Transformer Connections ...........................................25 Low Voltage Systems.....................................................................................................27 NEC Detection Requirements ...........................................................................27 Coordination Using Solid-State Static Trips....................................................27 Medium Voltage Systems - Solidly Grounded .............................................................29 Residual Connection/Coordination...................................................................29 Sensitivity.............................................................................................................30 Medium Voltage Systems - Low Resistance Grounded.............................................30 Source Neutral Detection/Coordination............................................................30 Zero Sequence Detection/Coordination...........................................................32 Sensitivity.............................................................................................................32 CT Saturation.......................................................................................................33 Medium Voltage Systems - High Resistance Grounded ............................................33 Overvoltage Relays and Alarms ........................................................................33 Special Precautions............................................................................................34 Summary..........................................................................................................................34 GLOSSARY.................................................................................................................................37 ADDENDUM ...............................................................................................................................39 CHARACTERISTICS OF LINE-TO-GROUND FAULTS (UNBALANCED CONDITIONS)................................................................................................39 Symmetrical Components..............................................................................................39 Balanced System ................................................................................................39 Unbalanced System............................................................................................40

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.......11 Figure 7......52 Line-to-Ground Faults .....59 Fault Conditions (Voltage) .............. Ungrounded System Voltage Profiles (Normal Conditions) .......................................................6 Figure 2............................................................................................................................... Corner-of-the Delta Grounded System...........................................53 Sequence Voltages ..................57 Fault Conditions (Current) .... Transient Overvoltage Profiles from Restriking Ground Fault................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Figure 4.....................................................................................................54 Line-to-Ground Fault Equations................................ Ground Fault Voltage Profile ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Current Profile (Normal Conditions) .......................................60 List of Figures Figure 1..........................14 Figure 9.........................................................10 Figure 6.41 Operators (j.................................................9 Figure 5...............................................51 Phase-to-Phase Faults................................50 Three-Phase Faults..................... Ground Fault Current Profiles.....................43 Analysis ...........................................................................................................................................16 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards iii ....46 Fault Condition Phasor Diagrams..........................................................................................................................12 Figure 8................................ Low Resistance Grounded System ..... High Resistance Grounded System ......................................................................................57 Zero Sequence Transformer Model............................................................................................................................................................................... Grounded Power Systems.............Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Sequence Components.............................. a)........................................15 Figure 10................................ Solidly Grounded System (Neutral Point)..53 Sequence Currents ...7 Figure 3...........50 Normal Conditions ....................................................

............................................................................ Sequence Network Connection Diagram.......................................................53 Figure 34.... Typical Ground Systems............................................ Normal Conditions Phasor Diagram.......................... Positive (+) Sequence Components ............................................................59 Figure 38.......31 Figure 17......................................... Sequence Current Components ........45 Figure 30..............................................................................................................................58 Figure 37. The “j” Operator................................................................................................................... Negative (-) Sequence Components.................... Example of a Balanced System..32 Figure 18.................................................... Zero (0) Sequence Components .36 Figure 23.................. Solid-State Low Voltage Ground Fault Detection.....................................52 Figure 33.......................................... Example of an Unbalanced System .......................... Source Neutral Detection/Coordination.............................................50 Figure 31................................42 Figure 26.. Three-Phase Fault Phasor Diagram ........... Phase B-to-C Fault Phasor Diagram.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43 Figure 28....44 Figure 29...............29 Figure 16....... The “a” Operator ..33 Figure 19........................35 Figure 20............28 Figure 15....................................................................... Ground System Characteristics................ High Resistance Ground Fault Detection Schemes.26 Figure 14............................................................................................................. Phase A-to-Ground Fault Circuit Diagram ...............................55 Figure 35................................................................17 Figure 12........ Residual CT Connection Scheme ................................................... Transformer Zero Sequence Models ............................................................................40 Figure 24........................ Reactance Grounded System............................51 Figure 32..........................................61 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards iv ........................................................................ Zero Sequence CT Connection Scheme.............. Phase A-to-Ground Fault Phasor Diagram ...............42 Figure 27......... Line-to-Ground Fault Current Magnitudes .............Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 11.....19 Figure 13............................. Sequence Voltage Components ........41 Figure 25.......... Ground System Industry Recommendations ................56 Figure 36.

