A Descriptive Framework for Loyalty: Introducing Insight and Functionality

Major Marek Wakulczyk

A Descriptive Framework for Loyalty: Introducing Insight and Functionality
Major Marek Wakulczyk
Major Wakulczyk received a Bachelor of Science (Applied) from the Royal Military College of Canada and a Master of Science in Management from Troy State University. He has published and presented internationally on issues of organizational renewal and process improvement. He is also the Director of Small Bear Management Services.
Introductory Material Background t has long been accepted that an organization will only maximize its effectiveness if its members are loyal to the same ideology. The debate continues, however, over exactly what such a loyalty is. Some traditional thinkers contend that loyalty is a one-dimensional absolute that forms a bond between two elements, whether individual or philosophical. This opinion, and its strong influence, have unfortunately limited discussion in literature on how leaders can deal with the reality that loyalties are more often multi-facetted, if not conflicting. As a result, there is a shortage of models or tools offering help. Discussion General This discussion of the Descriptive Framework for Loyalty follows the following sequence:
• • • Refining an appreciation for the complexity of loyalty Providing detailed description of the Framework; and Communicating basic application of the principles.

I

Given the limited tools, the leader at the centre of competing-loyalties situations has undue difficulty making the best ethical decision. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework that provides insight into the question of competing loyalties. The featured model increases understanding of the fact that loyalty is multidimensional, and is a tool to bring targeted stakeholders to a “win/win” resolution.

Loyalty is Multi-Facetted Do you remember the last time you heard someone described as “a disloyal employee”? If we push aside any injustice related to such a comment, we can question whether the use of the word loyalty is appropriate. I contend not. The query should not focus on “Are they loyal?”, the attention should investigate “To what are they loyal?”. The difference is significant: the former implies that loyalty is binary (yes/no), the latter acknowledges that it is multi-facetted. Clearly, it should not be marginalized as being limited to issues of reciprocity and obedience.

The Wacowich "Demand for Particulars" was achored in the Seven Habits, with the AHE Report ("Singh") intended to address the issues as far ahead as possible.... "begin with the end in mind".

Obedience to Woods' "care plan" and and ests mandated by jidicial authority does not change the fact that that CHAP "Distorted Dontent" was the issue and "Lily Cares" was the proposed soltution.

170

Ethics in Practice

The entire "Consent Order" issue puts the Plaintiff at crossed purposes if the "provider" refuses to address the core concerns.

those competing loyalties and how they interact with the environment. Loyalty has Levels Evidently, the individual extent of dedication to our selected roles and commitments is not binary. Both organizations and individuals apply a measure of commitment to each; both also apply a corresponding measure of loyalty to their selected set, ranging from “loyalty out of convenience” through to “absolute loyalty”. Though purists would disagree that “loyalty out of convenience” even qualifies, the fact remains that loyalty, like commitment, is not binary either; it describes a spectrum. This range in the intensity of loyalty should not be a surprise, since it describes the apportionment of emotional and resource investment in these. In case this discussion is not complex enough already, time adds yet another dimension. The priorities we assign to our value elements can change over time, as we grow professionally, personally or emotionally. So it follows that the dedication to each of those value set elements can also change. The shift is usually subtle, but it can also be dramatic if we are faced with a significant emotional event. Given the extent to which our values affect how we interact, that means how we view our world is typically changing, slowly, slightly. By extension, the fact that both individual and organizational value sets change over time, it should then be obvious that there is a high probability of conflict between our commitment items, and our loyalty items, as their priorities shift. Aligning the Loyalty Vectors On a practical, daily level, conflicts arise when we do not understand the fact that different activities call upon different

C O M P E T I N G L OYA LT I E S

As the next millenium approaches, organizations and individuals will continue to find themselves entangled in an increasingly complex world. As organizations, we are becoming transnational, corporate citizens, and trying to create win/win situations with all stakeholders. As individuals, we are juggling a multitude of roles in days that steadfastly seem to have fewer hours: we are parents, children, spouses, friends, subordinates, leaders, volunteers, Canadians, Manitobans, students and teachers. Though the Stephen Coveys of the world would congratulate us for having these delineated roles, a life with multiple commitments takes its toll on our ability to remain true to our values and their associated loyalties. But how do we define “remaining true” to so many things? I believe this can only to done through greater understanding of

Hi & Lois, CHAP "Distorted Content", "DCO Material" addresses the patriarchal social model, leadership theory,

171

Conference on Ethics in Canadian Defence 1997

Canadian Human Rights Act Charter Issues (s. 6.2(b), 15, 24, 28)

