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Revised by: MsEE Jose de Jesús López Villalobos
Inside Analog-to-Digital Converter. Applications. Sigma-Delta design.Outline Introduction. Conclusion. Audio CD. Digital-to-Analog Converter-based design. Parallel design (Flash ADC). Integrator-based design. Resolution. Analog data. Sampling. . Internet. Types of data. Digital data. Pipeline design. Analog-to-Digital Converter (How it work).
Introduction Most of the data in our life are analog. all what can be stored and dealt with are digital data. . The solution was analog-to-digital converters. In computers.
.Types of data Analog data (All values on the time and amplitude are allowed). Digital data (Only a few amplitude levels are allowed).
What the ADC circuit does is to take samples from the analog signal from time to time. Each sample will be converted into a number.Analog-to-Digital Converter (How it work) Sampling. . based on its voltage level (as in the figure).
and this “n” is given by the variable size. If the variable size is too small. what will happen is that two sampling points close to each other will have the same digital representation.Analog-to-Digital Converter (How it work) Resolution. thus not corresponding exactly to the original value found on the original analog signal. What the ADC does is to divide the “y” axis in “n” possible parts between the maximum and the minimum values of the original analog signal. making the analog waveform available at the DAC output to not have the best quality. .
Pipeline design. Integrator-based design. different designs were made to fabricate them. Digital-to-Analog Converter-based design. .Inside Analog-to-Digital Converter Since Analog-to-Digital converters were invented. The most five known designs are: Parallel design (Flash ADC). Sigma-Delta design.
It works by comparing the input voltage of the analog signal to a reference voltage. if the reference voltage is of 5 volts. On an 8-bit ADC when the input signal reached 5 volts we would find a 255 (11111111) value on the ADC output. which would be the maximum value achieved by the analog signal. For example.Parallel design (Flash ADC). i. the maximum possible value. .e. this means that the peak of the analog signal would be 5 volts.
We will present one of them: the ramp counter. The basic idea is to increase the counter until the value found on the counter matches the value of the analog signal. Vin is the analog input and Dn thru D0 are the digital outputs. the value on the counter is the digital equivalent of the analog signal. There are few ways to design an analog-to-digital Converters using a DAC as part of its circuit. The control line found on the counter turns on the counter when it is low and stops the counter when it is high. .Digital-to-Analog Converter-based design. When this condition is met.
We can see a single-slope ADC in the figure. the control circuit captures the last value produced by the counter. We can notes that it is very similar to a ramp counter ADC. the counter starts counting from 0 to (2^n-1). When the voltage found at Vin is equal to the voltage achieved by the triangle waveform generated by the integrator. from zero to the maximum possible analog voltage to be sampled. . a resistor and an operational amplifier. We will discuss one of them: the single-slope ADC. There are few ways of designing analog-to-digital converters using an integrator. as it uses a counter. The minute the waveform is started. but instead of using a DAC. The integrator produces a sawtooth waveform on its output. it uses a circuit called integrator. set by -Vref. which will be the digital correspondent of the analog sample being converted. which is basically formed by a capacitor. The MOSFET transistor makes the necessary control circuit.Integrator-based design.
which converts the serial stream from the modulator into a “usable” digital number. and digital filter. The sigma-delta ADC – also called delta-sigma – uses a different approach. . We can divide it into two major blocks: analog modulator.Sigma-Delta design. which takes the analog signal and converts it into a stream of bits.
and the results are combined in a last step. First. This difference is then converted finer. the difference to the input signal is determined with a digital to analog converter (DAC). . a coarse conversion is done.Pipeline design. Pipeline ADC uses two or more steps. This type of ADC is fast. In a second step. has a high resolution and only requires a small die size.
Internet network are connected using telephone networks.Applications Internet.. Then reconverted in the destination into its original form (digital data). 1101.. . which carry analog signals only.. This modem is considered to be an ADC as a DAC.. a modem is required to convert the digital data in the computers into analog signals that can travel within the telephone network. For that reason. 1101.
Therefore. .100 Hz) to achieve a good sound resolution. A DAC is used to reconvert the digital data stored in the CD back to its original format (analog data). ADCs are used. an inverse proceed is done. In case of audio CD. a high sampling rate is used (44. we have to first convert them into digital storable data.Applications Audio CD. We know that music is actually sound waves (analog). So. So. to store these analog data in a CD. when we play the audio CD.
the integratorbase design. the digital-to-analog converter-based design. All of them perform that same job but differ in their efficiency (speed & space storage). we saw how the process of ADC is done. The Internet network itself depends on the process of ADCs. Moreover. In addition to that. In conclusion. we saw that there are many designs for ADCs. . the sigma-delta design and the pipeline design.Conclusion. The most five known designs are the parallel design (flash ADC). we can see that ADCs play a major role in Computers Communications.