EEX 205. although each have somewhat different objectives.01 5 . The Addendum is provided for the Participant’s information only and it will not be formally discussed in class. Note: Additional grounding topics are covered in other courses as follows: • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards Equipment Grounding . is the subject of grounding.03 Substation Grounding . 2) the characteristics of grounded power systems. Electrical systems and circuit conductors are grounded to limit voltages due to lightning. This Module also includes an Addendum which contains an Information Sheet that describes the characteristics of line-toground faults. but probably the most misunderstood and controversial element of an industrial power system design. Similar to system grounding. System grounding ensures longer insulation life for electrical equipment such as motors and transformers by suppressing overvoltages associated with different types of faults. The term “grounding of a power system” is often used to describe both system and equipment grounding.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes INTRODUCTION One of the most important.07 Selecting Grounding Resistors . line surges. Equipment grounding on the other hand. and 3) the different types of ground fault detection and coordination schemes. or unintentional contact with other “higher” voltage lines. The purpose of this Module is to describe 1) the characteristics of ungrounded power systems (not permitted by Saudi Aramco design standards).EEX 104. System grounding also stabilizes the voltage to ground under normal operation and improves protection of the electrical system by providing fast and selective operation of protective devices in the event of ground faults.EEX 103. equipment grounding also limits the voltage to ground and provides fast and selective operation of protective devices in the event of ground faults. relates to the grounding of non-electrical conductive material which encloses or is adjacent to energized conductors.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes CHARACTERISTICS OF UNGROUNDED POWER SYSTEMS Introduction The decision to ground or not to ground an electrical system is a choice all design engineers usually will have to make during their careers. By definition an ungrounded system is a system which has no intentional connection to ground. Figure 1 displays both the theoretical ungrounded system and the actual ungrounded system with stray capacitance to ground. Ungrounded System Voltage Profiles (Normal Conditions) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . the neutral of an ungrounded system is close to ground potential. The neutral voltage is held there by the balanced stray capacitance between each phase conductor and ground. Without a ground fault. A grounded system is a system which has an intentional connection to ground. Title: 10205-1. Line-to-line and line-toneutral voltages are also shown for balanced phase-to-ground capacitance. it is actually connected to ground through the stray capacitance of the phase conductors. Although the system is referred to as ungrounded.EPS from CorelDRAW! Creator: CorelDRAW! CreationDate: Tue Mar 14 16:22:10 1995 Figure 1. Voltage Profiles Normal Conditions An ungrounded system is a system which has no intentional connection to ground.

prolonged periods of increased voltage will reduce the cable’s rated life and may even result in failure if the cable is already deteriorated due to age or severe service conditions. the insulation between each phase conductor and ground is adequate to withstand the increased voltage.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Fault Condition Magnitudes When the neutral (midpoint connection) of a system is ungrounded. Ground Fault Voltage Profile Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 . Figure 2. However. Typically. The normal line-to-ground voltage stress is V LL/ 3 and therefore under ground fault conditions the voltage is VLL. which is 73% greater than under normal conditions. a ground fault on any one phase causes full line-toline voltage to appear throughout the entire system (Figure 2).

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Transient Overvoltages Field experience has shown that restriking ground faults on ungrounded systems can produce transient voltages as high as six times normal. Transient Overvoltage Profiles from Restriking Ground Fault Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . This transient voltage causes stress on the insulation of other equipment connected to the bus. Overstressed insulation results in equipment failure. and also would greatly reduce the likelihood of equipment damage. Grounding the system would reduce this transient voltage buildup. The phenomena of a restriking ground fault on an ungrounded system is demonstrated in Figure 3. Figure 3.

Figure 4. without a ground fault present. the current to ground (IG) is zero as shown in Figure 4. Under this balanced normal condition. is modeled in Figure 4 with stray phase-to-ground capacitance XC0 included and stray line-to-line capacitance ignored.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Current Profiles Normal Conditions An actual ungrounded system. Current Profile (Normal Conditions) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 .

The current flowing into the fault is the vectorial sum of the stray capacitance currents in the unfaulted phases. The voltage across the other two capacitances to ground will increase by the square root of three ( 3 ) because the impressed voltage will increase from lineto-neutral in the unfaulted state to line-to-line in the faulted state. no current will flow in the capacitance between that phase and ground since the voltage is zero. Figure 5. In addition.0 per unit times the original or unfaulted capacitive current to neutral.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Fault Condition Magnitudes If one of the phase conductors of an ungrounded system faults to ground. Ground Fault Current Profiles Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . This sum is no longer zero but rather 3. the line-to-ground voltages of the unfaulted phases have a phase displacement of 60° rather than the normal 120° separation. Figure 5 displays a ground fault on an actual ungrounded system with the corresponding vector diagram.

Figure 6 shows the three types of grounded systems. Figure 6. either solidly or through an impedance (resistance or reactance). the neutral point of a transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded..Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDED POWER SYSTEMS Types of Grounded Power Systems A grounded system is a system of conductors where at least one conductor or point (e.g. Grounded Power Systems Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 .

Figure 7.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Solidly Grounded (Neutral Point) A “solidly grounded system” is a system which has an intentional and direct connection to ground usually through the middle wire or neutral point of a transformer or generator’s windings. line-to-ground fault current magnitudes are very high (thousands of amperes). Solidly Grounded System (Neutral Point) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . No intentional impedance is added in the path from the neutral to ground. Figure 7a shows an example of a solidly grounded system and Figure 7b show the corresponding voltage profile. In a solidly grounded system. They approach and may exceed three-phase fault current magnitudes.

