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SALTS

What is salt? Salt is an ionic compound formed when the hydrogen ion, H+ from acid is replaced by a metal ion or ammonium ion, NH4+

In the preparation of salts, we must identify the type of salt. This can be done by analysing the cations and the anions that are present in salts.

Two types of salts Soluble salt salts that can be dissolve in water at room temperature Insoluble salt salts cannot be dissolve in water at room temperature Solubility in water All dissolves in water

Type of salt Sodium salts Potassium salts Ammonium salts Nitrate salts Chloride salts All dissolves in water Sulphate salts

All dissolves in water All dissolves in water, Except: Lead(II) chloride, Silver chloride, Mercury chloride, Except: Lead(II) sulphate, Barium sulfat, Calcium sulfat, PbCl2 AgCl HgCl PbSO4 BaSO4 CaSO4

Carbonate salts

All did not dissolves in water, Except: Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 Potassium carbonate, K2CO3 Ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3

Special Properties of lead(II) chloride and lead(II) iodide NOTES: Lead halide such as lead(II) chloride (PbCl2), lead(II) bromide (PbBr2), and lead(II) iodide (PbI2) did not dissolve in cold water but dissolve in hot water.

PbCl2 are soluble in


hot water.
White precipitate of PbCl2 White precipitate dissolves in hot water White precipitate formed when the water is cooled down.

PbI2 are also soluble


in hot water.

Yellow precipitate of PbI2

Yellow precipitate dissolves in hot water

Yellow crystals formed when the water is cooled down.

Use of salts; Item Flavor Food preparation Preservatives Baking powder Agriculture Nitrogen fertilizers Pesticide Reduce stomach acidic (gastric) Sniff salt (fainted) Plaster of Paris (cement to support broken bone) Use Example Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Sodium chloride Sodium chloride - salted fish Sodium benzoate - sauce Sodium nitrite - processed meat, burger Sodium hydrogen carbonate Potassium nitrate Sodium nitrate Copper(II) sulphate Iron(II) sulphate Calcium carbonate Calcium hydrogen carbonate Ammonium carbonate Calcium sulphate

Medicine

A. Preparation of Salt
The procedure of preparation salt depends to the type of salt.

a. Insoluble salt is prepared through precipitation reaction. b. Soluble salt is prepared by one of these reactions; i. Acid and alkali ii. Acid and metal oxide iii. Acid and metal carbonate iv. Acid and reactive metal

a. Insoluble Salts i. Preparing Insoluble Salts


1. Insoluble salts can be prepared through precipitation reactions or double decomposition reactions. 2. Precipitation or double decomposition reaction involves; - two aquoues solutions/soluble salts were mix together - one of the solutions contains the cations of the insoluble salt. - one of the solutions contains the anions of the insoluble salt. - the ions of the two aqueous solutions above interchange to produce two new compound which is insoluble salt or precipitate, and aqueous solution. - the precipitate produced is obtained by filtration. The residue left in the filter paper is the insoluble salt. The filtrate is soluble salt. - the residue/precipitate (insoluble salt) then rinsed with distilled water to remove any other ions as impurities.

Ionic equation:

Pb2+ + 2Cl- PbCl2

Pb2+ ions combined with Cl- ions to form white precipitate

PbCl2

Na+ NO3-

Na+ NO3-

Na+ ions and NO3- ions do not take part in the reaction and are free to move in the solution

Glass rod Mixture of solutions Filter paper

Residue/precipitate (Insoluble salt) Filter funnel Filtrate (Soluble salt)

Retort stand

Chemical and ionic equations Chemical equation : Ionic equation : MX(aq) + solution M+(aq) + NY(aq) MY(s) + solution precipitate Y-(aq) MY(s) NX(aq) solution

Study this reaction carefully In the formation of the precipitate of barium sulphate, BaSO4, the chemical equation can be written:
BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl (aq)

Ions

Ba2+ + Cl- + Na+ + SO42- BaSO4 + Na+ + Cl-

Ionic equation : Ba2+ + SO42- BaSO4


(shows the ions that take part in the reaction to form precipitate/insoluble salts) More examples; Insoluble Salt ZnCO3 AgCl BaSO4 PbCl2 PbSO4 CaCO3

Ions Zn2+ , CO32Ag+ , Cl-

Ionic equation Zn2+ + CO32- ZnCO3 Ag+ + Cl- AgCl

Ba2+ , SO42Pb2+ , ClPb2+ , SO42Ca2+ , CO32-

Ba2+ + SO42 BaSO4 Pb2+ + Cl- PbCl2 Pb2+ + SO42- PbSO4 Ca2+ + CO32- CaCO3

ii. Preparation and purification of insoluble salts


Preparation of Plumbum(II) iodide
Chemical equation Ionic equation Step 1: Preparation : Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq) : Pb2+ (aq) + 2I- (aq) PbI2 (s)

