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Frequency Planning Guidelines
xxxx_Frequency Planning Page 1
Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU - 47553527.doc
Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA
Document Subject: Document Author: Author’s Manager: Company: Document Category: Document Keywords: Document Comments: Document Web Location: Frequency Planning Guidelines Mark Cosgrove Yasmin Karimli T-Mobile RF Standards ENG / RF / TGU Release for Comments and Approval http://rf.eng.voicestream.com/Library/.doc
Date: Document Approved: Document Authorized:
August 30th, 2002 Mark Cosgrove, Dir. RF Systems Engineering
Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU - 47553527.doc
Timeslot 0 of the BCCH frequency carries the logical BCCH channel and additional channels that are used for paging. being able to change frequency (Called hopping) and transmit power levels (Power control).0 1975.0 1890. FCC PCS Band A D B E F C B/W (Uplink and Downlink) 30 MHz 10 MHz 30 MHz 10 MHz 10 MHz 30 MHz MS TX Band (MHz) 1850. The BCCH frequency is required to transmit constantly at a set frequency and at full power.0 BTS TX (MHz) 1930.doc Page 3 .0 1945.0 1895.0 1960.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Table of Contents 1 Scope This document outlines the Radio Frequency (RF) channel assignment strategy for existing and new markets. The Non-BCCH channels are therefore able to achieve better performance in terms of tolerance of interference and noise than the BCCH frequency.0 1880.47553527. synchronization.0 GSM CH 512-586 587-611 612. We will explain why the 7/21 re-use pattern is the strategy we recommend to use for the BCCH layer Non-BCCH frequencies can adapt on a timeslot-by-timeslot basis. and initial system access.0 1885. This better performance is exploited by reusing nonBCCH frequencies more often within a given area such that the traffic supported per MHz of frequency is increased. This document is aimed at promoting the use of frequency hopping 1/1 strategy for markets with challenging terrain and 1/3 for markets in which the site are spread out with regular azimuth. Reference material and background information has been included as an informative annex.686 687-711 712-736 737-811 Table 1 FCC bands and GSM Channel Allocations GSM requires that each cell (a site being made up of one or more sectored cells) have one frequency that is used to broadcast network and cell control information and act as a pilot frequency. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . GSM operates on a predefined numbering scheme such that each 200KHz channel has a specific channel number assigned.0 1965. The licensed frequency band is used to support discrete 200KHz wide channels.0 1970. This frequency is defined as the Broadcast Common Control Channel (BCCH) frequency.0 1865. The defined channels and band information for GSM – North American (GSM-NA) is shown in table 1. 2 Introduction Each market has available a set band of frequencies as defined by the relevant FCC license.
47553527.doc Page 4 . This document is intended for networks that have implemented GSM and GPRS technologies. as it is the present case for all Voicestream markets.15 or 20MHz in uplink band and 5.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA This document discusses the fundamental concepts of frequency reuse. We recommend to local RF team to use this document as a frequency planning strategy guide. and finally to provide recommendations for partitioning of 5MHz.15 or 20 MHz in downlink band). various techniques for maximizing capacity. The recommended frequency planning strategies are summarized in the recommendation part located at the end of this document. The Houston trial results are provided in Appendix. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU .10.10. 10MHz. spectrum partitioning schemes. 15MHz and 20MHz spectrum (understand 5.
For instant 3/9.6 Erlangs Page 5 Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . a group of contiguous cells all using different frequencies are grouped into clusters. where N denotes the number of cells in a cluster. 19. It is this fundamental concept that enable cellular systems to provide the necessary traffic carrying capacity to support its subscriber base. denotes a 3 site / 9 cell cluster (3 sectors per site). 21. 7. Here is how a cellular pattern. Repeating this cluster over the geographic area of coverage forms the cellular network. 16.47553527.1 Cellular network concepts In a cellular network. A term commonly used to describe a frequency re-use scheme is N. thus the maximum amount of traffic carried. each cell with a unique frequency group. N=3. 9. here with N=7 (i=2 and j=1) is displayed: A A A A A A jj A i A i As shown on this figure the re-use pattern has to follow the 2 arrows directions (or one arrow if j=0) to be regular and this is the reason why N has to verify that N = i 2 + j 2 + ij . A cellular network may consist of omni sites or sectorized sites or a combination of both. Site type Omni Total TCH available 45 Traffic Capacity (2% blocking) 35. 13. 12. For example. 3. and thus the total number unique frequencies.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 3 Frequency re-use theory Frequency reuse. denotes a 3 sites cluster. Where i and j are integers. 3. involves reusing the same frequency repeatedly in a cellular network. as the example below illustrates. Given the same total number of channels. The frequency-repeat pattern determines the maximum number of radios that can be deployed in each cell. In a sectorized reuse scheme.doc . a site number / cluster size convention is commonly used to denote the reuse pattern. as the name suggests. the capacity of a sectorized site is less than the capacity of an omni site. 4. That implies 1. 27 are usually the values that we usually consider in GSM.