A L I G N I N G L OYA LT I E S
Universal Principles of Justice and Equality National Culture Regional Culture Organizational Culture Organizational Authority Immediate Authority Peer Self (Lower-order Maslow needs)
The CHAP has a page on "Maslow"

Fathers-4-Justice, "Hi & Lois Dissected"
Woods' "Interrogatories"
CHAP "Distorted Content"

"Consent Order" (Elwell)
FACS' Diagnostic Objectives
"DCO Mat'l" - Maj. Barr

samplings of our competing loyalties. The problem for the leader at the centre of the situations described is that there exist few frameworks to provide insight and assist them to make the best ethical decision. For the leadership, lack of understanding can lead to undue hardship on the individuals involved and the organization. What we therefore should seek is to maximize the alignment of individuals’ various loyalties. Just as martial arts techniques emphasize skeletal alignment for maximum impact force, alignment of personnel’s loyalties will greatly improve the effectiveness of any operational group. Detailed Description of the Loyalty Framework Given the premise that awareness and understanding are a key step to facilitating organizational renewal and improved effectiveness, the model defines the kinds of loyalties, called stratums.

The Descriptive Loyalty Framework stratums are summarized on page 173. Basic Application of Principles The Descriptive Framework for Loyalty (figure 3) reveals the multiple dimensions of loyalty typical to a work environment. Pictorially, the model represents the ideal, where all loyalty vectors are aligned. The application of the model always starts with the self. The premise is that the low-order Maslow needs of personnel must be addressed first, so that they can then focus on issues of loyalty. Its application is actually far simpler than the convoluted logic that created it. In fact, it is very similar to many process improvement approaches and conflict resolution techniques: 1. 2. Define the present. Identify areas of agreement and seek to understand the areas of disagreement.

172

Ethics in Practice

Woods' "Interrogatories"

FACS' job is to review the foresnic record with some degree of care and address the client's needs in reporting for the Crown (vice the 'ex). As events unfolded, the diagnostic objective was to "treat" something and this had the end effect of leaving the appellant "disqualified" to justify the battery.
# L OYA LT Y S T R AT U M
1 Self The period on FACS' meds was only going to take the appellant further away from the Maslow hierarchy by negating short-term and long-term employability concerns.
The custody and access issues, for the professional pilot and patriarchal role are paramount but were opposed by the "Consent Order" demands (post "Elwell").

OV E RV I E W
This stratum is the starting point for application of the model, and is sine qua non (without which not). Loyalty to one’s self is the foundation and frame of reference for all other loyalties. Before an individual can have a predisposition to issues of loyalty their basic human needs of food/shelter/security must be addressed (Maslow). Only after the basic needs are met, will the individual be prepared to address their higher-order needs and loyalty needs. Note that the model does address that at that later point they may choose to marginalize those basic needs in support of a higher loyalty. Here they will seek out and be loyal to those endeavors that align with their morals and values. This independent stratum of loyalty focuses on those loyalties based on an emotional bond, or on principle. Examples include family members and friends. This independent stratum of loyalty is with the person’s immediate supervisor, and what they represent in the workplace context. This independent stratum of loyalty is with the senior authority figure of the person’s organization, and what they represent. This independent stratum of loyalty is with the culture, traditions and beliefs of the organization, and what it represents. The loyalty aspects of this stratum go beyond any authority figure. This independent stratum of loyalty is with the culture, traditions and beliefs of the broader societal group with whom the individual interacts, and what they represent. This independent stratum of loyalty is with the culture, traditions and belief attributed to the nation, and what it represents. This independent stratum of loyalty is with the more abstract universal principles of justice and equality for human beings and their environment. (Kohlberg stage 6)

2

Peer
The "Social Crusade" Issue & (Mrs. Doubtfire for FACS)

3 4 5

Immediate Authority CAME Delegations Organizational Authority
TC's "Refusal to Renew"

Organizational Culture
DND Defense Ethics Issues and Expectations

6

Regional Culture
Alberta Mental Health vs Transport Canada (via "Bland")

7 8

National Culture Fathers-4-Justice Universal Principles of Justice and Equality

This is covered under the Charter; the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty in a fair and public hearing (which would try the case on the weight of all materials available to the Courts etc.) For German vs DND, this includes pardoned offenses, under-reported issues and diagnostic observations that were political, not physiological, in nature. "Unfit for Service" and "Restraining Order" issues; errata at TC Disclosure "Tab #9)

173

Conference on Ethics in Canadian Defence 1997

3.

4.

Envision and document the desired future; using the areas of agreement, build consensus of what represents the “best case” scenario. Create a plan to systematically minimize the significant gaps between the differing positions.