20 cm3 Lead(II) nitrat 0.1 mol dm-3

20 cm3 potassium iodide 0.1 mol dm-3

1. 20 cm3 lead(II) nitrate 0.1 mol dm-3 solution is measured with measuring cylinder 50 ml, and poured into a beaker. 2. 20 cm3 potassium iodide 0.1 mol dm-3 solution is measured with measuring cylinder 50 ml and poured into a beaker contains lead(II) nitrate solution. 3. The mixture is stirred with a glass rod. A yellow precipitate is formed.

Glass rod Mixture of solutions Filter paper

Precipitate of lead(II) iodide (yellow) Filter funnel Beaker Sodium nitrate solution

Retort stand

4. The mixture is filtered to obtain the yellow solids of lead(II) iodide as the residue. 5

Step 2: Purification Distilled water

Glass rod

Precipitate of lead(II) iodide

5. The residue is rinsed with distilled water to remove other ions in it.

Precipitate of lead(II) iodide

Filter paper

6. The yellow solid is dried by pressing between two pieces of filter paper.

EASY LAH !

b. Soluble Salt i. Preparaing Soluble Salt


Soluble Salts Acid + metal oxide salts + water Sodium salts Potassium salts Ammonium salts Acid + alkali salts + water

Others salts

Acid + reactive metal

salts + hydrogen gas salt + water + carbon dioxide

Acid + metal carbonate

Notes: Reactive metal is magnesium, aluminium, and zinc Unreactive metal is iron, lead, silver a. Sodium, potassium or ammonium salts prepared from acid and alkali reaction. Salt NaCl K2SO4 NH4NO3 CH3COONa Alkali NaOH KOH NH3/NH4OH NaOH HCl H2SO4 HNO3 CH3COOH Acid Chemical equation NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O 2KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2H2O NH3 + HNO3 NH4NO3 + H2O NaOH + CH3COOH CH3COONa + H2O

Note: To prepare the above salts, titration technique is use. b. Soluble salt (except sodium, potassium and ammonium salt) is prepared using these methods - Acid and metal - Acid and metal oxide - Acid and metal carbonate Name of Salt ZnCl2 Mg(NO)3 CuSO4 Acid that must be used HCl HNO3 H2SO4 Substance that can be use to react with acid Metal Zn Mg Metal oxide ZnO MgO CuO Metal carbonate ZnCO3 MgCO3 CuCO3 7

Pb(NO3)2

HNO3

PbO

PbCO3

Write a chemical equation for each experiment above.

Remember this notes ok


1. Metal that is less reactive from hydrogen such as copper, lead and silver/argentum did not react with dilute acid. 2. Metal, metal oxide and metal carbonate above is a solid that cannot dissolves in water, hence during reaction that solid must be added excessively to make sure all hydrogen ions in acid is completely reacted. Excess solid can be expelling through filtration. 3. Impure soluble salt can be purified through crystallization process.

ii. Preparation and purification of soluble salts


A. Preparing soluble salt through reaction between acid and alkali. Preparation of Soluble Sodium, Potassium and ammonium Salts Soluble salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium can be prepared by the reaction between an acid and alkali. Acid (aq) + alkali (aq) Salt (aq) + Water (l) Procedure : Using pipette, 25 cm3 of alkali solution is measured and transferred into a conical flask. Two drops of phenolphthalein are added to the alkali solution. Dilute acid is place in a burette. The initial reading is recorded. Acid is added slowly into the alkali solution while shaking the conical flaks, until the pink solution turn colourless. The final reading of the burette is recorded. The volume of acid added, V cm3 is calculated. The experiment is repeated by adding V cm3 of acid to 25 cm3 of alkali solution in a beaker without using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The mixture is transferred into a evaporating dish. The mixture is heated until saturated and the saturated solution is allowed to cool at room temperature. Salt crystals formed are filtered and rinsed with a little of cold distilled water. Salt crystals are dried by pressing it between filter papers (or in oven) The reaction between acid and alkali is known as what process? Refer to acids and bases notes ok. Dont worry Ill help you.! Kita bukan along kita cuma nak tolong. 8

Example: Preparing sodium chloride Step 1: Preparation (Titration)

