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Jane Addams o Was the daughter of a prosperous Illinois banker o Along with other middle-class women, she founded Hull House in Chicago. It was the first U.S. settlement house, with a focus on immigrants. The House was in the midst of an impoverished part of the city. It became a focus for community services o She developed night school, kindergarten, childrens clubs, and trained social workers o Published a book Twenty years at Hull House in 1910 o Led the womens international league for Peace and Freedom in 1915 o Was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1951 John Adams o Harvard educated lawyer who was a delegate to the First and Second continental congresses o Elected president in 1796, during the Revolutionary war between America and Great Britain o Served in France and Holland during the revolutionary war and helped organized the treaty of peace, which ended the Revolutionary War James Agee and Walker Evans o James Agee wrote the book Let Us Now Praise Famous Men in 1941. The photographs in the novel were done by Walker Evans o The book tells of the condition of three white families living in the south during the depression, with photographs to go along o This book was researched, photographed, and written during the time of Roosevelts new deal campaign Sherman Alexie (1966) o Wrote the novel The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven about a native American boy growing up on a reserve he struggles with poverty, discrimination, and being surrounded by alcoholism Horatio Alger o Wrote the book Ragged Dick during the Gilded Age o The book was about a boy sleeping on the streets who wanted to grow up to be a respectable man o Talked about the struggles of immigrants and labor issues during this time. There was a small group of wealthy individuals, but they were cushioned by a large group of people in poverty who did not make sufficient money. This was due to high population growth during this time as well Little orphan Annie o A character played by an adorable little girl o The girl was in an orphanage and living in poverty o Started as a comic that was read to cheer people up during the depression Fred Austaire and Ginger Rogers o An actor and actress who were well known for the dance routines o They were portrayed in movies as rich people. Their characters were meant to represent hope and a cheerful atmostphere o They were in a movie called Swingtime, which is a movie that really shows the extent of their dancing skill

Even though people during the depressiondid not have enough money for food and such, the need for relief was so great that they came up with the money to go to these movies/plays with actors/actresses such as these Bill Bamberger o An American studies major specialized in documentary photography photographed a furniture company closing in Mebane, NC o His pictures showed what happens when the American Drean goes wrong, while still depicting the values of the American Dream Busby Berkeley o Skilled at filming dance sequences with large groups of people o Invented cameras that could go up on a crane to create a high, vast view o Made Gold Diggers of 1933. The plot of this movie was that a broadway production was opening during the depression o The finances of the show break down, so there is no money to support the play o The characters try to find a way to make the show to help people find work and feel better about the depression o Main song in the movie: Were in the Money Leonard Bernstein o Wrote an opera/stage musical called Trouble in Tahiti in 1952 o Was the same composer who did West Side Story conductor of the Philharmonic Orchestra o The opera is about a wife and a husband who are unhappy and unfulfilled in Suburbia David Bradley (1954) o Writes about the responsibilities he feels to be an artists from a certain ethnicity o Paintings are Native American perspectives on traditional American paintings they blend and merge different cultures (ex. American Indian Gothic vs. American Gothic) George W. Bush o Also a baby boomer many parallels to Bill Clinton as a figure o Formerly enlisted Air Guardsman o Life was not completely focused on success went to Yale but struggled because of his problems with drinking and other things o For his election, there was much controversy over the votes of Florida Frank Capra o A filmmaker well known for comedies o Movie American Madness in 1932 o This movie was made during the year of Roosevelts inauguration o Allowed people to process the scenes they saw in everyday life, like the scene where the banks are being mauled by individuals demanding their money in cash o People went to see these movies to counter their worst fears Andrew Carnegie o Wrote The Gospel of Wealth in 1889 o About how those with money should be careful about who they give their money to because not all people are prepared to handle such large sums of money o The wealthy entrepreneur should make sure his money is put to good use and not wasted on petty things Rachel Carson o A biologist who studied birds

