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ATM stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Circuit switching commonly requires that packets are set into position within recurring frames, i.e. synchronous, in time, in step according to application and/or network clocks. Asynchronous transmission allows cells to be positioned anywhere within the data stream. ATM currently has speeds of 155Mbps (OC-3 ports), 622Mbps (OC-12 ports), 1.2 Gbps and 2,5 Gbps. Because the cells are fixed in length (53 octets, or bytes) rather than variable such as an Ethernet frame, they can be switched in hardware rather than software and this accounts for the higher speeds that can be attained than Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI.
ATM is very flexible and allows the transmission of various media types such as voice, video, data files etc. all taxing the network in different ways, video, for instance can be very susceptible to sudden a slowdown in network performance as varying speed video is very distracting. ATM allows dedicated circuits with guaranteed bandwidths and differing requirements to be set up simultaneously. Quality of Service (QoS) can be set up and is decided at connection stage using parameters such as delay, delay jitter and error rate based on the application and the state of the network at the time of connection. Two priorities for traffic are defined; High priority and Low priority. Low priority traffic will be discarded if there are switch congestion problems. Although ATM is not a broadcast type network, multicast is supported for applications such as voice and video conferencing. The ITU-T has adopted ATM as the method of data transfer in Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN, I.121) because of these capabilities. There is no shared media or contention based protocols in ATM, each device has 155Mbps all to itself. In ATM you can multiplex 'cell streams' that may be for completely different applications, the system works in 'connection oriented' mode thereby guaranteeing cell sequencing for those cells in a particular connection.
Statistical Multiplexing means that ATM will grab any media slot without any prior reservation. Time Division is when all cells flow across the shared switch fabric either via the 'shared media' method, which is a bus architecture, or via the 'shared memory' method where cells are multiplexed and de-multiplexed by a memory processor, again a bus architecture. Space Division is when the switch provides a multiple paths per port for the cells, a switch matrix.
The three ATM layers are as follows:
ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Convergence Sublayer (CS) Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) ATM Layer Physical Layer Transmission Convergence (TC) Physical Medium-Dependent (PMD)
There are also four planes : • • • • Control Plane: for signaling functions in ATM. Management Plane: for management functions. User Plane: for user applications. Plane Management: for management of the other planes.
The Management Plane provides management functions at the ATM layers. The Layer Management defines Operation Administration and Maintenance (OAM) for each layer and the Plane Management manages all the ATM Planes. The Control Plane is responsible for the opening and closing of connections, assignment of VPIs and VCIs and Quality of Service (QoS). The Control Plane uses the signalling procedures Q.93B for UNI 3.0 and Q.2931 for UNI 3.1. The User Plane ensures user data transfer over the AALs using flow and error control.
52 456.368 .32 DS3 E3 44.736 34.24 OC-48 2488. whilst the PMD sets the timing for the bitstream over the physical layer.84 155. unless the ATM switch itself is an end device! The VPI/VCI pairs can change every time they cross a switch.12 OC-24 1244.End devices connect to ATM switches via a User to Network Interface (UNI) and communicate via Vitual Circuit Connections (VCC) which are defined by a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and a Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI). The TC converts between the SONET/SDH or DS3 or E3 bitstreams and the cells. ATM switches connect to each other via Network to Network Interfaces (NNI). The following table lists some of the available transmission rates: Name OC-1 OC-3 OC-9 Rate (Mb/s) 51.16 OC-36 1866.08 OC-18 933. provided they remain the same at each end of the local link. SONET stands for Synchronous Optical Network and SDH stands for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy which are worldwide highspeed transmission standards. The multiplexing flexibility of SONET/SDH allows lower speed circuits to be taken off without demultiplexing the other circuits.56 OC-12 622. they are in fact the same thing (see the SDH document for more information).
