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Service Design

Service Design
Service Design

What is Service Design?

The design of appropriate and innovative IT

services, including their architectures,
processes, policies and documentation, to meet
current and future agreed business

Service Design stage of the lifecycle starts with a set of new or changed business
requirements and ends with the development of a service solution designed to meet the
documented needs of the business
Service Design
Service Design
Five major aspects of Service

• The design of new or changed


• The design of the Service

Portfolio, including the Service

• The design of the technology

architecture and management

• The design of the processes

• The design of measurement

systems, methods and metrics
Service Design

SD lifecycle - Inputs and Outputs

Service Design

Key concepts

Service Design Package

• Details all aspects of a service through all

stages of its lifecycle

• Requirements

• Service Functional / Level /

Operational Management

• Service Design and Topology

• Organizational Readiness Assessment

• Service Lifecycle Strategy

• The SDP is passed from Service Design to

Service Transition for implementation
Service Design

• Service Catalog Management

• Service Level Management

• Availability Management

• Information Security Management

• Supplier Management

• Capacity Management

• IT Service Continuity Management

Service Catalog
Service Design – Service Catalog Management


• Create and manage an accurate Service Catalog

• Provide a single source of consistent information on

all agreed services and ensure that it is widely
available to those that are approved to access it

• Ensure that a Service Catalog is produced and

maintained containing accurate information on all
operational services and those being prepared to
run operationally
Service Design – Service Catalog Management

Basic concepts
• The Service Catalog

- Part of the Service Portfolio

- Details of all operational services and those being prepared for transition

• Business Service Catalog

- Details of all the IT services delivered to the customers, together with

relationships to business units and business process that rely upon the IT

- Visible to the customer

• Technical Service Catalog

- Details of all the supporting services, together with the relationships to

supporting services, shared services, components and CI’s necessary to support
the provision of the service to the business

- Not usually visible to the customer

Service Design – Service Catalog Management
Service Design – Service Catalog Management


Service Catalog Manager

• Produce and maintain the service catalog

• Ensure all operational services and those

being prepared for operational running are

• Ensure all information in the Service Catalog

is accurate and up to date

• Ensure all the information is consistent with

the information in the Service Portfolio

• Ensure all information is adequately

protected and backed-up
Service Level
Service Design – Service Level Management

• Negotiate, agree and document
service levels

• Measure, report and improve service


• Communicate with business and

Service Design – Service Level Management


• Ensure quality of service match


• Existing services

• Requirements for new or changed


• Expectations and perception of the

business, customers and users
Service Design – Service Level Management


• SLA – A contract between the Service Provider (IT Organization) and the Customer
that articulates the detail of which services are to be delivered along with the
quality, performance and availability.

• Operational Level Agreement (OLA) – Document to support the SLA agreed with the
Internal Departments

• Underpinning Contract (UC) – Document to support the SLA agreed with the External
service providers / suppliers to delivery of one or more components of the end-to-
end service.

• Service Catalog – The details of range of services that an IT Organization can deliver
and different levels of service that are available to the customer. (Technical and
Business Service Catalog)

• Service Improvement Program (SIP) – An initiative to improve the performance of a

delivering services.

• Service Level Requirements (SLR) – Provides the details of list of services that are
required by the customer.
Service Design – Service Level Management

Structure of SLM

Customers Customer Customer Customer


IT Service

IT Service
IT System IT System


Internal External
And Supplier
Service Design – Service Level Management


• Design SLA frameworks

• Identify Service Level Requirements ( SLR’s )

- Agree and document Operational Level Agreement ( OLA’s )and Underpinning


• Monitor service performance against SLA

• Measure and improve Customer Satisfaction

• Review and revise underpinning agreements and service scope

• Produce service reports

• Conduct service reviews and instigate improvements

• Review and revise SLA’s, OLA’s and UC’s

• Develop contacts and relationships

• Manage complaints and compliments

Service Design – Service Level Management


Service Level Manager

• Process Owner

• Understand Customers

• Create and maintain SLA’ s and

OLA’ s

• Review and reporting

• Ensure that changes are assessed

for impact on service levels
Service Design – Service Level Management

Key Metrics

• Number and % of targets being met

• Number and severity of service breaches

• Number and % of up to date SLA’s

• Number of services with timely reports and

service reviews

• Improvements in Customer Satisfaction

Service Design – Service Level Management

Process Interfaces

• Service Portfolio Management

• Service Catalog Management

• Supplier Management

• Availability Management, Capacity

Management and ITSCM

• Service Knowledge Management

• Continuous Service Improvement

• All other service management processes to

agree and document required customer
Availability Management
Service Design – Availability Management