Was the first writer to address the environmental crisis by writing Silent Spring in 1962 Was concerned that she was seeing a dying out of species connected to the use of DDT and pesticides o Warned everyone that if the pollution was not addressed, pretty soon humans could have a huge impact on nature Judy Chicago o Artist who was very active in womens rights o Decided to not take a name that was given by either a husband or a father o Launched an art project and created The Dinner Party in this, she brought together the greatest women of all time as if they were all gathering for a meal o Wanted to take traditional life forms and use them in an untraditional way to make a statement about womens rights Sandra Cisneros (1954) o Wrote The House on Mango Street about a girl growing up in a Hispanic neighborhood and struggling to get out of and overcome Americas expectations for her Bill Clinton o Used all the resources of communication to connect with Americans, which made him a very effective communicator o First leader of the baby-boom generation o Shared history with Reagan: difficult childhoods, broken homes, alcohol abusing parents o Strong support for civil rights o Policies dealing with less government spending pushed for universal health care while maintaining a government budget o His success was so great, that people tried really hard to find something wrong with his presidency E.E. Cummings o Wrote the poem My Sweet Old Etcetera for WWI o Similar tone to the poem Dulce et Decorum Est Edgar Degas o An impressionist painter; painted a painting called The Washerwomen o Many people found impressionist paintings of everyday life offensive. Found his painting offensive because of the use of color o Colors are more muted in his paintings o Womans face is distorted while yawning. People did not want to see depictions of real life in such a style Ngo Dinh Diem o Was an anticommunist Vietnamese statesman. The first president of South Vietnam. Was supported by the United States o Was a very paranoid and ruthless leader who would expel, imprison or execute people who went against his regime o Because of this, the people of his country did not like him. When a new candidate Ho Chi Minh emerged, Diem refused to hold elections because he knew he would most likely lose to Ho Chi Minh o The resentment towards his rule eventually contributed to the rise of the Viet Cong Walt Disney o Wrote the movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937

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In the movie, the dwarfs work in a mine mining jewels all day. They would sing and whistle cheerful songs while doing their work. This was a falsely cheerful portrayal of mine workers during the depression o A fantasy that counters people working in dangerous mines for low pay (as opposed to diamonds and jewels) Bob Dylan o Apart of the rise in music and poetry during the Vietnam War o His songs addressed political issues of the time of the Vietnam war o Modeled himself on Woody Guthrie o In 1965, he wrote High Way 61, which changed his style from folk ballad to rock he became more famous and began to write with hallucinatory imagery Albert Einstein o German refugee scientist who became important in the U.S. nuclear program o The expertise that came from Hitlers Germany contributed to the development of the atomic bomb Dwight Eisenhower o Elected for 1952 to 1956 o After the war, he took the position of the supreme commander of NATO o He ran as a republican (a moderate republican) o He supported the use of the government for undertaking projects and policies o Felt unable to curb and criticize senator McCarthy Wendy Ewald o A documentary photographer o Worked with children to teach them to document their own lives with photographs o Many of her photographers were children living in poverty showed classic American images and emotions (joy, wonder, sorrow, fear) from the point of view of poor children Benjamin Franklin o One of the founding Fathers of the United States of America o Contributed greatly to the American Enlightenment with his theories about electricity o Invented the lightning rod, the stove, and a carriage odometer Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, 1963 o Addresses the problem of obtaining affluent status o Helped to form the organization NOW National Organization for Women (1966) o Wrote as a privileged middle class woman and a housewife in her book o Asks the question is this all that women want? Senator J. William Fulbright o Chair, Senate Foreign relations committee o Wrote the book Arrogance of Power (1966) o In this book, he attacked the justification of the Vietnam war, Congresss failure to set limits on it, and the impulses which gave rise to it o Undermined the agreement amongst government leaders that the war in Vietnam was necessitated by Cold War politics (the spread of communism) o Judy Garland o The actress who played Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz o Her character is an orphan who lives with her aunt and uncle on their farm. They do not have a lot of money

