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Page 1 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha, Integrated Management College, New Delhi


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Part 1 (Introduction to Scriptwriting, screenplay and teleplay Scripts are elements) Part 2 (Scriptwriting for both short film) Part 3 (Scriptwriting for feature film) Part 4 (As student develops their own script) Part 5 Introduction to storyboard) Part 6 (Steps of storyboard writing) Glossary

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22 –35

36 -42 43 –43 44 –51 52 –62 63 -79

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The basics of scriptwriting
The first thing that you need to remember about scriptwriting is that a script is more than just the dialogue and interactions between the characters. A good script has to have all of the directions for the characters included in clear, concise steps... if a character named Bob is supposed to be wearing a certain color of coat, you need to be able to tell it from the script. The same goes for any actions, emotions, and sometimes even the looks of the characters... while not everything needs to be accounted for within the script, anyone who reads the script needs to be able to get a feel for what the work will look like without actually having to see the work. A scriptwriter needs to be careful, however, not to put too much information in the script. After all, the character is going to be portrayed by a live person (except in the cases of animation or puppetry, but even in those cases there are people involved somewhere)... it's that person's job to truly bring the character to life. If the script dictates every single move that they make, then they have little or no chance to doing a successful job. Capture every important detail in the script, outline the setting and the look of everything at the beginning of the scene, and trust in the actors to be able to interpret the characters on their own. Another consideration that must be kept in mind is the format of the script. Many beginning scriptwriters think that they can get noticed by doing their own thing, creating their own format as they go along. Unfortunately, they're right in a way... actors, directors, and script readers do tend to notice scripts that ignore standard formatting procedures. The problem is that they notice that the scripts are different than what they're used to working with, so unless the content is exceptionally good then they're likely to pass on the script without even really looking at it in depth. Even if they accept the script, it's likely that they'll get a rewrite of the script before proceeding too far with it. The best advice for a beginning scriptwriter is to get ahold of a few scripts and read through them... get a feel for how much information is good and how much it too much. Buy a copy of a book on script formats, and maybe some scriptwriting software to help you to write your script. Most importantly, though, stick with your ideas and your dreams... after all, only you can truly make them come to life.

There are three bodies of a script: Headings, narrative and dialogue. Each of these has three points to remember. Headings: 1. Master scene headings which include:
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Putting all this together you should come up with something that looks like this: Page 4 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. flash forwards. New Delhi . Both the director and actor will appreciate it. Try to avoid these as much as possible. Action 2. 3. (interior or inside) b) Scene location (LOCAL RACE TRACK) c) Time (DAY or NIGHT) 2. etc. The speech. flashbacks.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING a) Camera location . (exterior or outside) or INT. Character and settings (visual) 3. Integrated Management College. The actors direction (AKA parenthetical or wryly). in CAPS. 2. Narrative Description: 1. dream sequences. Sounds Dialogue: 1. Secondary scene heading 3. The name of the person speaking appears at the top. ―Special headings‖ for things such as montages.EXT.

poem. They can print the script and bring it to their teacher when finished. (pl. Aside from practicing newly learned vocabulary. or the suiting of his attitude. 5. or in groups. the action of the heart. as. Any one of the active processes going on in an organism. Action Meaning and Definition 1. mechanism. the unfolding of the drama of events. students may write scripts for scenes that focus on specific pronunciation issues. agency. An act. Movement. hence. or other composition. The event or connected series of events. voice. Integrated Management College. 2. either real or imaginary. as. forming the subject of a play. and fluency. Effective motion. Gesticulation. the doing of something. students can focus on specific grammar features. as. Note that while students can "check" their answers. The added benefit is that the students can perform their script when it is completed. in pairs. the action of heat. A process or condition of acting or moving. the effect of power exerted on one body by another. students fill in the blanks to create the script. the horse has a spirited action. Page 5 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. an enterprise.): Habitual deeds.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Scriptwriting Activity In this activity. Likewise. vocabulary in context. there are many correct answers. as when one body acts on another. demeanor. or to the feelings. 6. Scriptwriting helps students focus on register. to the subject. a thing done. A script can be edited and re-drafted to focus on the writing process. Use of Scriptwriting Scriptwriting can be done individually. or the gastric juice. as opposed to rest. the performance of a function. 4. An easy way to engage students in the learning of new vocabulary is to have them create very short scenes in which they dramatize certain concepts. Purpose: To give students practice in writing scripts. 3. behavior. activity. a deed. adjacency pairs. 7. the external deportment of the speaker. New Delhi . It can be used by beginning (or low-intermediate) level students . and countenance. gestures. exertion of power or force. also. a man of action. the breech action of a gun. the muscles. conduct. operation. as.

You don't need to use the combination descriptions.SUNLIGHT These might look very different to you./EXT. JIM'S HOUSE. 12.NIGHT INT. hence. JONES'S RESIDENCE.. or INT. a battle.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING 8. 11. A share in the capital stock of a joint-stock company. or the punishment of a public offense. Scene Headings A Scene Heading. as. equivalent to stocks." EXT. KITCHEN . OUTSIDE and. means "exterior. CONNER AEROSPACE. New Delhi . A right of action. you want to be consistent. you want these to be consistent so the production manager can easily find and schedule all the scenes that take place at that location. don't refer to Jim's house as "JIM'S HOUSE. In other words. That is. the redress or prevention of a wrong. JIM'S HOUSE. the scene changes to INT. if.Q. 13. a partial action. if it moves the other way. in a broad sense./EXT. a judicial proceeding for the enforcement or protection of a right. WALKER FARMHOUSE. as. a scene starts outside and moves inside. means "interior. 10. at a park. the last thing Page 6 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. or in the public funds. generally. by which a demand is made of a right in a court of justice. If your script is in production. in a building./INT. whether on land or water. The key here is the generality." Sometimes you might want to use EXT. In other words. also known as a Slug line (from typesetting days). The Scene Headings start with an indication of whether you're inside or outside. where are we standing? Where do we put the camera? Look at some of the examples below: Description EXT. The mechanical contrivance by means of which the impulse of the player's finger is transmitted to the strings of a pianoforte or to the valve of an organ pipe. in the plural. 9. As you reuse these. INT. Believe me." "JIM JONES'S HOUSE" and "MR. at a house. Integrated Management College. INSIDE The next part of the Scene Heading tells where you are.ESTABLISHING INT.CONTINUING SPACE MISSION 6 H. a general action. CONNER'S OFFICE . at the appropriate time. It's just as likely you can start the scene EXT." You want to keep this consistent so the reader can easily know where you are in general terms. but notice the sections of the Scene Headings and they'll start to feel the same. The attitude or position of the several parts of the body as expressive of the sentiment or passion depicted. the law gives an action for every claim. A suit or process. etc. An engagement between troops in war. a fight. for example. JIM'S HOUSE. PATIO . tells the reader where a scene takes place. 1900Z .

Not to sound like a broken record. you'll see something else. Don't do this unless the reader expects it. ALWAYS. use 2. Two spaces after the period is common and accepted. try to break up the text at one of the natural break points: between the general and specific locations. if possible. sometimes you'll see no spaces and two dashes.. a dash and another space. you may have noticed that the INT or EXT is followed by a period. Sometimes you'll see no spaces. If you have to. The spacing after the period is also up for debate. sometimes you'll see two dashes. Two blanks looks better and also makes the script read faster. Finally. You do not want to break a Scene Heading so the time indicator is the only thing on the second line. Yes. New Delhi . the punctuation before the time indicator is most often a space. The margin settings are 1. 1 blank line is acceptable. like a dash. This one's more up to your aesthetic sense than industry rules.. Again. If you need a Scene Heading that takes two lines. if the reader expects something specific. you would like to have 2 blank lines before each Scene Heading. Next. You want to keep your Scene Headings to one line. you'll see other punctuation like a colon or a dash or no punctuation. Similarly. this will make your script longer than if you had only 1 blank line preceding the Scene Heading and. Don't do this unless you know that the person who is reading your script expects something other than a period. if you can.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING you want is a Production Manager or Assistant Director screaming. give it to her/him. Page 7 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. One space is also okay. yes. As always. for example. but use the former unless you know the reader expects something else. use 1. So. to keep the script from being too long. The general description is usually separated from the specific location description by a comma. Integrated Management College. "What do you mean this is supposed to be the same location we were at last week? We tore down the location we were at last week!" Formatting of scene headings The first thing you may have noticed is that Scene Headings are uppercase.5" from the left edge of the page to 1" from the right edge. Occasionally. Use whichever you like best unless you know that the expected reader prefers one or the other. rarely.

Part of this is in the naming of the characters.. if you have a one man war machine who is killing people left and right don‘t call him Bob Smith. This of course relates to how Sephiroth wants to become the next God. Not only are the stories rich and focused but the characters are deep and interesting. and therefore in line to take over the world. except that you want to be consistent.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Character Name Definition Couldn't be more obvious. In Kabbalah there are ten Sephiroth. you can make a character name out of both of their names.. the Character Name element is where you indicate who's talking. Final Fantasy VII was lead by Cloud Strife. you just look at the Character List and see who's on it. No offence to anyone called Bob Smith but it‘s not a name with brings to mind an unstoppable force. I‘d like to step outside the media of film and look at the world of video games. Sephiroth was a genetically enhanced soldier who believed himself to be the son of an alien God. then you can change the wrong ones with just a keystroke or two). If you have two characters speaking simultaneously and saying the same thing. For example. The naming of characters is often given a lot more thought in video games (especially RPG‘s) than movies or TV. For example: BOB AND RHONDA Wait! Stop! Giving your character the ―right‖ name can often be a big piece in the puzzle of making your character feel like a real person. He was physically strong. Page 8 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Whenever you create a character you should have a strong feeling on what he/she is all about. New Delhi . which are ideas. Don't call a character MR. Description Not much to say. yet mentally weak with a brooding nature. The name Sephiroth is based on the teachings of Kabbalah. He had a whole cast of allies who fought against the main antagonist Sephiroth. JONES in one part of the script and DAVE somewhere else (with Scriptware. attributes and concepts one must realise to reach their inner Christ. Integrated Management College. What qualities and characteristics do they possess. In particular I‘d like to look at a series of games called Final Fantasy. it's easy to check to see if you've done this.

Page breaks in Page 9 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Anita. One thing to consider in naming a character is their ethnic background. Try and mix it up instead. if used) must follow. Never end a page with a Character Name line. Also you want to be careful is having too many characters with the same first letter of their first name. The ONLY time this is acceptable is if another Scene Heading or Shot follows. Flaherty and O‘Neill spring forward. New Delhi . Integrated Management College. If you have Dialogue. Dialogue MUST follow. Screenplay Page Breaking       Never end a page with a Scene Heading. McMahon. a Parenthetical and then Dialogue again.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Of course all these names are all well and good but rather outlandish. You don‘t want a cast of characters called Adam. Allan and Aretha. At least two lines of Dialogue if there are that many (including a Parenthetical. If you have a character that is Irish-American then surnames like Mahon. screenwriters can't simply follow the formats of fiction and non-fiction manuscripts. Never end a page at a Parenthetical.) Never start a page with a Transition. If you have a female character who is quiet and full of dignity the name Emily Lincoln immediately pops into me head. The idea is good but needs toning down. (An example would be an Establishing shot and then an interior scene heading. Screenwriting: Understanding Page Breaking  When it comes to making page breaks in screenplays. Unless both names seem perfect for the character don‘t have any character sharing the same first letter in their name. break the page BEFORE the Parenthetical. Lincoln of course comes from Abraham Lincoln. This sets them all apart and make them seem more individual. Finally the internet is a great tool in naming characters. Alice. While that may be fine for the fantasy/sci-fi genre the names would seem overly odd in a more realistic setting. every woman called Emily I know has these personality traits. There are plenty of baby naming sites out there where you can put in character keywords such as ―fighter‖ and ―strong‖ and come out with a list of appropriate names and their meanings. Automatically place Continued: notations when it breaks an Action paragraph or a Dialogue. the very picture of dignity. This is down to personal experience (general character research).

The direction needs to be directly underneath the dialogue. And. Step 3: Inserting a Page Break After Dialogue Screenwriters should try to avoid breaking up dialogue. and the direction (CONTINUED) also needs to be used at the bottom since the scene is continuing.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING     screenwriting involve a bit more work. (CONTINUED)         Step 2: Inserting a Page Break in Stage Direction Stage direction explains what a character should be doing while they are speaking certain dialogue. If the last sentence is not complete. To do this. screenwriters should move that sentence to the next page and stop at the end of the previous sentence. and screenwriters must follow all the screenwriting protocols even when it comes to page breaks. screenwriters have to do something different when it comes to dialogue. Integrated Management College. screenwriters must use the direction (CONTINUED) in order to let readers know that the scene or shot is still continuing. But. Step 1: Using Page Breaks in Screenwriting When screenwriters make a page break in screenplays. screenwriters should only add the break after a complete sentence. Yet. The format for the direction is parenthetical around the word. on the next page. This direction must be placed in the lower right-hand corner of the script. and this needs to be formatted about four inches from the lefthand side of the page. Further. this direction needs to be on the same line as name. while most people know when reading a standard manuscript that they simply just have to turn the page. when a page break happens during the middle of a stage direction. If they must. they need to add the (MORE) after the dialogue. When a screenwriter has to breakup dialogue. Yet. For an example. screenwriters again should only break up the dialogue at the end of a complete sentence. see below: JOSEY It's time to go. oftentimes a shot or even a scene is not completed. the screenwriter again has to use the (CONTINUED) direction. however. New Delhi . screenwriters need to alert their audience that the scene is not finished. see below: Page 10 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. and the word continued in all caps just like above. To alert that reader that the stage direction is continued on the next page. For an example. screenwriters need to add the direction (CONT'D) after the name of the character's name.

making sure he isn't followed by the other troopers. (MORE)     (CONTINUED) ______________________________page break_____________________________________ JOSEY (CONT'D) I wish that I didn't have to. are used in Action and Dialogue for certain types of emphasis. Once in a while. Notice how the lines end before the normal right Dialogue margin. Short Lines Short Lines. etc. This is a common use of Short Lines. Short Lines are usually used to separate different bits of Action without creating new Action elements. One example might be if your character is reciting poetry. Zen Poet. Click. or singing a song. In Action. Integrated Management College. or Forced Line Breaks. OUCH! The Short Lines are the Haiku (okay. New Delhi . Page 11 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. it's not really a Haiku). it's necessary to write dialogue with a series of SHORT LINES. poetry. (reading a poem) The East River. New York Haiku by Steven Sashen. So. Description Short Lines look like this: STEVEN And now. the normal version like this: Simmons walks up to the safe.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING  JOSEY It's time to go. He turns the dial. A Frog Jumps in. lyrics.