26 Mb/s) (G. Both . Other interfaces used within ATM are: • • 25. DS-3 (44.736 Mb/s. The most common form of this interface is the OC-3 which is based on the ANSI T1E1. E3 (34. The 4 bytes management information and the bit stuffing means that the actual cell rate for DS-3 is 40. An ATM connection is a transmission path made up of a number of Virtual Paths each of which contain a number of Virtual Channels which are set up for the duration of the call. being a signalling structure. E4 (139. DS3 defines a structured frame as lasting 125 microseconds with each frame carrying 12 ATM cells plus 4 bytes preceeding each cell and 13 or 14 half bytes following the frame.52 Mb/s 8B/10B matching STS-3 (OC-3) (line rate 194.4Mb/s). It multiplexes different Virtual Channel Identifiers (VCI).request primitive indicates the transfer of an ATM Service Data Unit whilst the ATM-DATA. The aim of the half bytes is for the three 12-cell groups to match 375 microseconds thereby maintaining 125 microseconds clock synchronisation with the STS.704Mb/s. MMF and Cat5 UTP.804). 622. it appends (or subtracts depending on direction of flow) the cell header performing a CRC on the cell header.indication indicates an arrival. The ATM Layer sits between the Physical layer and the ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL). T3) is specified by the ATM Forum for interfacing to an ATM network.703 and G. • • • • 155.6 Mb/s 4B/5B (line rate 32 Mb/s).264 OC stands for Optical Carrier which is the same as Synchronous Transport Signal (STS).703 and G.08 Mb/s (OC-12) is only supported on fibre.E4 139. 100 Mb/s 4B/5B used by FDDI (line rate 125Mb/s).368 Mb/s) (G. The ATM-DATA. No framing occurs just a start of cell indication.2/94-002R1 to operate on SMF.804). It manages VPI and VCIs which are reassigned as the cell crosses a switch.
a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and a Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) are required at the interface to simplify routing of the cells through the path. If the customer tried to force the SCR up to 1920kbps on the routers. VPI = 1. otherwise the network requires the receiving station to verify that it can receive the call. If a PVC has been provisioned. T1. • If the call cannot be supported then the call is rejected. Virtual Path Connections (VPC) are switched depending on the VPI. then the cells carrying the extra data being pushed down the link would be subjected to having the Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit being set. VCI = 31 plus details on the traffic shaping that has been set up on the provider network. A service provider typically provides PVCs for the customer. • If the receiving can receive the call then the SVC is set up otherwise the call request is rejected. with a circuit reference. The traffic shaping details are important because if the client router has been set up incorrectly then sub-optimal traffic flows will result. A Permanent Virtual Path (PVP) is set up manually assigning VCIs to a unique path. then the customer will be presented with the circuit on an interface that could be capable of E1. OC-3 etc. the provider will give details of the virtual circuit e. An example would be an E1 circuit with a PVC set up to provide a Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) of 960kbps and a Peak Cell Rate (PCR) of 1920kbps. The provider would also give details of the maximum burst cell size e. bandwidth is only allocated for that call therefore it is very efficient. The following steps describe the SVC call setup: • • Connection request by sending station The ATM switch Call Admission Control (CAC) verifies that the call can be supported. • The VPI/VCIs are setup for the duration of the call. A Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) is a manually configured circuit whereas a Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) dynamically set up and removed when required. Also.g. Virtual Channel Connections (VCC) are based on the VPI and VCI values and can be assigned within a VPC. In real data flow terms the maximum data flow would be something in the region of 800kbps (rather than 960kbps due to the cell header). 100 cells allowed in any one burst (480 Bytes max burst). This would result in the extra customer traffic being . A Virtual Channel only exists for the duration of the call.g.
The ATM Cell • Generic Flow Control (GFC) . end of SDU User data cell. EFCI off.discarded. not end of SDU . not end of SDU User data cell.this indicates the type of cell information. If a customer wants to use 1920kbps then they have to negotiate a deal with the provider to up the SCR to 1920kbps and thereby stop the CLP bits being set. Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) .used by the UNI to control flow between the endpoint and the switch. The throughput could end up deteriorating to something like 300-400kbps in the above example. EFCI on. leading to upper layer protocols such as TCP to resend the cells.one or more VCIs can be in here.helps cell transmission within the switch fabric. Payload Type Identifier (PTI) . The PTI bit coding for AAL5 is shown below: PTI Coding PTI meaning 000 001 010 User data cell. EFCI off. • • • Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) . instead of 1800kbps which would have been hoped for. The Explicit Forward Congestion Indicator (EFCI) is also used within the PTI to indicate whether congestion was experienced.