The movie starts in black and white and then switches to color when she gets to Oz Her song Somewhere over the Rainbow expresses a longing for an escape from the great depression Carmen Lomas Garza (1948) o A painter painted Tamalada (making tamales) in 1987 o Shows a Hispanic family in the kitchen together making tamales in an assembly line type deal Paul Gaugin o Painted Tahitian Women Bathing o Female nude depicting a real, ordinary person. The shape of the women is almost flattened o The painting makes use of shapes and colors; it is not as realistic as impressionism (postimpressionism) Vincent van Gogh o Painted Mountains at Saint-Remy o he wasnt interested in portraying the colors he saw with his own eye o goal was to portray shapes and the general shape of the landscape Arlo Guthrie o Son of Woody Guthrie o Emerged as part of an expression of the counter culture of the late 60s and a critique of the Vietnam war o Wrote an album called Alices Restaurant which was made into a movie in 1969 o The movie was a romanticized view of the 60s, when men were being drafted for the Vietnam war Woody Guthrie o A part of the rise of music and poetry during the Vietnam war o Was a folk singer who sang and played acoustic guitar o Some of his songs were traditional songs, while others were rewritten to fit contemporary situations o Wrote This Land is Your Land o Was very politically active Ernest Hemingway o Wrote the novel In Our Time in 1925 and A Farewell to Arms in 1929 o In Our Time is a collection of short stories that relate to World War I o Hemingway tends to focus on nature to emphasize the emotions of the main characters after they have been to war John Hersey o A news reporter in the 40s o Wrote the novel Hiroshima, which documented the experiences of survivors of the bombing and their futures o Uses a style of writing that is detailed and graphic, but distant emotionally o The goal of this book was to show the Americans the affects of the bombing of Hiroshima Herbert Hoover o Republican president during the great depression o Has a reputation for being good with business o Successful business man who was willing to try new things

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Kept up with the latest technology installed the first telephone in the white house After WWI, he served in Europe to help bring good aid to the ravaged countries During his presidency, GNP declined greatly, there were over 4000 bank failures, and unemployment rose to 25% o His name became associated with the poverty that struck the nation o Ran for reelection because he thought his policies would achieve a rise in economy; lost to Roosevelt Jim Hubbard o Created Shooting Back in 1991 o Is a photographer who was assigned to cover the White House o On his way, he was struck by the degree of poverty and homelessness that he had to go through to get to the white house led him to photograph the poor Thomas Jefferson o Author of the declaration of independence o Third president of the united states, elected in 1800 (defeated John Adams) o One of his most notable achievements was the purchase of the Louisiana Territory in 1803 o Tried to maintain neutrality in a way between Britain and France, but it ended with the war of 1812 Lyndon Johnson o A democrat who was elected as the 36th president in 1963 o Was previously the vice president of John F. Kennedy o Succeeded to the presidency after Kennedys assassination and, after completing Kennedys term, was elected president on his own o Some of his goals as president were to establish Medicare and Medicaid, establish laws that supported civil rights and to help the immense amount of people in poverty in the United States John Kennedy o President from 1961-1963 o A young senator the first Roman Catholic to be in office o Considered a television president. He held the first televised presidential debates between himself and Nixon in 1960 during the campaign o Kennedy engaged the audience more through the television, which eventually won against Nixons more stiff and formal approach o In the end, Kennedy appealed more to television audiences, which were everywhere during that time o One of his early initiatives as president was making a speech to congress recommending a high priority space program Martin Luther King, Jr. o From Montgomery, Alabama o A great speaker who was able to gather people together in support of nonviolent protest o Boycotted lunch counters (famous incident in Greensboro, NC) o Participated in the March on Washington (1963) where blacks and whites came together to listen to his speech about civil rights o Was later assassinated civil rights supporters mourned the loss of a influential speaker Maxine Hong Kingston (1940)

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o Wrote The Woman Warrior in 1975 about the struggles of women in China Henry Kissinger o An influential cabinet member during Nixons presidency o Served as secretary of state and national security advisor o Was a former Harvard professor appointed by Kennedy o Influenced Nixon to take a very bold and important step to establish diplomatic ties with China o Encouraged the moon landing of 1969 Stanley Kubrick o Directed the movie A Space Odyssey (1968-2001) o Arthur C. Clark imagined the year 2001 as a futuristic year of high space advancement o The movie begins with a vision of human evolution, where apes discover a box from another planet o Ultimately leads to a system of interplanetary travel Tony Kushner (1956) o A playwright who wrote the play Angels in America o A two-part play that takes place during the 1980s and the period of the AIDS epidemic o Depicts different people during the 80s dealing with the epidemic, problems within the government, and personal issues such as sexuality, and adapting to change John Locke o Was a philosopher and physician during the Enlightenment in America Malcolm X o Emerged as a civil rights leader in the mid to late 60s o Appealed for a more institutional means of change for black individuals Eugene McCarthy o American politician and poet. Was a member of the US congress from Minnesota o Served in the House of representatives and Senate o Was the first candidate to challenge Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1968 election o Ran his campaign on an anti-Vietnam war platform. Withdrew when he received many botes from New Hampshire Senator Joseph McCarthy o A powerful anti-communist politician o His career was based on attacking communist infiltrators, seeing as extremists groups were rampant during this period o He and his allies worried that people involved in communism were undermining the U.S. government o This fear of communism caused people to find others to blame (scapegoating) therefore, people blamed everyone they thought was involved in communism o Worked with Roy Cohn (NY lawyer), who played a big part in the trial of a woman who was supposedly involved with communism (it was thought she was innocent) Ho Chi Minh o Was a founding member of the French Communist party o Became president of communist north Vietnam, against Diem in South Vietnam o Was very active in the war for independence in Vietnam Claude Monet o An impressionist painter; painted Women in the Garden