Opening Movie Titles Only the most important and head people have been mentioned. Short Lines are not that common and some people don't like them for anything other than things like lyrics.DAY BEGIN TITLES as hundreds of young.ESTABLISHING Sailboats. yachts. you'll see this notation: BEGIN TITLES or BEGIN OPENING TITLES followed by END TITLES or OVER OPENING CREDITS followed by END OPENING CREDITS. KEY WEST MARINA . versus the Short Line way: Simmons walks up to the safe. Integrated Management College. Click. but in total there can be hundreds of people Page 12 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. perfect bodies of college age kids frolic during spring break.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING He turns it the other way.DAWN . New Delhi . He turns it the other way. He turns the dial. EXT. Formatting Short Lines are just Action or Dialogue that end before the normal margin and have no extra blank lines before them. and cabin cruisers all bob up and down in the warm blue water. Titles or Opening Credits In some scripts you read. making sure he isn't followed by the other troopers. An example: FADE IN: EXT. Click. BEACH . who most of the time appear in the opening movie credits. Click.

Columbia. Integrated Management College. including sets. If a scene is violent. Disney. the Production Designer and the DP to be on the same page as in the look of the film Music by or Music Design: Person(s) in charge of the music. contributes his own vision and is part of the big Page 13 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. it can make the film horrible even if the footage is great. it helps bring out all the emotional tension of what the characters are going through. and in charge of all the auditions Costume Design: Person responsible for what the characters wear. if not left for the end. and others would also include the names of the producer(s). that is why editing is so important Production Design: Responsible for the complete look of the film. and all of them are very important for the process of producing the film to keep going forward. Responsible for hiring art directors and also works closely with the Location Manager Director of Photography (DP) or Cinematographer: In charge of how the film feels and looks in terms of light. it makes it more violent.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING involved. It helps give the characters their own personality. etc Editing: Person in charge of putting all the footage together. The First Opening Movie Credits .more romantic. if romantic -. Works closely with the Director. New Delhi . Good editors can bring something new to the film.Introducing the Film    The first film credits that appear are the names of distribution companies presenting the film. They are the ones who make people want to go to the movies. Helps the director get inspired and with the DP they control how the movie feels. would show some kind of variation of the following:         The Stars: All the big-name actors. but just as it can make the film better and even save bad scenes. and when it's playing in the background of a scene. Paramount. Warner Brothers. director and stars before the title Opening Movie Credits . especially important when it is a period piece. dressings. like Universal. so just the fact that they are part of the film. etc Then some familiar or not so familiar names of studios and/or production companies Then some movie credits go straight to the title of the film and leave the rest as end credits.The Lead People in Film Production The rest of the opening credits. New Line. props and costumes. makes it a lot more valuable Other Cast: Actors who have played other major roles next to the stars Casting by: Person in charge of casting all the characters who have not yet been cast by the producer and maybe the director.

it should just contain only the following information: Centered on the page. designs the shots and guides the actors in their performance. if not. no graphics . centered on the line . Integrated Management College.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING   decisions as in what colors are the sets and the costumes. and are involved with the film from beginning to end. He works with the writer. They pay all the costs and arrange for the film's distribution. producer and designer in pre-production and establishes the staging of the action. Type it in the same font as your script. They are the people that put everything together.The title of your script in bold type if possible Two lines below that. vertically and horizontally . it's the beginning The Director: The person responsible for communicating a vision of what is written in the script. from pre-production to post-production. They are the ones who finance the film.Written by Page 14 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. The ones who first determine the story. the characters and the dialogue. It should not be on special paper. hire the creative team and other key people. New Delhi . major images. how many extras are in a scene and more Visual Effects and/or Special Effects: In a visual or special effects loaded movie. After the producers he is the most involved person in the entire process of the film from beginning to end. And in post-production he works with the film and sound editors. then they are the last opening credits to show: The producer or producers: Everything starts with the producers. Courier 12. these movie credits would also appear with the major people producing film.The People Who Start the Whole Process Sometimes these next three people appear at the beginning with the film. since this particular movie is all about special and/or visual effects Executive Producers: These are the people with the money. Screenplay Title Page The TITLE PAGE has specific information on it. Without them -. They can make executive decisions but generally have no creative power The Last Opening Movie Credits -. The Line Producers hire all the key technical personnel. constantly monitors the numbers in the budget and knows which ones cannot change and which could be modified Written by or Screenplay: The person(s) who bring the blueprint for the whole process. the events. Writing for film is very different from any other writing. because the final or shooting screenplay is not the final product.

So there is a chance your title is already registered and therefore not available for use by any producer or studio associated with the MPAA. The Good. you should not get overly attached to a title. centered on the line . My understanding is that you cannot Copyright a title. such as ―Star Wars‖. Or some exec might decide they don‘t like it or they‘d prefer something else (this should only your problem). etc. Another issue with getting too attached to your screenplay‘s title is the Title Registration Bureau.) Title Format Title page format for a screenplay is super simple (and you should keep it that way). Ideally the title of a script should be an expression of something fundamental about the story or the theme or the characters. WGA or a copyright notification. All the members agree not to use registered titles. New Delhi . if any) In the lower right hand corner your contact information (include agent or email address) In the lower left-hand corner you can put Registered. Die Hard‖. The best titles always find a way to express the heart of what a screenplay is about. (For more information you should consult a reputable legal expert.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Two lines below that. Or a movie might come out using the same title or something very similar. The Thin Written by Fatty Turner Title Page The title you choose for your screenplay is obviously rather important. Page 15 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. The ―TITLE‖ of the screenplay is centered in the middle of the page.Your Name (and co-writer. This allows members and studios to register titles for future use. There are also questions regarding Copyrighting and Trademarking of titles. but Trademarking a movie title is possible in a situation where the title of the movie takes on a life of its own or if there are there are sequels. ―Harry Potter‖. All that said. The Title Registration Bureau is a Hollywood title registration program which is part of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). The Bad. Integrated Management College. For starters many times your title may change based on a revelation in your story as you work through it.

those designations are for production drafts. ―Written By‖ would be used by a screenwriter or writers who developed the entire story and wrote the entire screenplay. You must include CONTACT INFORMATION!! A contact name. Contact Info At the bottom LEFT. ―Story By‖ would be used to credit a specific individual or individuals who developed the story. they need to know how to reach you. just place the date inconspicuously along with your name. ―Story By‖ or you can just use ―by‖ (this option keeps it real simple). Most screenplay software will automatically format and print the Cover Page for you. etc. ―Based On‖ would be used to credit another story. book. address. Integrated Management College. ―Screenplay By‖ would typically be used in a situation where other individuals contributed and its not entirely clear who will ultimately get full or partial credit. novel. Maybe another individual contributed to the story. If anything. email. New Delhi .S. So this is all academic anyhow. Some people include that it‘s registered with the Writers Guild or U.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Underneath the title you will place appropriate credits. ―Screenplay By‖. etc which the script is based on. phone number. Perhaps other writers were involved. Copyright Office (I personally don‘t think this is important info at all and you should leave it off). If someone likes your script and wants to talk with you. but did not write the screenplay itself. such as: ―Written By‖. Page 16 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. or you‘ve done a rewrite of another‘s screenplay. Also. don‘t list ―Draft #‖ or ―Revisions by‖ or anything like that.

(continuing) parenthetical can be used in the subsequent speeches. Some writers indicate consecutive Page 17 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Integrated Management College. e. and CONTINUED: appears at the top of the subsequent page. with only action separating the speeches. New Delhi . 107 CONTINUED: (2). (MORE) appears below the portion of dialogue on the first page. When a character speaks more than once consecutively. which is extended by an abbreviated continued indicator. e. This continued indicator appears along with the number of the scene being continued and a bracketed count of how often the scene has been continued thus far.g. the remaining dialogue is headed by the character's name. The number is usually omitted when it's equal to one. (continuing) parenthetical are positioned the same as standard ones: below the character's name and indented from the dialogue. similar to a parenthetical but indented the same as the character's name.g. JOHN (CONT'D). (CONTINUED) appears at the bottom of the prior page.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING (Title page) Continued and Revisions Scene continued When a numbered scene is split across pages. On the subsequent page. Dialogue continued When dialogue is split across pages.

Every set of revisions is distributed along with a title page that includes a list of the revision slugs for every set of revisions distributed thus far. In Word you set up a header and/or footer by clicking on View. or within a single paragraph or scene. dates. Dialogue continueds apply to both spec and production scripts. Use headers and/or footers for any page numbers. if all the lines in a given passage of dialogue are marked. and/or repeating titles. Header Text + Do's & Don'ts Header Another element of the production draft is the HEADER. New Delhi . the marks can be consolidated into a single mark appearing alongside the name of the speaker above the dialogue. The header of the production draft of a script might look like this: Headers & Footers A header is a line or two of text and/or graphics that appear on every page or every section of a document. aligned vertically with the page number. then entering the information you would like to have appear. which is on the right and .5" from the top. the color of the pages in parentheses. Many writers choose not to indicate consecutive dialogue at all. The revision slug A slug (header) appears at the top of every revision page. except that it appears at the bottom of the page. In the case of scenes. When many revision marks are present on a single page. Revision marks Script revisions are marked with asterisks in the right hand margins of the revision pages. then Header/Footer. Then when Page 18 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. this single "consolidation mark" appears alongside the scene header. and usually. For pages. Header information is printed on every script page. For example. the marks may be consolidated into a single mark. the consolidation mark appears beside the page number. The revision slug typically includes the date the revisions were circulated. They are mentioned here because of the confusion that arises over the many uses of continued. Integrated Management College.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING dialogue by including (CONT'D) beside the character's name (the same as for dialogue split across pages). the name of the production or some other descriptive information. A header occupies the same line as the page number. A footer is the same. Information contained in the header includes the date of the revision and the color of the page.

A WGA registration expires quickly. Don't use more than two brads. Integrated Management College. Don't put a date on your script. Don't use colored paper or anything but 20 pound 3 hole punch paper. If your script doesn't tell that story. Solid brass brads (as opposed to brass-plated brads) are preferable.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING you make any changes to the document. because they are long enough to fit through the entire thickness of your script. Don't put blank pages in the script to set things apart. but use three-hole paper. Do use good quality brass brads to bind your script. phone number) at the lower right hand. Don't do a page of character descriptions and back story. Make the letter short. No one wants to read a dirty page. Don't trust your spell checking program. Do's and Don'ts Do's        Do proofread your script. Spelling is very important. Don't put the script title on the first page of the script. Don't put a second page with the quotation that tells the theme of your screenplay. while a copyright is good for decades. Do get someone else to proofread your script. and your contact information (address. no one but you will care. concise and to the point. the page numbers and other information will adjust automatically. Do register your script with the Writers Guild of America but don't forget to copyright it as well. but basically they simply want to know what the script is about and where to reach you. A fresh pair of eyes will often catch something you continue to miss. colored letters. no matter how cute you think they are. Do follow the rules unless you KNOW a darn good reason not to. etc. Do send a one-page (or less) cover letter with your script when you send it out. Page 19 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Don't put a quotation on the title page. Brads are used in top and bottom holes only. There are books and articles on the subject. Acco #5 brads are the best. A Title page has title and screenwriter's name(s) in the middle. you're in trouble. New Delhi . Most likely. Don't include any illustrations. Do get the best photocopy you can. Don'ts           Don't create a fancy Title page with giant fonts. it may miss grammatical errors and won't have some terms in its built-in dictionary. or the draft version. That's a convention from the theater that is inapplicable in Hollywood.

3" Character s.5" Description o Left Margin: 1. These will nearly always be shooting scripts.Movies of the Week DTV . o Left Margin: about 3. let it go. include one.the sort of thing accomplished screenwriters don't waste time on. They'll be full of specific shots.0" o Right Margin: 1.d. an ACT BREAK is a commercial break. Page 20 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.0" Other Script Formats So far we've mostly discussed submission or spec screenplays. . courtesy of the folks who bring you the Oscars . The same elements used in a screenplay are used in several other script formats. Then relax. Don't use the format of a published screenplay. Be careful in using the screenplay manuscripts on the shelves of your local library.7" o Right Margin: about 3. An act covers that part of the story that takes place between the commercials.1.      Top Margin: 0. camera movement and angles -.    MOW .SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING  Don't expect to have your script returned to you. Send it out. New Delhi . However. stamped envelope (SASE) is specified.0" Bottom Margin: 0. .5" .1. Only measurements and format vary here and there. Hence. Integrated Management College.0" o Right Margin: about 2.75" . a lot of people will have sent scripts to the same company.Direct TV Movie Hour Episodic TV Show These formats are almost identical as the format of the spec screenplay. Screenplay Manuscript Format Hollywood production companies are much pickier about manuscript format than your average Literary Manager. The tip-off that you've got a shooting script in your hands: each shot is numbered down the left margin.2.0" Dialogue o Left Margin: 3.5" . these scripts are broken into ACTS that are delineated within the body of the script. Here's the format by the numbers. If a selfaddressed.

conventions and constraints. a shift towards shooting on film occurred in the late 1970s. The term 'television play' is a partial eight-minute "teaser" that begins the story. but use of the term has persisted. Teleplay A teleplay is a television play. Integrated Management College. albeit a shorter one than a MOW. the scene simply ends and a new page begins where Act One starts. New Delhi . All three have different formats. note it this way: ACT ONE When an Act ends. noted this way: TEASER A Teaser is not usually noted with END OF TEASER. When a MOW ends. Although the earliest works were marked by television drama drawing on its theatrical roots. Rather. utilizing techniques and working methods common in the cinema. A MOW will also have a similar (but shorter) "Tag" scene at the end that caps off the story and keeps your audience riveted by the television until after the next set of commercials. Page 21 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. a comedy or drama written or adapted for television. A one-hour episodic script will also have a Teaser. A one-hour episodic program usually has 4 acts. note it this way: END OF ACT ONE MOW or DTV scripts usually have 7 acts. note it this way: THE END A MOW will also have a (roughly) three. with live performances telecast from the television studio. The term surfaced during the 1950s with wide usage to distinguish a television plays from stage plays for the theater and screenplays written for films. This is usually not delineated as such.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING When a MOW Act begins. Page numbering is continuous for both forms.