and thus higher overall network capacity and that is making much more sense economically. we have at the edge of the cell (i. Let’s illustrate how this work in the case of omni-directional site C Sm = I 6I If we estimate that the propagation of the signal is proportional to the distance power the attenuation factor –n. For any re-use pattern.doc Page 6 . sectorization allows higher frequency re-use with smaller number of sites as each site contains 3 cells instead of one. the ratio of co-channel cell site to the cell radius is: D / R = 3N This comes from the fact that we have. therefore all GSM networks use sectorized sites.01 = 27. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . The hexagon grid implies that six first ring cells always surround a cell (One for each side of the hexagon).0 Erlangs However. worst case C/I): −n ( D − R) C = −n I 6R So in dB we have: C = log( I ( D − 1) R 6 n ) = log( ( 3N − 1) 6 n ) We usually assume a value of n=3. here shown for N=4: R D Let’s call R’ the radius from the center of the hexagon to the middle of a side of the hexagon. We have: R ' = cos(30) × R = 3 2 ×R The distance D between the middle of and hexagon and the middle of the next one that uses the same frequency verifies: D = 2 R '× N = 2 R '× i 2 + j 2 + ij Therefore: D / R = 3N From this value we can estimate the theoretical interference created by the first ring of frequency re-use. For both site types.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 3 Sector 45 3 x 9.5 for the attenuation.47553527. several frequency re-use schemes are possible with varying levels of carrier to interference ratio (C/I).e.
47553527.732. D/R = 1. But we should notice that any BCCH plan may be implemented in TCH but the reverse is not true: (1) 1/1 frequency reuse • • • Minimum reuse distance to cell radius ratio.doc Page 7 .Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 3. worst case C/Ic = 5. worst case C/Ic = 0dB Each neighboring cell use the same frequency group. every neighboring cell uses an adjacent channel. Co-channel interference.2 Examples GSM frequency re-use patterns Let’s illustrate this theory with few examples of plan that can be used for TCH and/or BCCH. this can only be used with frequency hopping in GSM 1 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . and the approximate C/I ratio that can be achieved with a homogeneous network of cells using a 120 degree beam width antenna. this can only be used with frequency hopping in GSM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Figure 3. (2) 1/3 frequency reuse • • • Minimum reuse distance to cell radius ratio. Co-channel interference.5dB Adjacent channel interference.1: 1/1 frequency reuse pattern The example below illustrates the 3 re-use schemes for sectorized sites.
no adjacent channel neighbor. worst case C/Ia = 0dB Alternatively by swapping the allocation for 1 of the 4 sites. D/R = 6.1dB (for 4 out 2 of 12 3 4 10 6 cells) 2 3 2 3 11 7 9 10 1 5 11 6 12 3 7 11 4 8 10 1 7 9 2 6 12 10 1 5 11 4 8 6 12 3 7 9 2 11 4 8 10 1 5 11 7 9 2 6 12 3 7 1 5 11 4 8 10 1 5 12 3 7 9 2 6 12 8 10 1 5 11 4 8 2 6 12 3 7 9 4 8 10 1 5 2 6 12 4 8 Confidential and Proprietary 9 3 4 5 10 6 9 T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . 2 out of 12 cells have adjacent channels with neighboring cells.9dB.g.196 Co-channel interference.0dB (for 2 out of 12 cells) • Adjacent channel interference. 2 out of 9 cells have adjacent channel neighbor 1 7 3 1 7 3 9 6 7 3 9 6 4 8 1 4 8 9 2 5 9 2 5 9 6 7 3 6 7 3 6 4 8 1 4 8 1 4 8 2 5 9 2 5 9 2 5 7 3 6 7 3 6 1 4 8 1 4 8 2 5 2 5 Figure 3. worst case C/Ia = 5.2: 1/3 frequency reuse pattern (3) 3/9 frequency reuse • • • Minimum reuse distance to cell radius ratio. worst case C/Ic = 12. D/R = 5. e.doc 11 7 9 1 5 12 8 Page 8 .3: 3/9 frequency reuse pattern (4) 4/12 frequency reuse • • • Minimum reuse distance to cell radius ratio. worst case C/Ic = 12. as the theoretical minimum C/I in GSM is 9dB this re-use pattern is the smallest that can be used with non-hopping channels Adjacent channel interference.0dB Adjacent channel interference.0 Co-channel interference. swapping cell using carrier 8 and 12 in the Figure 3.47553527.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Figure 3. worst case C/Ic = 10. would yield: • Co-channel interference.
Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Figure 3. But on another hand the number of frequencies available in each group also decreases as N increases. areas consisting of hilly terrain and large water bodies pose the most difficult frequency planning problems. There are many factors.4: 4/12 frequency reuse pattern – 2 adjacent channel neighbors 2 3 2 3 2 3 11 7 9 10 1 5 11 6 8 3 7 9 11 4 12 10 1 5 11 7 9 2 6 8 3 7 9 10 1 5 11 4 12 10 1 5 6 8 3 7 9 2 6 8 11 4 12 10 1 5 11 4 12 7 9 2 6 8 3 7 9 10 1 5 11 4 12 10 1 5 6 8 3 7 9 2 6 8 4 12 10 1 5 11 4 12 2 6 8 3 7 9 4 12 10 1 5 2 6 8 4 12 Figure 3. in practice however.47553527. In general. Irregularities of site coverage will increase the carrier to interference ratios. However in reality it is not very efficient if we do not reach C/I = 12dB. it is the site acquisition process. which would significantly influence the network topology. this is directly connected to the theoretical C/I calculation illustrated before in the omni site case. these include: • • • • Terrain (hilly or flat) Large water bodies Budgetary constraint Site placement constraints All these factors make it difficult to achieve the ideal network topology.5: 4/12 frequency reuse pattern – no adjacent channel neighbor From the above example. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . we can see that interference reduces as N increases. which would ultimately determine the cellular pattern.doc Page 9 .05). The theoretical minimum C/I for which GSM is designed to work is 9 dB (GSM rec 05. Although these grid patterns are often used for initial site planning.
Let’s point out here that strategies such as 5/15. we shall advise the implementation of N=21 (7/21 pattern) for non-hopping channels.47553527. Moreover.e. where N is a multiple of 3 (tri-sectorial sites) and a sufficient theoretic C/I=15. to deal with the irregularities of site coverage.doc Page 10 . Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . 6/18 or 8/24 that are often use do not respect a regular pattern.56dB.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA An N=12 might not allow the C/I requested to be sufficient. certain amount additional frequencies (i. If If the spectrum available allows it. The choice of this value of 7/21 is because it is the lowest value for which we have a regular pattern (N verifies N = i 2 + j 2 + ij ). the value of N) should be allowed.
Downlink Power control and DTX need to be active. the following recommendations have been devised for the application of frequency hopping to increase system capacity. GPRS (and future EDGE) traffic is assigned to the BCCH in preference to the Non-BCCH channels. For non-BCCH channels a 1/3 or 1/1 frequency hopping reuse is optimum. Although fractional reuse averages out interference from many sources. 8. Frequency hopping exploits the interleaving and coding protection of GSM such that short bursts of very poor interference can be tolerated. 1.3 4. this is detailed in section 5 2.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 4 Recommended Planning Rules 4. the actual peak and averaging loading will depend on the quality of the traditional frequency plan. The Non-BCCH frequencies will be used as the first choice for carrying voice traffic. the downlink interference pattern is also constant and is worst at the cell edges where a low number of interferers dominate. The peak loading for some sectors will be 60% if the 1/3 is implemented and 30% if 1/1 is used 7. 3.1 Frequency planning general rules Based on industry technical reports.2.doc Page 11 . where transmit powers are constant and frequencies are nonhopping. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . To maximize the performance of the traffic channels it will be necessary to minimize the number of frequencies assigned to the BCCH plan. This ensures that mobiles achieve all the benefits of frequency hopping.2 Frequency hopping benefits 4. 4. however some BTS continue to be lower interferers than others. the frequency hopping benefits are detailed in section 4.47553527. as surrounding sites transmissions are no longer suitably attenuated by distance. By letting sectors change frequency on a seemingly random basis the interference pattern at a single point is no-longer constant but changing.e. Separate frequency channel sets will be assigned to BCCH and nonBCCH usage. vendor discussions and field trial work carried out in the Houston market by Aerial (see Appendix I).1 Interference averaging concept In traditional cell planning. A fractional reuse pattern with soft loading shall be used. i. Average loading of high traffic area should not be more than 40% for a 1/3 and 15% for a 1/1 6. this is detailed in section 7. Non-BCCH channels are chosen for voice in preference to the BCCH channels. 5. effectively eliminating the need for frequency planning on the non-BCCH channels. the BCCH plan. As the frequency reuse pattern is tightened the number of interferers increases.
doc Page 12 .2. The impact on the overall interference level is additive but not focused on any one frequency or geographical area. as the mobile station does not have receiver diversity. provides the most effective interference averaging technique. a standard feature of the GSM system.47553527.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Interference at a point is no longer defined by a low number of dominant interferers but is now defined by the average interference received from a large number of non-dominant interferers. the interference created by each transceiver (TRX) is averaged across all frequencies in the hop-set. This benefit is particularly important for the downlink. which is a characteristic of multipath environments. This is known as frequency diversity. Interference No hopping F1 Interference F1 With hopping F3 F1 F1 F2 F3 F2 F3 F2 F2 F 3 average MS_1 MS_2 MS_3 Figure 1 Interference Averaging MS_1 MS_2 MS_3 source: Nokia 4. Frequency hopping benefits : Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . By hopping over a number of frequencies. This interference averaging is repeated across the sector for all mobiles. The number of RF frequencies over which to hop is called a hop-set. The term frequency hopping describes a technique where the base station and mobile station changes RF frequency between each burst of transmission.2 Frequency hopping a good interference averaging technique Frequency hopping. Hopping over a sufficiently large frequency range will also average out the effect of frequency selective fading.
Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA • Better tolerance to low C/I: The GSM channel coding scheme is designed to recover lost information when the punctures are short in duration. The speech codec of GSM delivers data rate to the channel codec of 13kbps. Therefore individual encoded speech bursts are interleaved over eight time-slots. The 456 bits of the encoded speech are divided in to 8 groups of 57 bits. Note that for users who are mobile. Frequency hopping hence provides frequency diversity that has the effect of de-correlating the errors across the interleaved time-slots. the effects of fast fading are taken care of by the interleaved channel coding error correction mechanisms The disadvantage includes: • Synthesized frequency hopping requires a minimum of two TRX to implement. the occurrence of these notches are spread over several transmission bursts rather than effecting a group of consecutive bursts.3. The occurrence of these deep notches. this frequency diversity gain is detailed in part 4. Rayleigh fading is most prominent in urban and suburban environments where most radio propagation paths are non-line-of-sight. the coherence bandwidth can be overcome and the depth of fast fades and BER/FER is consequently reduced. the quality of the network degrades very rapidly with increase in traffic. both in space and time. Base-band hopping will require as many TRX as there are frequencies in the hop-set • Quality is very traffic sensitive. By changing the carrier frequency (frequency hopping) on a burst-by-burst basis. The channel coding applies convolution coding and parity protection for the more important speech bits. This is called ‘soft capacity’ and is generally desirable in systems where large numbers of users share a limited common resource • Frequency selective fading diversity: By FH over larger frequency ranges. Frequency hopping is more resistant to interference because of the convolutionnal decoding. TRX can be added to the system with relative ease by simply including them in the most appropriate hopping set for that cell • ‘Soft’ capacity and gradual degradation: rather than a small number of users being victimized by co-channel in a small number of areas. to ensure that errors caused by radio fading are as distributed through out the speech frame as much as possible. and the other for hopping TCH. This can greatly improve channel conditions for stationary and slow moving mobile users in any environment. • Easier frequency planning: Once the spectrum has been partitioned and the hop-sets identified. induced errors are decorrelated across the interleaved bursts.doc Page 13 . but on the other hand a high traffic makes the frequency planning impossible if non-hopping strategy is implemented 4.2. all users on hopping channels will be degraded somewhat. To achieve decorrelation between hopping bursts frequency separations of 400KHz (2 GSM channels) is needed.47553527. one for the BCCH.3 Frequency Diversity Performance Gains Rayleigh fading causes deep notches in the received signal strength due to active cancellation of the received signals that arrive at a mobile caused by the difference in path lengths.2. The overall benefits in terms of S/N ratio have been estimated to be around 2dB. The maximum performance of the coding is achieved when any radio. are highly frequency dependent. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU .
0 0. Frequency diversity is able to provide high levels of de-correlation.5 Frequency Hopping Gain TU 50 Absolute Level (dB) 6. As high-speed mobiles already experience de-correlated bursts.5 7. slow moving mobiles are able to attain the same level of performance as fast moving mobiles.doc Page 14 .0 0.5 Table 2 Frequency Hopping Gains The link simulation shows that the gain in a noise limited environment for mobiles at a medium to high speed is less than 0.5 7. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU .7 is achieved.0 Relative Gain (dB) 0. even for just two carrier hopping the gain is 2 to 3dB.0 2.0 4.0 5.0 3. The COST 231 study “Performance of Slow Frequency Hopping in GSM.5 6.0 6.0 6.5 9.0 3.0 6.5 6. In an ideal hopping environment.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Moving mobiles benefit by increasing the time spread and hence de-correlation of transmission errors. for higher hopping sequences gains of up to 6dB can be attained.5 11. Therefore hopping effectively helps slow moving mobiles meet the link budget assumptions and does not offer an improvement over the link budget. above 35km/h a correlation envelope of 0. For a slow moving mobile the gains are much higher.5 6.5 6.5 0.5 0. In defining the link budgets for urban and suburban sites the performance differences between fast and slow moving mobiles is not taken in to account.0 6.5 8. the frequency diversity gain is only available to slow moving mobiles.47553527.5 8. Mobiles at slower speed therefore have relatively poor performance when compared to the high-speed mobiles.0 0. September 1995) produced the following tables from link level simulations: Number of Frequencies Cyclic Hopping 1 2 3 4 8 Random Hopping 1 2 3 4 8 12 Frequency Hopping Gain TU 3 Absolute Level (dB) 11.5 0.0 0.0 Relative Gain (dB) 0.0 6.0 4.5 5.5 0.5 0.5 8.5 6.5 4.0 0. Poznan.0 7.5 dB even for hopping over 12 channels.0 6.0 6.5 0.0 3. Several simulation studies have been performed on the gain attainable from FH in a noise-limited environment.