The painting is set outdoors in the bright sunlight. The sunlight reflects off of the white dresses of the women o Blue is used to crease shadow. This was shocking to people that something which was supposed to be white used had blue tones in it o Not a composed picture more like a snap shot that captures the motion of the women Monticello o The estate of Thomas Jefferson Toni Morrison (1931) o Writer wrote the novel Beloved in 1987 about a woman who struggles deeply with her experiences from slavery even while living free Edward R. Murrow o A newscaster who challenged senator McCarthys tactics o Risked his career and reputation Gunnar Myrdal o Swedish man commissioned to do a study on race relations o Wrote a book called An American Dilemma in 1944 looking at the situations of African Americans o Concluded that there was a deep contradiction and in the realm of race relations, the united states was not living up to their expectations Richard Nixon o President from 1953 to 1961 o Started his career with rumors of bribery with money, mink coats, and other luxury items o Had a reputation of being tough during his time as vice president o Elected in 1968 with a secret plan to end the war (this ended up being a secret bombing raid in Cambodia) o Involved in illegal activities within the government o Secret donations were given to the White House that allowed them to pay off the people who might have information to harm the reputation of Nixon and the White House o Was found talking about the bribes and pay offs on an automatic tape system in the White House o Resigned in August, 1974 after the House voted articles of impeachment J. Robert Oppenheimer o Brilliant scientist who was very dedicated to the Manhattan project o Took personal change in New Mexico (Los Alamos) for the testing of the atomic bomb Wilfred Owen o Lived from 1893-1918 o Wrote a famous poem about WWI called Dulce et Decorum Est (effects of poisonous gas) Pablo Picasso o A Spanish cubist painter; painted Vase, Gourd, and Fruit on a Table and le Demoiselle dAvignon o The purpose of his style of painting was that the picture seen outside of the painters mind becomes less and less important o In his paintings, objects are broken down into only their general shape Ezra Pound**

o Hugh Selwyn Mauberley Ronald Reagan o Former president of U.S. o Utilized the power of the media to enhance his campaign his former acting skills made him a very good communicator to his audience o His campaign drew on the idea of the American frontier made Americans feel like they were being led by a hero Auguste Renoir o Impressionist painter o Painted Young Girl Bathing o Shocking in its own time because the girl was not a goddess; she was an ordinary girl depicted in a way that a goddess would be depicted o People said she was not just nude, she was naked. She was not posing for the painting, she was caught in a moment of nakedness o Subject is defined, background is not David Riesman o A sociologist who wrote the book The Lonely Crowd in 1950 o Was concerned that, as Americans became prosperous after the war, they were losing their individualism and sense of their own American character o Came up with three categories of people in America Tradition Driven grow up to follow their parents in mind and career Inner directed people who find their own way and are clear on their own values, even if they are different from their parents Lonely Crowd Members not sure what their own values are because they do not get values from parents. Instead, they get their values from society and peers Jacob Riis o When Riis first arrived to America, he lived like most poor immigrants, working in lumber yards o Began thinking about the condition that people lived in, living in tenement housing o Began reporting/investigating and making known the condition of the housing of these people in tenements o Began giving lectures about these issues where he used photographs to document the things he wrote about The Tenement the living conditions of the immigrant people in NY Sweat Shop workers living in crowded, dangerous conditions Faith Ringgold o A painter who works in traditionally feminine art forms o Most known for her painted story quilts Norman Rockwell (1894-1978) o Was an artist of postwar America o His paintings showed a vision of America that was old-fashioned and nostalgic o Showed a benign world where children are cared for and families are safe o Four Freedoms depicts Americans carrying out their rights as given to them by the constitution, along with other freedoms (freedom from want and fear) Rogers and Hammerstein o Very famous for producing Broadway musicals