Parenthetical A Parenthetical is a direction to the Actor about how to read the Dialogue. who are you? Here are some bad Parentheticals: MIKE (reaching for gun to shoot the alien) Stop! HARRY (they keep they walk Am not. Am too. We can define it also as ―a particular passage of conversation in a literary or dramatic work‖. Description Here are some samples of dialogue with Parenthetical: BOB (sarcastic) Of course I love you. Integrated Management College. then) Wait. Page 22 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. New Delhi . AND SALLY arguing as out the door) Am not. Am too. MARTHA (trying not to explode) Can't you be serious for once? (a beat.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING PART 2 Dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in North American English[1]) is a literary and theatrical form consisting of a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people.

Notice the "continuing" Parenthetical above. If you had other Parenthetical direction to add. Formatting Parenthetical margins are 3" from the left and 3. So.).SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING What makes the second examples "bad" is that they're describing Action. An Extension is a technical indication about a character's Dialogue. calmly) We don't want you here. You put those in when a character's dialogue is split by Action (or. ZEKE (continuing) We don't want you here. sometimes a Shot.25" from the right. not giving information to the actor about reading the line. some insist you don't use these. again. Some studios insist on these. indent the lines after the first 1 character so that the text on all of the lines start in the same vertical column. you would put it after the "continuing" like this: ZEKE (continuing. placed to the right of the Character Name. proper format asks you to not do this: ZEKE I don't think you should stay (he cocks his shotgun) We don't want you here. I would use them unless I had a specific reason not to. He cocks his shotgun. but instead do this: ZEKE I don't think you should stay. Extension A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate the encoding convention (file format) of its contents. an indication that the dialogue happens off screen Page 23 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. For example. New Delhi . If a Parenthetical takes up more than one line. In other words. Integrated Management College.

by interpolating gradually between the RGB values of each pixel of the image. and wipes.).). or separate parts of the story. New Delhi . A dissolve effectively overlaps two clips for the duration of the Page 24 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.O.C. JOSEPH (O. usually to convey a tone or mood. etc. Integrated Management College. In film. the same effect is created by interpolating voltages of the video signal. etc.the character isn't on the screen but we hear the voice (a narrator. under a bed. Dissolve -dissolve is a gradual transition from one image to another.O. This is called a voice-over.) That was when I knew. suggest the passage of time. It's still a voice over. Most films will also include selective use of other transitions.) Hey. The audio track optionally crossfades between the clips. this effect is created by controlled double exposure from frame to frame. (for off camera) instead of O. On TV shows. if the actor records her/his voice and the recording is played back as the scene is being shot. you'll sometimes see O.S.. Description There are a couple of standard Extensions: O.S. a voice on an answering machine. Most commonly this is through a normal cut to the next scene. transitioning from the end of one clip to the beginning of another. but not visible on the screen (behind a door. "V. "O. because the actor records her/his voice at a time other than when the scene is being shot and the voice are placed "over" the scene. These other transitions may include dissolves. match cuts.O.. though. DR. a dissolve is done in software.S." means "off screen" -the character is physically present." means "voice-over" -. and V.S.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING or as a voice-over. There is one space between the end of a Character Name and the opening parenthesis of an extension. In non-linear video editing. Shot Transition A film transition is a technique by which scenes or shots are juxtaposed. An Extension is not a place to tell the actor how to read the dialogue or to indicate some action happening on the screen. L cuts. In video editing or live video production. fades (usually to black). plug in the freezer! Formatting The Extension is uppercase and enclosed with ( )'s. someone let me out of this freezer! WALLY (V.

one above. or reverse.[3] L cuts are also used to hide transitions between scenes. In longer shots. if desired. can change the original durations of the scenes before the dissolve was it relates to film. as the video and audio parts of film are in tracks.the audio track is cut somewhat after (or before) the last frame of video. Obvious hard cuts may startle the viewer.[1][2] This is often done to enhance the aesthetics or flow of the film as L cuts allow the audience to see context (either before or after) of speaking rather than simply the speaking itself. is the process of causing a picture to gradually darken and disappear. The lengths of the two scenes can be adjusted by trimming. For example.[1][2] It is a cut in film editing from one scene to another in which the two camera shots' compositional elements match. The name of the cut refers to the shape of the cut pieces of the film[4] . George Lucas is famous for the sweeping use of wipes in his Star Wars films. New Delhi .also known as splits edit. which help evoke a kinship to old pulp science fiction novels and serials. They can be very effective in editing dialog scenes shot with a single camera using multiple takes. For that reason. helping to establish a strong continuity of action – and linking two ideas with a metaphor. It is as if the viewer suddenly and instantly moved to a different place. and could see the scene from another angle. is an edit transition from one shot to another in film or video. The ability to cut the picture/video separately from the sound/audio allows the sound from the various takes to flow any cut that emphasizes spatio-temporal continuity. he was inspired by a similar use of wipes by Akira Kurosawa (as can be seen in The Hidden Fortress). on the film itself. resulting in roughly L-shaped film ends. Fade. a dissolve is often used in continuity editing to "soften up" jump cuts or similar cuts. rather than a story. The cut and the dissolve are used differently.[3] Wipe. where the picture and sound are synchronized but the transitions in each are not coincident. Without L cuts. one below. Integrated Management College. this allows the editor to use the picture from one take with the sound from another take if the dialog reading is better. a conversation between two people can feel like a tennis match. which. Often known as a "fade out" or a "fade in". L cut. even though the picture cuts are at different places. rather than a simple cut or dissolve is a stylistic choice that inherently makes the audience more "aware" of the film as a film. Page 25 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING effect. A camera cut changes the perspective from which a scene is portrayed. Match cut.It is often acknowledged that using a wipe.

etc. to make a cut invisible. graduation. the editor has the option of using a wipe to be able to choose any other matching take of the same scene. It has been frequently used in animated short subjects.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING The very earliest examples of a wipe are seen as long ago as 1903 in films like Mary Jane's Mishap by George Albert Smith. Wipes also can be used as syntactic tools. The use was parodied in Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters. Such wipes can be impossible to see in the finished film. A heart wipe is a wipe that takes the shape of a growing or shrinking heart." The heart wipe is still used in wedding. and is used to impart a sense of "love" or "friendship. and bar mitzvah videos. A matrix wipe is a patterned transition between two images.[citation needed] Some examples are: An iris wipe is a wipe that takes the shape of a growing or shrinking circle. such as those in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoon series." An example of the "star wipe" can be seen in the Guiding Light opening sequences of the 1980s. stars. among others. or other purposes. New Delhi . the iris wipe may be centered around a certain focal point and may be used as a device for a "parting shot" joke. The most common uses of the wipe effect is the "Invisible Wipe" where a camera follows a person into another room by tracking parallel to the actor. to signify the end of a story. it is often used to indicate that time has passed between the previous shot and the next shot. though many people consider it tacky. A star wipe is a wipe that takes the shape of a growing or shrinking star. like the sweeping hands of an analog clock. When used in this manner. as it has now passed from stylistic into the realm of standard convention. a fourth wall-breaching wink by a character. but are often frowned on. The matrix wipe can be various patterns such as a grid. It is also commonly used in quick camera pans in action sequences. As the wall passes in front of the camera. Because of this similarity. A clock wipe is a wipe that sweeps a radius around the center point of the frame to reveal the subsequent shot. Integrated Management College. This convention was considered overused during that time period and is now generally thought to be somewhat out-of-date. and is used to impart a sense of "extra specialness" or "added value. A good example of this wipe can be seen in the movie Das Boot when director Wolfgang Petersen uses it to pan between two occupied u-boat pens. even though they had only one u-boat for filming. Page 26 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.

Act Numbers The Act Number indicates what Act you're in. If you have these. It can indicate the beginning of a new act or the continuation of the current Act. or Epilogue. Others want you to put it there and on the first page of each new scene within the act (see Scene Numbers). or cold opening takes place before the first commercial break and the tag takes place after the last commercial. a teaser. Typically. instead. Teaser. Tag. Both of these parts of the script don't have anything specifically to do with the story and could be removed from the show (which is often what happens when a show gets syndicated so that the syndicators can squeeze in more commercials).SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Some extremely effective (and expensive) wipes were used in the otherwise very low-budget Laurel and Hardy short film Thicker than Water. but are an integral part of the story. New Delhi . There might also be one following the final act called EPILOGUE or TAG. The opening frames of the next scene were optically printed onto this object. Integrated Management College. or PROLOGUE. have names. Page 27 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. In other words. so that—when the object entirely filled the screen—the movie had "wiped" the last shot of the previous scene and begun the first shot of the next. See what the show's standard for using these are before you decide you need to use them. For each of the scene changes in this film. Act numbers are usually only used in Sitcom or Play scripts. if you're writing a "Murphy Brown" script. either Laurel or Hardy or both of them would seize a curtain or some other object at the edge of the frame and move it across the screen. use the numbering style that they use (more about this in Give 'em what they want There are a couple of other acts that don't have numbers but. In a sitcom. there is only one scene in a Prologue. Description Act Numbers look like this: ACT II ACT THREE ACT 4 The numbering style you use depends on both your taste and/or the style in use by the show for which you're writing. The prologue and epilogue occupy the same place at the beginning and end of the show. there will be no more than one before Act 1 that might be called TEASER. Cold Opening. Some shows only want you to put the Act Number on the first page of a new act. COLD OPENING.

Most commonly.see Numbering?). if you're writing a "Cybill" script.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Similarly. but that's a different story -.) Sometimes you will repeat the Act Number above the Scene Number like: ACT V SCENE 2 Page 28 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. If a show uses letters instead of numbers for each act. the Scene Heading will be numbered. Formatting Act Numbers are uppercase. the top of the next page would be the next act. Scene numbers are usually only used in Sitcom or Play scripts (in film scripts that are in production. it typically will not use certain letters. then. Start each new Act on a new page. New Delhi . For a new act. Description Scene Numbers look like this: SCENE SCENE SCENE SCENE II THREE 7 P The numbering style you use depends on both your taste and/or the style in use by the show for which you're writing. Integrated Management College. shows will not use the letters "i" or "o" because the capital versions of those letters look too much like the numbers one and zero. use the numbering style that they use (more about this in Give 'em what they want. put the Act Number 2" from the top of the page. In other words. Center them horizontally on the page. Put two blank lines between it and the last line at the end of the act. The End Of Act indicator is also centered horizontally and uppercase. some shows want you to indicate the ending of an Act by typing something like: END OF ACT 5 END OF TEASER That would be the last line of the page. Scene Numbers The Scene Number indicates that you're starting a new scene.

put 2 blank lines between it and the last line of the previous scene. shows will not use the letters "i" or "o" because the capital versions of those letters look too much like the numbers one and zero. Most commonly. If a show uses letters instead of numbers for each scene it typically will not use certain letters. others let the Scene Numbers just continue to add sequentially.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Then. Integrated Management College. If the Scene Number follows the Act Number. Page 29 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Formatting Scene Numbers are uppercase and centered horizontally. etc. Start each new scene on a new page. start numbering from the 27th like this: AA BB CC DD EE FF. When both an Act and a Scene end. put one blank line before the Scene Number. New Delhi . put the Scene Number 2" from the top of the page. Otherwise. If you have more than 26 scenes. this: ACT SIX SCENE D ACT SIX SCENE E ACT SEVEN SCENE F versus: ACT SIX SCENE D ACT SIX SCENE E ACT SEVEN SCENE A Like you would with Act Numbers. sometimes you will indicate the end of the Scene by putting END OF SCENE X at the end of the previous scene. If you use an End Of Scene indicator. For example. just use the End Of Act indicator. the next scene is: ACT V SCENE 3 Some shows start renumbering the Scenes for each act.

based on the effect you're trying to create and the expectations of your readers. Get me a reading on the solar flare. Description There are two circumstances where you see Dialogue Paragraphs. So. And you. Dialogue Paragraphs have been popping up more and more lately. In the first instance. And you. If you have an Action element splitting the Dialogue. Get me a reading on the solar flare. make sure there's one blank line before the continuing Dialogue. Formatting Simply toss a blank line or an Action element in the middle of the Dialogue. like this: COMMANDER You. The second is when a Character's Dialogue is interrupted by some Action. that's what it is. but includes some Action in between the pieces of Dialogue. Integrated Management College. with the sexy underwear on under your suit. as always. It looks that way because. or do use the first kind but not the second. use your best judgment. but they're still very stylistic. over there with the scanning beam. with the sexy underwear on under your suit. A beautiful cadet walks by. And Commander uses his x-ray scope. The first is a simple pause in a Character's Dialogue. Get into my ready room! The second instance is just like the first.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Dialogue Paragraphs Dialogue Paragraphs create the effect of a pause in a Character's Dialogue. Like this: COMMANDER You. Get into my ready room! I can't say do or don't use Dialogue Paragraphs. a Dialogue Paragraph just looks like a blank line tossed in the middle of the Dialogue. New Delhi . or vice versa. over there with the scanning beam. Page 30 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.