2. 4*4. 1/1 strategy of course maximizes the use of the bandwidth allocated for the frequency hopping • The 1/1 strategy also reduces interferences more easily in areas that would require a site that does not respect the pattern (bi-sectorial site to cover a highway.g. Recommendations for different markets. and 5*5 may be used in frequency hopping with smaller groups of frequencies. Synthesized hopping allows the TCH to hop on the whole spectrum allocated for hopping with very little limitations (it is actually limited to 63 frequencies in a group and this limit is rarely reached as it corresponds to a 12. these techniques will not be studied further in this document. therefore the interference is limited.doc Page 15 . as some vendors were unable to propose synthesized hopping on their early equipments. • We often have a number of hopping frequencies that is not divisible by 3 so hopping groups in 1/3 might unbalanced or get a reduced number of frequencies. Baseband hopping was actually implemented when GSM started. etc…). 4*12. Baseband hopping only allows the TCH (or SDCCH) to hop on as many frequencies as there are hopping TRX (e. according to their spectrum allocation. will be given in section 5. And these sites that do not respect the pattern degrade the 1/3 hopping strategy. The 1/3 re-use pattern is very efficient if there is a regular pattern. 4.4 Baseband or synthesized frequency hopping? Frequency hopping is implemented in 2 ways. But as the frequency group used in 1/1 (this group in that case represents the whole spectrum used for hopping channels) is three times larger than the frequency group used in 1/3 (a third of the spectrum allocated for hopping channels). The 1/1 is the hopping strategy that we recommend migrating towards in cases of more challenging environment: • As it is impossible in the real world to have a 120 degrees angle between azimuths for all sites (building or terrain mask. Whereas on the other hand 1/1 strategy does not suffer any degradation from pattern not respected. the baseband and the synthesized frequency hopping.47553527. The issue with these techniques is that a frequency plan must be performed. synthesized frequency hopping is the implementation recommended.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 4. if 3 sectors are hopping the frequency hopping would only contain 3 frequencies).5 What frequency hopping pattern should be implemented? The re-use patterns most commonly used in GSM for hopping are 1/1 and 1/3. but it is counterbalanced by the fact that collisions with the cell using the same group and which is often in dense urban areas quite close are very important. The theoretical advantage of the 1/3 reuse pattern is that the adjacent cells never use the same channels. As it is much easier to plan and reinforce the performance of frequency hopping.6 MHz spectrum). In theory they are quite equivalent as you can reach a 16% load (20% if optimized) of the frequency group if using 1/1 and 50% load of the frequency group if using 1/3. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . pico-cell in hot spots) In case of a large spectrum allocation and a low usage other techniques such as 3*9. typically this is true for flat areas with buildings of homogeneous sizes. unpopulated areas such as water or mountain covered if pattern is respected. 3*3.2.
approximately 21 sites. This is called soft loading. where N is the number of transmit frequencies available. such that the system reaches 2% blocking at the peak load. Measure BH Traffic for busiest cell and surrounding area. For two sectors using the same MA list.1% blocking1 Step 4. It is possible for a network to reach the average load limit before any one site has reached the peak load limit.3 Average and Peak Loading Fractional loading performance is dependent on the interference averaging achieved by having more transmitting frequencies available to a sector than there are TRXs. The use of different hopping patterns on similar orientated sectors randomizes the possibility of collisions. 1 Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . but different HSN. the probability of the same frequency being transmitted at the same time is 1/(N*T). The Peak load is computed from the highest traffic cells in an area and is often set as a hard limit. The loading of the system is defined in two parameters: • • Average Load Peak Load. Once the average load limit is reached cell splits will be needed. 4.e the number of available TRXs are set at the Peak load. Step 2. Convert peak and average traffic levels in to channel requirements using Erlang B tables and 0. To maintain speech quality and drop call performance this probability needs to be kept within certain limits. There is no automatic way of limiting the traffic such that the performance of the system is not impacted. Compute the peak cell traffic and the average cell traffic Step 3.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 4. The Average Load is computed by taking all cells in an area and computing the effective traffic loading and frequency reuse. therefore the loading of a network needs to be periodically monitored. There is no hard limit to the average load and hence the performance of a network must be monitored.doc Page 16 . i.47553527. At any one time only a fraction of the possible frequencies in a reuse pattern are being transmitted. Convert channel requirements in to TRX occupancy Step 5. T is the number of TRX. By using a very low level of blocking the difference between offered and carried traffic channel requirements is minimized. Example 8 Sites. 24 sectors carrying 279 Erlangs Peak traffic is 26 Erlangs 8 Frequencies per MA list The measured BH traffic is carried traffic where as Erlang B tables uses offered traffic. Calculate the TRX loading.1 Process for Calculating Loading Step 1.3.
