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ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology is an extremely powerful emerging technology, which is expected to have asubstantial impact on medical technology now and

in the future. The potential impact of novelnano medical applications on disease diagnosis, therapy, and prevention is foreseen to changehealth care in a fundamental way.B i o me d i c a l n a n o t e c h n o l o g y p r e s e n t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y o pp o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t ma n y diseases. An area with near-term potential is detecting molecules associated with diseases suchas cancer, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as detecting microorganismsand viruses associated with infections, such as pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and HIV viruses.Macro-scale devices constructed from exquisitely sensitive nano scale components, such asmicro-/nano-cantilevers, nano tubes, and nano-wires, can detect even the rarest bio-molecular signals at a very early stage of the disease. Development of these devices is in the proof-of-concept phase, though entering the market may be sooner than expected. However, a differentapproach of molecular sensing in vivo involves the use of implantable sensors which is stillhampered by unwanted bio-fouling impairing long-term stability of continuous sensors caused by blood components and factors of the immune system. Nanotechnology might yield nanostructured surfaces preventing this nonspecific protein adsorption. INTRODUCTION: A b i o s e n s o r i s g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d a s a me a s u r e me n t s ys t e m t h a t c o n s i s t s o f a p r o b e wi t h a sensitive biological recognition element, or bioreceptor, a physicochemical detector component,and a transducer in between.A biosensor consists of usually three components1) BIORECEPTORS2) TRANSDUCERS3) DETECTORS Bio receptors It is a sensitive biological element. The interaction of an analyst, e.g. a particular chemical component, virus or micro-organism, with the bioreceptor is designed to generate aneffect picked up by a transducer, which converts the information into a measurable effect by thedetector, for instance an electric signal. Bio-receptors are used because of their specificity. Theyenable measurement with minimum interference from other components in complex mixtures.The bio-receptor is a biological molecule (e.g., an antibody/antigen, DNA, protein, or enzyme),or a living biological system (e.g., cells, tissues, or whole organisms) that utilizes a biochemicalmechanism of recognition. The sampling component of a biosensor contains a bio-sensitive

layer t h a t c a n e i t h e r c o n t a i n b i o - r e c e p t o r s o r b e ma d e o f b i o r e c e p t o r s c o v a l e n t l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e transducer. Transducer -Transduction can be accomplished by optical, electrochemical, andmass detection methods. A nano biosensor or nano sensor is a biosensor that has dimensions ont h e n a n o me t e r .s i z e s c a l e . Na n o s e n s or s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e t o o l s t o i n v e s t i g a t e i mp o r t a n t biological processes at the cellular level. NANO SENSORS The three types of Nano sensors with medical application possibilities are a) Cantilever array sensors and b) Nano tube sensorsc) Nano wire sensors. a)Cantilever array sensors Micro-fabricated cantilever array sensors are used as ultras e n s i t i v e me c h a n i c a l s e n s o r s c o n v e r t i n g ( b i o c h e m i c a l o r physical processes into a recordable signal in m i c r o electromechanical systems (MEMS) or nano electromechanical systems (NEMS).Cantilevers are typically rectangular-shaped silicon bars. The unique feature of micro cantileversis their ability to undergo bending due to molecular adsorption or binding induced changes insurface tension. Applications of Cantilever array sensors i)Cantilever sensors for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus Medical applications of cantilever-based sensors have been proposed for early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and can improve blood glucose monitoring using small and ultra-sensitivea n a l yt i c a l p l a t f o r ms . I n p a t i e n t s wi t h d i a b e t e s me l l i t u s , k e t e n e s a r e p r o d u c e d d u e t o t h e deterioration of blood insulin concentrations. Acetone is one of these ketenes which is excretedin urine or expired as vapor in exhaled air. Disposable test kits are used to detect acetone inurine. Acetone in exhaled air can only be detected by the physician as a putrid smell without anyquantification. Small amounts of acetone in a patients breath can be detected by cantilever arraysensor technique which may attribute to early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. ii)Cantilever sensors for cancer diagnosis Cantilever arrays can aid cancer diagnosis and can be engineered to bind to molecules associatedwith cancer, such as DNA sequences, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and proteins. When thec a n c e r - a s s o c i a t e d mo l e c u l e s b i n d t o t h e c a n t i l e v e r s , c h a n g e s i n s u r f a c e t e n s i o n c a u s e t h e cantilever to bend. By monitoring whether or not the cantilevers are bending, the presence of cancer-associated molecules can be demonstrated. Significant bending should be evident whenthe molecules are present in very low DNA

concentrations. The cantilever technology could beuseful in high-throughput nano mechanical genomic analysis and proteomics detecting earlymolecular events in the development of cancer. The specificity and sensitivity of these arrays donot yet offer substantial advantages over conventional detection methods, although the use of nano particle probes might allow for individual single-pair mismatch discrimination. Rather, the breakthrough potential of micro- and nano mechanical cantilevers resides in their extraordinarymultiplexing capabilities.