Wrote the musical Carousel (1945) about a young girl who falls in love with a barker at a carousel the man is very carefree, kind of irresponsible o The man sings cheerfully about what his life would be like if he were to have a baby boy when he imagines having a girl, he becomes afraid for protecting her Franklin Delano Roosevelt o Elected president in 1932 o During his campaign, people of America were looking for a politician to save them from the crisis of the great depression o He attended Harvard and served in the cabinet under Woodrow Wilson o Was a wealthy person, which was ironic because two wealthy people were being elected to save a country full of poor individuals o He doesnt actually have a plan for fixing the economy when he is elected, but he is very dedicated to finding a plan o Committed to the idea of bringing together a group of advisors who would come up with the New Deal o First disabled president (and only) Theodore Roosevelt o 1889 civil service commission o 1895 police commissioner in New York City o Coined the term muckraker (a reporter who investigates problems within the social system, like crime and corruption, usually dealing with influential people in the government and society) o 1900 vice president o 1901, elected president o Created anti-trust laws, authorized the regulation of railroads, and started the conservation act and pure food and drug act o 1912, was a progressive party candidate for president Augustus Saint Gaudens o Designed the memorial of Robert Gould Shaw o The memorial is located in Boston, Massachusetts o Was a source of pride for the African American community o This battle, led by RGS, was an opportunity for African-Americans to serve as soldiers o They were attacked fiercely by the confederates most of the men were killed (Storming of Fort Wagner) Upton Sinclair o Was a socialist who ran for governor of California in 1934 o Was an investigative reporter who went out to places and wrote about things he observed o His writing led to legislative regulation o Wrote the Jungle, in 1906. It is a novel about immigrants who worked in the food processing business. It followed the lives of the workers, showing graphic depictions of the food processing and how unsanitary it was o This book led to the issuing of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906 Lincoln Steffens o 1886-1936 o Began his journalistic career under the mentorship of Jacob riis o Working for McClures magazine, he exposed corruption in government

Shame of Cities published in 1904, was credited with changing attitudes towards reform. It was about corruption in the cities, elected officials taking bribes, laws forbidding conflicts of interest Gertrude Stein o Was American she and her brothers Leo and Michael were children of a wealthy industrialist o Received an advanced education and went to Harvard and Johns Hopkins medical school o She wanted to become a writer, so she moved to France. There, her and her brothers became art collectors o Collected the art of cubist artists o Lived with her partner Alice B. Toklas in Paris o Redefined what it is like to be American in the 1930s o Bought the painting Tender Buttons in 1914 Gloria Steinem Ms. Magazine, founded July 1972 o Created a magazine portraying women as heroes in America talked about various womens rights issues, the role of women in society, and the struggles of women o Worked to create a title for women that did not have to do with whether they were married or unmarried Roy Stryker o Went to Columbia to get a graduate degree o Known for getting his students out of the classroom and into the community o Took his students to the homeless shelters to bring them into poverty. He would show photographs of poverty in his classes o Felt that photography was a serious took of communication o Hired photographers to document the problems of poverty and published them in the newspaper so that they could make the problem known and show what effort the government would make Ida Tarbell o Was another writer for McClures magazine o Wrote a series of articles criticizing John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company, saying they were disposing of waste in inappropriate ways Shirley Temple o A girl who played little orphan Annie in movies and television shows o Her charm and cheeriness made people frequent her movies often during the depression o Her character is an orphan who is poor, but still manages to stay spunky and cheerful o Her personality is what people needed during the depression. Even Roosevelt said that it was a wonderful thing during the depression to see someone so cheerful and happy o Her song Good Ship Lollipop is about escaping from the depression Sitting Bull o Part of the Lakota tribe o Refused to go to the reservations that the Federal Indian Policy created for American Indian tribes o Travelled to Canada to be free Emmett Till o A young black man who was brutally murdered by two white men in 1955