10. If we summarize graphically each site’s sector should look this way: Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . The HSN planning must be performed so that the sites using the same HSN should be as far as possible from each other.18.104.22.168 42% 37% 4. as it will be composed of all the frequencies available for TCH.25 65% 58% Average 11.47553527.2. Each site shall use the same HSN for all its cells as the cells are synchronized and therefore it allows avoiding any adjacent channel interference with the correct MAIO implementation.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Traffic per cell TCH per cell @ 0.4 of sector B and MAIO 4.4 of sector A.2.6. hence there will be no benefit from frequency hopping.20… for TRX 1. There is however an exception to this rule if the cells are collocated but not synchronized then the cells should use different HSN. The HSN planning is using all HSN except 0 (use 1 to 63).22.214.171.124… for TRX 1.1 Implementing the 1/1 frequency hopping The frequency hopping implementation requires three elements: • Frequency group definition • HSN (hopping sequence number) planning • MAIO (mobile allocation index offset) planning The frequency group definition is quite simple in the case of 1/1.3. MAIO 2.6 27 3.4.4 of sector C we are sure to avoid any adjacent channel and co-channel interference between the site’s different cell. This is achieved this way: Frequency of hopping group Sector A MAIO Sector B MAIO Sector C MAIO f1 0 2 4 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 6 8 10 f8 f9 f10 f11 f12 f13 12 We can see from this table that using the MAIO 0. If there are pico-cells using frequency hopping then the planning of the HSN of these cells must be performed after the macro layer has been done in order to prioritize the interference from the cells with longer coverage range. This is true currently for any Nokia site larger than S666 and any Nortel site bigger than S888 and for Ericsson bigger than S11_11_10 (32 TRX).doc Page 17 .14. The MAIO planning should be performed in order to avoid any adjacency between the different cells of the same site.18… TRX 1.1% GOS Loaded Frequencies (8 TCH per frequency) Loading (8 Frequencies per MA list) 9 freq per MA list Table 3 Loading calculations Peak 26 42 5.4 Frequency hopping implementation 4. because if two sites are using the same HSN they will interfere each other all the time.
F6.20… 4.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Sector A MAIO 0. the frequency groups also have to be defined.14. F2. in the case of contiguous groups you will have systematic intra cell adjacent channel interference whereas you will only have interference between different sectors in the case of interleaved groups If a 1/3 strategy is used. F7 … F3n-2. the HSN used should be the same for each sector as they are all synchronized and therefore we can avoid adjacent channel interference between sectors of the same cell. the first group is used for each site’s sector A.18… For all three sectors HSN=N with 1=<N<=63 Sector C MAIO 4. F5…F3n Sector B group F2.8.doc . F9 …F3n The interleaved solution is better because: • You can reach 50% frequency load without adjacent channel interference with a correct MAIO strategy whereas even the most optimized MAIO strategy does not reach 50% load in case of contiguous groups • If you have to go over 50% load.6. There are two ways to set the hopping groups for the 1/3: • Contiguous groups: the first group (each group contains N frequencies) contains F1. the second group contains Fn+1.10. F4 …F3n-2 Sector C group F3.12. the second group is used for each site’s sector B and the third for each sector C: Sector A group F1. Fn+2 … F2n and the third group contains F2n+1. The MAIO strategy should be implemented this way (frequencies in red mark the fact the above MAIO is used): MAIO 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Page 18 9 Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU .4. F5 …F3n-1 As for the 1/1. F8 … F3n-1 and finally the third group contains F3.2 Implementing a 1/3 frequency hopping re-use The same way as the 1/1 we have to define for the 1/3 the HSN and the MAIO.16.22… Sector B MAIO 2. F5. F3 … Fn.47553527. the second group contains F2. F2n+2 … F3n • Interleaved groups: the first group (each group contains N frequencies) contains F1. Unlike for the 1/1. F4.
126.96.36.199… 4.3 Implementation of the 3/3 (also called 3/1) hopping strategy The 3/3 implementation of frequency hopping (also called 3/1) is an implementation in which we have a re-use pattern of 3 and for which in each site all the cells are using the same frequency groups.7.4 of sector C Graphically the HSN. as there is no adjacent channel problem.9 … For all three sectors HSN=N with 1=<N<=63 Sector C MAIO 1.5 Cell Split concept Cell splitting involves adding sites to an existing plan such that the traffic on a particular sector is reduced.3. The new cell must be of smaller coverage area than the cell being split such that it does not simply overlap and allows the C/I ratio to be maintained. Therefore there are 3 groups of frequencies.47553527. Each sector of the new site will be designed to cover only 25% of the area of the existing cells.10 … Sector B MAIO 2.6… should be used for TRX 1.4. For the MAIO. MAIO 1. If the network is built using narrow beam-width antennas (60 to 65 degree) then the new cell will be placed equidistant between the existing cells.4. It is better like in the 1/3 hopping case to chose interleaved groups.6 … Sector B MAIO 1.6 … For all three sectors HSN=N with 1=<N<=63 Sector C MAIO 0.8. at the edge of the cell to be split.4.4.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Group A Group B Group C F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16 F17 F18 F19 F20 F21 F22 F23 F24 F25 F26 F27 F28 F29 F30 From this table we can observe that there is no adjacent channel at the same time.4. For the HSN.2.7… used for TRX 1. the only thing to worry about is to set different MAIO for any TRX of the site.4 of sector A.3.3. So MAIO 0.5.6.2. therefore as each cell in the site are using the same group. you are sure to avoid adjacent channel collision between different cells.3. Here is one way to achieve this: Sector A MAIO 0. MAIO implementation of 1/3 hopping is: Sector A MAIO 0.11… 4.2.5. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU .3.doc Page 19 . as all cells within the same site are synchronized it is advised to use the same HSN for each cell of the same site.