end of SDU OAM Segment (F5 flows) OAM End to end (F5 flows) Resource Management Reserved Cell Loss Priority (CLP) . . plus it provides the correct mode for connection oriented or connectionless services. The two sublayers within the AAL that perform these functions are the Convergence Sublayer (CS) and the Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR). The Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) is the connection between switch fabrics. EFCI on. The Common Part (CP) works with the SAR and provides management information and the Service Specific (SS) sublayer is specific to the type of service.if a cell tries to use the same input or output port on a switch then the CLP determines which cell to discard. In addition it takes care of applications that need Constant Bit Rates (CBR) and Variable Bit Rates (VBR). The receive side checks the HEC and attempts to correct errors. ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) The AAL segments larger packets from Frame Relay. A cell with a CLP of 1 is discarded before a cell with CLP set to 0. X. into cells and back again. Ethernet etc.at the transmission side the HEC sequence is calculated and placed in the HEC.011 100 101 110 111 • User data cell. The CS provides the timing relationships between source and destination for CBRs and VBRs. The User-to-Network Interface (UNI) is the connection between an endpoint such as a workstation or a router and a switch. These are detailed in the adaptation layer header that sits between the ATM cell header and the payload data.25. • Header Error Check (HEC) .
. AAL 1 adds a byte to the cell tax so if you include the header there are 47 bytes for the payload. determines the number of cells required for each packet and creates SAR-PDUs which are the 48-byte payloads. You can replace T1 and E1 leased lines with a CES circuit and the end devices will not know the difference. The following table describes the different classes within B-ISDN services: Class X (used for LANE) and Class Y are user defineable. The 5-byte header is then added to form the ATM cell. AAL1 Synchronisation and delay jitter is handled by AAL1 along with cell loss and wrong cell insertion. Control Information is added to the CS and the SAR PDUs. AAL1 is used by Circuit Emulation Services (CES) because CES requires very low cell transfer delay and very low cell delay variation tolerance.The SAR examines the packets.
Beginning of Message. AAL3/4 allows the transportation of variable length frames of up to 65. End of Message or Single Segment Message.AAL2 This is not fully defined.aligns Etag and Lg on 32 octets. Continuation of Message. LI is the Length Indicator and the CRC the Cyclic Redundancy Check. Ending Tag (Etag) Length (Lg) . AAL 2 could use from 1 to 47 bytes before the payload so this has a very high cell tax! AAL3/4 The 48 byte SAR PDU for AAL3/4 is shown below: The Segment Type (ST) can be one of four. Below is the Convergence Sublayer (CS) for AAL3/4: • • • • • • • Common Part Indicator (CPI) Beginning Tag (Btag) Buffer Allocation Size (BASize) Padding (PAD) Alignment (AL) .535 bytes. It is designed for applications such as packetised video and handles delay jitter. The frames are numbered using the Sequence Number (SN) and the application is recognised using the Multiplexing ID (MID). cell loss and cell misinsertion.
The SSCS is to provide extra functionality for the user whilst the CPCS checks for PDU errors. Inverse Multiplexing over ATM (IMA) . The CPCS PDU is shown below: • • • • • Padding (PAD) . Length (Lg) . messages cannot be interleaved as they can with AAL3/4. User-to-User Information (UU) . Because there is no Adaptation layer header. AAL5 is sometimes called Simple and Efficient Adaptation Layer (SEAL) because the SAR sublayer just accepts the PDU and segments it into 48-octet SAR PDUs. AAL5 You cannot multiplex several connections on one AAL5 connection.reserved. This means that all 48 bytes are available for the payload. and in Streaming Mode where part of the frame can be passed to the AAL and cells sent before the whole frame is processed. the PTI field (set to 1) is used to indicate the end-of-SAR PDU and the ATM service is relied upon to sequence the cells correctly. AAL3/4 operates in Message Mode which makes sure that the information passes to the AAL as an entire frame.aligns the CPCS PDU on 48 octets.length of the PDU Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) In AAL5 there is no overhead from the SAR sublayer (adaptation layer header).application related information exchange Common Part Identifier (CPI) .The CS consists of the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) and the Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS). each user connection has to have an AAL5 connection. AAL3/4 uses 4 bytes in the adaptation layer which leaves 44 bytes for the payload. currently unused.
After data transfer the VPI/VCI pair are released for reuse by another call setup. ATM Communications Initially end systems register with the network and obtain their ATM addresses which are used only for the connection (SVC) setup which occurs next providing the VPI and VCI. AAL5 is used for IMA. The ATM address (or Network Service Access Point NSAP) format is as follows: The prefix is for the switch itself whilst the whole address is for the end system and there are three different types called Initial Domain Identifiers (IDI). ATM has not been defined for E2 (8Mbps) so IMA gives the opportunity to bridge the gap between E1 and E3 access speeds by allowing you to bundle together multiple E1 circuits. The extra overhead required when multiplexing means that the maximum bandwidth available for data on each E1 is 1984kbps. .Multiple physical links can be treated as one logical ATM interface using IMA.