His mother had an open casket funeral for him so that the world could see what happened to her son (disfigured past recognition) o A striking, horrific event for black people everywhere John Trumbull o An artist who painted themes from the American Revolution o Paintings: Declaration of Independence, George Washington, Battle of Bunker Hill, etc Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warmer o The Gilded Age o Novel that satirizes greed and political corruption in post-Civil War America o Title is a comparison to the Golden Age, which is more ideal than a Gilded age Vanderbilt Family o Cornelius Vanderbilt began a railroad and shipping empire o Contributed to expansion into the west King Vidor o Made a movie called Our Daily Bread in 1934 o This movie conquered the issues of the dustbowl o In the movie, economic issues and drought made the situations of farmers worse. Because of this, farmers would work together to save each others farms o In the movie, Vidor created a ballet-like sequence o The movie had a fantasy rescue where the farmers created a trench to bring water from the river to the crops o Goal was to uplift the poor who were experiencing these problems Booker T. Washington o Lived from 1856-1968 o Founded the Tuskegee Institute o Was an orator and fund-raiser o Wrote his autobiography Up from Slavery in 1901 o Was interested in African Americans receiving the education that would get them jobs and benefit them economically o Was willing to accept segregation and not press for rights in order to gain education and economic success for African Americans Ida Wells-Barnett o Born a slave o Attended Fisk University o Became a teacher and journalist o In 1884, she led a campaign against segregation on railroads o Edited Memphis newspaper o Campaigned against lynching o Moved to Chicago when Memphis became too dangerous o Joined the Niagara Movement o Married Ferdinant Lee Barnett o Was an ally of Jane Addams (Hull House) o In her writing, she is very outspoken. She said that those who disapprove of lynching and remain silent are equally as guilty Woodrow Wilson o Elected in 1912 o Was a progressive reformer and an idealist

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A southerner who, as president, brought the confederacy back to the south Had a law degree and became president of Princeton university. Came into politics from an idealistic and intellectual framework Was president during WWI. Initially tried to keep America out of the war, h/e, due to the event with the Lusitania, declared war in 1917

Antiwar Movement o Divisions emerge between those in favor of the war, and those protesting o There were large groups of students protesting at their universities o A growing number of troops were being called into Vietnam o Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. made an antiwar speech in 1967 (Linkin Park: Wisdom, Justice and Love) Armory Show (1913) o Exhibition of modern art Brown Vs. Board of Education o In 1954, segregation was banned in public schools o Little Rock High School was a site for riots when a group of black students tried to enter the previously white-only high school. The riots were so violent that Eisenhower called forth the national guard to accompany the students into the school (1957) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) o Joint resolution of Congress gave president Lyndon Johnson authority to increase U.S. involvement in the war between North and South Vietnam Bombing of Hiroshima o August 6, 1945 Centennial Exhibition in 1876 o Philadelphia was host to a celebration of 100 years of American cultural and industrial progress o It was the first major Worlds Fair where people exhibited new arts, manufactures and products of agriculture and mines Democratic National Convention (1968) o A democratic convention held after the assassinations of MLK and JFK o Because of this, there were many riots and protests o During this convention, violence ensued and the Chicago police had to get involved Freedmans Bureau in 1865 o Bureau of refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lands o Lasted for 7 years o Schools were set up for the African Americans. School was their path to citizenship o Because of these schools, there were violent reactions where people would burn down freedmen schools because of differing opinions Geneva Accords (1954) o Arranged a settlement which brought about the end to the First Indochina war o The agreement was reached at the end of the Geneva Conference Harlem Renaissance o The emergence of poetry and music in Harlem o Langston Hughes An African American poet who claimed a state in literature o Jazz Music of the 1820s reemerged as ragtime