Nano tube based sensors Nano-sized carbon tubes coated with strands of DNA can create tiny sensors with abilities todetect odors and tastes, According to the researchers, arrays of these nano sensors could detectmolecules on the order of one part per million, akin to finding a one-second play amid 278 hoursof baseball footage or a single person. The researchers tested the nano sensors on five differentchemical odorants, including methanol and trinitrotoluene, or DNT, a common chemical that isa l s o f r e q u e n t ly a c o mp o n e n t o f mi l i t a r y - g r a d e e x p l o s i v e s . Th e n a n o s e n s o r s c o u l d s n i f f molecules out of the air or taste them in a liquid, suggesting applications ranging from domesticsecurity to medical detectors. Applications of Nano tube based sensorsi) Nano-tube-based sensors for blood glucose monitoring The enzyme glucose oxidize is either immobilized inside MWCNTs or noncovalently attachedt o t h e s u r f a c e o f S WC N Ts e n a b l i n g t h e c a t a l ys i s o f g l u c o s e wi t h hyd r o g e n p e r o x i d e a s c o - p r o d u c t . F o r t h e a mp e r e me t r i c b i o s e n s o r t h e e n z yme i m mo b i l i z a t i o n a l l o ws f o r t h e d i r e c t e l e c t r o n t r a n s f e r f r o m t h e e n z yme t o a g o l d o r p l a t i n u m

t r a n s d u c e r p r o d uc i n g t h e r e s p o n s e current. The fluorescence biosensor could be used in a new type of implantable biological sensor such as near-infrared nano scale.. The sensor can be loaded into a porous capillary and insertedinto tissue. As carbon nano tubes do not degrade like organic molecules that fluoresce, thesenano particle optical sensors would be suitable for long-term monitoring applications. Proof-of-concept studies to detect glucose levels have been performed .Practical use is five to ten yearsa h e a d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . S e l f - a s s e mb l e d p e p t i d e n a n o t ub e s c a n b e u s e d i n a n electrochemical biosensor. The presence of the peptide nano tubes improves the sensitivity of thedevice several fold. Peptide nano tubes offer several advantages over carbon nano tubes, sincethey are biocompatible, watersoluble, inexpensive, easy to manufacture, and can be chemicallymodified by targeting their amino or carboxyl groups. The sensing technique can be used as a platform for ultra-sensitive detection of biological and chemical agents. i)Nano-tube-based sensors for DNA detection MWCNT-based nano electrode arrays embedded in SiO2 matrix have been integrated into aelectrochemical system for ultra-sensitive and rapid DNA detection. A bottom-up approach isused for the fabrication of individually addressed nano electrode arrays, that results in precisely positioned and well aligned MWCNT arrays on a silicon wafer. Subsequently, the open ends of MWCNTs are functionalized with olio nucleotide probes. Combining the nano electrode arrays with redo active molecule-mediated guanine oxidation, the hybridization of less than a fewattomoles of olio nucleotide targets can be easily detected by volt metric measurement. The proof-of-concept has been demonstrated for clinical relevant DNA molecules related to wild-t yp e a l l e l e s a s s o c i a t e d wi t h c a n c e r g e n e s . F u r t h e r o p t i mi z a t i o n o f t h e s ys t e m c o u l d yi e l d detections below one attomole. b ) Na n o - wi r e - b a s e d s e n s o r s IT is a hybrid of two molecules that are extremely sensitive to outside signals: single strandedDNA, which serves as the 'detector,' and a carbon nano tube, which functions as 'transmitter.By putting the two together and they become an extremely versatile type of sensor, capable of finding tiny amounts of a specific molecule." The size of such sensors each carbon nano tube isabout a billionth of a meter wide Applications of Nano-wire based sensorsi) Nano-wire-based electrical detection of single viruses Semiconducting silicon nano wires can be configured as field-effect transistors for the electricaldetection of viruses in solutions. When a single charged virus binds to