This is a script written without being commissioned or bought. Integrated Management College. The production assistants and director can then arrange the order in which the scenes will be shot for the most efficient use of stage. New Delhi . Page 31 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. and production personnel: In this document:   Screenplay / Feature Film Television Movie of the Week Not addressed:      Stage Plays and Musicals Sitcoms (3-camera. 'stay out of the way of the collaborative process'! The do's and don'ts you'll see here will reflect this philosophy. cast. the script becomes a 'Shooting Script' or Production Script.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Script Styles Below is a listing of the most common script formats in use today. 1-camera. This overview will favor the philosophies of spec script writing which is to say. This document will be dealing with Feature Film/Television Movie of the Week which are very similar but the others are distinctly different. All the scenes and shots of a shooting script are numbered and each scene and shot are broken down into all the component pieces required to film it. Submission Scripts AKA a Spec Script. Their attributes complement the needs of production distinct to the medium. on the speculative hope that it will be sold. and location resources. it often goes through a series of rewrites before it is put into production. the working style of the actors. tape and film) Soap Operas/Daytime Television Audio/Visual Scripts/Dual Column Multimedia Scriptwriters for any of the above formats will present their work in either of the two variants below depending on whether they are trying to sell their work or have sold it and are working in the production part of the process. Shooting Scripts Once a script is purchased. Once that happens.

production crew and even the actors may all directly or indirectly alter the script during production. reports Screenwriting. ONE style. Audio Drama Scripts for audio dramas share a number of components with screenplays and the scripts for stage plays. screenplays are fictional in nature and designed to tell a story. a screenplay for a film might include camera specific terminology---such as pan. The dialogue is also different in that it includes more descriptive language about the surroundings to help establish setting. often sharing terminology. New Delhi . For example. Screenplays Screenplays are scripts written specifically to be produced for a visual medium. All the software program formats and measurements fall within this range. There tends to much more extensive use of the so-called narrator to provide third person perspective than in other fictional scripts. dialogue. According to Script Frenzy. more commonly. Playwriting Plays are productions that occur live. For the most part. As scripts are used for a variety of purposes in a number of settings. Later. Types of Script Writing Script writing or. there are specific criteria or formal structures that are often unique to a given type of script. reports crazy Dog Audio Theatre. we'll discuss the other formats. Screenplays typically include a variety of information including there isn't ONE way. ONE set of margins. we will begin by exploring that layout. Integrated Management College. a play script will include stage and scene instructions. Instructions Page 32 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. It should be noted that most screenplays are not produced as written. Like a screenplay. The director. as well as provide character names and descriptions. scriptwriting can be broadly defined as writing the dialogue and relevant directions for a production. a play script includes dialogue and directions. building on what we've discovered here. on a physical stage rather than the metaphoric stage of film or television. such as film or television.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Since feature screenplay format is the most popular form of script today. zoom or deep focus---that would not appear in the script for a play. A general comment about script formatting: Although a certain format has become more and more standardized in recent years. camera instructions and may include editing instructions. There is a RANGE OF CORRECTNESS.

dramas longer. The type style used is the Courier 12 font. The extra inch of white space on the left of a script page allows for binding with brads. The components of the script the anchors do not read aloud generally include directions for the production staff about when to run a clip or to cut to a live anchor in the field.6". There are. yet still imparts a feeling of vertical balance of the text on the page. The left margin is between 1. education films. variations. News Scripts While appearing natural on screen.5" and 1". No page number is printed on the first page. Script Length The average feature screenplay. The top and bottom margins are between . is between 95 and 125 pages long.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING lean toward the necessary audio components that need to accompany a given scene and may also give direction to the voice actor about how a line should be delivered. New Delhi . He runs from doorway to doorway. traditionally. News scripts tend to be bare-bones affairs that provide informational content. You could be writing an action-packed film where your description takes only 10 seconds to read. Other Scriptwriting Other types of scriptwriting include producing story/dialogue for video games. In Hollywood these days scripts generally don't run longer than 114 pages. Screenplay Page Properties The Rules: Screenplays are traditionally written on 8 1/2" x 11" white 3-hole punched paper. online content such as podcasts or marketing materials and even commercials. Comedy scripts are typically shorter. Owens sheds his pack and picks up the machine gun. most news anchors are provided with scripts to read via Teleprompters. audio dramas and screenplays.2" and 1. until he reaches the church bell tower.5" and 1". Here's an example: Cpl. but will take 45 seconds of film time. Integrated Management College. dodging enemy fire while shooting back. These scripts tend to follow the same general patterns as plays. naturally. The right margin is between . Page 33 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. A page number appears in the upper right hand corner (in the header).

and possibly even you. sorry. When you realize your script is long and have to start cutting your work. go ahead and write short films. but that doesn't mean when it is filmed it would be short. "What if my feature script is only 70 pages?" Um. Just don‘t pass ‗em off as features. Experienced readers can detect a long script by merely weighing the stack of paper in their hand. which means more revenue for the exhibitor. When you‘re trying to get a career off the ground. filmmaker. How‘s your action to dialogue ratio? Is it a little heavy in the ol‘ chit-chat department? I find that many budding scribes rely too heavily on dialogue to Page 34 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. that scene wasn't necessary. One script page in Courier 12 roughly averages 1 minute of onscreen film time. for a feature screenplay? Nope. The Industry's aversion to long scripts is due to economic considerations. It doesn't matter if you've written the most incredible screenplay ever. Films under two hours mean more showings per day in a theater. it should be an integral part of the path to the climax. that‘s the last thing you want. the very first thing s/he will do is fan through the pages and look at the last page to see how long it is. welltold story (for a feature-length screenplay) typically has peaks and valleys and twists and turns. By the same token.. Not even Woody Allen cuts ‗em that short! Besides. If you adhere to the minute-perpage rule (which isn‘t all that accurate). New Delhi . Budding writers continually ask. So why is your script so short? Flip through the script. 125 page scripts are considered on the long side for a screenplay. 70 pages.. So if thin scripts are your thing.. they‘ll label you as a rank amateur. Nothing wrong with that. It just depends on the writing style of the individual writer. if you send a 70-page script to an agent or producer. EVERY SCENE should not only move the story along to its conclusion. you could come up with a short script in total pages. Length is a very important component of the script. if it's too long they may refuse to read it.. Integrated Management College. An intriguing. too thin.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING The Courier 12 font is used for timing purposes. It‘s difficult including those things in a swiftly told story. Script length: the debate rages on. keep in mind that if a scene can be removed and the story continues to work. Writing Tip: If you had a script full of scenes like this. distributor. the screenwriter. another writer could write the same scene and have it take up half a page. then you‘re gonna have a movie that‘s an hour and ten minutes long. When you turn in a script to a producer.

and that‘s waaaaaay too long for a typical horror script. So no. If the writer of that 98-page script had bothered to sufficient directions/actions. 70 pages ain‘t gonna cut it for a feature. You‘ll have to bring up that page count at least another 15-20 pages. Page 35 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. In a previous blog (3/26/07).. Not too long ago. I also discussed the one page = one minute of screen time "rule. Screenplays are about actions. dialogue. New Delhi . They are about people doing things.. Integrated Management College. I offered page counts suggestions for various genres. This is why we call them moving pictures. I did a critique on a horror screenplay that was 98 pages – and 95% of it was dialogue! Screenplays are not about dialogue. dialogue. I suggest you do so. Things are happening. he would‘ve ended up with 130pages.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING tell their story." If you haven‘t read that particular entry.

Zelda enters. I have bested the universe. In TV and Sitcom scripts. then add a semi-colon and a space. then type the Parenthetical. STRANGE This will be my crowning achievement! Life from life. STRANGE (continuing. otherwise you'll be fine if you do. Integrated Management College. Zelda enters. Reincarnation while in the body. DR. STRANGE (continuing) Never again will death be feared. Some people don't use continuing indicators. you indicate the continuation like this: DR. I have bested the universe. the continuing indicator is placed as an Extension and abbreviated CONT'D. New Delhi . Reincarnation while in the body. STRANGE (CONT'D) Never again will death be feared. Page 36 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. poor Eliza. DR. If you know you shouldn't use them.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING PART 3 Dialogue Split by Action When a character is speaking and then there's some Action and then the character continues speaking. my love? Notice that if you have a continuing indicator and a Parenthetical. DR. like this: DR. you put the continuing first. don't. sobbing) Why couldn't I have been just one month faster. STRANGE This will be my crowning achievement! Life from life. Zelda slowly reaches for the power cord to Strange's machines.

but if a character you are introducing is a functional extra. you'll never make it to Hollywood unless you master the basics of formatting and laying out your dialogue properly. 1. Most characters will have names. 3. Integrated Management College. Watch this Video Jug film for our handy guide to the basics or formatting dialogue in a film script. Page 37 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.but writing a professional-looking script is another. in brackets and are often positioned between the character cue and the dialogue. From then on. They should be placed half an inch to the left of the character cue. they can be written in normal lower case text.5 inches wide and wrap to the next line where necessary. Do not centre it. They are frequently used if the tone of the delivery is in contrast to how it's written.2 inches from the left-hand edge of the page. their name should appear in capitals in the narrative text. New Delhi . Sometimes they also appear within a portion of dialogue. The main purpose of actor direction is to help the actors interpret the script as they read through. should be 1. Step 3: Actor's Direction Directions for the actors are also known as 'parenthetical' as they appear in brackets. They are written in lower case. Step 2: Character cues When a character speaks. They are also useful to indicate to whom a line is being delivered. they will be called something like POLICEMAN or SHOP ASSISTANT to reflect their role. so they remain distinct from what is to be spoken. Step 1: Introducing a character When a character first appears in your script. except when their name appears as a cue for dialogue. 2.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING How to Format Dialogue in A Film Script Writing a good script is one thing . you must write their name in capitals approximately 4. However good your ideas are.

but indicate the language to be spoken as a parenthetical beneath the character cue. and never split a word across two lines by using a hyphen (unless the word is naturally hyphenated) . Embed the (beat) within the don't need to be multilingual to include foreign languages in your script from time to time . Step 4: Setting out dialogue Dialogue fits into a column 3 inches wide. or scene direction. end that page with the sentence before and begin on a new page with the next line. unless you feel that clarity is threatened. Dialogue is placed beneath the name of the character that is speaking. If a line looks set to over-run the end of the page. If a section of dialogue spoken by a single character crosses from page to the next. Leave a line and write (beat). There are two ways of doing this: 1.5 inches in from the left hand edge of the page.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING 4. You can also use parenthetical to indicate voices filtered by a phone or radio. If you want to denote a pause between words within dialogue. which begins 3 inches in from the left-hand edge of the page. 6. 2.write the line in English. and the name of the character speaking followed by (CONT'D) on the next. and continue the character's dialogue. many writers like to indicate this by using (MORE) at the foot of the lines on one page. Step 5: Don't split words or lines across pages Never split a sentence of dialogue across two pages. makes your lines hard to read. If the description is shorter than one line then you don't need to repeat the character's name. use the word 'beat' (in brackets) for a short pause and 'double beat' for a longer pause. Then skip another line. then write the action taking place. leave a blank line. as it's part of the narrative. Step 7: Unusual dialogue Don't worry . Integrated Management College. Remember to start your action description 1. New Delhi . 5. and should be single-spaced. Page 38 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Step 6: Combining action and dialogue If a description of action breaks up a character's dialogue.

It hits the wall And the glass SHATTERS. or abbrev. not every time. Usually. but not always. Clearson in disguise... Integrated Management College. A much less common use of capitalization is to emphasize camera directions. Just so you understand what I mean. capitalize the name. For example. That's why emphasizing sound effects is optional and. Abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin brevis. frankly. The sample above shows the two most common uses of capitalization.. For example: CARL BANNER shoves open the glass door. meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.doesn‘t direct it. abbrv. The second capitalization indicates a Sound Effect. it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the word or phrase. A montage example you'll be familiar with is the "falling in love" montage where we see shots of our glowing Page 39 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Only capitalize the name the first time you use it. The glass "shatters." The reason that Sound Effects or SFX (see Abbreviations) are capitalized is to alert the production people to the need for the sound effect.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Emphasis in Action When you write your Action. you know that the reader expects it. New Delhi . grouped together. I really suggest you not do this unless you know it's expected. I don't recommend it unless. here's a sample: As the circus caravan continues. Because this falls WAY into the realm of . there are times where you will capitalize certain words or phrases for emphasis. we FOLLOW the sad clown and ZOOM IN to SEE that it's really Mrs. the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr. Montage and Series of Shots A montage is a series of small related scenes. of course. First. when you introduce a character (the first time you type his/her name in Action).

then the first car narrowly missing the baby carriage and the cop car having to stop to avoid hitting it." is a Scene Heading. so I would avoid the ending indicators. finally. B) Ambulances swerve into the driveway." Whether you add the extra description is up to you. Often montages are silent scenes that have music or some other sound over them. the first line "Montage of. Sub-titles are supers. then the cop chasing the first car. looking over the ocean. dancing in the rain and.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING couple at the amusement park. But. SERIES OF SHOTS A) Police swarm the Federal Building. add an Action line that says: END MONTAGE or END SERIES OF SHOTS If you write the Montage or Series of Shots well. Integrated Management College. The other lines are Action elements. C) SWAT teams aim their guns. Just to note.. Signs. Think of a chase scene when you see a car racing through the street. New Delhi . at the end of a Montage or Series of Shots. It's also optional whether you.. Montages and Series of Shots are formatted the same way: MONTAGE OF THE UFOs LANDING A) The ship settles on the Washington Monument. Supers . C) An African tribal leader chats with one of the aliens. for your purposes. it's obvious when they end. B) Humans are rounded up into Candlestick Park as more Ships land in the parking area.. A Series of Shots is similar to a montage. You could just say "MONTAGE" without the "OF THE UFOs LANDING. you know.. etc. then a baby carriage wheeled across the street. but takes place in one location during one piece of time. a Super is more likely some descriptive text like a time or location or a translation. The first line of "Series of Shots" is a Shot.Titles. well. A Super is something that is superimposed over another thing. Page 40 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. feeding each other dinner.