King Olivers jazz Band with Louis Armstrong was an example of ragtime jazz Hitlers rise to power (1933) o Became the head of the national socialist party in the early 20th century after many Jewish people immigrated to Germany o Elected as chancellor of Germany o As chancellor, connected jewish people with banking and blamed them for the economic crisis that Germany suffered o Mobilized racial fear in this way. He saw the Jew as a very racially different figure and rapacious figure o Thought that Jews were contaminating the blood of the pure arian race Hurricane Katrina (2005) o New Orleans sat on top of an area with structural problems and poverty o The people who were in poverty were not protected as well and were affected the most o Louisiana was poorly prepared for an event like this roads were completely blocked, escape havens were overcrowded and filled with disease Kent State University (1970) o The Ohio national guard shot at college protesters who were protesting the invasion of Cambodia o They killed four students and wounded 9 I Love Lucy o The most famous family comedy that premiered in 1951 o It ran for six seasons o It was about a stay at home wife who was always going out and getting into trouble o Her husband had to get her out of silly situations, but in the end, they always loved each other Lusitania o The Lusitania was sunk by a submarine off of the Irish coast in 1915 o 1000 people died, including theatre impresarios Vanderbilt and Frohman o This event was a huge cry for America to enter WWI Wilson declared war after this in 1917 Manhattan Project o General Leslie Groves oversaw this top secret project with scientists and physicists to create a new form of warfare o Project was housed in manhattan at the army corps of engineers (scientists, specialists and engineers coming together to brilliantly solve a problem) o All of the separate sections of the organization were under the supervision of J. Robert Oppenheimer My Lai massacre o The soldiers in the Vietnam war had just experienced a great loss of people o The soldiers went into my lai, captured the innocent villagers and shot all of them NAACP o Black and white individuals coming together to fight for civil rights o The rights they were fighting for were based on the rights given in the constitution Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers o Occurred in 1971 papers detailing the U.S. involvement with Vietnam were smuggled out of the Pentagon o These papers were published in newspapers and distributed as a book

Efforts to suppress the distribution of these papers by the supreme court were unsuccessful o This event fueled a continuing controversy, as well as a new determination to keep secrets within the government o CIA operatives were recruited to steal back government information Progressive Reform o Romantic reformers (Douglass, Harriet Beacher Stowe, Thoreau) stressed individual change of heart to change society o During the period after the Civil War, progressive reformers (Jacob Riis, Jane Addams) stressed structural change, legislation, and regulation Stock Market Crash (October 24, 1929) o The stock market crash was not just an American problem. Inflation and instability of currency was happening all over the world because of WWI o The Bull Market was a system in which one did not need money to buy the stocks. Therefore, everyone invested in the stock market because it was going up so quickly. Ordinary people bought stock to afford their houses/lifestyles. When the market crashed, they did not have the money to afford their homes/food/etc. o After the crash, unemployment increased to 25% o Individuals, the government, and agencies did not know how to handle an economic decline this immense Unforgettable Fire (1974) o Survivors of the bombing of Hiroshima were asked to illustrate their memories of their experiences after the bombing Watergate Break-In (at Democratic Headquarters) o June, 1972 o The CIA was looking for information that could be used to embarrass Nixon o Broke into Watergate to plant a listening device, but the break-in was botched when a security guard found the burglars o The individuals involved were Howard Hunt (CIA) and G. Gordon Liddy (FBI), who had been hired by the White House o Was the final incident before the destruction of Nixons reputation and the nations trust in the government

Historical Terms
Air/Ground War o Characterized by a war pilot sitting in a plane with complicated buttons o Ground soldiers had to learn about the culture they were attacking. They were more exposed and they could not trust anyone o Soldiers began perform ecocide, which is the burning of large areas of forest o The use of napalm became common as well Bank Failures o When one gives money to the bank, the bank takes that money and invests it, or lends it out in mortgages o Many people lost their jobs after the crash. Therefore, they could not pay their mortgages, which meant that the bank suddenly did not have the money they invested. Because of this, people lost the money that they gave to the bank.

