Amara Raja Batteries private limited was incorporated under the Companies Act 1956, in 13th 1985 & converted into a public limited company on 6th Sep 1990. The company is situated in 100 acres. ARBL is the first Indian who manufacturers VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid) batteries. ARBL is the only public limited company among the group companies. At first ARBL was in collaboration with GNB Industries (USA) & later onwards, Now ARBL is having collaboration with Johnson Controls Inc., (JCI-USA) which is the largest manufacturer of VRLA batteries in North America. The present turnover of the company is $350 & mainly aimed at producing the highly qualified VRLA batteries.

ARBL as whole has 4 divisions; 1. 2. 3. 4. Industrial Battery Division (ABD) Automotive Battery Division (IBD) Small Battery Division (SBD) Injection Mold Division (IMD-Plastics)

which is passed through the drum.MANUFACTURING PROCESS OXIDE PLANT: OXIDE PREPARATION: Lead oxide preparation involves either of two methods of manufacturing: a) Ball-Mill Process b) Barton. .e free lead and three-part lead monoxide. 99. the oxide usually contains about one part un reacted fine lead particles i. In both process.97% lead is used. 1. which is rotated with its central axis in the horizontal plane.Pot Process With either methods. iii) This reaction generates more heat and the particles of lead that are rubbed of by the abrasion are converted to leady oxide of the required chemical composition.1 BALL –MILL PROCESS: i) ii) Lead ingot is tumbled in a melting point. The heat generated by the friction between the lead cylinders is sufficient to start oxide formation in the presence of stream of humid air.

The agitator provided disperses molten lead and keeps them better with oxygen. (exothermic process). middle and bottom to maintain the constant temperature in order to keep the lead in molten state.iv) The oxide removed by the entertainment in the air stream or by discharge through small holes located in the periphery of the drum. Thermostats provided at the top.fine powder of lead oxide and helpful to reduce the temperature of the reaction.2 BARTON –POT PROCESS: 1.2. 1. the high temperature.1 MELTON POT: Function: i) ii) iii) melting the lead ingot i.97% lead A rectangular pot with the immersion haters provided at two opposite side of the pot. iv) Hood is provided to prevent the spillage of lead during 1. Function: i) ii) iii) It converts molten lead into lead oxide by oxidation process.2 REACTOR POT: The molten lead from the melting point is pumped through rotary pump through a duct into the reactor pot. . Distilled water is added to reduce the ultra. filtered and sent to the atmosphere.e 99. The vapours are sucked.2.

which is present outside the bag house i. Very fine particles of lead oxide remaining in the air stream are drawn out of the cyclone and passed into a dust collector where special filters separate the oxide from the air. The finished oxide is then stored in silos from where required quantities are transferred for production.e. In the cyclone.1. oxide particles drop down through the contact walls into a screw conveyor. For segregation particles of desired size then passes through the classifier into a cyclone. 1. .iv) Bottom heaters are provided to increase the temperature during the initial start-up period. the lead oxide is separated by cyclone into the heavier and lighter particles (size) and is filtered in bag house. The lead oxide formed is sucked by vacuum created by the blower. around each droplet of lead. the oxygen from the with the droplets of molten lead to produce an oxide coating ii) iii) Usually 15-30% free lead exists at the core of each fine oxide spherical shaped particle. are drawn out from it through a duct connected to a classifier.. The fine oxide is removed from the filter bags by high pressure air pulses and fed to the screw conveyor. Reaction : i) air react During oxidation reaction.3 REST PART: The oxide particle from the reaction pot.

selenium and silver etc. In automotive battery division raw materials used for positive grids are high tin.47antimony and for negative grids lead calcium alluminium (LCA) In industrial battery division raw materials used for positive grids are MFX (lead cadmium antimony) and for negative grids lead calcium aluminum(LCA). tin and cadmium. 1. Because grid imparts plate strength during manufacturing and life. silver. The other elements are arsenic.. It acts as the mechanical support frame work of the plates (active material). Grids in battery perform two vital functions.GRID CASTING: The grids are casted by fully automatic casting machine using different moulds in order to get the desired design of grids. This is accomplished by alloying lead with other elements the primary alloying ingredients are antimony. it must be durable. calcium. It provides uniform efficient current flow to and from the plate (active material) during formation and use. Pure lead does not possess sufficient tensile and creep strength and thus is easily deformed at room temperature. PASTE MIXING: . being used in lesser amount.

The paste is used for making active materials for both positive and negative plates. The positive and negative plates differ only in additives to the base mixture. Organic expanders like barium sulfate (baso4). Carbon is used to improve the plate conductivity. The water added during the mixing operation functions as a lubricant and bulking agent to produce a paste for proper consistency. And the addition of water forms pores in the basic plate. .The lead oxide powder. The binder added to the positive plates is basically to bind the material with bbasic frame work and enhances the mechanical strength. The mixture has a setup for cooling air in order to reduce the heat during the mixing operation PASTING: The pasting is done on an automatic pasting machine – ORIFICE PASTER. carbon black and dynel fibers are added to the negative plates. The purpose of adding sulfuric acid is mainly to provide the basic sulfates and causes the required cementation. distilled water and dilute sulfuric acid are mixed thoroughly in a paste mixture to form a paste.