Burette

Retort stand

Hydrochloric acid

Conical flask 25 cm3 NaOH + phenolphthalein indicator 1. 25.0 cm3 sodium hydroxide solutions is pipette into conical flask. 2. Two drops of phenolphthalein indicator are added into conical flask. The colour of solution is recorded. 3. A 50 cm3 burette is filled with hydrochloric acid. The initial burette reading is recorded. 4. Hydrochloric acid is added gradually from a burette into conical flask and swirling the conical flask. 5. Titration is stopped when phenolphthalein changes from pink to colourless. The final burette reading is recorded. 6. The volume of hydrochloric acid used is calculated. 7. The experiment is repeated by adding hydrochloric acid (known volume) to 25.0 cm3 sodium hydroxide in a beaker without using phenolphthalein. Step 2: Preparation (Crystallization)

Evaporating dish Salt solution Bunsen burner

8. The mixture is transferred into a evaporating dish. 9. The colourless solution is slowly heated/evaporated until its saturated or to about one-third (1/3) of the original volume. 10. The saturated solution is then cooled to allow crystallization to occur. Step 3: Purification

Distilled water

Glass rod

Copper(II) sulphate Filter funnel

10. The white crystals formed are then filtered, rinsed with a little distilled water and dried by pressing between filter paper. Note: Phenolphthalein indicator is used at the beginning of the experiment to determine the volume of hydrochloric acid that is required to react completely with 25 cm3 of sodium hydroxide. However experiment is repeated without using phenolphthalein so that the salt prepared will not contaminated by the indicator.

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B. Preparing soluble salt through reaction between acid i. Metal oxide. ii. Metal iii. Metal carbonate Procedure To Prepare a Soluble Salt (not Na, K or NH4+) 50 cm3 of acid is measured using a measuring cylinder and poured into a beaker. The acid is heated slowly. Using a spatula, metal / metal oxide / metal carbonate powder is added a little at a time while stirring the mixture with a glass rod. The addition of the solid powder is stopped when some solids no longer dissolve anymore. (the solid is excess and all the acid is completely neutralised by the solid)

The mixture is filtered to remove the excess solid powder.

The filtrate is transferred to an evaporating dish. The filtrate is heated until saturated. (The filtrate is evaporated to about one-third (1/3) of the original volume) 11

The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature and the salt crystals are formed. The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water. Salt crystals are then dried by pressing it between filter papers.

Example: Preparing copper(II) sulphate (Sulphuric acid and copper(II) oxide powder) Step 1: Preparation Spatula Stir Copper(II) oxide Glass rod Beaker Wire gauze xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Bunsen burner

50 cm3 sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3

Tripod

1. 50 cm3 sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3 is put in a beaker and is heated. 2. Using spatula copper(II) oxide powder is added a little at a time to the hot sulphuric acid while stirring continuously with glass rod. 3. The addition of copper(II) oxide is stopped when solids powder remain undissolved.

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Glass rod Reactant mixture

Excess copper(II) oxide

Copper(II) sulphate solution

4. The mixture is filtered to remove the excess copper(II) oxide. 5. The filtrate is transferred to an evaporating dish.

Evaporating dish Copper(II) sulphate solution Bunsen burner

6. The filtrate is slowly heated/evaporated until its saturated, or to about one-third (1/3) of the original volume. 7. The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature. Step 3: Purification

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Glass rod Distilled water

Copper(II) sulphate

8. The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water. 9. Salt crystals are then dried by pressing it between filter papers. REMEMBER. THIS NOTES OK Unreactive metal such as lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) cannot react with dilute asid. So to prepare salt contains lead ions (Pb2+), copper ions (Cu2+) or silver ions (Ag+), we must use either oxide powder or carbonate powder only. Example: CuO CuCO3 Cu + + H2SO4 H2SO4 + CuSO4 + H2O H2O + CO2 (ok) (not ok) (ok)

CuSO4 +

H2SO4

no reaction

B. Physical Characteristics of Crystals.


A salt is made up of positive and negative ions. When these ions are packed closely with a regular and repeated arrangement in an orderly manner, a solid with definite geometry known as crystal lattice is formed.

All crystals have these physical characteristics: a) Reqular geometry shapes, such as cubic or hexagonal. b) Flat faces, straight edges and sharp angles. c) Same angle between adjacent faces. d) All crystals of the same salt have the same shape although the sizes may be different.