Present Time" will appear on the screen over the image of the council gathering. Another example: Marty looks at the sign which is in Arabic. but not dialogue.10:15 Zulu. Like this: EXT.Do Not Enter. Let the director decide where the title sequence happens. What this means is that when we cut to the War Room. For example: INT. PHONE BOOTH . New Delhi . Present Time The council gathers around the table.DAY SUPER . All you want to do is start the intercut and let the director decide how to do it. SUPER . waiting for him. WAR ROOM . Phone calls and Intercuts Intercuts are when we switch back and forth between two or more scenes quickly and repetitively. Titles Some writers like to indicate when the film's title sequence should start and end by writing: BEGIN TITLES END TITLES My opinion? Don't bother. the words"10:15 Zulu. 57.DAY Jessie runs into the booth and quickly dials a number. Page 41 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.. Sometimes intercuts happen with scenes that are related by time. PENTAGON. HWY.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Supers are written with Action elements. MARTY This must be the place. He walks in the door. Intercuts have also been used in time travel situations. like when we see someone dismantling a bomb and cut back and forth between that person and the people in a safe place who check their watches. Death Penalty Enforced. Integrated Management College. Most often we see intercuts when characters are speaking on the phone and we jump back and forth between them..

So you can see that when the Action refers to Jessie dropping the phone. Realize. HWY. PHONE BOOTH . just reuse that Scene Heading. JESSIE Okay. But we really emphasize the return to the phone booth by adding the Hwy. MULDOON'S OFFICE . 57 Scene Heading. Fast! EXT. it's obvious that the director will have to cut to that location.. we get: MULDOON We got you. New Delhi . Jess. Page 42 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. If you want the intercutting to end in one of the locations you've been using. use Dual-Dialogue. So. INT.DAY Muldoon grabs the phone almost before it rings.DAY A gloved hand hangs up the phone. Two characters speaking at the same time When two characters are speaking at the same time. Integrated Management College.. Just leave the phone off the hook and hide out till we get there. 57. He runs away. MULDOON Yea. The scene takes place in one location and the person on the other end of the phone talks in voice-over. MULDOON (to his assistant) Get a trace on this. to do that by continuing the above scene. what' up? JESSIE He's here! Hurry! Often the intercut will end at the next Scene Heading.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Intercut with. Please hurry! Jessie drops the phone so the receiver dangles. of course that you can have a phone conversation without intercutting.

SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING PART 4 As student develops there own script Page 43 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Integrated Management College. New Delhi .

New Delhi . in the final visual essay. What does it mean visually? When photographing. The point is no matter what your photographs are saying something neutrality is a not possible. what you include or not in the sequence of images. animation. Often times it is a lot easier to identify biases in words. Time. so that our choices are intentional? Frequently narrative stance is the accidental result of other concerns. These choices are what you choose to include in the frame or not.‖ Page 44 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Integrated Management College..* How can we have a bit more control over what our photographs individually and in sequence communicate. By thinking through your choices of how to frame beforehand you will be able to walk into the manufacturing location with a shot plan Won't necessarily have time to make the kinds of framing decisions that would contribute to meaning and the overall production value. the visualized photograph in the final essay is in relationship to a text. there are choices that you'll make that are for the most part intuitive and will work just fine.. motion graphic or interactive media sequence.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING PART 5 Introduction to storyboard What is story boarding? Thinking the story through -visually.using various camera angles. "Bias" is also reflected in the editing process. How can we create a dynamic interaction between the word and the image? Why storyboard? Everyone is familiar with media bias. where you place the camera in relationship to who and what you are photographing. including website interactivity. composition and sequencing to shape meaning A drawn series of rectangles with accompanying text that represent the photographs you will need to show the story of How Stuff Is Made For our purposes. ― Storyboards are graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture.

SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING The storyboarding process. Origins The storyboarding process can be very time-consuming and intricate. Harman-Ising and Leon Schlesinger also followed suit by 1936. considered the 1940s to 1990s to be the period in which "production design was largely characterized by adoption of the storyboard". William Cameron Menzies. was developed at the Walt Disney Studio during the early 1930s. in Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Storyboards (1999. writing of the exhibition drawing into Film: Director's Drawings. and grew into a standard medium for pre visualization of films. while by 1937-38 all studios were using storyboards. Disney credited animator Webb Smith with creating the idea of drawing scenes on separate sheets of paper and pinning them up on a bulletin board to tell a story in sequence. Many large budget silent films were also storyboarded but most of this material has been lost during the reduction of the studio archives during the 1970s. Diane Disney Miller explains that the first complete storyboards were created for the 1933 Disney short Three Little Pigs. the first storyboards at Disney evolved from comic-book like "story sketches" created in the 1920s to illustrate concepts for animated cartoon short subjects such as Plane Crazy and Steamboat Willie. The Story of Walt Disney (Henry Holt. in the form it is known today. The form widely known today was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s. According to Christopher Finch in The Art of Walt Disney (Abrams. Integrated Management College. It can be time-consuming and if the product development time is short (as in TV or Radio news programming) then who has time to produce a Page 45 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. and within a few years the idea spread to other studios. was hired by David Selznick to design every shot of the film. Pace Gallery curator Annette Michelson. after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios. you might be skeptical of the idea of storyboarding programs. Storyboards are now an essential part of the creation progress. Storyboarding became popular in live-action film production during the early 1940s. Introduction Depending on the nature and scale of your operation. According to John Cane maker. the film's production designer. thus creating the first storyboard. Hyperion Press). New Delhi . 1956). In the biography of her father. The second studio to switch from "story sketches" to storyboards was Walter Lantz Productions in early 1935 [1]. One of the first live action films to be completely storyboarded was gone with the Wind. 1974).

are available. Without this fluency. It shows some screens in an interactive program for the teaching of Home Economics which was commissioned by the Design Council.what menu screens will look like. New Delhi . perhaps even more so since teams in this area are still in the process of developing a common cross-disciplinary language and. then careful planning is essential. with a common point of reference. including the client. what audio and text will accompany the images. It's more than a testof-concept model. Their use in storyboarding multimedia productions is even more appropriate and can lead to faster production times and fewer design problems to overcome in later production stages. if there is one. This example of a storyboard Page 46 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. The major assumption in the recommendation of this approach is that the designer is fluent in the authoring/storyboarding tools. with development tools still in the process of evolution. commercial or TV magazine and documentary production. Storyboarding plays an important role in these areas in providing everyone. the storyboard expresses. Integrated Management College. paper-based storyboarding techniques. adaptable for multimedia. For me. The same is true in multimedia production. storyboards may be written documents and off-the-shelf storyboard pads for TV and video formats. either synchronously or hyperlinked. what pictures (still and moving) will be seen when and for how long. Typically.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING shot-by-shot plan of how the end product should look and sound? But if you are in film. So what is a storyboard? A storyboard is an expression of everything that will be contained in the program -. It was produced by the interactive designer. and just short of the final product specification document. Each storyboard page actually contained eight such illustrations in B&W. experience is not always there to draw on when it comes to the incorporation of more obscure design elements. in one way or another. it makes more sense to pursue alternative. to use in communicating what was required to the interactive programmer and to the graphic designer. everything that can be seen or heard or experienced by the end-user of the multimedia program. dealing with large multidisciplinary production teams who may be split between different sites. more traditional. Multimedia authoring tools such as HyperCard and Macromedia Director have already made an impact in storyboarding for more tradition media such as film and commercial production. Multimedia Storyboarding Tools The illustration at the top of this section is from a storyboard produced using HyperCard on the Mac. to verify and validate structural and content elements.

. Few developers are keen to admit. There is a document which everyone can point to as a common point of reference. the program will too. And there are significant advantages to be considered. Omissions may be spotted as a result of producing the storyboard. New Delhi .g. to avoid having to work with large wall-chart diagrams. or even measure. the costs of program revision arising from weaknesses in planning. that is what I meant'. e. A detailed storyboard can save time in writing project documentation. Page 47 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. both from the point of view of the overall size of the program. of course. and do the sums necessary to calculate the file-size of the application to ensure it would fit on the target distribution medium (in this case a high-density floppy disc). the team could decide on screen text-fonts. image size and resolution. in the production of the product specification document. cross-referenced to the storyboard screens. we've a problem here'. If the storyboard looks wrong. problematic. I would argue that. enabling the design team (which includes the client) to say. depending on how one goes about it. Problems may be spotted from the storyboard which may have proven more costly to correct at a later stage. screen layout. indeed. The Advantages of Storyboarding Storyboarding need not take the considerable time that some think it does. for complex multimedia products and in extended working teams.increased costs being added to the client's bill or absorbed as acceptable loss of profit by the developer. But from this storyboard. There is a lack of data from commercial developers. This speeds up the content-writing process and makes the production of the storyboard itself so much faster. Measuring the true effectiveness of storyboarding is. Advanced planning can result in templates for the content-writer to work with. or 'No.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING doesn't give any feel for the interactive structure of the program -. These decisions were made before the programming and final artwork stages to avoid having to go back to the content-definition team to ask for re-writes then. The storyboard helps focus on the total content of the program. -. Integrated Management College.that was expressed separately in a flowchart diagram. and questions must be asked of the reliability of what data is available.        It helps catalyze feelings about the feasibility of the program idea. 'Yes. detailed storyboarding is essential. But if storyboarding has a role to play in the design process then studying how to go about it the right way must influence product design. and in discussing user interaction times.

what graphics need to be produced. of the program. and simply the reapplication of proven strategies and techniques. An interactive test-of-concept model and an interactive storyboard will differ principally by their level of completeness and also by the purpose for which each is used. however. Integrated Management College. of course.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Interactive Storyboarding With the increased power and ease-of-use of present multimedia authoring tools. New Delhi . and the information playback load on the target-computer delivery system imposed by simultaneously accessing diverse media-types. But once the final design is fixed on. the consistency and ease of use. it will serve in as an aid in drawing up the briefs which must be produced separately for software. interactive storyboards are now possible. it adds greatly to the development team's understanding of its objectives by providing a common point of reference to illustrate the structure and feeling of the projected software program from the end-user point of view. and film and sound-engineer team members. An interactive storyboard is a working version of the program but produced in an easily adjusted form to material to be added and adjusted without requiring any deep-level programming. Pathways can be tested through the material to investigate the look and feel. interactive storyboarding is still of value. even Page 48 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. although if the final production itself is to be produced using only an authoring tool then it is. If the product is an innovative one. flowchart. The storyboard will define largely what needs to be written. effort should be concentrated on fleshing out the model by developing the content in a detailed way along each of the program's branches and in each of its sections. A screen from an interactive storyboard is shown in Figure 5 (an example from the program flowcharted in Figure 4). This ensures a deeper level of reflection and testing of the methods by which the content is to be delivered before committing to the relatively more expensive production of a prototype. desirable to plan and design using the same tool. Thus there may be several test-of-concept models before a final design is fixed on. If the program type is not innovative. In this case. the production of the interactive storyboard should precede the production of the product specification document which enables the prototype to be constructed. The speed with which storyboards and working models can be created means that it is unimportant whether or not the final software is to be written on the same platform as the authoring tool. product specification and individual team-member production briefs). how best to apply transition and other computer effects. Used in conjunction with other design and production documentation (the treatment. graphics. The testof-concept model is produced when the design is at a plastic stage and is an aid to thinking about the problem and arriving at better and best solutions. it may occur after the production of a product specification in both instances.

but this is not often the case. The test-of-concept model helps focus attention on the overall form and approach of the program. this is all of the storyboard that would be viewable to allow visual impact and cursor-interaction movements to be assessed. In such instances. Print-outs are then made. are several. Thirdly. Anything that can be done to speed up the content-writing phase is to be welcomed. This is then extended in functionality to act as a template for the contentwriter. forcing the client to keep to project deadlines can be problematic since development teams' internal scheduling requirements will often be invisible to the client. 16"-screen. a wider range of information fields relevant to different parts of program research and production comes into view. and then passages and captions cut and pasted to the appropriate part of the interactive program. A further problem area is where the client is also the content expert/writer. which allows content to be composed within an interactive template. On a 14"-screen. The writer then clicks on open text fields on the screen to enter the text to appear at the appropriate part of the screen. These screens can be printed out to allow the content writer to pen in their contributions. First of all. it ensures a systematic approach to the content-writing phase of any project. which. The program can be customized to conceal those fields which are not relevant to a particular development team member for the sake of clarity. The top-left-hand part of the screen represents the viewing area to be presented to the end-user. The writer navigates through the program as an end-user would. Secondly. Integrated Management College. say. The unpredictability arises from uncertainties which are inherent in any creative process. with blanks to be filled in by the content-writer. typically.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING before the complete screen text (if any) has been added. a great amount of time is saved in inputting the text which would otherwise have to be transferred from paper to wordprocessable form. On a larger. What I tend to do is to create first a test-of-concept model for a program in HyperCard. Where the content writer and the designer are one-and-the-same there are fewer problems. It also ensures that people are Page 49 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. New Delhi . This involves the content-writer sitting in front of the template version of the program. Much more interesting and productive is when the contentwriter is confident enough to write directly to the storyboard in its interactive form. document clearly and exhaustively the extent of a program and the detail of what needs to be completed. with access to all program sections and levels. along with statements from the interactive designer. The advantages of the technique. Using Interactive Storyboarding to Speed-up the Contentwriting Phase Content writing is an unpredictable phase at best. the technique is useful in motivating the writer by their deeper involvement in the design process. A storyboard of every screen in the resource is produced. referring to a printed flowchart which illustrates the overall structure.

