# Proceedings of UGC sponsored National seminar on “Recent trends in Fuzzy set theory, Rough set theory and Soft

set theory” at Uluberia College on 23rd and 24th September, 2011. ISBN 978-81922305-5-9, pp. 9 - 12.

**An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces
**

Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta

The aim of this paper is to construct a topology on a soft set. Also the concepts of soft base, soft subbase are introduced and some important theorems are established.

Abstract.

Keywords: soft set, soft topology, soft base, soft subbase. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 11B05, 06D72.

1. Introduction and Preliminaries D. A. Molodtsov[3] introduced the notion of soft set in 1999 as a mathematical tool to deal with uncertainties. He also deﬁned some important operation on soft set such as null soft set, soft subset, soft equality, soft union, soft intersection etc. Later on these deﬁnitions have been modiﬁed in the paper [2] to deﬁne a topology on a soft set and depending upon these modiﬁed deﬁnition, in this paper we have established a few theorems relative to base and subbase. Throughout the work, U refers to an initial universe, E is the set of parameters, P (U ) is the power set of U and A ⊆ E. Deﬁnition 1.1. [2] A soft set FA on the universe U is deﬁned by the set of ordered pairs FA = {(x, FA (x)) : x ∈ E, FA (x) ∈ P (U )} where FA : E → P (U ) such that FA (x) = φ if x is not an element of A. The set of all soft sets over U is denoted by S(U ). Deﬁnition 1.2. [2] Let FA ∈ S(U ). If FA (x) = φ, for all x ∈ E, then FA is called a empty soft set, denoted by Φ. FA (x) = φ means that there is no element in U related to the parameter x ∈ E. Deﬁnition 1.3. [2] Let FA , GB ∈ S(U ). We say that FA is a soft subsets of GB and we write FA GB if and only if (i) A ⊆ B (ii) FA (x) ⊆ GB (x) for all x ∈ E. Deﬁnition 1.4. [2] Let FA , GB ∈ S(U ). Then FA and GB are said to be soft equal, denoted by FA = GB if FA (x) = GB (x) for all x ∈ E. Deﬁnition 1.5. [2] Let FA , GB ∈ S(U ). Then the soft union of FA and GB is also a soft set FA GB = HA∪B ∈ S(U ), deﬁned by HA∪B (x) = (FA GB )(x) = FA (x) ∪ GB (x) for all x ∈ E. Deﬁnition 1.6. [2] Let FA , GB ∈ S(U ). Then the soft intersection of FA and GB is also a soft set FA GB = HA∩B ∈ S(U ), deﬁned by HA∩B (x) = (FA GB )(x) = FA (x) ∩ GB (x) for all x ∈ E. In 2011, N. Cagman has deﬁned a topology on soft set as follows:

Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta/An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces Deﬁnition 1.7. [1] Let FA ∈ S(U ). A soft topology on FA , denoted by soft subsets of FA having the following properties: (i) Φ, FA ∈ τ (ii) {FAi FA : i ∈ I ⊆ N} ⊆ τ ⇒ i∈I FAi ∈τ (iii) {FAi FA : 1 ≤ i ≤ n, n ∈ N} ⊆ τ ⇒ n FAi ∈τ i=1

τ , is a collection of

In the deﬁnition 1.7, N. Cagman has considered that τ is closed under countable union. But in the deﬁnition of a topology τ , it is usually considered that τ is closed under arbitrary union, which has not been considered in the deﬁnition 1.7. In fact, the symbol, used in the deﬁnition 1.7 to represent the members of τ , does not bear the meaning properly. It is clariﬁed in the following example: Let E = {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 }, A = {e1 , e2 , e3 } and U = {u1 , u2 , u3 , u4 , u5 } Let FA ∈ S(U ) such that FA (x) = U for all x ∈ A. Then the collection τ = { Φ, FA , { (e1 , {u1 }), (e2 , {u2 }) }, { (e1 , {u1 , u3 }), (e2 , {u2 , u3 }) }, { (e1 , {u1 , u2 , u4 , u5 }), (e2 , {u1 , u2 , u4 , u5 }), (e3 , U ), (e4 , U ) } } of soft subsets of FA is a soft topology on FA . Now if we like to denote the members of τ according to the above deﬁnition, then it is not possible to represent the third and fourth members of τ simultaneously. To avoid this diﬃculties, we ﬁrst redeﬁne the soft topology in section 2 and thereafter we establish the soft base, soft subbase and a few important theorems related to these concepts.