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Start to memorize the solubility of a salt in water OK. It will help you a lot to better understand this chapter. KNOWLEDGE IS POWER

The solubility of a salt in water depends on the types of cations and anions present. Salt Sodium, potassium and ammonium salts (Na+, K+, NH4+) Nitrate salt (NO3-) Solubility in water

All are soluble All are soluble All chloride salts are soluble in water except
2 2

C. Qualitative Analysis of Salts


What is Qualitative analysis?

Chloride salt (Cl -)

PbCl , AgCl and HgCl Qualitative analysis is a chemical technique used to determine what PbSO , BaSO
4 4

Sulphate salt (SO4 )

2-

substances are present in a mixture but not their quantities. All sulphate salts are soluble in water except
and

CaSO

Carbonate salt (CO32-)

All carbonate salts are insoluble except Na2CO3,


K2CO3 and (NH4)2CO3

In the

qualitative analysis of salts, we need to identify the ions that are present in salts. This can be done by analysing their physical and chemical properties.

Observations on the physical properties of salts


1. Colour and solubility in water
Certain physical properties of salts such colour and solubitity in water are observed to help us infer certain cations and anions that are present in salts. The table shows the colour of salts in solid , in aqueous solution and the solubility of salts in water Salt 1. Ammonium chloride NH4Cl 2. Ammonium nitrateNH4(NO3)3 Colour in solid white white Solubility in water soluble soluble Colour in Aqueous solution colourless colourless

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3. Calcium carbonate CaCO3 4. Calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 5. Magnesium sulphate MgSO4 6. Magnesium carbonate MgCO3 7. Zinc sulphate Zn SO4 8. Zinc nitrate Zn(NO3)2 9. Lead(II) chloride , PbCl2 10. Lead(II) sulphate , PbSO4 11. Lead(II) carbonate , PbCO3 12. Copper(II) chloride , CuCl2 13 Copper(II) sulphate , PbSO4 14. Copper(II) carbonate , PbCO3 15. Iron(II) sulphate , FeSO4 16. Iron(III) chloride , FeCl3 17. Sodium nitrate , NaNO3 18, Sodium carbonate , Na2CO3 19. Potassium nitrate , KNO3

white white white white white white white white white Blue Blue Green Green Brown / Yellow white white white

insoluble soluble soluble insoluble soluble soluble insoluble insoluble insoluble soluble soluble insoluble soluble soluble soluble soluble soluble

colourless colourless colourless colourless Blue Blue Pale green Brown/Yellow/ Yellowish brown colourless colourless colourless

20. Potassium carbonate , K2CO3 white soluble colourless The table shows the colour of different cations in the solid form or in aqueous solution Observation Blue solution Pale green solution Yellow/Yellowishbrown/brown solution Green solid Brown solid White solid Colourless solution Inference Ion copper (Cu2+ ) present Ion Iron(II) Fe2+ present Ion Iron (III) Fe3+ present Hydrated Fe 2+, CuCO3 Hydrated Fe 3+ salt Salts of Na+ , K+ ,NH4+, Mg 2+, Ca 2+ Al 3+ , Zn 2+, Pb 2+ (If the anions are colourless Na+ , K+ ,NH4+, Mg 2+, Ca 2+ , Al 3+ , Zn 2+, Pb 2+

The table shows the solubility of different types of salts in water Compounds Solubility in water

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Sodium salts Potassium salts Ammonium salts Nitrate salts

All are soluble

All are soluble

Chloride salts

All are soluble except AgCl, HgCl and PbCl2 (soluble in hot water)

Sulphate salts

All are soluble except BaSO4, PbSO4 and CaSO4

Carbonate salts

All are insoluble except sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate and ammonium carbonate

2. Tests for gases


Gases are often produced from reactions carried out during laboratory tests on salts. By identifying the gases evolved,it is possible to infer the types of cations and anions that are present in a salt. The table shows the test and the result of different gases Gas Test Test with a glowing wooden splinter Test with a lighted wooden splinter Bubble the gas produced into lime water Test with moist red litmus paper Test with moist blue litmus paper Result

Oxygen gas, O2

Wooden splinter is rekindled /lighted

Hydrogen gas , H2

Gas explodes with a pop sound

Carbon dioxide gas , CO2

Lime water turns milky

Ammonia gas, NH3

Moist red litmus paper turns blue Moist blue litmus paper turns red and then turns white

Chlorine gas, Cl2

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Hydrogen chlorine gas , HCl

Test with a drop of concentrated ammonia NH3 solution Bubble the gas produced into purple acidified potassium manganate (VII), KMnO4 solution Test with moist blue litmus paper

Dense white fumes

Sulphur dioxide gas , SO2

Purple acidified potassium manganate (VII),KMnO4 solution decolourises

Nitrogen dioxide gas , NO2

moist blue litmus paper turns red

3.