Because of the disadvantages listed below. Higher line-to-ground voltages on two phases. Phase identification of the grounded phase throughout the system is difficult. it is not widely used in industrial power systems. Phase-to-ground faults are easily detected and located. Ground fault current magnitudes can be higher than threephase fault current magnitudes. a maximum of 3 times the normal phase-to-neutral voltage can exist between two conductors and the ground. . • • The disadvantages of the corner-to-the delta grounded system are as follows: Disadvantages - • • • • Cannot supply dual-voltage service for lighting and power loads. phase-to-phase. however.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Corner-of-the Delta Grounded Figure 8 shows a corner-of-the delta grounded system. single-phase circuit extension. Effectively controls transient overvoltages. without escalation to a three-phase fault. There is a high probability of sustaining arcing for 480 volts or higher. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 .The advantages of the corner-of-the delta grounded system are as follows: Advantages • • Least costly method of converting an ungrounded delta system to a grounded system.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 8. Low resistance grounding is achieved by the intentional insertion of resistance between a generator or transformer neutral and ground. Corner-of-the Delta Grounded System Impedance Grounded Low impedance grounding involving a principally resistive grounding element is known as “low resistance grounding”. Figure 9 is an example of a low resistance grounded system. and the ground fault current (IF) equals EL-N divided by the value of the grounding resistor. Generally. the line-to-ground fault currents are limited to between 100 and 1200 amperes. Low Resistance Grounded - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . Note: Saudi Aramco typically use 400A low resistance grounded systems in the industrial power system and 1000A in the residential power system. When a line-to-ground fault occurs. the voltage across the resistor equals the normal line-toneutral voltage of the system (E L-N).

Low Resistance Grounded System High impedance grounding involving a principally resistive grounding element is known as “high resistance grounding”. the value of the limiting resistor is selected to provide a resistive fault current slightly greater than or equal to three times the normal current flowing in the stray line-to-ground capacitance per phase. In high resistance grounding. A line-to-ground fault on phase B of a high resistance grounded system is shown in Figure 10. Generally. Note: Saudi Aramco does not typically use high resistance grounded systems.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 9. line-to-ground fault currents are limited to between 1 and 10 amperes. High Resistance Grounded - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 .

High Resistance Grounded System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 10.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes High impedance grounding involving a principally reactance grounding element is known as “reactance grounding”. Reactance Grounded - Figure 11. Note: Saudi Aramco does not use reactance grounding. Figure 11 is an example of a reactance grounded system. Generally. Reactance Grounded System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . line-to-ground fault currents should be at least 25% and preferably 60% of the three-phase fault current magnitudes to limit serious transient overvoltages.

• • • Utility practice in recent years has favored solid grounding.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Solidly Grounded Systems Applications National Electric Code (1993). i. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 . Where the system is 3-phase. 4-wire wye in which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor. Article 250-5 (b)(50 V to 1000 V). 230-30 and 230-41. because solid grounding is the least expensive way to limit transient overvoltages while obtaining enough ground fault current for fast. (480Y/277 V. Where a service conductor is uninsulated in accordance with the exceptions to Sections 230-22. 208Y/120 V). requires the following classes of systems to be solidly grounded: Note: Saudi Aramco standards require compliance with the NEC. • Where the system can be so grounded that the maximum voltage to ground on the ungrounded conductor does not exceed 150 volts. Where the system is nominally rated 240/120-volt. A large percentage of ground faults on utility systems occurs by means of insulator flashovers. 4-wire in which the midpoint of one phase is used as a circuit conductor. This method permits the use of grounded-neutral-type lightning arresters with the resulting reduced lightning arrester investment and improve level of protection. selective fault isolation.e. Most other low-voltage systems should also be solidly grounded.. 3-phase. In addition. solid grounding offers savings in the use of graded insulation in transformers at 69 kV and above. and the high ground-fault current due to solid grounding does not cause expensive damage to equipment at the point of fault.

Line-to-Ground Fault Current Magnitudes Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 . it is not the preferred scheme for most industrial and commercial systems because of the severe damage potential of high magnitude fault currents (Figure 12). However. This is necessary to provide enough fault current to melt the primary fuses on a secondary ground fault. Figure 12.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes In medium voltage systems solid grounding has the lowest initial cost of all grounding methods. It is recommended for overhead distribution systems and for systems supplied by transformers which are protected by primary fuses.

High ground fault current magnitudes sometimes exceeding three-phase fault values. To reduce the arc blast or flash hazard to personnel who are close to the ground fault because of the very fast tripping action of the protective devices. • • • • • • • Disadvantages The primary disadvantages of solidly grounding are the following: • System continuity versus an ungrounded system because detection of a ground fault leads to an immediate trip of the protective device. To minimize transient overvoltages (within 250% of normal) on the system. To improve safety because single line-to-ground faults are immediately cleared. To improve reliability because ground faults are readily located and repaired. To allow use of grounded neutral type arrestors. To reduce initial first cost versus resistance grounded systems. generators and transformers. To reduce electrical shock hazards (lower touch and step potentials) to personnel caused by stray ground fault currents in the return path. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . (Also seen as an advantage as per previous discussion). to limit voltage on the system all the time to line-to-ground magnitudes.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Advantages The primary advantages of solidly grounding are the following: • • To improve differential relay protection motors.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes

Low Resistance Grounded Systems
Applications

Low resistance grounding is not used on low-voltage systems (1000 volts and below), primarily because the limited available ground fault current is insufficient to positively operate the series trip units and fuses that would be necessary for both phase-tophase and phase-to-ground fault protection on some or all of the circuits. Low resistance grounding is the preferred method for most medium voltage systems (1001 through 15,000 volts), especially systems that directly connect to rotating devices. To limit fault damage, use the lowest ground fault current (highest resistance) consistent with adequate ground relay sensitivity. As a rule of thumb, enough current must be available for the least-sensitive ground relay to respond to 10 percent of the maximum ground fault current under minimum ground source conditions. Low resistance grounding schemes are not typically used in high voltage systems (above 15 kV) because neutral grounding equipment at these voltage levels is cost prohibitive.
Advantages

The primary advantages of low resistance grounding are the following: • • • To reduce melting and burning (thermal stress) of faulted electrical equipment. To reduce mechanical stresses in circuits and equipment carrying fault currents. To reduce electrical shock hazards (lower touch and step potentials) to personnel caused by stray ground fault currents in the ground return path. To reduce the arc blast or flash hazard to personnel who are close to the ground fault.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes

To reduce momentary line voltage dip caused by the occurrence and clearing of a ground fault because of the low current magnitudes. To improve safety because single line-to-ground faults are immediately cleared. To improve reliability because ground faults are readily located and repaired. To minimize transient overvoltages (within 250% or normal) on the system.

• • •

Disadvantages

The primary disadvantages of low resistance grounding are the following: • • Initial first costs of resistor and relays versus solidly grounded system. System continuity versus an ungrounded system because detection of a ground fault leads to an immediate trip of the protective device. (Also seen as an advantage as per previous discussion). It cannot be used if the transformer primary protective devices are fuses since the magnitude of fault current (primary side) is too low to clear the fuse.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes

High Resistance Grounded Systems
Applications

High resistance grounding of low voltage systems should be considered only when service continuity is of paramount importance, and a policy of immediately locating and repairing ground faults is enforced. High resistance grounding is generally applied to medium voltage (less than 5 kV) distribution systems but is also acceptable on 13.8 kV systems. There are few applications of high resistance grounding above 13.8 kV. It allows continuity of service under ground faults (similar to an ungrounded system) but limits the transient overvoltages. The primary areas of application are as follows: • • • For maximum service continuity where unplanned shutdowns cannot be tolerated. Where a captive transformer serves a single rotating machine. In situations where an existing system has been historically operated ungrounded and no ground protection schemes are installed. For circumstances where limitation of both fault damage and overvoltages is desired and ground protection selectivity is not required.

Advantages

The primary advantages of high resistance grounding are the following: • • • • To reduce melting and burning (thermal stress) of faulted electrical equipment. To reduce mechanical stresses in circuits and equipment carrying fault currents. To limit fault current magnitudes to 1 to 10 amperes. To reduce electrical shock hazards (lower touch and step potentials) to personnel caused by stray ground fault currents in the ground return path.

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and transformers versus a solidly grounded system. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 . For this reason. relay. • • • Disadvantages The primary disadvantages of high resistance grounding are the following: • • • • Initial first costs of resistor. it is usually not considered as an alternative to resistance grounding. To minimize transient overvoltages (within 250% of normal) on the system. It does not immediately segregate the fault. To reduce momentary line voltage dip caused by the occurrence and clearing of a ground fault. To avoid shutdown of a faulted circuit on the occurrence of the first ground fault (system continuity).Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes • To reduce the blast or flash hazard to personnel who are close to the ground fault because of the very low current magnitudes. Reactance Grounded Systems Because reactance grounded systems permit much higher levels of fault current than in resistance grounded systems. The fault remains on the system until located and removed. It requires a dedicated “alarm” system and standard operating procedures (SOPs) to locate and clear faults. reactance grounding has very limited application (generator grounding). (Also seen as an advantage per previous discussion). Reactance grounding is not considered as an alternative to solid or low resistance grounding and it is usually only applied on generators to limit the line-to-ground fault currents to values no greater than the three-phase fault values.

Referring to Figure 13. GS#3 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes TYPES OF GROUND FAULT DETECTION AND COORDINATION SCHEMES Single Voltage Levels Versus Transformer Connections A grounding system consists of all interconnected grounding connections in a specific power system (Figure 13) and is defined by its isolation from adjacent grounding systems. the system boundary is defined by the lack of a physical connection that is either metallic or through a significantly high impedance. GS#6 .Solid grounding on the transformer (T5).Solid grounding on the transformer (T7). The isolation is provided by transformer primary and secondary windings that are coupled only by magnetic means. ground fault coordination and detection is usually limited to one voltage level. the six ground systems (seven sources) identified are the following: • GS#1 . GS#2 .Low resistance grounding on two transformers (T1 and T3).High resistance grounding on the 2.High Resistance grounding on the generator (G).4 kV bus. • • • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 . Thus. zero sequence currents cannot pass through a delta connection. Because of these transformer connections.Solid grounding on the transformer (T4). GS#5 . Therefore. GS#4 .

