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Wildlife conservation

Wildlife conservation is the preservation, protection, or restoration of wildlife and their environment, especially in relation to endangered and vulnerable species. All living non-domesticated animals, even if bred, hatched or born in captivity, are considered wild animals. Wildlife represents all the non-cultivated and nondomesticated animals living in their natural habitats. Our world has many unique and rare animals, birds and reptiles. However the pressure of growing population in different parts of the world has led to the increasing need of using land for human habitations and agriculture. This has led to the reduced habitat of many wild animals.

The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins.[1] The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country.[2] Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species.[3] According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity.[4] India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.[5] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[6][7] India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[8] Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjodaro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[8] As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[5] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[10] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a nearextinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 500

wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 15 biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. The common name for wilderness in India is Jungle, which was adopted by the British colonialists to the English language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales.

Major threats to wildlife


Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:

Habitat loss: Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the natural wild areas which existed in the past. Climate change: Because many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight drop or rise in average rainfall will translate into large seasonal changes. Hibernating mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in the moisture level. Pesticides and toxic chemicals: Pesticides are deliberately spread to make the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents, so it should not be surprising that other plants and wildlife are deliberately harmed at the same time. In addition many chemical pollutants are toxic to wildlife, such as PCBs, mercury, petroleum by-products, solvents, antifreeze, etc. Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. Natural phenomena: Floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. Over-exploitation of resources: Exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing, for example). Accidental deaths: Car hits, window collisions (birds), collisions with ships (whales).

Government involvement
The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed "framework" to successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World

Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)"[7] The strategy aims to "provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions."[7] This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended "users" of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to over fishing. The main sections are as follows:

The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. Preservation of genetic diversity. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems. Priority requirements: ecological processes and life support systems. Priority requirements: genetic diversity. Priority requirements: sustainable utilization. Priorities for national action: A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. Environmental planning and rational use allocation. Improving the capacity to manage: legislation and organization. Improving the capacity to manage: training and research. Building support for conservation: Participation and education. Conservation-based rural development. Priorities for international action: International action: law and assistance. Tropical forests and drylands. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas. The global commons Regional strategies for international river basins and seas. Towards sustainable development. Map sections:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. Tropical forests 2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification. 3. Priority biogeographical provinces of the land for the establishment of protected areas. 4. International river basins. 5. Major consumers and exporters of seafood and gainers of large fisheries.

[edit] Non-government involvement


As major development agencies became discouraged with the public sector of environmental conservation in the late 1980s, these agencies began to lean their support towards the private sector or Non-Government Organizations.[8] In a World Bank Discussion Paper it is made

apparent that the explosive emergence of nongovernmental organizations was widely known to government policy makers. Seeing this rise in NGO support, U.S. Congress made amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act in 1979 and 1986 earmarking U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds for biodiversity.[8] From 1990 moving through recent years Environmental Conservation in the Non-Government Organizations sector has become increasingly more focused on the political and economic impact of USAID given towards the Environment and Natural Resources.[9] After the terror attacks on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 and the start of Former President Bushs War on Terror maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and natural resources became a priority to prevent international tensions according to the Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002[9] and section 117 of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act.[9] Furthermore in 2002 U.S. Congress modified the section on endangered species of the previously amended Foreign Assistance Act. The amendments to the section also included modifications on the section concerning "PVOs and other Nongovernmental Organizations."[9] The section requires that PVOs and NGO's, "to the fullest extent possible involve local people with all stages of design and implementation."[9] These amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act and the recent rise in USAID funding towards foreign environmental conservation have lead to several disagreements in terms of NGO's role in foreign development.