and making sure that the text-size is readable. and facilitates the calculation of the file-size of the application. all this tedious job can be done on a Page 50 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. since problems of texttranslation which affect screen layout are immediately identified in translating directly to given screen areas. film crews and sound engineers but which require accurate visuals to effectively communicate specific points. quick artwork that creates professional. such as background and special effects. the technique can greatly facilitate the localization of the program for foreign language markets. However. Again the argument applies. Using Interactive Storyboarding Document Production to Speed-up Report A well-produced. and factor in other important elements.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING writing with the constraints imposed by the output screen in mind. Integrated Management College. animators would need to cut out photos or sketches and paste them onto paper. Digital software for storyboarding provides built in. The Advantages of Using Storyboards For Animators to Make Films Mapping out the whole concept of your animation can be done easily with Storyboards. By means of planning your cartoon in organized steps. which will differ in each case for programmers.--avoiding too much text on a screen. Traditional storyboarding for animation is really a long winded process that needs customized artwork for each frame. the writer Õs attention is directed to every detail on every screen which concerns them. technological innovation is turning it into simpler for modern day animators to obtain their ideas onto finished storyboards. Finally. say. storyboarding your idea is the next phase in the process. screen layout. each line of dialogue. and potentially serious omissions are avoided. Once you've finished your initial script. As already mentioned. you can previsualize each and every shot. Previously. storyboard screens can be output to print in expanded templates which allow briefing notes to be attached to each screen. incorporating in written dialogue along with other information about each part of the production. Once these decisions have been made and incorporated into the storyboard. With new storyboard programs. that an integrated design approach to program modeling and documentation will benefit and speed development. image size and resolution. In this manner. New Delhi . computer-generated storyboard can also reduce the time required to produce a product specification document and production briefs. polished storyboards simple and pleasant. interactive storyboarding enables decisions to be evaluated at an early stage on screen text-fonts. graphic artists.

If you're interested in getting clients interested in your animation. dimensional effect! Adding in new characters and tweaking background. The software is made to work with the creative mind.. and music. View Free Demo here: Storyboard Artist and see it for yourself. Custom graphics can be done easier with the use of software that integrates with handy tools. providing ways to prompt and direct your efforts for a cohesive will be able to convert your storyboards for easy viewing on the Internet. With digital software. If you're worried about the expense of computer software for storyboarding. dealing with whatever elements you like. layered programs. Paying for artist services will become unnecessary.. Plus. voiceovers. video game companies. creating digital storyboards can send a message of competence and professionalism to animation studios. which will save you time and money. Page 51 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Integrated Management College.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING computer. are now simpler as clicking a mouse. Create professional storyboards with ease using Cartoon Animation Software like Storyboard Artist and Storyboard Quick by PowerProduction. and awesome vector drawing tools that allow your personal style to shine through. and the also adjust your storyboards for optimum viewing on an iPhone. and so many other sources of work and income. If you're tired of storyboarding "by hand". and want to focus your creative energy on the production itself. you can focus your attention on different parts of your script. Storyboard Artist is an in-depth. storyboarding software can take a lot of weight off your shoulders. New Delhi . right from the start. The best programs offers easy conversion to Flash Media. that features everything you need for a rich. rest assured it will pay for itself. without the traditional problems and hassles.

gif files). Page 52 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.. Decide what other media you will use such as music or video files. Plan how to navigate through the project (e. 7. 4.g. Choose the presentation topic.jpg and . and other media elements that make up an effective presentation. 3. you can quickly become lost in the maze of separate files. graphics. Storyboard Template Use the following template to sketch how the project‘s topics link to one another. Define the title and objective of your project. 5. links. Determine how you will link all the information. slide by slide). 2. New Delhi . Provide lines to each slide showing how they link together. 1. buttons. Integrated Management College. Identify major subtopics. 6. The following steps will guide you through the storyboarding process. Created by: Project Title Objective Project main topic Subtopics Create a Multimedia Presentation Use the back of this page to plan the structure of your Presentation.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING PART 6 Steps to Storyboard Writing Using a storyboard to plan your project keeps everything organized. hyperlinks. Without a storyboard. It is a good idea to make a storyboard for each slide that you create in your presentation. Decide what graphics and images you will use (.

Presentation Title Presentation Author(s) Slide Title: Include: Slide Title: Include: Media Graphic Graphic Graphic Other Other Description File Name Media Graphic Graphic Graphic Other Other Description File Name Page 53 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Keep track of the media that you are using for each slide. Integrated Management College.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Create a Multimedia Presentation Storyboard Use the Storyboard to plan the content and layout of your presentation. New Delhi .

or. or outline. usually providing information from previous discourse or shared knowledge. Also called theme. with results similar to a modern pencil sketch. A sketch is a quick way to record an idea for later use. Integrated Management College. or discourse. TimelineTime Lines can run horizontal or vertical. A subject of discussion or conversation. A word or phrase in a sentence. Dry media such as pencil or pastel are often preferred due to time constraints. If in oil paint it is called an oil sketch. the artists of the Renaissance could make sketches using the expensive method of a silver stylus on specially prepared paper (known as silverpoint). There are two type of timelineHorizontal Time Line Vertical Time Line SketchesA sketch is a rapidly executed freehand drawing that is not intended as a finished work. which the rest of the sentence elaborates or comments on. Choose the type of card you would like to make below. Graphite pencils being a relatively new invention. thesis. Page 54 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. New Delhi . essay. but a quickly done watercolor study or even quickly modeled clay or soft wax can also be considered a 'sketch' in the broader sense of the term. Artist's sketches primarily serve as a way to try out different ideas and establish a composition before undertaking a more finished work. A subdivision of a theme. using charcoal. or pen-and-ink. thesis. more cheaply. chalk. See synonyms at subject.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING TopicThe subject of a speech. especially when the finished work is expensive and time consuming. Linguistics. Sketching sharpens an artist's ability to focus on the most important elements of a subject and is a prescribed part of artistic development for students.

The most commonly used eraser for pencil drawing is the kneaded eraser. sticky surface that enables the artist to lift the graphite or charcoal from the drawing surface without smudging. a color scheme that mixes different shades of green. More advanced color schemes involve several colors in combination. For example. This most typically refers to color patterns and designs as seen on vehicles. Colors that create an aesthetic feeling when used together will commonly accompany each other in color schemes. although many pages show more thoughtful studies rather than true sketches. Color schemes are used to create style and appeal. orange and light blue arranged together on a black background in a magazine article. Color SchemeA color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media. Street performers in popular tourist areas often include artists who sketch portraits within minutes. the use of a white background with black text is an example of a basic and commonly default color scheme in web design. All the light shades are penciled until the paper is all the same shade. the eraser may be used to remove rough construction lines. The ability to quickly record impressions through sketching has found varied purposes in today's culture. Sketches drawn to help authorities find or identify wanted people are called composite sketches. White plastic erasers can cleanly erase line work. New Delhi . although may still be used for purely aesthetic effect as well as for purely practical reasons. or to soften lines for visual effect. Integrated Management College.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Contrary to popular belief. yellow. usually based around a single color. but tend to smudge heavy shading. Color schemes can also contain different shades of a single color. artists often use erasers when drawing. which has a soft. text with such colors as red. for example. ranging from very light (almost white) to very dark. for example. particularly those used in the Page 55 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Courtroom artists are usually sketchers. A sketch method of reproducing photographs is done with a photographic enlarger in a dark room. The sketchbooks of Leonardo da Vinci and Edgar Degas are two examples of many done by famous artists which have become art objects in their own right. The negative image is projected on the paper where the sketch is to be done. Use of the phrase color scheme may also and commonly does refer to choice and use of colors used outside typical aesthetic media and context. A basic color scheme will use two colors that look appealing together.

yellow green. especially when used at full saturation. When using the analogous color scheme. Complementary color schemes have a more energetic feel The high contrast between the colors creates a vibrant look. and yellow or red. soothing and authoritative [5]. Integrated Management College. The combination of these colors give a bright and cheery effect in the area. identification of specific military units. Page 56 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. and are able to accommodate many changing moods. red and green. lack the diversity of hues found in other color schemes and are less vibrant. however. They do. purple and yellow. Complementary color scheme Complementary colors are colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. Color schemes are often described in terms of logical combinations of colors on a color wheel. Complementary colors can be tricky to use in large doses. one should make sure there is one hue as the main color. orange and yellow.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING military when concerning color patterns and designs used for identification of friend or foe. Analogous color schemes are often found in nature and are pleasing to the eye. New Delhi . Analogous color scheme Analogous color scheme Analogous colors are colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. These color schemes are easy to get right and can be very effective. Some examples are green. or as camouflage. such as blue and orange. Different types of schemes are used.[2][3][4] Monochromatic color scheme A monochromatic color scheme consists of different values (tints and shades) of one single color.

etc. beige. and yellow..g. An example is red. For example. grey. Integrated Management College. violet. Triadic color scheme A color scheme in which 3 colors of equidistant distribution on the color wheel are used. and red-orange in it. such as beige. New Delhi . brown. Neutral color scheme A color scheme that includes only colors not found on the color wheel. Eg. brown. called neutrals. and one or more small doses of other colors. These are the colors that are one hue and two equally spaced from its complement. such as double complements. gray and black with red Warm and Cool Color Schemes Warm color schemes do not include blue at all. Colors that should be used are red/violet and yellow/green. light blue. like white. red.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Split-analogous color scheme A color scheme that includes a main color and the two colors one space away from it on each side of the color wheel. cool color schemes do not include red at all. Split-complementary color scheme A color scheme that includes a main color and the two colors on each side of its complementary (opposite) color on the color wheel. yellow. Page 57 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. and violet. or black. Tetradic color scheme Tetrads (or quadrads [4]) are any four colors with a logical relationship on the color wheel. "Cooler" colors are green. blue. a color scheme that includes "warmer" colors may have orange. Accented neutral color scheme A color scheme that includes neutral colors. e. To avoid fatigue and maintain high contrast. or when using a computer for an extended period of time. and gray. this color scheme should be used when giving PowerPoint presentations. blue. like red and green. and likewise. Additionally.brown and beige with blue. certain colors should not be mixed.

and Flash Player locates identical or similar fonts on the user‘s system. margins. Integrated Management College. When creating new text. and to direct Flash to use device fonts rather than embedding font outline information. and character position. letter spacing. 3) Once the text is selected go to Text and down to Font. For static text. color. New Delhi . point size. Flash uses the text attributes that are currently set in the Property inspector. you can use device fonts instead of exporting font outlines. or select something you have already written. To select a font or use a different font on your particular text opens up Dreamweaver. When you select existing text. and line spacing. Font attributes include font family. Flash stores the names of the fonts. Paragraph attributes include alignment. For horizontal static text. For dynamic or input text.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Text AttributesYou can set the font and paragraph attributes of text. 2) Next type in something in the workspace area.         Fonts FontSize FontStyles HTMLStyles Font Color Paragraph Indent Spell Fonts 1) A font is a type of style for text. Here it gives you the options of selecting a different kind of font. but it ensures that users have the correct font information. indents. 4) Another window will then pop up when selecting font. style. Place your cursor over top of the font Page 58 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Embedding font outlines can increase file size. font outlines are exported in a published SWF file. autokerning. use the Property inspector to change font or paragraph attributes. You can also embed font outlines in dynamic or input text fields.

1) To automatically get these formats select text on the top of the main toolbar. Italic. Teletype. 3) Choose which ever choice you prefer to change the size of your selected text. Integrated Management College. Some examples of styles which you can select are shown below. It is similar to a regular font but basically lets you edit the font that is already there. Underline. New Delhi . Page 59 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. ect. here you can choose any of the options on the list. Examples of font styles are Bold. Fixed Widths. Emphasis. ect. 2) Scroll down to HTML Styles. Font Size 1) To edit the font size or to change the font size once again go up to the top of your screen where it says text. 2) Click once on Text and scroll down to what says Styles. Font Styles A font style is what the font is going to look like. Once clicking on a selection you will be atomically taken back to the workspace are. 3) Another menu will appear to the side of Styles. 3) Another menu will appear. Strikethrough. Strong. here you can choose any of these fixed heading. but your font size will now be different. 1) To access these options go to the menu on the top of your screen where it says text. 2) Click on text and scroll down to Size or Size Change.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING which you want to choose and click once. Copyrights. Both of these will increase the size of your font. HTML Styles A html style are shortcuts which automatically format certain text areas such as Caption. Headlines. This will then make the text you had selected into its new font.

2) Scroll down to Align. Spell Checking Page 60 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. 2) Scroll down to either indent or Outdent. 1) To complete either of these tasks select Text on the top of Dreamweaver program.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING 4) This can save you time. with three options. Right. Outdent. Once you have clicked on your option it will be shown in the workspace in Dreamweaver. 4) Click on the option you prefer. New Delhi . Center. Left.To un-space a paragraph and or sentence about five spaces back to align them evenly. and hover your mouse over it. right. Paragraph Alignment 1) To make the paragraph align either left. 2) Scroll down to Color. Indent & Outdent Indent. 4) With your text still selected click on the color of your choosing and click okay/select.To space a paragraph and or sentence about five spaces ahead of the rest of the paragraph and or sentence. 3) Another window will pop up to the right side of it. 3) In the workspace below it will show the Outdent. or center view your text toolbar. or indent. Font Color 1) To adjust the font color view the text toolbar. 3) A panel or window will show up will many different colors. Integrated Management College. by using these formats which are automatically built in to Dreamweaver. click once. and click once.