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Title: 10205-13. Typical Ground Systems Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 .EPS from CorelDRAW! Creator: CorelDRAW! CreationDate: Wed Mar 15 10:08:28 1995 Figure 13.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Low Voltage Systems NEC Detection Requirements National Electric Code (1993 Article 230-95) states that ground fault protection is required for low voltage solidly grounded systems more than 150 V to ground but not exceeding 600 V phase-to-phase. Coordination Using Solid-State Static Trips Low voltage system ground detection schemes are accomplished using solid-state static trip breakers (Figure 14).35 seconds.g. for example feeder breakers. to prevent tripping of the main breaker and subsequent loss of all power resulting from a downstream ground fault. These typical settings allow for electrical coordination between the GFP devices. it is recommended that these lower rated devices. This requirement is considered minimum protection and to obtain selective tripping with lower rated downstream devices. In a system as shown in Figure 14. the static trip GFP on the feeder breaker is set at 0. also be equipped for ground fault detection and interruption. The article further states that the ground detection device shall have a maximum setting of 1200 amperes and shall function to open all ungrounded conductors of the faulted circuit in one second or less for ground fault currents equal to or greater than 3000 amperes. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 .2 seconds and the static trip GFP on the main breaker is set at 0. but recommends GFP protection on other downstream devices (e. and that the minimum level of protection shall be applicable to service disconnecting devices rated 1000 amperes or more. Ground faults in low voltage systems are immediately sensed and automatically isolated from the system. The NEC only requires ground fault protection (GFP) on the main breaker. Note: Saudi Aramco standards comply with NEC Art. 230-95.. feeder breakers) as well.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 14. Solid-State Low Voltage Ground Fault Detection Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 .

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Medium Voltage Systems . 50/51N) connected residually as shown in Figure 15. Residual CT Connection Scheme Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29 .Solidly Grounded Residual Connection/Coordination The detection and coordination of ground faults in solidly grounded medium voltage systems (2. Figure 15.4 to 5 kV) is accomplished through use of overcurrent relays (ANSI Device Nos.

Low Resistance Grounded Source Neutral Detection/Coordination Ground faults in medium voltage systems using low resistance grounding schemes and detected by overcurrent relays (ANSI Device 51G) (Relay A) are connected in a source neutral configuration as shown in Figure 16. The performance should be checked with the current transformer excitation curve since the auxiliary CT adds additional burden to the circuit. conventional residual relaying would require hundreds or thousands of amperes of fault current to obtain the desired 10 percent relay sensitivity (industry rule-of-thumb). an auxiliary CT with a ratio of 1:10 or lower will adequately improve the sensitivity of the residually connected ground relay.5). referring to Figure 15. the auxiliary ground fault relay would detect a fault current of just 10 amperes (1000/5 x 1/10 x 0. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 . In contrast. For example. Medium Voltage Systems .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Sensitivity The residual detection scheme.5IG) and the secondary rating is the standard 5 A. has very limited sensitivity because of the relatively high ratios of the phase current transformers (CTs). An even better protection scheme would be to add another overcurrent relay (151G) (Relay B) which would trip a primary breaker. With CTs applied in conventional switchgear. this protects the system for ground faults above breaker number 1. Standard industry practice is to size the current transformer primary at one-half the magnitude of the resistor current (0. as shown in Figure 15. The fault current necessary with residual relaying can be reduced through use of auxiliary CTs in the phase CT neutral circuit. Because of the high ratios of phase CTs. the ground fault relays shown would require a minimum of 100 amperes of current to detect (1000/5 x 0.5) a ground fault.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 16. Source Neutral Detection/Coordination Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 .

which has a combination CT relay pickup of approximately 5 A.25-0. Zero Sequence CT Connection Scheme Sensitivity The zero sequence CT detection method is more sensitive than the previously discussed residual scheme because of the low ratio CTs (50/5). For example. With properly applied ground fault relaying. Figure 17. with the combination of the 50:5 type BYZ zero sequence CT and a 0. about 50 to 150 A of ground fault current is adequate to obtain 1 percent relay sensitivity. a maximum ground fault of 50 A is sufficient for 10 percent sensitivity.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Zero Sequence Detection/Coordination The detection and coordination of ground faults in a low resistance grounded system is also accomplished through use of instantaneous trip relays (ANSI Device 50) and zero sequence CTs as shown in Figure 16 (Relay C) and Figure 17.5 A type instantaneous current relay. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 .