Action of heat on salts

Effect of heat on carbonate salts Colour of salt before heating Green powder Colour of residue Hot Black powder cold Black powder

Carbonaate salt Copper (II) carbonate, CuCO3 Zinc carbonate , ZnCO3 Lead(II) carbonate, PbCO3 Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 Calcium carbonate, CaCO3 Potassium carbonate, K2CO3

Effect on lime water The gas liberated turns lime water milky/chalky The gas liberated turns lime water milky/chalky The gas liberated turns lime water milky/chalky No change The gas liberated turns lime water milky/chalky No change

White solid

Yelow solid

White solid

White solid

Brown sold

Yelow solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

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Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3

White solid

White solid

White solid

The gas liberated turns lime water milky/chalky

Effect of heat on nitrate salts Nitrate Salt Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 Zinc nitrate, Zn(NO3)2 Lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 Sodium nitrate, NaNO3 Calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2 Potassium nitrate, KNO3 Magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2 Iron(II) nitrate, Fe(NO3)2 Iron(III) nitrate, Fe(NO3)3 Colour of salt before heating Blue solid Colour of residue Hot Black powder Yellow solid cold Black powder Test on gases liberated A brown gas that turns blue litmus paper red is liberated. The gas liberated also ignites a glowing splinter A browan gas that turns blue litmus paper red is liberated. The gas liberated also ignites a glowing splinter A browan gas that turns blue litmus paper red is liberated. The gas liberated also ignites a glowing splinter A colourless gas that rekindles a glowing splinter is liberated A browan gas that turns blue litmus paper red is liberated. The gas liberated also ignites a glowing splinter A colourless gas that rekindles a glowing splinter is liberated A browan gas that turns blue litmus paper red is liberated. The gas liberated also ignites a glowing splinter A browan gas that turns blue litmus paper red is liberated. The gas liberated also ignites a glowing splinter A browan gas that turns blue litmus paper red is liberated. The gas liberated also ignites a glowing splinter

White solid

White solid

White solid

Brown solid

Yellow solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid

White solid Pale Green solid ReddishBrown solid

Pale Green solid

Pale Green solid ReddishBrown solid

Brown solid

The table shows the comparison of the effect of heat on carbonate and nitrate salts Metal Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Zinc Iron Effect of heat on carbonate salt Are not decomposed by heat Decompose to metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas. Effect of heat on nitrate salt Decompose to nitrite salt and oxygen gas. Decompose to metal oxide, nitrogen dioxide gas and oxygen gas.

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Tin Lead Copper Mercury Silver Gold

Decompose to metal, carbon dioxide gas and oxygen gas.

Decompose to metal , nitrogen dioxide gas and oxygen gas.

Most sulphate salts are not decomposed by heat. Only a few sulphate such as iron(II) sulphate,zinc sulphate and copper sulphate decompose to sulphur dioxide or sulphur trioxide gas when heated. All chloride salts are stable when heated except ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride sublimes and decomposes to produce ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride gas. The table shows the deduction of the types of ion present based on the gas produced Type of gas produced CO2 O2 NO2 SO2 NH3 Type of ion present(anion) Carbonate ion (CO3 2- ) present except Na2CO3 and K2CO3 Nitrate ion (NO3-) present Nitrate ion (NO3-) present except NaNO3 and KNO3 Sulphate ion (SO4 2- ) present Ammonim ion (NH4+) present

Tests for anions


Reagent / Condition 2 cm3 the unknown solution + dilute hydrochloric acid / nitric acid / sulphuric acid pour into a test tube gas liberated is immediately bubbled through lime water. 2 cm3 of nitric acid + 2 cm3 of the unknown solution pour into a test tube + 2 cm3 silver nitrate solution 2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid / nitric acid + 2 cm3 of the unknown solution pour into a test tube + 2 cm3 of barium chloride / barium nitrate solution shake well Observation Effervescence. Colourless gas turns lime water milky. Anion CO32- ion Ionic Equation (if any) CO32- + 2H+ CO2 + H2O

White precipitate is formed.

Cl- ion

Ag+ + Cl- AgCl

White precipitate is formed.

SO42- ion

Ba2+ + SO42 - BaSO4

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2 cm3 of the unknown solution pour into a test tube 2 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid + 2 cm3 of iron(II) sulphate solution shake well. Then drop carefully and slowly a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid along the side of a slanting test tube into the mixture without shaking it.