• Ensure agreed level of availability is provided

• Continually optimize and improve the availability of

IT infrastructure, Services and supporting

• Provide cost effective availability improvements

that can deliver business and customer benefits

• Produce and maintain an availability plan

Service Design – Availability Management


• Availability – Is the ability of an IT Service or component to perform its required

function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time

• Reliability – The reliability of an IT Service can be qualitatively stated as freedom

from operational failure

• Maintainability - The ability of an IT Infrastructure component to be retained in, or

restored to, an operational state

• Serviceability (external) – A contractual term used to define the support to be

received from the external supplier in which they will support in case of
unavailability of one or more services

• Resilience – The ability of a component or service to keep running, where one or

more components have failed.

• Vital Business Function – Ensure that the primary function / deliverables of a

specific service should be available
Service Design – Availability Management


• Determining Availability requirements from the business

and designing the availability criteria

• Defining targets for the Availability, Maintainability and

Reliability of the IT infrastructure components

• Monitoring and Reporting Availability, Maintainability and

Reliability of IT services and components

• Producing and Maintaining an availability plan

Service Design – Availability Management
Unavailability Lifecycle

MTRS = Mean Time To Restore Service (Downtime)=>



MTBF= Mean Time

Between Failures

MTBSI = Mean Time Between System Incidents = RELIABILITY

Service Design – Availability Management
Calculating availability

Time Agreed to = Hours of Operations as per SLA

Downtime = Outage as reported by Incident Management

Actual Time = Time Agreed to – Downtime

% Availability = Time Actually Available X100

Time Agreed to
Service Design – Availability Management

Service Level Manager
• Process Owner

• Ensure services deliver agreed levels of availability

• Creation and maintenance of an availability plan

• Assessing changes

• Monitoring and reporting availability

• Proactive improvement of service availability and

optimization of the IT

infrastructure to optimize costs

• Assisting with investigation and diagnosis of

incidents and problems which cause availability
Information Security
Service Design – Information Security Management


• To protect the interests of those relying on information

• To protect the systems and communication that deliver the information

• Specifically related to harm resulting from failures of :

- Availability

- Confidentiality

- Integrity
Service Design – Information Security Management


• Availability – Information is available and usable

when required, and the systems that provide it can
appropriately resist attacks and recover from or
prevent failures

• Confidentiality – Information is observed by or

disclosed to only those who have a right to know

• Integrity - Information is complete, accurate and

protected against unauthorized modification
Service Design – Information Security Management

Security Manager
• Process Owner

• Develop and maintain Information Security


• Communicate and publicize security

awareness and policy

• Perform security analysis and risk


• Monitor and manage security breaches and

Supplier Management
Service Design – Supplier Management


• Manage supplier relationship and performance

• Negotiate and agree contracts with SLM liaison

• Manage contracts throughout their lifecycle

• Maintain a supplier policy and a supporting Supplier

and Contract Database (SCD)
Service Design – Supplier Management

• Ensure the UC and OLA with suppliers are aligned to
business needs and support and align with targets in
SLR’s and SLA’s, in conjunction with SLM

• Manage relationship with suppliers

• Manage supplier performance

• Negotiate and agree contracts with suppliers and

manage them through their lifecycle

• Maintain a supplier policy and a supporting Supplier

and Contract Database (SCB)
Service Design – Supplier Management

Supplier srategy & policy

Service knowledge
Management system

Evaluation of new
suppliers & controls

Establish new suppliers

& contracts

Supplier categorization &

maintanenance of SCD
Supplier & contract
management and

Contract renewal and/or

Supplier and Contract

Supplier reports and

Service Design – Supplier Management

Supplier Manager
• Process Owner

• Maintain and review

- Supplier and Contract Database ( SCB)