Note: High resistance schemes are also permitted by the NEC as shown in Figure 18a.High Resistance Grounded Overvoltage Relays and Alarms Ground faults in medium voltage systems using high resistance grounding are detected by use of overvoltage relays (ANSI Device 59G) and alarms as shown in Figure 18b. Even on low resistance grounded systems. High Resistance Ground Fault Detection Schemes Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes CT Saturation The zero sequence CT detection and coordination scheme should not be used on solidly grounded systems because of the high fault currents available in solidly grounded systems. However. a 400 A ground fault saturates the zero sequence CT. will produce enough secondary CT current to trip the relay. The high fault currents will saturate the CT and not produce enough secondary CT current to trip the relay. using a low burden instantaneous trip relay (ANSI Device 50) instead of a high burden time overcurrent relay (ANSI Device 51) on low resistance grounded systems with zero sequence CTs. Medium Voltage Systems . Figure 18.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . As a rule.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Overvoltage relays (ANSI Device 59) are used in high resistance schemes because the low magnitude fault currents (1-10 A) would be impossible to detect with conventional CTs and overcurrent relays. Alarm-only schemes require 100 percent rated resistors and transformers. it is preferable to detect and clear the fault rather than letting it persist. Alarm-only schemes are often used when service continuity is very critical. However. Special Precautions High resistance grounding requires special operational procedures to ensure the first ground is located and corrected prior to a second ground occurrence (phase-to-phase fault). both the resistor and transformer’s ratings can be reduced to approximately 10 percent of the calculated values. This limits localized damage at the fault point. Summary The characteristics of the different types of grounded systems are summarized in Figure 19 and the industry recommended grounding methods for the different voltage levels are summarized in Figure 20. If the 59G relay is used to immediately trip a breaker. although they present a risk that a sustained ground fault in a small place such as a rotating machine stator slot will progress to a catastrophic phase-to-phase fault. the alarm method contributes to better service continuity by permitting continued operation with only one ground fault on the system.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Title: 10205-19. Ground System Characteristics Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 .EPS from CorelDRAW! Creator: CorelDRAW! CreationDate: Wed Mar 15 10:14:30 1995 Figure 19.

Ground System Industry Recommendations Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 .EPS from CorelDRAW! Creator: CorelDRAW! CreationDate: Wed Mar 15 10:15:20 1995 Figure 20.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Title: 10205-20.

VL-N is the line-to-neutral voltage and Xco is the per-phase distributed capacitive reactance of the system. displaced from each other by 120o in phase. Grounded through an impedance. the principal element of which is inductive reactance. and having the same phase sequence as the original phasors. grounded high resistance grounded low resistance grounded per-phase charging current (Ico) negative sequence components positive sequence components reactance grounded resistance grounded Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . A resistance-grounded system in which the purposely inserted resistance has lower ohmic value than would meet the high-resistance grounding criteria. Three phasors equal in magnitude. the principal element of which is resistance. Three phasors equal in magnitude. A grounded system with a purposely inserted resistance that limits ground-fault current such that the current can flow for an extended period without causing more damage. whether the connection is intentional or accidental. displaced from each other by 120o in phase. Grounded through an impedance. either solidly or through an impedance. This level of current is typically between 100 and 1200 A. The current (V L-N/Xco) that passes through one phase of the system to charge the distributed capacitance per phase to ground of the system.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes GLOSSARY grounded system A system in which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded. and having the phase sequence opposite to that of the original phasors. Connected to earth or to some extended conducting body that serves instead of the earth. This level of current is typically less than 10 A.

A system of alternating current supply comprising three conductors. A grounding system consists of all interconnected grounding connections in a specific power system and is defined by its isolation from adjacent grounding systems. The isolation is provided by transformer primary and secondary windings that are coupled only by magnetic means. A system. three of which are connected as in a three-phase three-wire system. a fault. except through potential indicating or measuring devices or other very high impedance devices. the fourth being connected to the neutral point of the supply or midpoint of one-phase in case of a deltaconnected transformer secondary. without an intentional connection to ground. system charging current three-phase four-wire system three-phase three-wire system transient overvoltage ungrounded system zero-sequence components Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes solidly grounded system Connected directly through an adequate ground connection in which no impedance has been intentionally inserted. a lightning stroke. or during arcing ground faults on the ungrounded system. which may be grounded. Three phasors equal in magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each other. The temporary overvoltage of short duration associated with the operation of the switching device. between successive pairs of which are maintained alternating differences of potential successively displaced in phase by one third of a period. The total distributed capacitive charging current (3VL-N/Xco) of a three-phase system. A system of alternating current supply comprising four conductors.

a three-phase fault) consists of three phasors.5 .e. For example: IA = 1 0o = 1. In short.. voltage. and impedance.5 + j0. and zero phase sequence components.j0. While the method and mathematics are quite simple.866 IC = 1120o = -0. the practical value lies in the ability to think and visualize in symmetrical components. This reduction can be performed in terms of current. the method of symmetrical components is one of the relay engineer’s most powerful technical tools. negative.866 IA + IB + IC = 0 |IA | = |IB| = |IC| Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 . This skill requires practice and experience. all equal in magnitude and 120o apart (Figure 23).0 + j0 IB = 1240o = -0. The method of symmetrical components consists of reducing an unbalanced three-phase system of phasors into three balanced or symmetrical systems: the positive. Balanced System A balanced system (i.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes ADDENDUM CHARACTERISTICS OF LINE-TO-GROUND FAULTS (UNBALANCED CONDITIONS) Symmetrical Components The method of symmetrical components (mathematical operations) is the foundation for obtaining and understanding fault data on three-phase power systems.