Brown ring is formed at the boundary between the concentrated H2SO4 (top layer) and aqueous solution of the mixture (bottom layer)

NO3- ion

Tests for cations Confirmatory Test for Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, NH4+ Ions
Confirmatory Test for Fe2+ Reagent Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution Potassium thiocyanate solution Confirmatory Test for Pb2+ Method Using aqueous solution of chloride - 2 cm3 of any solution of Cl- + 2 cm3 of any solution of Pb2+ dilute with 5 cm3 of distilled water heat until no further change occurs allow the content to cool to room temperature using running water from Observation Pale blue precipitate Dark blue precipitate Dark blue precipitate Greenish-brown solution Pale red colouration Blood red colouration Conclusion Fe2+ ion is present Fe3+ ion is present Fe2+ ion is present Fe3+ ion is present Fe2+ ion is present Fe3+ ion is present

Observation - A white precipitate is formed When heated dissolve in water to form colourless solution

Ionic Equation Pb2+ + 2Cl- PbCl2

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the tap

When cooled white precipitate reappear - A yellow precipitate is formed When heated dissolve in water to form colourless solution When cooled yellow precipitate reappear Pb2+ + 2I- PbI2

Using aqueous solution of iodide - 2 cm3 of any solution of I- + 2 cm3 of any solution of Pb2+ dilute with 5 cm3 of distilled water heat until no further change occurs allow the content to cool to room temperature using running water from the tap

Confirmatory Test for NH4+ Method

Observation - Moist red litmus paper turns blue

2 cm3 of any solution of NH4+ + 2 cm3 of NaOH / KOH / Ca(OH)2 heat put a piece of moist red litmus paper at the mouth of the test tube

Reaction with Nesslers Reagent 2 cm3 of any solution of NH4+ + 2 cm3 of Nesslers Reagent shake well

- A brown precipitate is formed

Reaction of Cations With NaOH

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Sodium hydroxide solution is poured slowly into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube, until in excess.

Easylah

Cations

+ NaOH (aq)

No precipitate

Precipitate produced

White precipitate

Coloured precipitate

Green NH4+ K+ Na+ Fe


2 +

Blue Cu
2 +

Brown Fe2+

warm NH3 gas produced

Dissolve in excess NaOH (aq) to form colourless solution

Insoluble in excess NaOH (aq)

Pb2+

Zn2+

Al3+

Ca2+

Mg2+

P b Zn A l Ca Mg
2+ 2+ 2+ 2+

3+

: White precipitate dissolves/larut in excess NaOH : White precipitate insoluble/tidak larut in excess NaOH

Reaction of Cations With NH3


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Aqueous ammonia solution is poured slowly into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube until in excess.

Easylah

Cations + NH3 (aq)

No precipitate

Precipitate produced

White precipitate

Coloured precipitate

Green NH4+ K+ Na+ Ca2+ Fe


2 +

Blue Cu
2 +

Brown Fe2+ + excess NH3 (aq)

warm NH3 gas produced

Dark blue solution

Dissolve in excess NH3 (aq) to form colourless solution

Insoluble in excess NH3 (aq)

Zn2+

Pb2+

Al3+

Mg2+

Zn Pb Al M g
2+ 2+ 3+

: White precipitate dissolves/larut in excess NH3


2+

: White precipitate insoluble/tidak larut in excess NH3

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Based from the observation, I can conclude that

Zn2+ ion is the only cation that form white precipitate and dissolves in both excess NaOH and NH3 solutions. Mg2+ ion is the only cation that form white precipitate and insoluble in both excess NaOH and NH3 solutions. Ca2+ ion in the only cation that form white precipitate in NaOH solutions, but no precipitate in NH3 solution. Fe2+ , Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions is easy to spot because the ions shows coloured precipitate. Pb2+ ion and Al3+ ion form white precipitate and dissolves in excess NaOH solution, but insoluble in excess NH3 solutions.

How to differentiate between Pb2+ and Al3+ ? A chemical tests can be carried out in the laboratory to differentiate between Pb2+ and Al3+ . (Please refer to Confirmatory Test for Pb2+ , in ealier notes).

Example: lead(II) nitrate solution and aluminium nitrate solution Sodium sulphate solution is added slowly into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a white precipitate is formed, then then the solution tested is lead(II) nitrate. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is aluminium nitrate.

Now let see some questions about salt. Try to solve it by yourself first and then compare with the answers provided.