- Processes for contract dispute, expected end,

early end or transfer of a service

• Assist in development and review of SLA’s, contracts,


• Perform supplier, contract and SLA reviews

• Identify improvement actions and ensure these are


• Assess changes for impact on suppliers, supporting

services and contracts
Capacity Management
Service Design – Capacity Management


To produce and maintain a capacity plan

• To provide advice and guidance on capacity and performance related issues

• To ensure services meet or exceed performance targets
• To assist in diagnosing and resolving capacity related problems and incidents
• To assess the impact of changes on capacity plan
• Proactive capacity and performance measures

Service Design – Capacity Management

Basic Concepts
• Balancing costs against resources needed
• Balancing supply against demand

• Should be involved at all the stages of the lifecycle

• Forward looking, regularly updated capacity plan

• Capacity Management System (CMS)

• Capacity Management Information System

• Modeling

• Application Sizing
Service Design – Capacity Management


• Monitoring – Monitors the performance of the IT Services and the supporting

infrastructure components

• Analysis – Analyze the data

• Tuning – Undertaking activities to make most efficient use of existing services

• Implementation

• Storage of Capacity Management Data

• Demand Management

• Modeling – Predicting the behavior of computer systems under a given volume

and variety of work

• Application sizing – The objective of this activity is to estimate the resource

requirements to support a proposed application change or new application, to
ensure that it meets its required service levels

• Production of capacity plan

Service Design – Capacity Management
Capacity Management has three levels of concern:

- Business Capacity Management

This sub-process is responsible for ensuring that the future business requirements for IT services are
considered, planned and implemented in a timely fashion

The current resource utilisation by various services is obtained trend, forecast or model the future

- Service Capacity Management

The focus of this sub-process is the management of the performance of the IT services used by the
customers. It is responsible for ensuring that the performance of all services, as detailed in the SLA’s
and SLR’s is monitored and measured, and the collected data is recorded, analyzed and reported

- Component Capacity Management

The focus of this sub-process is the management of the individual components of the IT infrastructure.
It is responsible for ensuring that all the components within the IT infrastructure that have a finite
resource are monitored and measured, and the collected data is recorded, analyzed and reported
Service Design – Capacity Management

• Capacity Manager

- Process Owner

- Proactive planning

• Service Level Manager

- Provides capacity requirements through discussions with business users

• Technical and Application Management

- Day-to-day capacity management activities

- Reacting to capacity incidents and problems

IT Service
Continuity Management
Service Design – ITSCM

• To maintain Service Continuity and IT Recovery plans that support the Business
Continuity Plans

• To complete regular Business Impact Analysis exercises to ensure that the plans
are current and relevant

• To conduct regular risk assessment and management activities

• To provide advice and guidance on issues related to Service Continuity

• To implement measures to meet or exceed Business Continuity targets

• To check the impact of changes on existing plans

• To negotiate necessary contracts with suppliers

Service Design – ITSCM

• Initiation

• Requirement Analysis

• Implementation

• Operational Management
Service Design – ITSCM

• Policy setting

• Specify terms of reference and scope

• Allocate Resources

• Define the project organisation and

control structure

• Agree project and quality plans

Service Design – ITSCM
Business Impact Analysis

• Critical business processes

• The potential damage or loss that may be caused to the organisation as a result of
a disruption to critical business processes

• Thestaffing, skills, facilities and services (including the IT Services) necessary to

enable critical and essential business processes to continue operating at a
minimum acceptable level

• The time within which minimum levels of staffing, facilities and services should be

• The time within which all required business processes and supporting staff,
facilities and services should be fully recovered
Service Design – ITSCM

Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment Model Risk Measurement Table

Service Design – ITSCM
Business Continuity Strategy

Risk Measurement
• Identify risks
• Assess threat and Vulnerability levels
• Assess the levels of risk
Recovery Options
• Manual Work-around
• Reciprocal arrangements
• Gradual recovery
- Cold Standby (target recovery normally in
excess of 72 hours)
• Intermediate recovery
- Warm Standby (target recovery normally
between 24 and 72 hours)
• Fast recovery
- Hot Standby (target recovery normally
within 24 hours)
Service Design – ITSCM
Service Continuity Manager

• Process Owner for ITSM

• Responsible for producing, testing and

maintaining service continuity plans

• Part of overall Business Continuity Team