[edit] Active non-government organizations


This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (May 2011)

The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable environmental organization that works to preserve the plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive.[10] World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting around 1300[4] conservation and environmental projects around the world. It is a charity, with approximately 60% of its funding coming from voluntary donations by private individuals. 45% of the fund's income comes from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United. States.[11] Wildlife Conservation Society Audubon Society

[edit] References
1. ^ a b "NAM Brochure". Retrieved 2011-04-04. 2. ^ "Bugle Magazine". Retrieved 2011-04-04. 3. ^ a b "TWS Final Position Statement". Retrieved 2011-04-04.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

^ "The Future of Public Trust". Retrieved 2011-04-04. ^ a b c "Bugle Magazine". Retrieved 2011-04-04. ^ a b c "North American Wildlife Conservation Model". Retrieved 2011-04-04. ^ a b "World Conservation Strategy" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-01. ^ a b http://www.jstor.org/pss/4192201 ^ a b c d e f "The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-01. 10.^ "About Us - Learn More About The Nature Conservancy". Nature.org. 201102-23. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 11.^ "WWF in Brief". Wwf.panda.org. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
WCS CORE PROJECTS

YEAR 2008ongoing 2008ongoing 2006

PROJECT LEADER/ S K. Ullas Karanth and Uma Ramakrishnan Uma Ramakrishnan Sanjay Gubbi

PROJECT NAME Meta-population dynamics of Tigers in Malenad Mysore Landscape of Karnataka. Genetic monitoring of Tigers. Tiger habitats and Integrated Conservation and Development Projects: a case study from Periyar Tiger Reserve, India Tiger as an umbrella species: evaluation of management models for biodiversity conservation in India Post-Graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation Distribution and dynamics of tiger and prey populations in Karnataka, India Hornbill conservation project in North East India Distribution and dynamics of tiger and prey populations in Maharashtra, India Impact of iron ore mining in Kudremukh on Bhadra river ecosystem and its tiger habitats Strengthening tiger conservation through understanding predator-prey relationships in dry tropical forests of India Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of Ranthambore, India Local hunting and large mammal conservation

2003Ongoing 2003Ongoing 20032006 20022005 20022005 20022003 20012004 19992000 1996-

G.Vishwanatha Reddy

K. Ullas Karanth and Ajith Kumar K Ullas Karanth and N.Samba Kumar Aparajita Datta K.Ullas Karanth, N.Samba Kumar, Harshwardhan Dhanwatey, Poonam Dhanwatey, Prachi Mehta and Jayant Kulkarni. Jagadish Krishnaswamy and K. Ullas Karanth Raghu Chundawat and K.Ullas Karanth

N.Samba Kumar M. D. Madhusudan & K. Ullas Karanth

1997 19952000 19891995 19861989 K.Ullas Karanth and James D.Nichols K.Ullas Karanth and Melvin Sunquist K. Ullas Karanth and Melvin Sunquist Ecological status and conservation of tigers in India Ecology and management of large carnivores Predator-prey relationships in Nagarahole National Park, India

WCS CONSERVATION PROJECTS

YEAR 2003Ongoing 2001Ongoing 2001Ongoing

PROJECT LEADER/S Balachandra Hegde K.M.Chinnappa and P.M.Muthanna Sanjay Gubbi and Praveen Bhargav

PROJECT NAME Wildlife Conservation in Anshi- Dandeli Tiger Reserve. Voluntary resettlement, Nagarahole National Park* Wildlife conservation outreach* Monitoring of tiger habitat in Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve* Community Leadership for Tiger Conservation: Building local community support for tiger conservation* Rainforest conservation in Kudremukh National Park Karnataka Tiger Conservation Project: an innovative model to conserve breeding populations of tigers in Karnataka, India* Voluntary resettlement, Nagarahole National Park* Wildlife conservation education in Nagarahole National Park* Tiger conservation in Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary*

2001-2004 Harshwardhan & Poonam Dhanwatey 2001Ongoing 2000Ongoing K.Ullas Karanth, Sanjay Gubbi and Praveen Bhargav Niren Jain

1998-2001 K Ullas Karanth, K.M. Chinnappa, Praveen Bhargav and N.Samba Kumar. 1997-2001 M.K.Appachu, A. A. Poovaiah, K.M.Chinnappa 1994 -2008 1992Ongoing K.M.Chinnappa and T.S.Gopal D.V.Girish

Tiger Conservation in Bandhavgarh The Bandhavgarh Fort, in the center of the Reserve, atop the Bandhavgarh hill, was the seat of the rulers of erstwhile Rewa State until they shifted to Rewa town in