unique within an area. The ATM prefix is sent to the client.filled with zeros.1.hierarchical routing inter and intra domains.• Designated Country Code (DCC) which uses the ATM defined country code in which an address is registered. End System Identifier (ESI) .a value that defines the organisation responsible for administering the addresses. the structure and the administrative requirements for the addresses: • Administrative Authority (AA) . . • E.hierarchical routing inter and intra domains. Area . The client adds the user part of the address to the network part and sends the whole address to the switch. The Domain Specific Part (DSP) specifies the semantics. ILMI uses the pre-defined Virtual Connection 0/16 (VPI 0/VCI 16) on the UNI to manage the interfaces between networks (NOT across the whole network) using SNMP. if 5 hellos go by and there is no activity the SVC is cleared. 4. 2. • International Code Designator (ICD) which uses ATM defined international organisation codes. Hellos are sent to check that the VC is active. Routing Domain (RD) . Address resolution and registration occurs over VC 0/16.End systems use this for further identification. Selector (SEL) . • • • • • Reserved . 3.164 using ATM defined ISDN numbers and telephone numbers. ILMI registers ATM devices with the switch as follows: 1. The format being used is identified by the Authority and Format Identifier (AFI) using the AFI codes shown. Interim Local Management Interface (ILMI) Being part of UNI 3.
2931 signalling protocol and applies to SVCs.93B but uses ITU-T Q.used by a caller to initiate a connection with an end point. UNI 3.1 which allows interoperation between UNI 3. • CALL PROCEEDING .933 signalling for mandatory sequencing.the called end point sends this to the network which relays it back to the caller to indicate acceptance of the call. STATUS . UNI 3. The Call Admission Control (CAC) function verifies resource availability.93B signalling encouraged the ATM Forum release UNI 3.93B signalling.1 and ITU-T Q.2931 is based on ISDN Q. Q.x The procedures for UNI signalling are based on a subset of the ISDN Q.x signalling uses the following messages: • SETUP .1 do not mix.The ILMI MIB contains the following: • • • • • System Information Physical Layer ATM Layer VPCs VCCs UNI 3.this is the response reporting any error conditions. UNI 3. Modifications to Q.0 added traffic control at the Peak Cell Rate (PCR) to the AAL CS layer and used Q.sent by a user to ask of the status of a connection.(optional) sent by a network to indicate that the setup request has started.the network sends this to the called end point to inform call establishment.1 are currently in use.0 and UNI 3. The end point also sends this to the network for symmetric call control procedures. • CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE .931 and Frame Relay Q.2931 signalling. consistency verification and the steps to set up and bring down a user to network connection. • • STATUS ENQUIRY . • CONNECT .0 and 3. UNI 3. .
VPI/VCI.g. protocol message set. maximum CPCS SDU size).sent either by the user or the network to clear the connection once data transfer has occurred. This is sent first by the receiving end point and then by the switch. combinations and the class of QoS requested. length. • RELEASE COMPLETE .used by the calling party (the root) or a network to a user to add a leaf (called user) to a point to multipoint connection. transit network selection and the end point reference identifier with the end point state number. UBR. these optional elements include broadband bearer capability (e. VBR. • • ADD PARTY REJECT . RELEASE . DROP PARTY ACKNOWLEDGE RESTART RESTART ACKNOWLEDGE The steps to set up an SVC between client 1 and client 2 are detailed below: 1. point-to-multipoint etc. The network routes the call using the required information elements type. 3. Both interfaces use the CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE to indicate an active connection. ATM user cell rate.acknowledgement from the called user (or the network). called party number.rejection of the ADD PARTY message.• ADD PARTY . 5. CBR.sent either by the user or network in reply to indicate release of resources for a given connection.clear a party from a point to multipoint. 4. Whilst waiting for client 2 to reply the network issues a CALL PROCEEDING message. • ADD PARTY ACKNOWLEDGE . A SETUP is issued by client 1 calling client 2. • • • • DROP PARTY . 2. CBR. calling party number. .). AAL parameters (e. Client 2 accepts the call by sending a CONNECT.g. There are other information elements that can be included.