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Example 1:
Describe chemical tests that can be carried out in the laboratory to differentiate between (a) lead(II) nitrate solution and aluminium nitrate solution Sodium sulphate solution is added slowly into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a white precipitate is formed, then then the solution tested is lead(II) nitrate. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is aluminium nitrate. (b) aluminium nitrate solution and zinc nitrate solution Aqueous ammonia solution is poured slowly into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube until in excess. If a white precipitate that dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia solution is formed, than the solution tested is zinc nitrate. If a white precipitate that is insoluble in excess aqueous ammonia solution is formed, than the solution tested is aluminium nitrate. (c) ammonium chloride solution and potassium chloride solution Nesslers Reagent is added to 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a brown precipitate is formed, then the solution tested is ammonium chloride. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is potassium chloride (d) iron(II) sulphate solution and iron(III) sulphate solution Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution is poured into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a dark blue precipitate is formed, then the solution tested is iron(III) chloride. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is iron(II) chloride. Or Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution is poured into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a greenish-brown solution is formed, then the solution tested is iron(III) chloride. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is iron(II) chloride. Or Potassium thiocyanate solution is poured into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a blood red colouration is formed, then the solution tested is iron(III) chloride. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is iron(II) chloride.

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(e) sodium chloride and sodium sulphate Silver nitrate solution is poured into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a white precipitate is formed, then the solution tested is sodium chloride. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is sodium sulphate. Or Barium chloride solution is poured into 2 cm3 of the solution to be tested in a test tube. If a white precipitate is formed, then the solution tested is sodium sulphate. If no change occurs, then the solution tested is sodium chloride.

Example 2:
1. State three examples of a) soluble salts Potassium carbonate Lead(II) nitrate Ammonium chloride 2. Which of the following salts is soluble b) insoluble salts Magnesium carbonate Lead(II) sulphate Argentum chloride

Lead(II) chloride

Sodium carbonate

Calcium sulphate

Barium sulphate

3. Identify the gas that turns moist red litmus paper blue Ammonia gas 4. Gas X has the following properties

Colourless Acidic gas Turns lime water milky

Gas X is carbon dioxide gas

5.

Salt P

Heat

Metal oxide X

Gas Y 27

Colour of metal oxide X is yellow when hot and white when cold. Gas Y turns lime water milky.

a) Name gas Y b) Name metal oxide X c) Name salt P

: carbon dioxide gas : zinc oxide : zinc carbonate

d) Write an equation to represent the action of heat on salt P ZnCO3 (s) ZnO (s) + CO2 (g)

6. A sample of copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 was heated strongly. Write down the expected observation. Copper(II) nitrate decompose to produce black colour of residue when hot and cold. A brown gas that changed moist blue litmus paper to red and colourless gas that lighted up a glowing wooden splinter are produced.

D. Numerical problem involving stoichiometric reaction in the preparation of salt


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A balanced chemical equation for a reaction in preparation of a salt can be used to calculate the stoichiometric quantities of the following
Masses of reactants Volumes and concentrations of reactants Masses of products Volumes of products

Example 1; Ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4 is use as a fertilizer. 29.8g of this salt is prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid, H3PO4 with ammonium gas, NH3. Calculate the volume of ammonium gas, NH3 reacted at room conditions. ( Relative atomic mass; H, 1: N, 14: P, 31; O, 16; Molar volume; 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions) Solutions;
= a. Calculate the number of moles = 0.2 mol 2.88 g [3(14) + 12(1) + 31 + 4(16)

b. Write a balanced chemical equation Compare the mole ratio of NH3 and (NH4)3PO4 c. Calculate the number of moles of NH3 base on the mole ratio

H3PO4(aq) + 3NH3(aq) (NH4)3PO4(aq) 3 mol 1 mol

= 3 X 0.2 mol = 0.6 mol

d. Calculate the volume of NH3 Volume = number of mole X volume

= 0.6 mol X 24 dm3 mol -1 = 14.4 dm3

Example 2: 3.9 g of potassium is burnt completely in the air as shown in the following equation; 4K(s) + O2(g) 2K2O(s) 29

What is the mass of potassium oxide produced? [Relative atomic mass: K, 39; O, 16] Solutions Tip: Solve the question step by step Step 1: Write Chemical Equation 4K(s) + O2(g) 2K2O(s) 4 mol of K react with 1 mol of O2 produce 2 mol K2O Step 2: Calculate the number of mole [Get the information from the question] = No. of mol K = = mass Molar mass 3.9 g 39 gmol-1 0.1 mol