These to essential properties are the best accomplished by conducting the curing procedure in the following sequence: Steaming period: To equalize the moisture content between all the plates and to encourage the development of basic lead sulfates. 2) Grids are automatically fed into the machine by a mechanical feeder.1) The paste is dumped into a cone then transferred to hopper. 4) The plates are staked in sequence for curing and drying process. CURING AND DRYING: CURING: Curing is the process by which satisfactory levels of cohesion & adhesion are imparted to the active material prior to formation. 3) The quantity of paste dispensed through the hopper is automatically controlled and a pasted plate comes out through conveyor belt at the other end of the pasting machine. Adhesion is dependent upon the strength of the bond. which is formed between the paste and the grid. . The nature and degree of interlocking between the crystals of the paste determine curing.

Corrosion attack of metal/alloy grid. During curing process physical. DRYING: . chemical and morphological changes take place within the active material. These four reactions cause the active material to harden.charge service.Lower humidity treatment to affect the oxidation of free lead: Drying process to bring down the water content (moisture) to the low level for the active material to have good stability. Conversion of free-lead particles to lead oxide with the liberation of heat. Development of basic lead carbonates. These changes are brought by at least four reactions. The development and the growth of the basic lead sulfates provide the essential particle-to-particle cohesion that enables the active material to withstand the regular contraction forces which are encountered the course of the battery discharge. strengthen and bond well to the grid. the effectiveness of the curing process can be evaluated both by the degree of free-lead oxidation and by the amount of moisture remains in the material after the process has completed with the specified condition. In simple terms. i) ii) iii) iv) Progressive growth of basic lead sulfate crystals.

The following process take place one after other Envelope stacker: prepares a stack of plates (set of positive and negative) Caston trap: prepares groups (group of plates) with straps and end terminals HVPT (high voltage polarity test): conducts high voltage polarity tests ICW (inter cell welding): welds one cell with other internally. plates are sent to the assembly where positive and negative plates are arranged alternatively as per the end use of the battery. the active material is still a paste. The plate is enfolded with the AGM (absorbent glass mat) separator for VRLA and fiber glass for automotive batteries. Heat sealing: seals cover with container Post burning: prepares positive and negative post.After curing. ASSEMBLY: After curing and drying. It is considered that this process enhances the mechanical strength of the active material and allows plates to be stored without risk of degradation. . Leak testing: conducts a battery leak test.

which is basically semiautomatic vacuum filler. Now assembled battery is known as DUF (dry unformed) battery. Then it is sent to the formation section where cured plate material is electrochemically converted into electrode active material i. spongy lead as negative and lead dioxide as positive. plates are alternately arranged (with one plate wrapped with separator) to form a group of plates which are known as stakes. Formation time and charging pattern depends on the plate count and the amount of active . The lugs of grouped plates (along with separator) will be fused together with an alloy which is known as straps and finally two terminals are casted to represent the terminals of the battery. The dilute sulfuric acid should be fed at low temperature to control the temperature during filling and formation. utilizing direct current supplied material present. by power sources. FILLING AND FORMATION: DUF batteries are filled with chilled dilute sulfuric acid in acid filling machine.e.Based on design. Then those groups are inserted into the polypropylene jar and tested for any damages in HVPT machine then all the cells are welded internally and will be sealed with cover and after post burning finally the battery is leak tested.

battery is closed with vent plug and washed to remove any acid present on the battery cover/container. Positive plate (anodic process or oxidation) PbSO4 + 2H2O PbO + H2O -----> PbO2 + 2H + + 2e. The conversion these masses involves the formation of lead dioxide with tetravalent lead on the positive electrodes and spongy lead on the negative electrodes in a process carried out electrochemically in a solution of sulfuric acid. .+H2SO4 -----> PbO2 + 2H + + 2e- Negative plate ( cathodic process or reduction) PbO2 + 2H+ + 2ePbO + 2H+ + 2e------> ------> Pb + H2SO4 Pb + H2O FINISHING: After forming. lead sulfate and lead. Similarly negative mass also contains lead monoxide. The pasted and cured mass in the positive plate contains lead monoxide. lead sulfate and lead along with additives.The formation process converts the unformed masses to charged state.

The batteries. in which satisfy the specification is packed and labeled. Stretch wrapping: batteries are packed. . Acid top up: in this section acid is filled or leveled in the batteries. Post polishing: finishes the post Serial number punching: serial number for the battery is punched then caps are fixed after labeling. HRD test: battery tested for high rate discharge. This finished product is sent to the market through shipment by Lorries. trucks etc. Web sealing: battery is sealed with a polyethylene cover. Vent cap fixing: permanent caps are fixed.Then it is checked for their prescribed capacity. Battery washing plant: the battery is washed with clean water.

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