• Mean Cell Transfer Delay . . Class 1 .average delay over a specified number cells (can be over different connections).variability in the cell arrive delay.supports the requirements for Class D service needed in connectionless data transfer such as IP and SMDS. A number of errors on a cell block creates a severely errored block.lost cells/total cells. • Class 2 .For the connection identifier.supports the requirements for Class C service such as connection-oriented Frame Relay. There is 1-point CDV and 2-point CDV. A sequence of cells transmitted on a connection is a cell block.supports the requirements of Class A service such as Circuit Emulation Services (CES) and CBR for video or voice etc. • Class 3 .number of misinserted cells/time interval. • Class 4 .supports the requirements for Class B service such as VBR video and audio. • Cell Delay Variation (CDV) . Cell Misinsertion Rate .error cells/total number of cells. • • • Cell Loss Ratio . There are the following five classes of QoS: • • Class 0 . Quality of Service (QoS) The UNI interface uses the following parameters: • • Call Error Ratio . Cell Transfer Delay . PVC identifiers 0-255 are available to be used. VCIs 0-15 are reserved by the ITU-T.time between a cell leaving the source UNI and reaching the destination UNI.always guaranteed by the network.severely errored blocks/total number of cell blocks. Severely Errored Cell Block Ratio . 0-31 are reserved by the ATM Forum and 32-65535 can be used by anyone.
Selective cell discard works by discarding cells with the CLP bit set to 1 when congestion occurs. the Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) and the Burst Tolerance.0 the leaf can initiate a join whereas in UNI 3.control of user traffic Priority Control . This is done by discarding all the cells between the faulty cell and the cell with the End of Message (EOM) bit set. With AAL5. Traffic control parameters are the Peak Cell Rate (PCR).0 In UNI 4. Although the switch may be able to set this.modifying traffic characteristics such as PCR. it is not a fully defined standard so the receiving end may not be able to do anything with it. Explicit Forward Congestion Indication (EFCI) uses the PTI field to indicate congestion. Feedback controls Usage Parameter Control (UPC) .using the Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit Traffic Shaping . Also. Available Bit Rate (ABR) signalling procedures are introduced for point-to-point signalling. such as adaptively reduce the cell rate. ATM Anycast allows ATM users to setup point-to-point connections to an end system that is part of an ATM Group. UNI 4.1. .Traffic Management This consists of traffic control and congestion control. Early Packet Discard can be used whereby all cells for a particular packet are discarded when one needs to go.acceptance of connections. The following functions deal with controlling traffic and congestion: • • • • • • Network Resource Management Call Admission Control (CAC) .1 the root has to initiate the join. This is optional in UNI 3.
Users have to use VPI=0 and VCI=5 for UNI and VCI=16 for ILMI.Group addresses can be set up for end-systems.0: • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) uses the PCR parameter. • Real Time Variable Bit Rate (rt-VBR) uses PCR. MBS and SCR. This is analogous to Frame Relay CIR. nrt-VBR uses PCR. traffic contract and QoS. The AFI field in the ATM address is used to map individual addresses to a group address. A server having a number of ATM connections can just use one ATM address and benefit from the accumulated bandwidth. • Available Bit Rate (ABR) The bit rate can be changed dynamically during the connection using RM cells. End systems negotiate PCR and Minimum Cell Rate (MCR) and dynamic traffic shaping can occur using Resource Management (RM) Cells. . Traffic Management 4. Maximum Burst Size (MBS) and the Maximum Cell Transfer Delay (MaxCTD) to limit delay and delay variation between end stations. Sustainable Bit Rate (SBR). The parameters used are PCR and MCR. The destination adds information to determine the cell rate that the destination cannot exceed sends a backward RM cell to the source. Each user has one or more VPCs and these are combined on to one VPC to the switch by the switch using a translation table to map the user VPCs to the main VPC. A set of servers offering the same service would use a group address. The source can then work out the Available Cell Rate (ACR) at which it is allowed to send. The source station sends a forward RM cell to the destination station.0 has further defined the ATM service architecture. New ACRs can be negotiated at any time. Ideal for real time applications • Non Real Time VBR (nrt-VBR) is used by applications such as file transfer since they do not require delay sensitive service. and an end-system can be a member of more than one group. This is achieved by using the Proxy Signalling Agent (PSA) that performs signalling on behalf of others. There are five service categories in UNI 4. Several users on a UNI can use virtual UNIs. Emulates a leased line and is used for voice video and Circuit Emulation Services (CES).