receptors (e.g., antibodies)l i n k e d t o t h e n a n o d e v i c e t h e c o n d u c t a n c e o f a s e mi c o n d u c t i n g n a n o wi r e c h a n ge s f r o m t h e baseline value, and when the virus unbinds, the conductance returns to the baseline value. Theconductance of a second nano wire device without receptors should show no change during thes a me t i me p e r i o d a n d c a n s e r v e a s a n i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . N a n o wi r e s a r e c o n f i n e d t o a c e n tr a l r e g i o n t h a t i s c o u p l e d t o a m i c r o f l u i d i c c h a n n e l f o r s a mp l e d e l i v e r y a n d t h e c o n d u c t a n c e response can be recorded while solutions with viruses flow at a constant rate. Modification of different nano wires within an array with receptors specific for different viruses provides ameans for simultaneous detection of multiple viruses at the single particle level. The potential of nano wire-based electrical detection of viruses exceeds the capabilities of other methods such as polymerase chain reaction-based assays and micromechanical devices. NANO DETECTORSa)Nano-array-based bio-detection These nano arrays occupy a surface area thousands of times smaller than a standard microarrayand therefore present many novel applications. Three of the applications we will demonstrate arecytokine expression profiling nano arrays for small animal model systems, reverse-phase nanoarrays for profiling malignant progression from laser capture micro dissected tissue samples, anda nano arraybased pathogen detection platform with bio defense applications called the virichip. Application of nano-array-based detectors Ultra-sensitive virus detection Viruses in human blood samples, such as HIV-1, can be detected using nano scale antibodyarray-based devices. Dip-pen nanolithography was used to pattern 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid into an array of 60 nm dots on a gold thin film. Monoclonal antibodies to the HIV-1 p24antigen were immobilized on the dots. The analysis consists of immersing the array for one hour in a blood plasma sample. Subsequently, the signal from the antigen-array binding was amplifiedusing gold nano particles probes functionalized with polyclonal antibodies in a solution for onemore hour. A measurable amount of HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma from humans with lessthan 50 copies of RNA/ml is feasible demonstrating that nanobased assays can far exceed the 5 pg/ml (Pico (p) = 10-12) detection limit of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaysand provide sensitivity comparable to a polymerase chain reaction-based assay, without

targetamplification. Nano based array bio detection could enable HIV-1 diagnosis in mother-to-childtransmission. FUTURE CHALLENGES Current developments in cantilever array sensors are t o w a r d s i m p r o v e m e n t o f m e d i c a l diagnostics tools, e.g. new ways to characterize complex solutions such as small amounts of blood or body-fluid samples. On the other hand, from a scientific point of view, the challengelies in optimizing cantilever sensors to improve the sensitivity until the ultimate limit is reached,which may be the nano mechanical detection of individual molecules. Further refinement of invitro nanotechnology system for rapid, sensitive analysis of disease biomarkers might take placewi t h i n t h e n e x t f i v e ye a r s . S u c h s ys t e ms c o u l d b e e a s i l y e x p a n d e d a s n e w b i o ma r k e r s a r e identified. Current implantable biosensors, equipped with technology to relay sensed informationextra corporeally, are facing serious problems such as unwanted bio-fouling, i.e. nonspecifica d s o r p t i o n o f b l o o d c o mp o n e n t s a n d f a c t o r s o f t h e i m mu n e s ys t e m o n t h e s e n s i n g s u r f a c e s resulting in rapid loss of the ability of the sensor to detect the particular proteino v e r t h e b a c k g r o u n d s i g n a l . D e v e l o p i n g s u r f a c e n a n o s t r u c t u r e s f o r i mp l a n t a b l e mo l e c u l a r s e n s o r s m i g h t t a c k l e t h i s s t i l l u n s o l v e d p r o b l e m o f b i o - f o u l i n g . M o r e r e a l i s t i c a l l y , nanotechnology might be expected to yield novel, bio-fouling-indifferent sensing strategies, based for instance on the measurement of physical properties. CONCLUSION Nanotechnology offers important new tools expected to have a great impact on many areas inmedical technology. It provides extraordinary opportunities not only to improve materials andmedical devices but also to create new smart devices and technologies where existing andmo r e c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s ma y b e r e a c h i n g t h e i r l i mi t s . I t i s e x p e c t e d t o a c c e l e r a t e scientific as well as economic activities in medical research and development. Na n o t e c h n o l o g y h a s t h e p o t en t i a l t o ma k e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o d i s e a s e d e t e c t i o n , diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. Tools are important and integral parts for early detection.Nanotechnology could have a profound influence on disease prevention efforts because it offersi n n o v a t i v e t o o l s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c e l l a s w e l l a s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t we e n n o r ma l a n d a b n o r ma l c e l l s . I t c o u l d p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e me c h a n i s m o f t r a n s f o r ma t i o n ,

w h i c h i s f u n d a me n t a l i n d e s i g n i n g p r e v e n t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . F u r t h e r , it provides novel non-invasive observation modalities into the cellular machinery. It allows for the analysis of such parametersas cellular mechanics, morphology, and cytoskeleton, which have been difficult to achieve usingconventional technologies. REFERENCES T. A. Teton, C. A. Firkin and R. L. Let singer, Science, 2000,289, 17571760. L. Christy, G. Lee and C. OFarrell, Nuke. Acids Res., 1996, 24, 30313039 T. N. Chisel, W. Shi and A. E. Barron, Anal. Chem., 2005, 77, 772779 Thank you for the World Wide Web for the latest updates.