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1. 1.1 EFFECT OF OCR AND CONFINING PRESSURE ON SOIL PROPERTIES ......... 2 Effect of OCR on Soil Strength Parameter ( cSOIL ) ............................................... 2

Effect of OCR on the Elastic modulus of soil:....................................................................... 4 1.2 Effect of confining Pressure on Stress-Strain Behaviour (Cohesionless Soil)................. 5

Effect of confining pressure on the Elastic modulus of soil:.................................................. 7 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 YOUNG'S MODULUS OF SOIL .................................................................................. 8 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 8 Factors influencing Elastic Modulus of soil................................................................... 8 Assessment of Elastic Modulus of soil .......................................................................... 8 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) ............................................................................. 9 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) .......................................................................... 10 Static Cone Penetration Test (SCPT) ................................................................... 11

2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 3.

Relation Between soil Elastic Modulus (Es) and Depth ............................................... 13 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 15

1|P a ge

Lee. angle of internal friction and cohesion value increases.Y. In the present study. Following are the chart showing the effect of OCR on the ratio of the maximum deviator stress to the confining stress. 2|P a ge . This effect is verified by two separate experiments. the maximum deviator Stress/ c¶ ratio ( c¶=confining pressure). 1. 1. Experiments were carried on the normally consolidated soil and Over consolidated soil. It was found that with increase of over consolidation ratio increases. Sivadass. ISBN 90 5809 604 1. 200kPa and 400kPa.A.1). 2003.1 Effect of OCR on Soil Strength Parameters.1 Effect of OCR on Soil Strength Parameter ( c- SOIL ) OCR of soil is defined as the highest stress experienced by the soil divided by the current stress. T. ³ Behavior of a tropical residual soil´. all soil samples were tested after being subjected to different initial consolidation pressure. & Karim M.1.S. Please note that for Normally consolidated soil OCR value is 1 and for over consolidated soil the OCR >1.. The initial consolidation pressures ( 0¶) applied to the soil sample were 50kPa. angle of internal friction and cohesion of the soil (fig. Fig 1. EFFECT OF OCR AND CONFINING PRESSURE ON SOIL PROPERTIES Following gives the effect of OCR on the strength parameters of the cohesive soil and confining pressure on the non cohesive soil. C.

fig 1. ³Advanced Soil Mechanics´) The value of c is obtained by drawing a common tangent to Mohr¶s circle which is Mohrcoulomb¶s envelope.Figure 1.M. it is clear that in normally consolidated clay the cohesion is zero. 3|P a ge ..2(a).3 Failure envelope of soil with a pre-consolidation pressure (Das B. Thus as the OCR value increase..2(b) the failure envelope makes an intercept with the vertical giving cohesion value. But when over consolidated clay as shown in figure 1.2 Failure envelope for (a) Normally consolidated and (b) over-consolidated clay from consolidated drained triaxial test. the increase in the cohesion value is observed. Fig 1.2 represents Triaxial Test results on normally consolidated and over consolidated soil.M. ³Advanced Soil Mechanics´) c¶. In figure 1. (Das B.

3. the angle of internal friction of the soil is increasing. Please refer figure1.com/youngs_modulus. and allowed to swell under reduced chamber pressure of 3= 3¶.4) Cu = undrained shear strength. If a soil is initially consolidated by an encompassing chamber pressure of c= c¶. Effect of OCR on the Elastic modulus of soil: The following correlation gives relation between the soil elastic modulus and undrained shear strength of soil: Es = Kc.4: Correlation factor based on OCR (www. tsf Fig. the specimen will be over-consolidated.Cu Kc = correlation factor (Figure 1.geotechnicalinfo. Portion µab¶ of the envelope has flatter slope with a cohesion intercept and portion µbc¶ represent the normally consolidated soil with zero cohesion.The change in the angle of internal friction is verified in the following experimental observation. Thus as the soil turns from over-consolidated to normally consolidated or the OCR value decreases. 1.html) 4|P a ge . The failure envelope obtained from the consolidated drained triaxial tests of this type of specimen has two distinct branches.

5 shows the effect of initial density and confining stress on the stress-strain behavior of soil where h¶ or h = minor principal stress or confining pressure = constant¶. 0=0.M and Tatsuoka. 1. 5|P a ge .. Geotechnical Symposium in Roma ) Figure 1.5.J. Stress Ratio ~ Axial Strain and volumetric Strain ~ Axial strain relationship from h = constant tests starting from isotropic Stress State (Sheared Air-dried.2 Effect of confining Pressure on Stress-Strain Behaviour (Cohesionless Soil) Fig. 2006 ³Stress-Strain Behaviour of a Micacious Sand in plane Strain condition´. F.125% per minute) (Yasin. The starting point of each curve correspond to isotropic stress state of either ( h)c = 100 KPa or ( h)c = 400 KPa.1. S. The specimens were air dried. March16&17.

