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# APPENDIX F Thermal Energy Equation

F.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATES The following form of the thermal energy equation in rectangular coordinates allows for nonconstant physical properties, energy generation, and conversion of mechanical to internal energy through viscous dissipation, which is expressed in terms of unspecied viscous stresstensor components ij : Cv T T T T + Cv ux + Cv uy + Cv uz = t x y z x T k z z xy T P T uy ux uz + + x y z ux uz + z x k T x + y k T y

xx

uy ux uz yy zz x y z + Ge (F.1-1)

uy ux + y x

xz

yz

uy uz + z y

where Cv is the heat capacity at constant volume, k the thermal conductivity, and Ge the energy generation rate per unit volume. Equation (F.1-1) can be applied to nonNewtonian uids if the appropriate constitutive equation relating the viscous stress to the rate of strain is known. For the special case of an incompressible Newtonian uid with constant thermal conductivity for which the components of the viscous stress tensor are given by equations (D.1-4) through (D.1-9), equation (F.1-1) simplies to Cp 2T T T T T 2T + Cp ux + Cp uy + Cp uz =k 2 +k 2 t x y z x y 2T ux + 2 z2 x uz ux + z x
2 2

+k

+ 2 +

uy y

+ 2
2

uz z

uy ux + y x

uy uz + z y

+ Ge

(F.1-2)

## where Cp is the heat capacity at constant pressure.

Scaling Analysis in Modeling Transport and Reaction Processes: A Systematic Approach to Model Building and the Art of Approximation, By William B. Krantz Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

496

SPHERICAL COORDINATES

497

F.2 CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES The following form of the thermal energy equation in cylindrical coordinates allows for nonconstant physical properties, energy generation, and conversion of mechanical to internal energy using viscous dissipation, which is expressed in terms of unspecied viscous stresstensor components ij : Cv T T u T T 1 + Cv ur + Cv + Cv uz = t r r z r r 1 r 2 k T + T k z z u + ur z T zz P T rk T r

1 uz 1 u (rur ) + + r r r z u r + 1 ur r (F.2-1)

rr rz

ur 1 r r uz ur + r z

uz r r z r + Ge

1 uz u + r z

where Cv is the heat capacity at constant volume, k the thermal conductivity, and Ge the energy generation rate per unit volume. Equation (F.2-1) can be applied to nonNewtonian uids if the appropriate constitutive equation relating the viscous stress to the rate of strain is known. For the special case of an incompressible Newtonian uid with constant thermal conductivity for which the components of the viscous stress tensor are given by equations (D.2-4) through (D.2-9), equation (F.2.1) simplies to Cp k T T u T T + Cp ur + Cp + Cp uz = t r r z r r 2T ur + 2 2 z r u 1 uz + z r
2 2

T r
2

k 2T r 2 2 (F.2-2)

+k

2 r2

u + ur
2

+ 2 +

uz z

uz ur + r z

1 ur +r r r

u r

+ Ge

## where Cp is the heat capacity at constant pressure.

F.3 SPHERICAL COORDINATES The following form of the thermal energy equation in spherical coordinates allows for nonconstant physical properties, energy generation, and conversion of mechanical to internal energy through viscous dissipation, which is expressed in terms of unspecied viscous stresstensor components ij :

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APPENDIX F

Cv

r 2k

T r

T rr r

## 1 2 1 1 u (r ur ) + (u sin ) + 2 r r r sin r sin 1 u ur + r r 1 u ur u cot + + r sin r r

ur r

u 1 ur u + r r r

u 1 ur u + r r sin r (F.3-1)

1 u cot 1 u + u + Ge r r sin r

where Cv is the heat capacity at constant volume, k the thermal conductivity, and Ge the energy generation rate per unit volume. Equation (F.3-1) can be applied to nonNewtonian uids if the appropriate constitutive equation relating the viscous stress to the rate of strain is known. For the special case of an incompressible Newtonian uid with constant thermal conductivity for which the components of the viscous stress tensor are given by equations (D.3-4) through (D.3-9), equation (F.3-1) simplies to Cp k T T u T u T + Cp ur + Cp + Cp = 2 t r r r sin r r k 2 sin r ur r
2

r2

T r

sin + 2

2T r 2 sin2 2 k
2

+ 2 + 2 +

ur 1 u + r r

## ur u cot 1 u + + r sin r r 1 ur +r r sin r u r

2

+ r

u r

1 ur r

sin r

u 1 u + sin r sin

+ Ge (F.3-2)