1) Select the Text toolbar. sound must be delivered as streaming sound. 2) Scroll all the way down to the bottom to the last option. A neutral shot has little to no psychological effect on the viewer. listening to music. which displays Spell Checking. An audio file is a record of captured sound that can be played back. An audio card contains a special built-in processor and memory for processing audio files and sending them to speakers in the computer. 3) Click on this. An audio frequency is an electrical alternating current within the 20 to 20. In computers. the digital signals are sent to the speakers where they are converted back to analog signals that generate varied sound. Headshot is essentially the same as portrait. audio is the sound system that comes with or can be added to a computer.[1] This will give different experience and sometimes emotion. or in order to take part in an audio or video conference.000 hertz (cycles per second) range that can be used to produce acoustic sound. it will the run you through the process of checking all of your words to make sure everything is spelled correctly. When sound is played. using a microchip called an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). More advanced audio cards support wavetable.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING If you have typed an entire document and you would like to make sure you have spelled everything correctly follow these simple steps. New Delhi . A scene may be shot from several camera angles. Audio files are usually compressed for storage or faster transmission. or recaptured tables of sound. A head shot is a photographic technique where the focus of the photograph is a person's face. Audio files can be sent in short stand-alone segments . headshot is an Page 61 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. However. AudioAudio is sound within the acoustic range available to humans. as files in the Wave file format. shot makes the subject look powerful or threatening.for example. In order for users to receive sound in real-time for a multimedia effect. Camera AngleThe camera angle marks the specific location at which a camera is placed to take a shot. Integrated Management College. The most popular audio file format today is MP3. Sound is a sequence of naturally analog signals that are converted to digital signals by the audio card.

For a scene that needs a large area shot. High angle shots are usually used in film to make the moment more dramatic or if there is someone at a high level that the character below is talking to. Page 62 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. It is shot by lifting the camera up by hands or by hanging it off something strong enough to support it. New Delhi . A low-angle shot is a shot from a camera positioned low on the vertical axis. etc. A Bird's eye shot refers to a shot looking directly down on the subject. Integrated Management College. Whereas. The perspective is very foreshortened. making the subject appear short and squat. such as his work. A high angle shot is usually when the camera is located above the eyeline. looking up. or to emphasize the smallness or insignificance of the subjects. however simple or stylized it might be. This shot can be used to give an overall establishing shot of a scene. anywhere below the eyeline. the camera looks down on the subject and the point of focus often get "swallowed up" by the setting. then it will most often likely to be lifted up by a crane or some other sort of machine. High angle shots also make the figure or object seem vulnerable or powerless.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING image that portrays people as they are and is more of a 'mug shot'. interest. These shots are normally used for battle scenes or establishing where the character is. a portrait will often 'portray' the person with elements of his life. With this type of angle.

C. Integrated Management College. 3.000 when the script is finished (through rewrite and polish).000. Often has a list of prop list or set design sketches.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Glossary A Page A revised page that extends beyond the original page. 3A) Abbreviations Shortcuts used in scripts such V. "in accordance with desire. all CAPS heading at the start of an act or scene.000 against $800. (I. this includes salaries of the talent and creative team (director. above-the-line can also refer to the people included in the above-the-line payment category. $400. producer. O. the direction given by a director indicating that filming begins." Against A term describing the ultimate potential payday for a writer in a film deal. Alan Smithee A fictional name taken by a writer or director who doesn't want their real name credited on a film. Sometimes. Acting Edition A published play script. Approved writer A writer whom a television network trusts to deliver a good script once hired. plus any rights required for adapted scripts. scene numbers in ordinals. Action The moving pictures we see on screen. Angle A particular camera placement. Also. Agent Submission A method of play submission. when and if the movie goes into production. Above-the-line In film. going onto a second page. Act/Scene Heading Centered. From the Latin ad libitum. screenwriter). New Delhi .e. Page 1. Arbitration Page 63 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. in which a theater requires that a script be submitted by a recognized literary agent. separated from the other act or acts by an intermission. those costs that occur before filming. 1A.. Act numbers are written in Roman numerals. Act A large division of a full-length play.O.000 means that the writer is paid $400. 2. typically for use in productions in the amateur market or as reading copies. ad lib Dialogue in which the characters or actors make up what they say in real time on the movie set or on stage. the writer gets an additional $400.

which contribute to character motivations and reactions. New Delhi ." Binding Page 64 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. as the lights come up.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Binding adjudication by members of a Writers Guild of America committee regarding proper onscreen writer credit of a movie. In the b. corporate videos. Beat Sheet An abbreviated description of the main events in a screenplay or story. denoted by (beat). frequently a director and often second to the Artistic Director. kids are fighting). Associate Artistic Director An artistic officer of a theater company. At Rise Description A stage direction at the beginning of an act or a scene that describes what is on stage literally "at rise" of the curtain. for the purpose of indicating a significant shift in the direction of a scene. Short for "playbill. Back Door Pilot A two-hour TV movie that is a setup for a TV series if ratings warrant further production. Back End Payment on a movie project when profits are realized. Integrated Management College. Artistic Director A theater company's chief artistic officer and usually the last stop before a play are selected for production. Abbreviation for "background" (i. or more commonly in contemporary theater. Back Story Experiences of a main character taking place prior to the main action. arbitration is available only to WGA members or potential WGA members. integrally involved with its artistic decisions. Attached Agreement by name actors and/or a director to be a part of the making of a movie. Beat A parenthetically noted pause interrupting dialogue. Audio/Visual Script A dual column screenplay with video description on the left and audio and dialogue on the right. b.. much in the way that a hinge connects a series of doors.e.g.g. used in advertising. Bill The play or plays that together constitute what the audience is seeing at any one sitting. documentaries and training films. Bankable A person who can get a project financed solely by having their name is attached.


What literally holds the script together? As a writer submitting your manuscript, you might use either brads with cardstock covers or one of a number of other pre-made folders (all available from The Writers Store). Black Box A flexible theater space named for its appearance. Blackout A common stage direction at the end of a scene or an act. Book The story and the non-musical portion (dialogue, stage directions) of a theatrical musical. Brads Brass fasteners used to bind a screenplay printed on three-hole paper, with Acco #5 solid brass brads generally accepted as having the highest quality. Bump A troublesome element in a script that negatively deflects the reader's attention away from the story. Button A TV writing term referring to a witty line that "tops off" a scene. Cable A cable television network such as HBO or cable television in general. Cast The characters who are physically present in the play or film. These are the roles for which actors will be needed. When we talk about a role in a stage play as being double-cast with another, it means that the same actor is expected to play both roles. This happens in film as well (e.g. Eddie Murphy), but only rarely. Cast Page A page that typically follows the Title Page of a play, listing the characters, with very brief descriptions of each. Center (Stage) The center of the performance space, used for placement of the actors and the set. CGI Computer Generated Image; a term denoting that computers will be used to generate the full imagery. Character Any personified entity appearing in a film or a play. Character arc The emotional progress of the characters during the story. Character name When any character speaks, his or her name appears on the line preceding the dialogue. In screenplays, the name is tabbed to a location that is roughly in the center of the line. In playwriting, typically the name is centered, but with the advent of screenwriting software that automatically positions the character name
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correctly, it has become acceptable to use a similar format for character names in stage plays. Cheat a script Fudging the margins and spacing of a screenplay on a page (usually with a software program) in an attempt to fool the reader into thinking the script is shorter than it really is. Close Up A very close camera angle on a character or object. Commission A play for which a theater company gives playwright money to write, typically with the understanding that the theater will have the right of first refusal to premiere it. Complication The second act of a three-act dramatic structure, in which "the plot thickens," peaking at its end. Conflict The heart of drama; someone wants something and people and things keep getting in the way of them achieving the goal. At times, the obstacles can be common to both the hero and villain, and the ultimate goal a laudable one for both parties. Continuing Dialogue Dialogue spoken by the same character that continues uninterrupted onto the next page, marked with a (cont'd) in a stage play. Continuous Action Included in the scene heading when moving from one scene to the next, as the action continues. Copyright Proof of ownership of an artistic property that comes with registering your script through the United States Register of Copyrights. Copyright Notice Placing © Your Name on the Title Page of a script. Courier 12 pitch The main font in use in the U.S. by both publishers and the Hollywood film industry. Coverage The notes prepared by script readers at literary agency, film production company, theater company or script competition. Coverage is typically divided into three sections: plot synopsis, evaluation / discussion of the quality of the writing, and a recommendation that either passes on the script or kicks it on to the next level. Typically, coverage is for internal use and almost never shared with the writer. Designer Theater professional whose job it is to envision any of the following elements in a play: costumes, sets, lights, sound or properties. Development The process of preparing a script for production.
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Development Hell The dreaded creative death malaise that occurs when the development process lasts too long. Dialogue The speeches between characters in a film or a play. Direct Solicitation When a theater contacts a playwright or his agent about submitting a script. Theaters that use this method typically do not want the playwright to initiate the contact. Direction, Stage Direction (See Stage Directions in Revised above.) Director In a stage play, the individual responsible for staging (i.e. placing in the space or "blocking") the actors, sculpting and coordinating their performances, and making sure they fit with the design elements into a coherent vision of the play. In a musical, there will typically be a separate musical director responsible for the musical elements of the show. In a Dramatists Guild contract, the playwright has approval over the choice of director (and the cast and designers). In film, the director carries out the duties of a stage director and then some (e.g. choosing the short list), with considerably more say-so over the final product. Downstage The part of the stage closest to the audience, so named because when stages were raked (slanted), an actor walking toward the audience was literally walking down. Called "Down" for short. Draft A version of a play. Each draft of rewrites/revisions should be numbered differently. Dramatists Guild of America The professional organization of playwrights, composers and lyricists, based in New York. Dual Dialog When two characters speak simultaneously Emphasized Dialogue Dialogue that the playwright wants stressed usually identified with italics. Establishing Shot A cinematic shot that establishes a certain location or area. Evening-Length Play A play that constitutes a full evening of theater on its own (a.k.a. Full-Length Play). Event What precipitates a play? For example, Big Daddy's birthday is the event in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. Exposition
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such as: thriller. (Proportional spaced fonts make adjustments for skinnier letters. Full-Length Play Also known as an Evening Length Play. in many cases. Courier 12 point is the standard (a fixed font which in practical terms means that an l or an m. Feature Film A movie made primarily for distribution in theaters. In the f. Font The look of the printed text on the page. Perhaps the two best-known festivals in the world are Sundance and Cannes. FREEZE FRAME The image on the screen stops. occupy the same width of space). The Bad News Bears).g. Formula More commonly used in the world of film than for describing the stage. is an extension that stands for Off-Screen. f. although the m being wider. Genre The category a story or script falls into . it must include certain elements and arrive at a certain ending). freezes and becomes a still shot. Festivals are places for films and filmmakers â€―particularly in the case of independent films â€―to gain exposure and critical buzz and. Extension A technical note placed directly to the right of the Character name that denotes HOW the character's voice is heard. For stage plays. a play that constitutes a full evening of theater. For screenplays. there have been a slew of movies where a group of misfits are thrown together and ultimately become the David that slays Goliath on the athletic field (e. Integrated Management College. while Courier 12 point is often used.g. For example. action. any information about the characters. clearly readable fonts are also acceptable. Times Roman and other proportional spaced. in which the main conflict and characters are "exposed" or revealed.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING The first act of a dramatic structure. distribution. romantic comedy. kids are fighting). Film Festival A festival of short and/or feature-length films shown over the course of between a few days to a few weeks. Abbreviation for "foreground" (i.) â€―this has been edited. FLASHBACK A scene from the past that interrupts the action to explain motivation or reaction of a character to the immediate scene.e. it usually refers to a "sure-fire" method of structuring a script (i.S. New Delhi . EXT. text usually takes less space.e. conflict or world of the play.g. Outdoors.. Also. O. For example. screwball comedy Page 68 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.

usually in a circular configuration. but better marked with an em dash (--). In the Round A type of theater space in which the audience is. Intercut A script instruction denoting that the action moves back and forth between two or more scenes. Left On stage.. Page 69 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. She may have dramaturg responsibilities as well. Hook A term borrowed from songwriting that describes that thing that catches the public's attention and keeps them interested in the flow of a story. INT. High concept A brief statement of a movie's basic idea that is felt to have tremendous public appeal. Header An element of a Production Script occupying the same line as the page number. Heat Positive gossip about a project on the Hollywood grapevine. Indie A production company independent of major film studio financing. Line Reading When a director or playwright gives an actor a specific way to perform a line of dialogue. formal agreement of representation.5" from the top. stretch and buy concessions. which is on the right and .SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Green Light A project OKed for production. sometimes marked with a . Short for Stage Left. Printed on every script page. Indoors. the actors' left. on all sides of the playing area. Integrated Management College. Literary Manager The artistic officer of a theater in charge of at least the first stages of reviewing scripts for possible production. and for the audience to go to the bathroom. Interrupt When one character cuts off another character's dialogue. New Delhi .. Hip pocket A casual relationship with an established agent in lieu of a signed. header information includes the date of a revision and the color of the page. assuming they are facing the audience. Lights Fade A common stage direction to end a scene or an act. Intermission A break between acts or scenes of the play to allow for set changes.