particularly if you make a transition to PNNI.• Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is used by applications not limited by real time constraints. It is a good idea to have a logical method of assigning these addresses so that you can summarise them and grow them in the future. These prefixes are used for the default ATM addresses that are assigned at a later stage to LAN Emulation Clients (LEC). IISP needs to be set up on switches that route call setup messages. RFC 1483 This defines multiprotocol encapsulation of connectionless routed and bridged PDUs over ATM. On a particular link one switch is assigned to be a user side the other switch a network side (an extension of UNI 3.1). The following QoS parameters are used: • • • • • • Peak to Peak Cell Delay Variation (CDV) Maximum Cell Transfer Delay (MaxCTD) Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) Cell Error Ratio (CER) Severely Errored Cell Block Ratio (SECBR) Cell Misinsertion Rate (CMR) Interim Inter-switch Signalling Protocol (IISP) uses manually-configured routing tables to allow the interconnection of different vendors' ATM switches using SVCs. This is analogous to Frame Relay with a CIR of zero. Unique ATM address prefixes need to be assigned to the switches. LAN Emulation Servers (LES) and Broadcast and Unknown Servers (BUS). This is related to RFC 1294 which describes Frame Relay encapsulation over ATM. The network side has the responsibility of assigning VPI/VCI pairs to prevent call collisions (where two ATM switches assign identical VPI/VCIs for a call). To support LAN Emulation (LANE) (see later). . With Null Encapsulation the packet makes up the CPCS-SDU in AAL5. It uses PCR for indication.
the IP addresses and the address of the ATMARP server. Clients are manually configured with the ATM addresses. For a bridged protocol we use the Protocol Identifier (PID) in the SNAP header to identify the media.2 header. and this header identifies that a routed protocol follows. Virtual Circuit Based Multiplexing encapsulation identifies the protocol being transported by using the VC connection. Both LLC1 (unacknowledged connectionless mode) and LLC2 (connection mode) can be used. An ATMARP server perform address resolution using ATMARP and InATMARP. For routed protocols the PDUs are carried in the payload of AAL5 CPCS PDU whereas for bridged protocols the same method as LLC encapsulation is used except that the OUI and PID fields are not required. Each protocol has to have its own VC connection and no extra information is needed in the CPCS PDU. RFC 1577 RFC 1577 defines the use of only IP and ARP over ATM. perhaps followed by a Subnetwork Attachment Point (SNAP) header (802. The client caches ARP entries for a maximum of 15 minutes whilst an ATMARP server caches entries for a maximum of 20 minutes. RFC 1483 LLC/SNAP encapsulation is used with an MTU size of 9180 octets (RFC 1626).1a). For a routed protocol the PDU has an 802. When a station needs to communicate with another station. The entry is only updated if there is an InARP_REPLY to an InARP_REQUEST. . This RFC forms the foundation for Classical IP over ATM (CLIP) It uses the Logical IP Subnet (LIS) which correlates with a normal IP subnet and its characteristics. an ARP request is sent to the ATMARP server to obtain the ATM address of the destination.With LLC Encapsulation you can carry a number of protocols over the same VC. Each LIS has one ATMARP server which provides IP to ATM address mapping allowing the client to use the ATM signalling services to set up a connection. IP can use this method for encapsulation as there is a Network Layer Protocol ID (NLPID) for IP.
RFC 1626 RFC 1626 defines the default IP MTU size for AAL5 as 9180 octets. Called Station Number Calling Station Number Calling station subaddress Called party subaddress Transit Network selection SSCS is not used and is set to null . UNI 3. The IE parameters involved are the Forward Maximum CPCS-SDU Size and the Backward Minimum CPCS-SDU Size. Broadband Lower Layer Information (B-LLI) using LLC encapsulation. The ATM ARP server and the clients can share multiple connections and in this instance call collisions must be prevented. best effort Class 0. The default size MTU for AAL CPCS-SDU has to be negotiated between the participating devices during connection setup. the maximum of which is 65536 octets. Routers and hosts need to conform to RFC 1191 which defines Path MTU Discovery. so catering for NFS (8192 octets) and other large frames handled by routers. BCOB-X and BCOB-C.1 signalling is used and the IEs that can be included are: • • • • • • • • • • • AAL parameters (AAL5 only) ATM Traffic Descriptor Broadband Bearer Capability. then the end station must wait 10 seconds before retrying on a failure. RFC 1755 This defines the signalling needed to support Classical IP over ATM (CLIP). however if multiple VCs are not allowed. QoS parameters.