2. Soft topological space In this section we introduce some basic deﬁnitions and theorems of soft topological spaces. Deﬁnition 2.1. A soft topology τ on soft set FA is a family of soft subsets of FA satisfying the following properties (i) Φ, FA ∈ τ (ii) If GB , HC ∈ τ , then GB HC ∈τ α α (iii) If FAα ∈ τ for all α ∈ Λ, an index set, then α∈Λ FAα ∈τ If τ is a soft topology on a soft set FA , the pair (FA , τ ) is called the soft topological space. Deﬁnition 2.2. If sets in (FA , τ ).

τ

is a soft topology on FA , then the member of

τ

is called soft open

Deﬁnition 2.3. A collection β of some soft subsets of FA is called a soft open base or simply a base for some soft topology on FA if the following conditions hold: (i) Φ ∈β . (ii) β = FA i.e., for each e ∈ A and x ∈ FA (e), there exists GB ∈β such that x ∈ GB (e), where B ⊆ A. (iii) If GB , HC ∈β then for each e ∈ B ∩ C and x ∈ (GB HC )(e) = GB (e) ∩ HC (e) there exists ID ∈β such that ID GB HC and x ∈ ID (e), where D ⊆ B ∩ C. Theorem 2.4. Let β be a soft base for a soft topology on FA . Suppose τβ consists of those soft subset GB of FA for which corresponding to each e ∈ B and x ∈ GB (e), there exists HC ∈β such that HC GB and x ∈ HC (e), where C ⊆ B. Then τβ is a soft topology on FA . Proof: We have Φ ∈τβ by default. Again by deﬁnition of soft base, we have for each e ∈ A and x ∈ FA (e), there exists GB ∈β 10

Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta/An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces such that x ∈ GB (e), B ⊆ A. So FA ∈τβ . Now let GB , HC ∈τβ . Then for each e ∈ B ∩ C and x ∈ GB (e) ∩ HC (e), there exists GB , HC ∈β , where B ⊆ B and C ⊆ C such that GB GB , HC HC and also x ∈ GB (e), x ∈ HC (e). Let ID = GB HC ∈β , where D = B ∩ C . Then obviously x ∈ ID (e). Thus for e ∈ B ∩ C and x ∈ (GB HC )(e), there exists ID ∈β such that ID GB HC and x ∈ ID (e). So GB HC ∈ τβ . α Again let FAα ∈τβ , for all α ∈ Λ, an index set. α Let GB = α∈Λ FAα , e ∈ B and x ∈ GB (e), where B = ∪α∈Λ Aα . α Then there exists α ∈ Λ such that x ∈ FAα (e). α α α Since FAα ∈ τβ and x ∈ FAα (e), there exists HC ∈ β such that HC FAα and x ∈ HC (e) i.e., HC GB and x ∈ HC (e). α Therefore GB ∈τβ i.e., α∈Λ FAα ∈τβ Hence τβ is a soft topology on FA . Deﬁnition 2.5. Suppose β is a soft base for a soft topology on FA . Then τβ , described in above theorem, is called the soft topology generated by β and β is called the soft base for τβ . Theorem 2.6. Let β be a soft base for a soft topology on FA . Then GB ∈τβ if and only if GB = α∈Λ Gα α , where Gα α ∈β for each α ∈ Λ, Λ an index set. B B Proof: Since every member of β is also a member of τβ , we have any union of members of β is a member of τβ . Conversely, let GB ∈τβ . If GB = Φ, the proof of the theorem is obvious. x e If GB is not equal to Φ, for each e ∈ B and x ∈ GB (e), there exists XBe ∈β with Be ⊆ B x e e GB and x ∈ XBe (e) [ here we shall choose X corresponding to x]. Such that XBe x x x x Since each Be ⊆ B, ∪e∈B {∪x∈GB (e) Be } ⊆ B. x x x Again for each e ∈ B, there exists Be such that e ∈ Be . So B ⊆ ∪e∈B {∪x∈GB (e) Be }. x Therefore B = ∪e∈B {∪x∈GB (e) Be }. e Let HB = e∈B { x∈GB (e) XBe } x Now it is enough to show that HB = GB . e Obviously, HB GB as each XBe GB . x a a a GB and y ∈ YBa (a). Let a ∈ B and y ∈ GB (a). Then we have YBa ∈β such that YBa y y y a Again since YBa HB . Therefore y ∈ HB (a) y Thus GB (a) ⊆ HB (a) for all a ∈ B. So, GB HB Hence HB = GB . This completes the proof. Theorem 2.7. Let (FA , τ ) be a soft topological space and β be a sub collection of τ such that every member of τ is a union of some members of β . Then β is a soft base for the soft topology τ on FA . Proof: Since Φ ∈ τ , Φ ∈β . Again since FA ∈τ and every member of β is a soft subset of FA , FA = β . Let GA1 , HA2 ∈β . Then GA1 , HA2 ∈τ ⇒ GA1 HA2 ∈τ . α α Then there exist BCα ∈β , α ∈ Λ such that GA1 HA2 = {BCα : α ∈ Λ} α obviously each BCα GA1 HA2 . α Now let e ∈ A1 ∩ A2 and x ∈ (GA1 HA2 )(e). Then x ∈ {BCα (e) : α ∈ Λ}. α So there exists α ∈ Λ such that x ∈ BCα (e). α Therefore for each e ∈ A1 ∩ A2 and x ∈ (GA1 HA2 )(e), there exists BCα ∈β such that 11

**Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta/An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces
**

α α BCα GA1 HA2 and x ∈ BCα (e). Hence β is a soft base for the soft topology

τ

on FA .

Deﬁnition 2.8. A collection Ω of members of a soft topology τ is said to be subbase for τ if and only if the collection of all ﬁnite intersections of members of Ω is a base for τ . Theorem 2.9. A collection Ω of soft subsets of FA is a subbase for a suitable soft topology on FA if and only if (i) Φ ∈ Ω or Φ is the intersection of a ﬁnite number of members of Ω. (ii) FA = Ω.

τ

Proof: First let Ω is a subbase for τ and β be a base generated by Ω. Since Φ ∈β , either Φ ∈ Ω or Φ is expressible as an intersection of ﬁnitely many members of Ω. Let e ∈ A and x ∈ FA (e). Since β = FA , there exists GB ∈β such that x ∈ GB (e). Again i since GB ∈β , there exists SBi ∈ Ω, i = 1, 2, · · · , n n i such that GB = i=1 SBi i i Therefore x ∈ ∩n SBi (e) ⇒ x ∈ SBi (e), for each i = 1, 2, · · · , n i=1 Hence FA = Ω. Conversely let Ω be a collection of some soft subsets of FA satisfying the conditions (i) and (ii). Let β be the collection of all ﬁnite intersections of members of Ω. Now it is enough to show that β forms base for a suitable soft topology. Since β is the collection of all ﬁnite intersections of members of Ω, by assumption (i) we get Φ ∈β and by (ii) we get β = FA . Again let GB , HC ∈β Since GB ∈β , there exist Gi i ∈ Ω, for i = 1, 2, · · · , n such that GB = n Gi i , where i=1 B B B = ∩n Bi i=1 j Again since HC ∈β , there exists HCj ∈ Ω, for j = 1, 2, · · · , m such that HC =

j m j=1 HCj ,

where C = ∩m Cj j=1

j Therefore GB HC = ( n Gi i ) ( m HCj ) ∈β . i=1 B j=1 i.e., GB HC ∈β . This completes the proof.

References

[1] N. Cagman, S. Karatas, S. Enginoglu, Soft topology, Computers and Mathematics with Applications 62(2011) 351-358. [2] N. Cagman, S. Enginoglu, Soft set theory and uni−int decision making, European Journal of Operational Research 207 (2010) 848-855. [3] D.Molodtsov, Soft set theory-First results, Computers and Mathematics with Applications 37(4-5) (1999) 19-31.

Sanjay Roy (sanjaypuremath@gmail.com) – Department of Mathematics, South Bantra Ramkrishna Institution, West Bengal, India

T.K. Samanta (mumpu− tapas5@yahoo.co.in) – Department of Mathematics, Uluberia College, West Bengal, India

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