0 IA + IB + IC = 0 |IA | = |IC| |IB| Figure 23.0 . For example: IA = 10o = 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Unbalanced System An unbalanced system (i.e.. a line-to-ground fault) consists of three-phasors. Example of a Balanced System Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 .j1. not all equal in magnitude or degrees apart (Figure 24).0 IC = 190o = 0 + j1.0 + j0 IB = 2 225o = -1.

negative (-) sequence. The term “positive” derives from the fact that IbI is a positive (+) 120o behind Ia1 (Figure 25). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 . Note: Subscript 1 identifies the positive sequence component. and the subscript 0 identifies the zero sequence component. and having the same phase sequence (abc) as the original phasors (abc). displaced from each other by 120o in phase. subscript 2 identifies the negative sequence component. and zero (0) sequence.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 24. Example of an Unbalanced System Sequence Components The sequence components consist of three sequence sets: positive (+) sequence. This subscript notation is applicable to the entire Addendum. Positive Sequence (+) components consist of three phasors equal in magnitude.

and having the phase sequence opposite (acb) to that of the original phasors (abc). Figure 26. The term “negative” derives from the fact that Ib2 is a negative (-) 120o behind Ia2 (Figure 26). displaced from each other by 120o in phase. Negative (-) Sequence Components Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 . Positive (+) Sequence Components Negative Sequence (-) components consist of three phasors equal in magnitude.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 25.

0 = 1 270o = 0 .0 + j0 = -1. Zero Sequence (0) Figure 27.0 = 1 270o = 0 . j j2 j3 j4 -j = 1 90o = 0 + j = j = 1 180o = -1.j1.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes components consist of three phasors equal in magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each other (Figure 27).j = -j = 1 360o = 1.0 = -j = j3 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . Zero (0) Sequence Components Operators (j.0 + j0 = 1. a) The “j” operator is a unit phasor with an angle displacement of 90o (Figure 28).

j0.5 .1.866 = + 0.0. a -a a2 -a2 a3 -a3 = 1 120o = 1 300o = 1 240o = 1 60o = 1 360o = 1 180o = .866 = + 1.0 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 . The “j” Operator The “a” operator is a unit phasor with an angle displacement of 120o (Figure 29).0 + j0 = 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 28.5 + j0.866 = .0 + j0 = .866 = + 0.0.5 .j0.0 = .1.5 + j0.

The “a” Operator Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 29.

These equations are also valid for V A . IB. and Ia0 leads to the following basic formulas for symmetrical components. 2. VB. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 . unknowns.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Analysis Each unbalanced phaser (IA . Ia2. and V C. Three equations and seven unknowns because (Ia0 = Ib0 = Ic0). Ia1 = 1/3 (IA + aIB + a2 IC) (Equation 1) Ia2 = 1/3 (IA + a2 IB + aIC) (Equation 2) Note: Three equations and three Notes: 1. IC) can be broken into its individual symmetrical components as follows: IA = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 IB = Ib1 + Ib2 + Ib0 IC = Ic1 + Ic2 + Ic0 Ib1 = Ia1 240o = a2 Ia1 Ic1 = Ia1 120o = a Ia1 Ib2 = Ia2 120o = a Ia2 Ic2 = Ia2 240o = a2 Ia2 Ic0 = Ia0 = Ib0 Rewriting the equations and substituting the symmetrical components of phases IB and IC into their IA equivalent symmetrical components leads to: IA = 1 Ia1 + 1 Ia2 + 1 Ia0 IB = a2 Ia1 + a Ia2 + 1 Ia0 IC = a Ia1 + a2 Ia2 + 1 Ia0 Solving for Ia1.

41. which leads to the following conclusion: Three-Wire Delta System - IA + IB + IC = 0 Ia0 = 1/3 (IA + IB + IC) = 0.8 82.866) = 1/3 (.2 -41. IN = 3Ia0 Example A: A wye-connected load (no neutral) has line voltages as follows.4 o) + 1. no zero sequence currents can flow in a three-wire delta system.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Ia0 = 1/3 (IA + IB + IC) (Equation 3) In a three-wire system the sum of the phase currents equal zero.0 180o Determine the symmetrical components of VA .7937 + .8 82.1002 + j. Va2.4 o VC = 1. In a four-wire system the sum of the phase currents equals the neutral current. Va1 = 1/3 (V A + aVB + a2VC) = 1/3 (0.836) = .2 (120o .1763 + 0. which leads to the following conclusion: Four-Wire Wye System - IA + IB +IC = IN Ia0 = 1/3 (IA + IB + IC) = 1/3 IN.9453 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 .8 o + 1.8 o Answer: 1) VB = 1.2791 + j. Va0) and perform a check calculation to determine if VA and VB equals the sum of its symmetrical components.5 + j. VA = 0. and V C. Iao = 0 Therefore.2372 + j1.8374 + j2.0 (240o + 180o)) = 1/3 (. Find the symmetrical components (V a1. VB.

55o V Va2 = 1/3 (V A + a2VB + aVC) = 1/3 (0.5 .2791 + j.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes = .2 -41.9454 .2346 220. VA = V a1 + V a2 + V a0 = .3828 + 0.28o V Va0 = 0 (no neutral connection) = 1/3 (V A + V B + B C) = 1/3 (0.8 82.1.1517 + 0 = .0 (120o + 180o)) = 1/3 (.1517 = .9856 73.1001 + j.8 82.1.j.0 + j0) =0V 2) Check the calculation to determine if VA and VB equals the sum of its symmetrical components.41.7937 .866) = 1/3 (-.4551) = -.2 (240o .7937 + .1790 .7937 = 0.1790 .0 180o) = 1/3 (.j.1002 + j.1002 + j.8 o V Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 .j.8 o + 1.8 o + 1.4 o + 1.8 82.5371 .9001 .7936 .j.4 o) + 1.j.j.1373 ..