1617 A.D. The area of the Reserve, with its surrounding forests were the favorite hunting grounds of the erstwhile rulers and were zealously protected as such. After independence and the abolition of the princely States, the process of degradation of forests accelerated due to lax control. Maharaja Martand Singh of Rewa was deeplu moved by the destruction of forests. On his proposal, an area of 105 sq. km. was declared a National Park in 1965. the area of the Park was increased to 448.84 sq. km.in 1982. The area of the 105sq.km.old National Park was finally notified in 1968. the remaining part of the National Park i.e. 343.842sq.km. is yet to be finally notified. Considering the importance and potentiality of the National Park, it was included int the Project Tiger Network in 1993. The adjoining Panpatha sanctuary, which was crated in 1993 with an area of 245.847sq.km.was also declared a part of the Reserve. Tiger Conservation in Corbett The Reserve area was named as 'Hailey National Park' in 1936. This was renamed in 1954-55 as 'Ramganga National Park' and again in 1955-56 as 'Corbett National Park'. It is the oldest National Park in India. It was one of the nine Tiger Reserves created at the launch of the Project Tiger in 1973. The original area of the Park was 323.75 sq. km. to which 197.07 sq. km. was added later. An area of 797.72 sq. km. was added as buffer in 1991. This area includes the whole of Kalagarh Forest Division (including 301.18 sq. km. area Sananadi Wildlife Sanctuary),96.70 sq. km. of Ramnager Forest Division and another 89 sq. km. The administrative control over the entire area is that of the Field Director of the Reserve.

Wildlife Conservation in Sunderbans Sunderbans Tiger Reserve, created in 1973, was the part of the then 24-Parganas Forest Division. Subsequently, the area comprising the present tiger reserve was constituted as a Reserve Forest in 1978.

The area of the Reserve is 2585 sq. km. , covering a land area of 1600 sq. km. and the water body occupying over 985 sq. km. Within this area, 1330.12 sq. km. is designated as core area, which was subsequently declared as Sundarbans National Park in 1984. An area of 124.40 sq. km. within the core area is preserved as primitive zone to act as a gene pool. Within the buffer zone, Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary was created in 1976, covering an area of 362.335 sq. km. Considering the importance of the biogeographic gegion of Bengal River Forests and its unique bio-diversity, the National Park area of the Reserve was included in the list of World Heritage Sites in 1985. The entire Sundarbans area was declared as Biosphere Reserve in 1989.

Biosphere reserves
The Indian government has established seventeen Biosphere Reserves of India which protect larger areas of natural habitat and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. The Bio-reserves in India are:
1. Achanakmar-Amarkantak 2. Agasthyamalai 3. Dibru Saikhowa 4. Dihang Dibang 5. Great Nicobar 6. Gulf of Mannar 7. Kachchh 8. Kangchenjunga 9. Manas 10.Nanda Devi 11.The Nilgiris 12.Nokrek 13.Pachmarhi 14.Simlipal 15.Sundarbans 16.Cold desert 17.seshachalam hills

Seven of the fifteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) list.[19]
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Nokrek National Park Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Simlipal National Park

7. Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve

Asiatic Lion Brahminy Kite Indian Cobra Indian Elephant

Indian Peafowl

Indian Gazelle Indian Rhinoceros Indian Wild Dog

Lion-tailed Macaque Pariah Kite Ringnecked Parakeet

Royal Bengal Tiger

Shikra

Role of Forensics
Role of Wildlife Forensic Facility (WFF) in Conservation Major Achievements during last one year Objectives: The WFF was set up with a primary goal to develop and standardize techniques for identifying species of varied wildlife parts reported in wildlife trade and provide support to various enforcement agencies viz. Forest, Police, CBI, DRI, Courts, Govt. of India and Customs for implementing Wildlife (Protection) Act-1972. Prepare Protocols and Manuals for identifying species Sensitize issues among various enforcement agencies for proper evidence collection and crime scene examination through regular workshops Establish repository of reference samples Number of Wildlife Offence Cases Referred to WII (n=673)

Distribution of Wildlife Offence Cases Referred to WII from Various Enforcement Agencies : (N=673)

Per cent occurrence of various parts reported in Wildlife offence cases sent to WII :

Morphometry A major basis for identifying species from parts and products in wildlife offence cases in India