The reasoning is that “loyalty downward”, I contend, is the superior’s demonstration of loyalty to the other stratums shown (for example organizational culture, universal justice), and is not a different kind of loyalty. Second, beyond the “self” stratum, it would be normal to see only a sampling of the other stratums for a given person or context. With the exception of the “self” loyalty stratum, no stratum is a prerequisite for any other. Third, the model does allow that once an individual has satisfied their lower-order Maslow needs, they may later choose to marginalize those basic needs in support of a higher loyalty item.

More specifically in the context of understanding and resolving situations where loyalties are questioned, the process corresponding to the previous must: 1. Identify and understand what are the parties’ loyalties, as per the model; then, define the extent or intensity for each one of those loyalties. Compare the matrix of loyalties (and related intensities) against that of all other parties involved. Identify areas where the loyalties align (by subject), then review the intensity of the loyalties felt for each. Now identify commitments and loyalties that do not align, and conduct the same analysis. Realizing that perfect alignment of all loyalties felt by all parties is difficult, if not impossible, an important question is “Does having alignment on this particular loyalty issue really matter?”. When documenting the vision or end state, the goal is optimization and the improvement of esprit de corps, not creating photocopies of individuals. Create/apply a plan to bring the parties or stakeholders towards that vision. By maximizing the alignment of the individuals’ loyalties, organizational effectiveness will also increase.

2.

3.

Conclusion It is recognized that peak individual and organizational performance will only occur when conflicting loyalties are minimized. The Descriptive Framework for Loyalty is a unique tool; it acknowledges the multi-dimensional nature of loyalty, and provides the situational insight required to nurture esprit de corps, and resolve conflicts.

The case became a tug-of-war between Flight Surgeons and shrinks vs the interests of the pilot. Plus, the interests of the "accused" vs the interests of the Crown (which should be synonymous according to "the principles of fundamental justice"). Due to the adversarial nature of the gender battle, and the "corrections" system, there was no trust whatsoever between the physician and the patient... to the point where diagnostic "observations" were taken directly from the 'ex. "Under-reported dependencies", full paragraph :disclaimers" and "willingness to reinstate his professional sanctioned care plan" and "follow-up consultations" are simply political and self-serving "observations" leading nowhere.

4.

Application Notes for the Model First, it is significant to note that there is no stratum for “loyalty downward”, which is a critical aspect of the effective organization.

174

Ethics in Practice

MEDICAL ETHICS PANEL THEME:

“THE MISSION AND MEDICAL ETHICS : IS THERE A CONFLICT

4. Colonel Michael Capstick Director of Land Personnel
“The Medical Aspects-Doctors, Soldiers and Commanders”

Doctors, Soldiers and Commanders Ethics and Operations
The Medical Aspects Doctors, Soldiers and Commanders

ü ü ü

CF Medical Personnel - Medical Professionals and Military Professionals. There will always be friction between the two roles. People (including their health and fitness) is the most important aspect of operational readiness and effectiveness.

Colonel MD Capstick

CANADA’S ARMY/ L ’ARMÉE CANADIENNE

CANADA’S ARMY/ L ’ARMÉE CANADIENNE

Doctors….. ü Need ü Treat
t o f o l l o w t h e c o d e o f c o n d u c t o f both

Commanders... ü ü
Must protect the confidentiality of medical advice/information. Insist on open communications with MO. the state of health of the soldiers and how

professions - which first? their patients as their skills permit. how the “personal” impacts on the

üUnderstand
“whole”.

ü Know ü

üAdvise ü Protect

COs on the impact of medical issues on

problems impact on OPRED. Ensure that a medical situation does not place other soldiers at risk.

the unit. the patient, the unit and fellow

soldiers CANADA’S ARMY/ L ’ARMÉE CANADIENNE CANADA’S ARMY/ L ’ARMÉE CANADIENNE

"DCO Material' 15 Dec '01 "VERY SERIOUS WARNING" "Notification of First Lawsuit" QB 0503 19251 ("battery") CAT Summons (es) for Bland & CIC Chain of Command
24

The "medical" situation is handled by very specific criteria for aviators, including eye exams, blood pressure and the other blocks in the CAME medical. Relationship issues, pardoned offenses, and academic issues from a different life situation (taken out of context) aren't addressing any "risk" issues that would impact on the safety of the passengers.
ETHICS IN OPERATIONS

MEDICAL ETHICS PANEL THEME:

“THE MISSION AND MEDICAL ETHICS : IS THERE A CONFLICT

Maybe so... but if it ain't broken, don't fix it. And "wellness" is the responsibility of the patient, so the pilot needs to maintain a sense of self-direction and this was steamrolled under by Dr. Elwell and FACS.