Figure 2 Cell Split process for narrow beam systems The “split” cell will be reduced in area by 50% and can be left operating at full power. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . This is achieved by reducing the power on the split cell by 50% and adding two additional cell split sites. If the cell split is placed at the farthest cell edge the grid array is broken and further cell splits will require the removal of the split cell. For 90 degree systems the new site is still placed at an equidistance between the existing sites. For narrow beam systems ideal cell splitting requires a 3:1 increase in sites.doc Page 20 . For systems built using wide beam antennas (90 to 120 degree beamwidth). the process is the same but the site placement is different. building a lower height cell or using high levels of antenna tilt can achieve this.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Operating the new cell at half power. However with a 1/3 reuse pattern a more balanced interference environment is required. but in this case it is not at the limit of the cell but off to one side.47553527.
In ideal systems the cell split process focuses on balancing the coverage area of the sites. which in turn balances. The reuse schemes employed for the BCCH layer should be sufficiently relaxed to ensure acceptable QoS. the distribution calculated and the results compared to either the predicted or known coverage area of the cell. When planning a cell split. a 4/12 pattern is the minimal re-use that should be considered to guarantee a minimal access to the network. the interference. for all 8-time slots on the carrier. the BCCH carrier must be static. TA should be collected for the Busy Hour. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . In practice. Each TA2 unit corresponds to 0. A traditional cell split will offload the traffic in the outer 50% of the cell.5 km of the site. In addition. If the TA distribution shows that the traffic is concentrated in the inner 50% of the sector than the cell split will be ineffective and another method of increasing capacity should be considered. If the allocated spectrum is reduced. Note that 6 or 7 timeslots on BCCH carrier are used to carrier traffic.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Figure 3 Cell Split Process for Wide beam Systems The initial addition of a cell split site reduces the area of the target cell by 38% and requires that the split site must be operated at full power. as well as standard power control and DTX. traffic is not evenly distributed within a cell and additional information is needed such that the cell split is successful in reducing the traffic levels on split sectors. For these reason. For 90 degree systems an ideal cell split requires a 2:1 increase in sites.47553527.doc Page 21 . for example all mobiles reporting a TA of 0 are with 0. it is necessary to gather information on traffic distributions within a cell. A distribution of TA can be collected from the OMC-R by running Cell Trace. 4.5km. Where strong multipath effects exist the radio path may be significantly longer than the true distance from the site. therefore this layer shall be protected as much as possible. the BCCH layer is subject to a high interference level and as this TRX is essential for the mobile access and selection of the cell. which implies it cannot frequency hop. at all times. Typically it is recommended if the spectrum allows it to use a 7/21 for the BCCH pattern to ensure a good quality of service. a TA of 1 between 0. Timing Advance (TA) information will provide information as to the distribution of traffic.5 to 1km etc.6 BCCH Layer Constraints The GSM system requires that the BCCH carriers must be transmitted at constant output power. This precludes the use of enhanced interference management techniques. The addition of a second new site allows the split site to be reduced in power to balance the area and allow the coverage to be reduced to 25%. 2 Note that the TA is calculated based on the roundtrip delay of the radio signals and hence is the radio path length.
7 BSIC Planning The BSIC (base station identity code) is the combination of the NCC (network color code) and the BCC (base color code). The reason is that the couple BCCH-BSIC is used to recognize neighbors. Furthermore. The ability to meet the Advanced Network Design levels is dependent on the ability to contain interference on the BCCH plan. 4.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 4. This can be attained by: • • • • • Consistent height of sites Use of Electrical down tilt and narrow beam antennas Use of Static Power control Maintaining consistent antenna orientation Gird like pattern of site placement Advanced features such as concentric cells and layered networks will increase the capacity of the system allowing lower spectrum allocations to meet the 12 TRX limit. This enhancement will be highly needed for dense areas with a high subscriber base as well as it is required to support bandwidth consuming data technologies such as GPRS and EDGE.47553527. older Nortel equipment is limited to 8 TRX. with the hardware being the limiting factor. Usually the NCC is unique to a market and should not be changed from cell to cell. In addition data will eventually require separate channels as usage increases. Markets should develop three to four year migration plans that systematically tighten the reuse for the BCCH channels and allow for higher fractional loading on the hopping traffic channels. As now all vendors offer (by end of 2002) high capacity base stations supporting 12 TRX per cabinet. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . The BCC and NCC take values between 0 and 7. Therefore we were usually limiting the BTS expansion to S666 in the first two case and S888 for Nortel. it opens to Voicestream new possibilities for expansion. the OMC will prevent the creation of two neighbors using same BCCH-BSIC couple. In many cases levels higher than the loadings shown may be obtained depending on the quality of the design. Ultimately high data rates may require the deployment of 3G or similar technologies that will require spectrum to be set aside.8 Preparing the future migration plans Until recently as Hardware limits of the older Ericsson and Nokia equipment is 6 TRX. or alternatively allow for more spectrum to be set aside for data services. In order to support the High Capacity Base Stations markets will need to tighten the current frequency assignment rules and take full advantage of fractional loading. Markets should aim to increase the TRX per sector to the levels shown for Advanced Network Designs. The rule should be to re-use the same couples BCCH frequency-BSIC as far apart as possible. The BCC on the other hand should be dealt with carefully.doc Page 22 . Such techniques are for further study. Therefore if two cells quite close use the same couple it will confuse the handover process.