.2346 (220.28o = .28o = .j.28o + 120o) + 0 = .2346 (220.9856 193.8999 .55o + 120o) + .55o + .2346 340.7935 = 1.55o + .9856 313.2 -41.0 + j0 = 1 180o V Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49 .6791 .2308 = -1.2346 460.2208 .9856 (73.9856 (73.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes VB = V b1 + V b2 + V b0 = a2 Va1 + aVa2 + V a0 = .j.j.j.55o + 240o) + .4 o V VC = V c1 + V c2 + V c0 = aVa1 + a2Va2 + V a0 = .28o + 240o) + 0 = .0418 + j.7143 + .0792 = .9852 .2308 .

Normal Conditions Phasor Diagram Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Fault Condition Phasor Diagrams Normal Conditions Under normal conditions the phase current (IA ) lags the phase voltage (V A ) as shown in Figure 30. Figure 30.

VB. as shown in Figure 31. IC) are equal (balanced conditions) and the line voltages (V A . Figure 31.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Three-Phase Faults Under three-phase fault conditions. Three-Phase Fault Phasor Diagram Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51 . the phase currents (IA . IB. VC) collapse to zero (eventually) at the point of the fault.

phase current IA equals zero and phase B current is equal to the negative of phase C current as shown in Figure 32.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Phase -to-Phase Faults For a phase B to C fault. Phase B-to-C Fault Phasor Diagram Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52 . also as shown in Figure 32. The line voltages VB and VC are equal. Figure 32.

and zero sequence currents flow for faults involving ground. Positive. Phase A-to-Ground Fault Phasor Diagram Sequence Currents Figure 34 shows the current sequence component sets for threephase faults. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53 . and line-to-ground faults as follows: • • • No negative or zero sequence currents flow for three-phase faults. Figure 33.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Line-to-Ground Faults For a phase A to ground fault. negative. line-to-line-to ground faults. only positive sequence currents flow. Only positive and negative sequence currents flow for line-toline faults. line-to-line faults. phase A line voltage and phases B and C currents equal zero as shown in Figure 33.

negative. No zero sequence voltages exist for line-to-line faults. and line-to-ground faults as follows: • No negative or zero sequence voltages exist for a threephase fault and the positive sequence voltage collapses to zero at the point of the fault. line-to-line faults. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 54 . line-to-line-to ground faults. Positive. and zero sequence voltages exist for faults involving ground.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Sequence Voltages Figure 35 shows the voltage sequence component sets for threephase faults.

Sequence Current Components Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 34.

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 35. Sequence Voltage Components Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56 .

• • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57 .). Referring to Figure 36. delta-wye. wye-delta. In delta-Y or Y-delta transformer grounded banks. zero sequence current flows in both windings. Where both neutrals of a Y-Y transformer bank are grounded. zero sequence current cannot flow in either winding. Figure 36 shows the various transformer connection combinations and the corresponding zero sequence current flow equivalent diagram. If the connection from neutral to ground contains an impedance (ZN). the following observations are noted: • If either one of the neutrals of a Y transformer bank is -Y ungrounded. zero sequence currents have a path through the Y.g.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Line-to-Ground Fault Equations Zero Sequence Transformer Model The zero sequence equivalent circuits of three-phase transformers deserve special attention because of the different combinations of connections (e. etc. the zero sequence equivalent circuit model must have an impedance of 3ZN. No zero sequence currents flow in a delta-delta transformer bank..

Transformer Zero Sequence Models Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 36.

Phase A-to-Ground Fault Circuit Diagram Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59 . The current conditions at the fault are expressed as follows: IB = IC = 0 (boundary conditions) Ia1 = 1/3 (IA + IB + IC) = 1/3 IA Ia2 = 1/3 (IA + a2IB + aIC) = 1/3 IA Ia0 = 1/3 (IA + aIB + a2IC) = 1/3 IA Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0 = 1/3 IA IA = 3Ia0 Figure 37.Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Fault Conditions (Current) The circuit diagram for a phase A-to-ground fault at the terminals of an unloaded generator is shown in Figure 37.

Va2 = -Ia1Z2. Va0 = -Ia1 (Z0 + 3ZN) -EA = -Ia1Z1 .Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Fault Conditions (Voltage) The circuit diagram sequence network for a phase A-to-ground fault at the terminals of an unloaded generator (Figure 37) is shown in Figure 38.Ia1Z1. The voltage conditions at the fault are expressed as follows: VA = 0 (boundary condition) VA = V a1 + V a2 + V a0 = 0 Va1 = E A .Ia1Z2 .Ia1 (Z0 + 3ZN) = 0 EA = Ia1 (Z1 + Z2 + Z0 + 3ZN) Ia1 = E A /(Z1 + Z2 + Z0 + 3ZN) IA = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 = 3Ia1 since Ia2 = Ia0 = Ia1 IA = 3EA /(Z1 + Z2 + Z0 + 3Zn) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60 .

Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical Power Systems II System Grounding Schemes Figure 38. Sequence Network Connection Diagram Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61 .

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