Local banks did not have resources to fix the problem. When people realized this was happening, everyone panicked and rushed to the bank to demand their money in cash o The banks ended up not having the money to give to people and ended up closing Battle Hymn of the Republic o Written by Julia Ward Howe o Was a union marching song o The song says that the union cause was a godly cause Citizenship in Victorian America o 13th amendment 1865: abolished slavery (only in the states that were in rebellion) o 14th amendment 1868: citizen rights o 15th amendment 1870: black (male) suffrage - authorized suffrage - womens rights and abolitionists worked together - black males could vote Domino Theory o The idea that the first communist countries were going to spread communism to other European Nations o The Vietnam war was considered a way to stop communism from spreading to other countries (Vietnam was considered the next country at risk) Economic Change in Modernist America o Rise of corporate capitalism. There were more chain businesses and stores. Stores were considered a symbolic target for American life o Grocery chains became popular o Advertising became modernized with radio, television ads, and such Farm Security Administration o Under the department of agriculture. Dealt with farm failure, the dust bowl, and people who cannot afford to pay their debt o FSA dealt with displaced homeless people, failure of policies that could get people back on the farm and make farms productive o Had the information division to make the agricultural effort seem reasonable and convince the nation that agricultural reform was very important Final Solution o Hitler and allies called a conference and came up with the final solution to the Jewish problem o Decided that they needed to kill the Jews, not just remove them and use them for labor First 100 Days o The first 100 days of Roosevelts presidency o Created new banking policies. Created bank holiday, federal deposit insurance, and federal inspection of banks o Agriculture was improved. Farmers took classes in land rotation and more scientific ways to farm. Government supervision of marketing agreements o Creation of jobs. Expenditure of government money to stimulate the economy o Special projects: Tennessee Valley Authority. Dams and hydroelectric plants o Wage and price controls Jim Crow Laws o Laws that separated the races o These laws came about after the Compromise of 1877, when power was returned to the white south

African Americans were kept from achieving citizenship. There were many violent acts of lynching from 1882 to 1968 Kristallnacht (1938) o The Night of Broken Glass in November 1938 o Was a systematic attack on synagogues, Jewish businesses and Jewish homes Living Room War o During the Vietnam war, technology was becoming widespread o Many everyday people had televisions in their homes people were documenting the war on camera and broadcasting it on television o This was one of the first wars where people could actually see the violence and injustice for themselves on television Meuse-Argonne campaign (1918)** o Cemetery for world war I o Americans worked with the French (the allies) to create a cemetery for those who died in WWI New Deal Reformers and Brains Trust o Roosevelt came in during the Depression, when Americans had lost all hope o Made many reforms like new banking policies, agricultural organizations, and creating jobs for the unemployed o Attempted to control peoples wages and the prices of goods to stimulate the economy o Brains Trust was a group of advisors who helped Roosevelt to work on government problems and draft policies Nuremberg Laws (1935) o Passed in 1935 during Hitlers reign of power o Limited the amount of professions that Jews could have Singer Building o The Singer Building was built in 1908 o It was the first of the great skyscrapers o Had 47 stories and very ornate details at the top of the building Skyscraper o The skyscraper began as a way to make more space on a small amount of land o Land was very expensive because there was not much space to build anything o It was successful because of readily available steel. Steel frames were used to support each floor of the buildings o The elevator was also a helpful invention, as it provided access to higher floors (20, 25 stories) Spaceship Earth o This was an idea started during the race to space o The idea was to imagine that the capsule sent into space was a symbolic version of the Earth itself o Adlai Stevenson, who is ambassador to the UN, compared the Earth to the capsule in orbit Suburbia o Areas of suburban housing, which were planned communities outside of the cities o The houses were all built the same these carbon copy houses brought about a fear of conformity

The houses were said to all be filled with suburban commuters, or the man in the gray Flannel Suit o Many men went off to work, sporting the same attire, to support their families Trench warfare o Soldiers spent long periods in these trenches facing their opponent o The allies would be in one trench, and the axis powers in the other o The trenches were very unsanitary because there was no system to drain out anything from the bottom o There was a lot of disease, rats and such o Poisonous gas was common because it was heavier than air and would sink into the trenches with no way of getting out o Because of this type of warfare, there was widespread destruction to land Viet Cong o People against the rule of Diem formed the viet cong o They would fight the American soldiers in south Vietnam Vietnamization o 1969 Nixons way of handling the war in Vietnam o President Nixon realized that most of the American stress of Vietnam was from loss of lives and losing families o Nixon began to fund the war, but withdrew troops from Vietnam Invaded Cambodia with the intention of frightening the communist countries ended up extending the war into more of Asia, increasing the need for troops o There was much protest in the U.S., especially on college campuses, where many men were at risk of being drafted for a war with no clear intention Whole Earth o A photograph of Earth was taken from space had the perspective of the satellites and capsules o This photograph gave people a different perspective of their planet and made people see how fragile their planet really is