Montage A cinematic device used to show a series of scenes. Multimedia Writing and filmmaking encompassing more than one medium at a time which. Multiple Casting When an actor plays more than one character. script-wise. usually refers to CD-ROM games or Internet-based programming. Without sound. with character names centered and CAPS before their dialogue. all related and building to some conclusion." a movie made primarily for broadcast on a television or cable network. New Delhi . Movie of the Week Also known as an "MOW.S. so described because a German-born director wanting a scene with no sound told the crew to shoot "mit out sound. Master Scene Script A script formatted without scene numbering (the usual format for a spec screenplay)." Manuscript A script before it has been published. Manuscript Format The ideal submission format in the United States and in a number of other countries.S. Musical A play in which songs and music are an integral part of the dramatic structure. television networks. Locked Pages A software term for finalized screenplay pages that are handed out to the department heads and talent in preparation for production. M. Miniseries A long-form movie of three hours or more shown on successive nights or weeks on U. Logline A "25 words or less" description of a screenplay.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Literary Office Usually headed by the literary manager and often staffed with interns and inhouse or freelance readers. Musical Numbers Page Page 70 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.O. Match Cut A transition in which something in the scene that follows in some way directly matches a character or object in the previous scene. Lyrics The words that are sung by characters in a musical. Integrated Management College. and indented stage directions. Typically the place to direct script submissions and inquiries.

denoting that the speaker is resident within the scene but not seen by the camera. Integrated Management inflection to a speech Page 71 of 79 © Rahul in BOB (wryly) -. One-hour Episodic A screenplay for a television show whose episodes fill a one-hour time slot. Numbered Scenes Numbers that appear to the right and left of the scene heading to aid the Assistant Director in breaking down the scenes for scheduling and production. a play that is not an evening unto itself but instead usually runs no more than an hour. Typically written as (off) next to a character name when a character speaking dialogue is offstage while she speaks. Abbreviation for Off Camera. divided by act. denoting that the speaker is not resident within the scene. A similar paradigm exists on stage. A key difference between stage and film is that the playwright still owns his script and has final say on revisions. that lists the musical numbers.C. with notes coming most often from the dramaturg or director. PAN A camera direction indicating a stationary camera that pivots back and forth or up and down. One-Act Play Technically. and the characters that sing in them. Opening Credits Onscreen text describing the most important people involved in the making of a movie. Parenthetical Also known as a "wryly" because of the propensity of amateur screenwriters to try to accent a character's speech -. O. Writer can hire consultants to receive feedback (notes) to help improve the script.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING A page in a musical script. but in more common usage. prior to submitting it to an agency. Notes Ideas about a screenplay shared with a screenwriter by someone responsible for moving the script forward into production. Abbreviation for Off Screen. Off Short for offstage. Option The securing of the rights to a screenplay for a given length of time. a play that has only one act. which the screenwriter is generally expected to use to revise the screenplay. usually following the Cast Page. Package The assembly of the basic elements necessary to secure financing for a film. production company or theater. New Delhi . week to week. O. A common arrangement is to produce three half-hour long one-acts on the same bill.S.

Producer The person or entity financially responsible for a stage or film production. Points Percentage participation in the profits of a film. Playwright A person who writes stage plays. Published Play Format The format typically found in an Acting Edition. it's a production which is meant to be performed on stage in front of a live audience. usually called a "prop. the live theater). Professional Recommendation A method of submission in which a writer may submit a full script if it's accompanied by a theater professional (typically a literary manager or artistic director. etc. Query Page 72 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Pass A rejection of a property by a potential producer or an agent. New Delhi . Integrated Management College. meant to save space. In theater. POV Point of View. Play Sometimes known as a stageplay. in stageplays. from which they are separated.) that can held by one of the characters.e. Of course. Most high school auditoriums are prosceniums. In practice. but "directing off the page. in which the character names are on the left and stage directions occur on the same lines as dialogue. a screenwriter is often expected to do a complete rewrite of a script for the price of a polish. which is used day by day for filming on a movie set. spoon. a gun. Property Any intellectual property in any form (including a play or screenplay) that might form the basis of a movie. a camera angle placed so as to seem the camera is the eyes of a character. Proscenium A type of stage in which the actors play opposite the audience.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING noted by a writer. Polish In theory. Playwriting The craft or act of writing scripts for the stage (i. though sometimes a director is acceptable as well)." as it's often called. is equally frowned upon. all stage directions (at least in Manuscript Format) are in parentheses. hairbrush. to rewrite a few scenes in a script to improve them." an item (e.g. Pitch To verbally describe a property to a potential buyer in the hope it will be bought. Production Script A script in which no more major changes or rewrites is anticipated to occur.

absolving said entities of legal liability. scripts). where the audience sits) will be raked. Scene Heading A short description of the location and time of day of a scene. resulting in a change from good fortune to bad fortune. producers or production companies. Reading A "performance" of a play in which the actors are script-in-hand. It could either take place around a table (called a "table reading") or with some blocking or staging (a "staged reading"). which are different in color and incorporated into the script without displacing or rearranging the original. the actors' right.g. Reader (aka Script Reader) A person who reads screenplays for a production company or stageplays for a theater company and writes a report about them. accompanied by a synopsis and sample pages. Romantic comedy Also known as a "romcom. Register of Copyrights The US government office that registers intellectual property (e. Resolution The third act of a dramatic structure. Screening Page 73 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING A method of submission in which a writer approaches a theater with a brief letter. he gets higher. Short for Stage Right. in which the conflict comes to some kind of conclusion: the protagonist either gets it or doesn't. unrevised pages.e. Scene Action taking place in one location and in a distinct time that (hopefully) moves the story to the next element of the story. Integrated Management College. assuming they are facing the audience. Right On stage. Few contemporary theaters have raked stages. MOUNTAIN CABIN . New Delhi . Revised Pages Changes are made to the script after the initial circulation of the Production Script. Release A legal document given to unrepresented writers for signing by agents. often being paid per report. necessary prior to filing a claim for copyright infringement in court. Reversal A place in the plot where a character achieves the opposite of his aim." For example: EXT. Rake A stage that is slanted so that as an actor moves away from the audience.DAY would denote that the action takes place outside a mountain cabin during daylight hours. It's more likely that the house (i. also known as a "slugline." a comedic movie in which the main story resolves around a romance.

SFX Abbreviation for Sound Effects. both in the rewriting process before production. Some “fellowship― opportunities effectively function as contests (e. Page 74 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. in film there may be many screenwriters throughout the life of a project. or it is securely held in a folder. The term "script" also applies to stageplays as well.e. While in the world of theater. Either it is literally bound. Setting The time and place of a play or screenplay. New Delhi . and in the editing process afterward. Script cover What protects the script on its travels between the writer and its many potential readers. Shooting Script A script that has been prepared to be put into production. there is usually only one playwright on any given play (or one collaborative team).SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING The showing of a film for test audiences and/or people involved in the making of the movie. choosing a handful of fellows (i. Screenwriter The most important and most abused person in Hollywood. Integrated Management College. The Writers Store carries a number of acceptable covers.) Script Writing Software Computer software designed specifically to format and aid in the writing of screenplays and teleplays.g. Nicholl). The screenwriter writes the script that provides the foundation for the film. contests require entry fees that may be as high as $40-$50. during production. Screenwriting The art of writing scripts for a visual medium. Set The physical elements that are constructed or arranged to create a sense of place. though it may go through any number of changes. but can often result in prizes as high as $20. Script reader (See above as Reader. a stageplay contest's request that a script be more firmly bound than brads will do. Typically. Script The blueprint or roadmap that outlines a movie story through visual descriptions. actions of characters and their dialogue. Screenplay Contest A submission opportunity for screenwriters in which a group of readers (judges) select one or more winners from the entered scripts.000 or more for the winner(s). Securely Bound Script Typically. winners) from the pool of entrants. as well as important exposure to agents and production companies.

Split Screen A screen with different scenes taking place in two or more sections. Stage Directions In a stageplay. Stage Right On stage. the actors' right. lights fade). assuming they are facing the audience." a normally 30-minute (in the United States) comedic television show revolving around funny situations the main characters repeatedly fall into. all at once. SPFX Abbreviation for Special Effects. Spec Script A script written without being commissioned on the speculative hope that it will be sold. Also. "Left" for short. the instructions in the text for the actors (e. the scenes are usually interactive." Stage Left On stage. Slugline Another name for the SCENE HEADING SMASH CUT A quick or sudden cut from one scene to another. Integrated Management College. Stock Shot Page 75 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. exit.g. significant actions or business) and stage crew (e.g. Simultaneous Dialogue When two characters speak at the same time. the person who directed the non-musical elements of the show may be credited with "Stage Direction" to distinguish him from the Music Director. Stage center More commonly known as Center Stage. as in the depiction of two sides of a phone conversation. in a musical. Situation comedy Also known as a "sitcom.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING Shot What the camera sees. entrances. Soap Opera Daytime dramas so named because they were originally sponsored by the makers of laundry detergent in the early days of television. used for placement of the actors and the set. Showrunner A writer/producer ultimately responsible for the production of a TV series. the actors' left. who will be credited with "Music Direction. written in two columns side by side. For example. week to week. assuming they are facing the audience. TRACKING SHOT would mean that the camera is following a character or character as he walks in a scene. WIDE SHOT would mean that we see every character that appears in the scene. it is the center of the performance space. New Delhi . "Right" for short.

the ticking clock). etc. TITLE Text that appears onscreen denoting a key element of the movie. usually words over a filmed scene (i. Submission Name for a script once it is submitted to producers or agents. double-spaced description of a screenplay. middle and end. with a beginning. or person involved in the making of the movie. The Business Show business in general.e. designed to play in ten minutes. Thrust A stage configuration in which the playing area protrudes into the audience. high stakes crime story in which the protagonist is generally in danger at every turn. Title Page A page of the script that contains the title and the author's contact information. the actors have audience on three sides of them. sets. New Delhi . Touring Play A play with minimal technical demands that is meant to be easily packed up and moved from one performance space to another. SUPER Abbreviation for "superimpose" meaning the laying one image on top of another. Ten-Minute Play A complete play. Technical Demands The extent to which a play requires specific lighting. Plays with minimal technical demands are easier and less expensive to produce. Suggested Setting A setting on stage in which a few set pieces or lighting or other technical elements take the place of elaborate set construction. Hollywood moviemaking and television business. Thriller A fast-paced. with the most danger coming in the final confrontation with the antagonist. Tag A short scene at the end of a movie that usually provides some upbeat addition to the climax. more specifically. Integrated Management College. Transition Page 76 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Synopsis A two to three page. 1945).SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING A sequence of film previously shot and available for purchase and use from a film library. sound. Ticking Clock A dramatic device in which some event looming in the near future requires that the conflict reach a speedy resolution (hence. a change of location or date. Berlin.

Unsolicited Script A method of script submission in which the writer sends the script. Upstage The part of the stage farthest from the audience.O." The main union for screenwriters in the United States. reverse angle to indicate a near 180-degree shift in camera position. most don't-and very few film production companies. without prior contact. in dramatic scripts you will often see the terms camera finds indicate the camera moves in on a particular portion of a scene. For example. Called "Up" for short. minus all or most of the dialogue. set) than a full production. WGA Signatory An agent. Integrated Management College. DISSOLVE TO: means the action seems to blur and refocus into another scene. with a significant amount of rehearsal. New Delhi . so named because when stages were raked (slanted). Abbreviation for Voice Over. V. an actor walking away from the audience was literally walking up. can read unsolicited materials. Script Terms and Abbreviations Although scriptwriters sometimes feel an urge to indicate camera shots and angles on a script. Some theaters allow this.g. Treatment A scene by scene description of a screenplay. Writers Guild of America Also known as "the WGA. Workshop A developmental "production" of a play. Page 77 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Tweak A minor change made in a scene or portion of a screenplay or a stageplay. with chapters in Los Angeles (WGAw) and New York (WGAe).SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING A script notation denoting an editing transition within the telling of a story. camera goes with to indicate the camera moves with a person or object. and is generally used to denote a passage of time. this is an area that's best left to the judgment of the director. producer or production company that has signed an agreement to abide by established agreements with the Writers Guild of America. but with less fully realized production values (e. to the theater or production company. for liability reasons. denoting that the speaker is narrating the action onscreen. Even so. and shot widens to signal a zoom or dolly back.

A medium close-up (MCU) is a shot cropped between the shoulders and the belt line." A boom shot. achieves somewhat the same effect. this is a shot from the top of their heads to at least their feet. it's referred to as a dolly. the term is truck (note the illustration above). both the dolly and truck movement are often referred to as tracking shots. A close-up (CU) is the most desirable to catch changing facial expressions. Extreme close-ups (XCUs) are reserved for dramatic impact. The XCU shot may show just the eyes of an individual. All of these designations can also apply to objects.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING When the entire camera is moved toward or away from the subject. a zoom is somewhat artificial looking. typically with the camera moving. which are important to following a conversation. jib shot. which is an optical version of a dolly. or crane shot refer to high-angle shots. many Directors of Photography feel that compared to a dolly. With people. a script notation might say. Sometimes you also see the term moving shot to indicate that the camera moves in some way during the course of a scene Shot designations for films include: Long shot (LS) or full shot (FS). To indicate either one. (To save space we've used a vertical rather than a horizontal format for this photo. Even so." or "camera zooms out to show that John is not alone." When a lateral move is needed. In film. A zoom.) A medium shot (MS) is normally a shot from the waist up. New Delhi . "camera zooms in for close-up of John. An establishing shot is a wide shot (WS) or a long shot (LS). as in "close-up of toaster shows toast popping up. This type of shot gives an audience a basic orientation to the geography of a scene—who is where—after which Page 78 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. Integrated Management College.

Thereafter. establishing shots can be momentarily used as reminders or updates on scene changes—where people have moved in relation to each other.SCRIPT WRITING & STORY BOARD DESIGNING there should be cuts to closer shots. Integrated Management College. it appears that there is a continuous flow of action and several cameras were used. Dialogue. numerous takes (filmed sequences from the different camera positions in the coverage) are required before a director is satisfied. since the camera is stopped and repositioned between takes. etc. but this term is generally reserved for the special needs of film. Once master shot action is filmed the scene is generally shot over again from different camera positions so that there are shots (especially close-ups) of each actor. Page 79 of 79 © Rahul Kushwaha. These scenes are referred to as coverage. New Delhi . In this context they are called reestablishing shots. With film just one camera is generally used. A master shot is similar to an establishing shot. However. when the scenes are cut together during editing. and actor reactions and movements are repeated each time the camera is repositioned. Often.

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