Lee. 2003. Figure 1.e. the volume is lower than the initial volume). ³ Behavior of a tropical residual soil´.6 verifies the observation. On the other hand test J318C with dense initial state and high confining pressure showed a more ductile behavior without any sign of dilation even at peak state that resemble the volume change behavior of loose specimens.A. Following are the observation: 1. T.. ISBN 90 5809 604 6|P a ge .6 Deviator Stress and Axial Strain confining Pressure of 50 kPa.Y. C. Test J319C with dense initial state and low confining stress show sharp peak in µaxial stress~axial strain¶ relation and sample also starts dilating at peak stress level and still vol is positive (i. & Karim M. Fig 1.S. 200 kPa and 400 kPa Sivadass. Thus dense sand at high confining stress may behave like a loose sand at low confining stress. 2.The continuous lines represent the curve obtained for the test on dense sand and the dotted for loose sand.

Mohri. Generally the initial elastic modulus increased logarithmically with increase of confining pressure. ³Stress Strain Behaviour Of Compacted Sand Clay Mixture´.Effect of confining pressure on the Elastic modulus of soil: Fig 1. L. Ling.. Geotechnical Symposium in Roma) Figure 1. 7|P a ge . 16 & 17 March 2006.7 shows that Elastic modulus of unsaturated specimen at higher confining pressure has high elastic modulus.7 Relation between the initial elastic modulus and confining pressure (Jui-Pin Wang and Hoi I.

YOUNG'S MODULUS OF SOIL 2. Es. This is especially apparent when considering the stiffness of dried clay. this does not hold true for coarse grain soils. 2. This cementation leads to an increase in modulus. it will impact the modulus. Field tests include the plate load test. However. 2. If water content rises too much.2 Factors influencing Elastic Modulus of soil Soil with closely packed particles tends to have a higher modulus. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) 2. two soil samples can have the same dry density but different structures. deep foundations and slope stability or retaining structures Young's soil modulus. may be estimated from empirical correlations. This can be determined by looking at the soil's dry density or porosity. cone penetration test. However. Static Cone Penetration Test (SCPT) 8|P a ge . increases the stress and suction between the particles and leads to a high soil moduli. and thus have different moduli. At low water contents the water binds the particles. the particles are pushed apart and the modulus is reduced. laboratory test results on undisturbed specimens and results of field tests.3 Assessment of Elastic Modulus of soil The most useful geotechnical data with which the Elastic modulus of soil can be derived by correlation are as follow: 1. like loose or dense. Laboratory tests that may be used to estimate the soil modulus are the triaxial unconsolidated undrained compression or the triaxial consolidated undrained compression tests. between particles from either low water content or chemical cementation developed at contacts. standard penetration test (SPT) and the pressuremeter test. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) 3. If the soil has been subjected to stress in the past.2. Soils may see cementation. Water content also impacts moduli.1 Introduction The modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus of a soil is an elastic soil is useful for a variety of applications within geotechnical engineering including shallow foundations. or a glue effect. An overconsolidated soil will generally have a higher modulus than the same normally-consolidated soil.

6 0.1 gives correlation between CBR and long term Elastic modulus. k. may be found using the following convention formula: E = 10.1 Approximate correlation between CBR and long term Elastic modulus (Design applications of raft foundation By J. 9|P a ge . in MPa.8 0.1 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Fig 2. the equation is: E = 26 k1. Silty clay Stiff clay Soft clay Factor 0.9 0. The short term elastic modulus may be derived from the equation Es (Long Term) = Es (Short Term) x Where the value of is as found from the table below: Soil Type Gravel Sand Silt. Hemsley) Figure 2.7 0.A.2.4 Alternatively the value of Subgrade modulus E value.284 The above conversation is provided by the FAA.3.3 CBR To find E based on modulus of Subgrade reaction.

Day): Cohesion less soil type Es/N (tsf § 100 kPa) 4 7 10 12 Nonplastic silty sand or silt sand mixtures Clean. 1892 proposed following approximate correlation between soils young¶s modulus and SPT value for cohesionless soil (Geotechnical Engineers Portable Handbook. SPT values and plasticity index.1. For sands and Gravel PI = 0. Hemsley) Figure 2.2 Correlation between short term young¶s modulus. fine or medium sands Coarse sand and sand with little gravel Sandy gravel and gravel 10 | P a g e . Robert W.3.2 gives correlation between young¶s modulus of soil. SPT value and plasticity index (Design applications of raft foundation By J.2. NAVFAC DM-7.A.2 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Fig 2.

5 qc 11 | P a g e . Rowe suggests following simple correlation between SCPT value and Youngs modulus: For Long and Strip footing L/B > 10.K. Es = 2. For Axisymmetric footings or L/B = 1. qc static cone penetration resistance and table below: Soil type -loose -medium dense -dense qc is modulus correlation factor as given in the Sand Silt Silty clay Clay -highly plastic Factor ( ) 5 8 10 12 15 20 Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental engineering handbook by R.3 Static Cone Penetration Test (SCPT) The correlation between short term young¶s modulus and SCPT/CPT value is given by Es = Where. 2. Rowe The above correlation is suggested by D¶Appolonia et al (1970).5 qc.3 Correlation between blow count and modulus of sand Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental engineering handbook by R.Fig 2. Es = 3.K.3. ¶ is the Poisson¶s ratio of the soil.