. End systems and MCSs can be forced to use another MARS by the current MARS issuing a MARS_REDIRECT_MAP message. MARS is defined in RFC 2022 and is an extension to the ATMARP server in RFC 1577.CLIP does not support broadcast and multicast and there is no redundancy option for the ATMARP server. the MARS keeps multicast addresses in ARP tables in the format Layer 3 address. it just services one LIS. Next Hop Routing Protocol (NHRP) LAN Emulation (LANE) LANE is a method used to forward data link traffic over ATM. RSVP and QoS. IPv6. A point to multipoint connection called the ServerControlVC connects the MCS to the MARS(s) and the MCS registers with the MARS with a MARS_MSERV message and unregister with a MARS_UNSERV message. Whilst not multicasting at layer 3. there can be multiple MARSs. A separate MARS is required for each LIS and the group of stations in a multicast is called a Cluster... ATM address 1. ATM address 2. The ClusterControlVC is the point to multipoint connection that notifies the end stations of changes. A Multicast Server (MCS) has the end stations connected via point-to-point connections and uses a point-to-multipoint VC to the destinations within the multicast. In addition. It maps NSAP addresses to MAC addresses. Broadcast and Multicast support using Multicast Address Resolution Server (MARS). Any LAN protocol can travel across an ATM network. An end station queries the MARS for group addresses using MARS_REQUEST and the reply is MARS_MULTI containing the ATM addresses related to the layer 3 address. RFC 1754 lays out the outline for Multiprotocol over ATM and includes provision for security. End stations join using a MARS_JOIN message and leave with a MARS_LEAVE message.ATM address n. Only UBR (best effort services) are supported under CLIP. Emulated LANs .
When LAN Emulation (LANE) is enabled.(ELANs) are the wide area links that extend LANs. The LAN Emulation Client (LEC) is an end station where the LANE protocols run and it can be a LAN switch. Speedview for Nortel Networks equipment) to assign this to an ELAN.1 looks only at the interaction between the LECs and the servers. The table records all the other LECs coming into the switch. Only Ethernet 802. one switch assigns all the ELANs to a LEC (LAN Emulation Client) and the other keeps a database of the LECs in the LES (LAN Emulation Server) and the LECS (Lan Emulation Configuration Server). an ELAN is created for each LAN or VLAN domain. The interfaces (LNNI protocols) will be included in LANE v. The LANE UNI (LUNI) defines the interface protocol set between the client and the LANE servers. . VLAN 1) and use the software (e. you give the VLAN a name (e. LUNI allows multiple ELANs on the same physical LAN and uses the well-known circuit 0/5 (VPI/VCI). The LEC performs address resolution between ATM and non-ATM devices. a router or a workstation. One VLAN is assigned to each ELAN.g.2.g.3 and Token Ring are supported on LANE. LANE v.
A number of components are required in an ELAN.So. and these are the following: . LAN Emulation allows the ATM network to appear as a broadcast network where hosts can seamlessly send MAC frames to each other. a LEC can have many ELANs. a LES serves many LECs. Components of an ELAN An Emulated LAN can be treated as a separate broadcast domain. layer 3 routing must occur between ELANs. LAN Emulation is required to connect Token Ring and Ethernet networks to ATM.
If a station wants to send data to a station on the same ELAN it requests the ATM address from the LES. • LAN Emulation Server (LES) . resolves addresses and registers its MAC and ATM addresses with the LES. this is different from resolving layer 2 to layer 3 addresses).• LAN Emulation Client (LEC) . Using LAN Emulation Address Resolution Protocol (LE_ARP) the LES resolves all MAC addresses to ATM addresses (N.This could be an edge device such as a LAN switch.0 has this built in. • Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS) .0 and are often in one box although the specification does not require this. LANE 2.This has the role of handling broadcasts and multicasts by setting up point-to-multipoint Virtual Channel Connections. ELAN membership. There is one BUS per ELAN and it is used to handle unknown destinations. It provides the LEC with the ATM address of the LES on the particular ELAN. The LEC forwards data. The LECS can be a LAN switch or a router and there is only one per ATM switch domain unless you have redundant server capability. station or a router that provides LAN users connection to the ATM network. LECS and LES). Virtual Circuit Connections (VCC) These are communication paths between LECs and between servers.All the LECs in the ELAN register their ATM and MAC addresses with the LES.0 allows multiple LECs. The LES and BUS come in pairs (one pair per ELAN) in LANE 1. This manages the stations that make up the ELAN i. There are two groups of VCCs each with a number of types: Control VCCs These are for control traffic: .B.e. LANE 2.This contains all the information about all the ELANs in the domain. Cisco provides the protocol Simple Server Redundancy Protocol (SSRP) which provides the capability for redundant servers (BUS. • LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS) . LESs and BUSs for resilience.