doc Page 23 . If the soft limit of the system is exceeded then the average TRX per sector with in a given area needs to be reduced by adding additional sites. This limit implies that although capacity is available in an area the performance of the system will be impacted by increasing the loading of the system beyond an average of 40%. i. Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . cell splitting.e.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA Both the average and peak traffic levels represent a soft limit.47553527.
Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 5 Spectrum Partitioning The question here is. every 2 nd or 3rd frequency is reserved for use as BCCH carrier. there is strong adjacent channel interference from the BCCH carrier. a block of frequencies is reserved for used as BCCH carriers. which is transmitted at full power. and the rest as TCH carriers.5. the remainder will thus be used as TCH? Further. As illustrated in Figure 5. for a given spectral bandwidth. 5.2 Comparison between contiguous and split TCH As illustrated in the diagram below. Refer to the diagram below.1 Comparison of block and interleave partition There are two basic methods for allocation of BCCH carriers. when the TCH is power down. the BCCH frequencies block can be placed in the center of the available spectrum. BCCH Figure 5. In interleaved partition.5: Interleave spectrum partition prevents downlink power control 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 The interleaved partition approach is not practical since it prevents the use of downlink power control. In block partition. therefore the BCCH and TCH spectrum should be separated and not interleaved. This provides larger frequency hopping range. what re-use schemes should be deployed for the TCH carriers to support the projected traffic load? 5.4: Example of block and interleave spectrum partition Figure 5. thus splitting the TCH into 2 blocks of frequencies.47553527. Down 4 TCH c 5 Page 24 Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . how many frequency channels (ARFCN) should be used as the BCCH.doc . block partition and interleaved partition.
placing the BCCH at the bottom or top of the available spectrum reduces the number of adjacent channel TCH to one.doc Page 25 . however it does not seem to compensate for the loss of a frequency except in the case of very important spectrum allocation (typically 20 MHz uplink and downlink of spectrum or more). the split TCH results in two adjacent TCH carriers. and provides a contiguous TCH block. It is recommended to use a guard band between TCH and BCCH band. The penalty of this approach is that it reduces the ability of frequency hopping to combat frequency selective fading. Thus increasing the potential for adjacent interference.Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA However. Using guard bands on either side of the BCCH spectrum will solve this.6: Example of side and central spectrum partition Alternatively. 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU .47553527. BCCH Figure 5. Therefore we recommend in most cases to use contiguous TCH and to have the BCCH located on top or bottom of the spectrum.
5MHz uplink). 1/3) would probably be limited to lower configuration and in the case of non-hopping create a very complicated cell planning.1 Frequency planning strategy suggested for a 5 MHz market (5 MHz bandwidth uplink and downlink) For a 5MHz market (5MHz downlink. The cell split criteria would be to split at S333 configuration in a 5 MHz market.47553527. this will leave only 9 channels to use for the TCH. the 25th ARFCN. the 1st and the 24th.doc Page 26 .Frequency Planning Guidelines T-Mobile USA 6 Market application 6. and 2 low power guard bands (quarter watts. Here is the suggested frequency planning for a 5MHz market: Block guard 1 ¼ Power guard 14 BCCH TCH guard band bet TCH&BCCH 24 25 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 The frequency groups would be set this way for the BCCH (group 1 to 4): sector A B C Group1 2 6 10 Group2 3 7 11 Group3 4 8 12 Group4 5 9 13 As for the TCH the repartition will be the following: Group 1/1 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 The MAIO strategy used is going to be: Sector A B C MAIO TRX1 0 2 4 MAIO TRX2 6 8 7 (8 or 6 if the first or second cell has only 2 TRX) Confidential and Proprietary T-Mobile Document Ref: ENG / RF / TGU . which is very reduced. there is 1 frequency block guard band. which allows us to go up to S333 configuration the frequency load being 2/9=22% quite high but achievable. In order to realistically provide a sufficient quality for the signaling a 4/12 BCCH reuse is inevitable. Of these 25. implemented in 1/1 hopping. 24dBm maximum). there is a total of 25 ARFCNs (absolute radio frequency channel number). Other strategies (non-hopping. Therefore it leaves only 22 ARFCN available. As we have to leave a guard channel between the TCH and BCCH band.
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