3±0.15±0..Following correlation is suggested between SPT.4 0. ) : Following range of values are proposed for the Poisson¶s ratio and Elastic modulus (Das. ³Principles of Foundation Engineering´) Soil Loose Sand Medium Sand Dense Sand Silty Sand Soft Clay Medium Clay Poisson¶s Ratio 0. Braja M.600 34.000 12 | P a g e .2±0.25±0. Bowels J.25 0. Foundation Analysis and Design.350±27.2±0.2±0.400±69.4 0.800 10.E. CPT and elastic modulus (Table 5-6.45 0.5 Soil Soft Clay Hard Clay Loose Sand Dense Sand Es (kPa) 1725±3450 5860±13.4 0.

and Van Impe W. 13 | P a g e . The value is Es for some over-consolidated clay and rocks are approximately constant throughout the depth (Section 3. L.F. Cohesionless soil and normally consolidated clay are two cases where the stiffness is zero at the surface and increases rather linearly with depth. Z Where.000 to 22.000) lnN Es = 320 (N+15) Es = 300 (N+6) Es = 1.A separate and simplified relation between SPT. CPT and elastic modulus is provided in ³Practical Foundation Engineering Handbook´.3. McGraw-Hill: SOIL Sand SPT (KPa) Es = 500(N + 15) Es = 18.200 (N+6) Es = (6 to 8)qc CPT (Unit of qc) Es=(2 to 4)qc Es=2(1+Dr2)qc Es=(3 to 6)qc Es=(1 to 2)qc Clayey sand Silty sand Gravelly sand Soft clay 2.7 is suggested the following range for Kpy (KE for lateral load) for laterally loaded piles in sand. ³Single pile and pile group under lateral loading´.2. in Table 3.).000 + 750N Es = (15.C. Reese. E0 : KE : Z : Value of soil modulus directly beneath the foundation base (z = 0) Rate of increase of modulus with depth (units of E per unit depth) and Depth This relation holds good for both vertical and lateral soil elastic coefficient.4 Relation Between soil Elastic Modulus (Es) and Depth As per Gibson Method the Elastic Soil modulus increases linearly with depth in the form: Es = E0 + kE .

H3. Hence same relation as mentioned above in table 3.F. and Van Impe W. L. E2.7 can be assumed for soil elastic modulus as well.Relation between horizontal soil elastic Modulus and soil Young¶s Modulus (as per Section 3. H4. H1.2. The weighted average Es of the soil can be obtained using formula: Where.1. E3.4. ³Single pile and pile group under lateral loading´... Epy Es Ip : : : : horizontal soil Elastic modulus Soil Elastic modulus Poisson¶s ratio Influence coefficient (approximately 1. Thus Kpy in the above table can be assumed to be equal to Ks on the conservative side.C. En are the Elastic modulus of different Layer of soil. Hence. Epy § Es.2) The value of can be approximated to 1.) is given below: Where. E1. E4.0 on the conservative side. H is the total thickness of the soil. H2. Hn are the thickness of each Layer of soil. 14 | P a g e . Reese.

C. Paul W. Das B.3.html) Geotechnical Info . eHow . Day . ³Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental engineering handbook´. . ³Geotechnical Engineers Portable Handbook´. 8. Ling. modeling and analysis´. 1892. 2003. 7. ³Foundation Analysis and Design´. ISBN 90 5809 604. Jui-Pin Wang and Hoi I.geotechnicalinfo. 1. and Van Impe W. March16&17..F.K.html) Hervé Di Benedetto. 3. Sivadass. Ling.J. Day.. 2. L. ³Principles of Foundation Engineering´. Dov Leshchinsky.S. W. 6. com (http://www. Harry G.A. ³ Behavior of a tropical residual soil´. L..ehow. Geotechnical Symposium in Roma 11. REFERENCES Bowels J. 10. & Karim M.com/youngs_modulus. R. Hemsley. Yasin.com/list_7590255_elastic-modulus-soils. 12. T.. 1999). ³Practical Foundation Engineering Handbook´. ³Advanced Soil Mechanics´. Journal Of Geotechnical And Geoenvironmental Engineering. Poulos (June.1. 4. J. 17. ³Approximate displacement influence factors for elastic shallow foundations´. 15. Junichi Koseki. com (http://www. Rowe. 18.Y.C. 2006 ³Stress-Strain Behaviour of a Micacious Sand in plane Strain condition´. NAVFAC DM-7. 16 & 17 March 2006. S.M. 5.. ³Design applications of raft foundation´. 16. Braja M. Lee. 453-460. 9. ³Soil stress-strain behavior: measurement. 13.A. Mayne. ³Single pile and pile group under lateral loading´. Das. ³Geotechnical Engineers Portable Handbook´. ³Stress Strain Behaviour Of Compacted Sand Clay Mixture´. Mohri. ³Deformation characteristics of Geomaterials´.M and Tatsuoka. 14.. Geotechnical Symposium in Roma 15 | P a g e . R. McGraw-Hill. Hoe I. F. Robert W. Luigi Callisto. Reese..E.

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