Step 3: Find the coefficient From Balance Chemical Equation FBCE; 4 mol of K produce 2 mol K2O Thus; 0.1 mol of K produce 2/4 mol K2O = 0.2 mol K2O FBCE; [Sebelah kiri] Bil. mol yang telah dikira 4 mol K 0.1mol K = = [Sebelah kanan] Bil. Mol yang hendak ditentukan 2 mol K2O 2/4 x 0.1mol K2O = 0.05 mol K2O

No. of mol of K2O = 0.05 mol Step 4: Solve the questions Thus; Mass of K2O = 0.05 mol Molar mass = 0.05 mol 55 g mol-1 = 2.75 g Example 3: Acids reacts with calcium carbonate, CaCO3 in limestone to form a salt and carbon dioxide, CO2. A piece of limestone reacted completely with 100 cm3 of 31.5 g dm-3 nitric acid, HNO3. 30

[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12; N, 14; O, 16; Ca, 40. Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions] a. Calculate the mass of salt produced. b. What is the volume of carbon dioxide, CO2 liberated at room conditions? Step 1: Write Chemical Equation Chemical Equation: 2HNO3 + CaCO3 Step 2: Calculate the number of mole Get the information from the question; Concentration of HNO3 = 31.5 g dm =
3

Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O

31.5 g dm3 Molar mass of HNO3 31.5 g dm3 1 + 14 + 48 g mol-1

Change the concentration given in g dm-3 to mol dm-3 first

-3 = 0.5 mol dm

No. of mole of HNO3

Molarity Volume 1000 0.5 mol dm-3 100 cm3 1000 0.05 mol

= = FBCE; 2HNO3 + CaCO3 2 mol HNO3 0.05 mol HNO3 = =

Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O 1 mol Ca(NO3)2 x 0.05 mol Ca(NO3)2 = 0.025 mol Ca(NO3)2

No. of mol of Ca(NO3)2 = 0.025 mol Mass of Ca(NO3)2 = 0.025 mol 40 + 2[14 + 3(16)] g mol-1 = 4.1 g

FBCE; 2HNO3 + CaCO3

Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O 31

2 mol HNO3 0.05 mol HNO3

= =

1 mol CO2 x 0.05 mol CO2 = 0.025 mol CO2

No. of mol of CO2 = 0.025 mol Volume of CO2 = 0.025 mol 12 + 2(16) dm3 mol-1 = 1.1 dm3

Example 4: Pb(NO3)2 compound decomposes when heated as shown in the following equation. If 6.62 g of Pb(NO3)2 compound is heated, calculate; [Relative atomic mass: N, 14; O, 16; Pb, 207; 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4 dm3 at s.t.p.] (i) mass of PbO that is produced (ii) volume of nitrogen dioxide produced at s.t.p (ii) volume of oxygen produced at s.t.p Solution: 2Pb(NO3)2 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

= No of mol Pb(NO3)2 = = FBCE; 2Pb(NO3)2 2 mol Pb(NO3)2 0.02 mol Pb(NO3)2 No of mol PbO = 0.02 mol Mass of PbO = 0.02 x 223 = 4.46 g = =

mass Molar mass 6.62 g 331 gmol-1 0.02 mol 2PbO + 4NO2 + 2 mol PbO 0.02 mol PbO O2

FBCE;

2Pb(NO3)2

2PbO + 4NO2 +

O2 32

2 mol Pb(NO3)2 0.02 mol Pb(NO3)2 No of mol O2 = 0.04 mol

= =

4 mol NO2 4/2 x 0.02 mol O2 = 0.04 mol O2

Volume of O2 = 0.04 x 22.4 dm3 = 0.896 dm3 // 896 cm3 FBCE; 2Pb(NO3)2 2 mol Pb(NO3)2 0.02 mol Pb(NO3)2 No of mol O2 = 0.01 mol Volume of O2 = 0.01 x 22.4 dm3 = 0.224 dm3 // 224 cm3 Numerical Problems involving stoichiometric reactions in the precipitation of salts Question 1: A student prepare copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 by reacting copper(II) oxide, CuO with 200 cm3 of 2.0 moldm-3 nitric acid, HNO3. Calculate the mass of copper(II) oxide, CuO needed to react completely with the acid. [Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64 ; O, 16] Question 2: X cm3 of 0.5 moldm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4 is added to 100 cm3 of 1.0 moldm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution to produce lead(II) sulphate, PbSO4. [Relative atomic mass: Pb, 20; O, 16; S, 32] Calculate the value of X. Calculate the mass of lead(II) sulphate obtained. = = 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2 1 mol O2 x 0.02 mol O2 = 0.01 mol O2

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