Between LEC and BUS (unidirectional point-to-multipoint) Data Direct .Between LEC and LES (bidirectional point-to-point) Control Distribute . A LEC can use ILMI to find the LECS and can work out their own ATM address by examining the prefix of the ATM NSAP address of the ATM switch. the LECS ATM address can be statically configured on the LEC or the well-known PVC 0/17 (VPI/VCI) can also be used by the LEC to find the LECS. ILMI uses the well-known circuit 0/16. The following steps are followed through when a Lan Emulation Client connects to an ELAN: 1.• • • Configure Direct . The main purpose of ILMI is to avoid having to type in NSAP addresses.Between LEC and LECS (bidirectional) Control Direct . Client Connection to an ELAN Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI) uses SNMP type packets and MIB data structures to allow directly connected ATM devices such as LAN switches and ATM switches to get the LECS ATM address.Data transfer between LECs. A client needs to obtain the LES address since it needs to register its MAC address and ATM address with the LES.Between LEC and LES (unidirectional point-to-multipoint) Data VCCs These are for data traffic between users: • • • Multicast Send . Alternatively. Contact starts with a . The ILMI 'get' and 'getnext' commands are used for obtaining the information. To do this it contacts the LECS which has the address of the LES for each ELAN. The LEC can also use the ATM Forum fixed address for the LECS provided that it has already attempted to obtain the address using ILMI first.Between LEC and BUS (bidirectional point-to-point) Multicast Forward .
7. 6. The LEC then connects to the LES using a Bidirectional Control Direct VCC. The BUS sets up a Multicast Forward VCC (point-to-multipoint) to all LECs in the ELAN thereby emulating the broadcast nature of a LAN. To learn this the LEC sends a broadcast LE-ARP. the LES replies with a LE_JOIN_RESPONSE and adds the address of the LEC to the Control Distribute VCC which is a point-to-multipoint VCC used by the LES to send information to all of the LECs in the ELAN. The LES responds with the ATM address of the BUS. Although there is a facility for LECS redundancy in LANE v. The LECS responds with a LE_CONFIGURE_RESPONSE that contains the ATM address of the LES. This request contains the ATM address. 9. 10. Contacting the LECS can occur via one of three methods: o o o Using a predefined ATM address of the LECS Using ILMI Using the 'well-known' address of the LECS. the ELAN name and assignment. and the ELAN type and maximum frame size.LE_CONFIGURE_REQUEST from the LEC to the LECS. 2. 3. other than that the LECS ceases to be involved. 8. The LEC joins an ELAN by sending a LE_JOIN_REQUEST to the LES. Client to Client Connection . If permission is granted. the ELAN name. The LEC sets up a Multicast Send VCC (point-to-point) with the BUS. A Configuration Direct VCC is set up to allow the LEC and LECS to communicate. The LES may check with the LECS to see if the LEC is allowed to join the ELAN. 11.2 there is no need for load sharing. Next the LEC needs to find out the address of the BUS so that it can send data to unknown destinations. 4. LE_ARP works in a similar manner to IP ARP except that it is used to resolve MAC addresses to ATM addresses. 5. the MAC address and the maximum frame size.
8. If the ATM address is not in the LE_ARP table then the LES forwards the request using the point-to-multipoint Control Distribute VCC to all the LECs. The LES forwards this response containing the ATM address to X. The Flush Request Control Frame and the Flush Response Control Frame are needed because whilst the LEC is waiting for the Data Direct VCC to be set up it is sending unicast data to the BUS and when the VCC is setup to the other LEC there are two paths to this LEC. 6. Frames must be kept in order so the Frame Flush follows the data to the BUS. Setting up these VCCs manually using PVCs is nigh on impossible without making errors because PVCs must be configured for all data directs receiving and transmitting. If the ATM address of Y is in the LE_ARP table of the LES then the LES sends the ATM address to X. X sets up a Data Direct VCC with Y. The BUS sends the initial data frames to all the stations using the point-to-multipoint Multicast Forward VCC. 3. The following steps occur: 1. 2. X sends a Flush message to the BUS so that it stops multicasting the data since this is no longer necessary. Client Y sends an LE_ARP response back to the LES. once received by the destination LEC it sends a Frame Flush Response.Client X wants to communicate with client Y and although it knows the MAC address it does not know the ATM address. 4. so SVCs are used in the LANE environment. 7. Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA) . To learn the ATM address Client X sends a LE_ARP request to the LES and starts sending data frames to the BUS. 5.
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