Commanders (Cont’d)... ü ü ü ü
Insist that soldiers follow medical direction and treatment - for their own well-being. Provide support for ill/injured soldiers and their families. Challenge pers policies that seem arbritrary or unfair. R e m e m b e r - T h e C O , not the MO , i s r e s p o n s i b l e for health and fitness.

Soldiers…. ü ü ü ü
Need to maintain level of fitness. Report illness/injuries. F o l l o w m e d i c a l orders/advice t o g e t w e l l . Ensure that illness/injury does not place fellow soldiers at risk by keeping chain of command informed.

CANADA’S ARMY/ L ’ARMÉE CANADIENNE

CANADA’S ARMY/ L ’ARMÉE CANADIENNE

The implications of this is that forensic "information" was presented to the FACS shrinks ("Kolnik" and onwards) and past over by Drs. Singh, Woods & Bland... FACS chose to glance over the issues in favor of useless "tests" leading nowhere.
ü Co-operation ü COs üMOs

Conclusion
is essential.

need information to exercise their

responsibilities and perform their duty. need to know that the CO is willing to do

The "unfit for service" myth came down the pipe the second time via the CAT Determination... bad data the CHAP "VIS" had already addressed for record. Note the plaintiff was returned to Flight Ops after a layoff that ballooned from two weeks to eight months, and was dual-qualified in the Transport Canada venue.

what needs to be done.

üMos/CFMS ü Each

- Quality and Continuity of Care

soldier must report and follow med dir

CANADA’S ARMY/ L ’ARMÉE CANADIENNE

25

ETHICS IN OPERATIONS

ETHICS AND OPERATIONS PROJECT RESULTS

The Trilemma

LAW
"Respecting the rule of law" To regulate social affairs. values Embodied in laws and regulations

Environmental Environmental Factors Factors.

ETHICS
"Respecting ethical imperatives" Rules, consequences, care, Embodied in organizational values CUTOFF FOR HEROISM ZONE OF MORAL CUTOFF FOR TRIVIALITY

Doing the Doing the Right Right Thing!
Thing
I

OBEDIENCE TO ORDERS PUNISHMENT MECHANISM REQUIREMENT "MANIFESTLY ILLEGAL" DEFENCE

PSYCHOLOGY
"Respecting psychological influences" "Individual differences, beliefs, pre-dispositions" Moral development Encourages Compliance (Rewards/Punishment) Social Identification Internal Principles Encourages

OUTCOME OF THE STRESS AND CHOICES ON THE PERSON Criminal Morally Corrupt Stress Casualty Cynic Morally Functional

OUTCOME ON TASK OR ORGANIZATION Positive or negative effects 31 ETHICS IN OPERATIONS

ETHICS AND OPERATIONS PROJECT RESULTS
"Singh" (AHE 22 Mar '02) was intended to get the issues down pre-trial, speak to "motive" and address the LVC Concerns.

"Steer Me into Pills" "Snot-Gram to Dr. Woods" "Wrong Answer Dr. Woods" "Dr. Woods Enabler" faxes etc.

The Trilemma
Environmental Environmental Factors Factors.

"Respecting the rule of law" means reporting to FACS A/R but does not mean accepting the diagnostic "recommendations" and "conclusions" as binding.

LAW
"Respecting the rule of law" To regulate social affairs. values Embodied in laws and regulations

ETHICS
"Respecting ethical imperatives" Rules, consequences, care, Embodied in organizational values CUTOFF FOR HEROISM ZONE OF MORAL CUTOFF FOR TRIVIALITY

Doing the Doing the Right Right Thing!
Thing
I

OBEDIENCE TO ORDERS PUNISHMENT MECHANISM REQUIREMENT "MANIFESTLY ILLEGAL" DEFENCE
CHAP "Distorted Content" "Insight on What's Happening" Maslow's Esteem Needs FS Preventative Philosophy "Hi & Lois Dissected"

FACS' shrinks have no delegations or training in aeronautics and so, passed over the CHAP issues to press "community services"... largely a "fill-in-the-blanks" exercise in "health care by numbers".

PSYCHOLOGY
"Respecting psychological influences" "Individual differences, beliefs, pre-dispositions" Moral development Encourages Compliance (Rewards/Punishment) Social Identification Encourages

The "Consent Order" led to social Internal Principles identification as assigned by the shrinks, based on codependency and an indeterminate period of "follow-up and consultation". OUTCOME OF THE STRESS AND CHOICES ON THE PERSON
Criminal Morally Corrupt Stress Casualty Cynic Morally Functional

OUTCOME ON TASK OR ORGANIZATION Positive or negative effects 31

The end effect of FACS' "Care Plan" (via "Bland") was to get "treated" for a non pre-existent) condition then "grounded" for an accumulation of political factors.
ETHICS IN OPERATIONS