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“Once upon a time, there were four skills. But what did it mean to be a listener? A speaker? A reader? A writer? Skills in a vacuum are useful neither for describing how well one uses language nor for how to teach it effectively.”1 June Phillips’s rhetorical questions address the challenge of second and foreign language (FL) teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: attaining functional communicative competence in the FL is insufficient within our multicultural societies, in which diverse communities of different languages and cultures cohabit and interact. In this “cosmopolitan” world, where cultural misunderstandings play a big role in social and political conflicts, intercultural communication is becoming a precondition for survival, and sociopolitical awareness is fundamental to communicate efficiently and productively.2 FL teaching and learning should contribute to fostering dialogue among individuals and social groups from different countries, languages, and sociopolitical backgrounds, and encourage deeper exploration of one’s own and the others’ cultures. The guidelines outlined by the MLA “Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages” established in 2006 reflect this new scenario and aim to produce “educated speakers who have deep translingual and transcultural competence.”3 Theater has great potential as a means of pursuing these challenging new goals set for FL instruction in today's “cosmopolitan” world. Theater has proved to be a flexible and effective teaching tool inasmuch as it provides the learners with practical ways to employ the target language in meaningful cultural contexts. The acts of reading, adapting, and staging theatrical texts set in motion a multifaceted process of learning that
incorporates linguistic practice in all four skills, boosts fluency, stimulates critical analysis, stirs creativity, and encourages free expression of the body. Most importantly, theatrical adaptations and re-creations are excellent venues for students to explore and embody the vivid insights that theater can offer into FL culture, literature, politics, and history. Through theater, students undergo what Koss describes as a “process of emotional and psychological projection,” or the activity of “feeling into,” also known as empathy.4 In other words, the embodied response and self-identification processes that take place in theater allow the students to look at the world through the diverse and unfamiliar perspectives expressed in the texts by the members of a given FL culture. It is precisely through the practice of empathy that theater can make its unique contribution to the challenges of FL teaching and learning within nowadays “cosmopolitan” communities. As Koss claims, in fact, empathy “values emotional, as much as rational, understanding and allows for the possibility of bridging radically different subject positions, both within and across historical periods and geographic zones.”5 In showing that empathy allows the students to assume, to some extent, the perspectives of the members of the FL and to turn the stage into a space of analysis and the surpassing of cultural and political clichés, this article suggests that in FL learning and teaching theater may favor the acquisition of intercultural communication skills and may help to abate the obstacles that hinder dialogue and reciprocal understanding. To illustrate this, I describe the experience of a theatrical project titled Antigoni, based on the history and politics of Italy in the 1970s, conducted in two different higher education institutions, in 2005 and 2006, respectively, in conjunction with a long-term research project on the representation of Italian terrorism in film and theater. The discussion of the 2005 and 2006 theatrical experiences focuses on the ways in which the students produced their original interpretation of the source texts, expanding their modes of expression in the FL, refining their interpretive skills, enhancing their ability to work collaboratively, and developing their own understanding of the cultural, historical, and political context of terrorism in Italy during the 1970s. In both projects, the students were actively involved in the adaptation and production of an original play, according to a process of transformation that Essif has labeled as one of “re-creation.”6 The empathy-focused activities used to interpret the topics and texts of the courses, and to re-create them on stage, played a central role in helping the students gain a much deeper understanding of the FL culture at hand. In addition, the experience of empathy allowed them to problematize the
phenomenon of terrorism in historical, political, and ethical terms, and to establish a lasting connection with their own socio-cultural experiences. This article lays out the Antigoni project in four distinct sections: 1) a discussion of the concept of empathy within the frameworks of the theory of theater and the teaching of history; 2) an exploration of the current, political and ethical interpretations of the tragic archetype of Antigone, which is at the core of the Antigoni project; 3) a description of the Antigoni project created and staged at the University of Pennsylvania in spring 2005, with particular emphasis on the goals, methods, and sequenced activities that guided the original Antigoni project held at Penn, including the analysis of the historical and cultural content, the interpretation, adaptation, and re-creation of the source texts; and 4) a commentary of the remodeling of the mise-en-scène of the Antigoni project at the Middlebury College Italian School, in summer 2006.
Empathy in Theater and History
As mentioned above, the emphasis on “translingual” and “transcultural” competencies in FL teaching and learning requires that learners develop the linguistic and analytical skills necessary to participate in the intercultural conversations that take place in today’s diverse communities.7 This overarching goal implies two crucial assumptions: first, in order to be able to talk with the members of a FL culture, learners must be knowledgeable about the FL culture and, second, in order to engage with the ideas and experiences shared by the members of the FL, they must be able to position themselves within the FL culture and look at the world from the perspectives of that culture. This is not an easy task. Culture does not manifest itself only as creations (“products”) and patterns of social behaviors (“practices”), but also as a set of underlying values, attitudes, conceptions, and beliefs (“perspectives”), and all three elements are connected and intertwined.8 In more practical terms, “translingual” and “transcultural” competencies imply the knowledge of the visible features of FL culture (“products” and “practices”), such as music, cinema, dancing, theater, paintings, literature, celebrations, food, social behaviors and conventions, facial expressions and gestures, and styles of dress. These competencies also imply the deep understanding of the invisible features of culture that are beyond our awareness (“perspectives”), such as concepts of self, beauty, and fairness, perceptions of personal space and privacy, religious beliefs, work ethic, general worldviews, and sense of community, just to name a few.
the empathy approach to theater and history favors in learners the understanding that the target culture’s perspectives do not coincide with theirs and that these perspectives are constructed by historical contexts.11 Opposing a passive model of spectatorship. and which is needed to pursue the goals of “translingual and transcultural competences. Brecht claimed that Einfühlung (empathy) was exploited as a means of entertainment for the bourgeois class. anachronistic. was used in Antigoni. the author was able to identify similar features that are particularly fruitful for stimulating cognitive activities. such us. At the very least. The discussion on the use of empathy in theater traces back to the 1930s. and emotional states. the “perspective taking” promoted by empathy “is a cognitive skill that must be taught and practiced. not a show of human emotion. thus facilitating the ultimate goal of intercultural understanding. both in theater and history. Einfühlung would encourage the spectators’ emotional identification with staged situations and prevented critical thought. for instance. or perspective taking. with playwright Bertolt Brecht’s famous theory of Verfremdung (alienation or estrangement). and political issues related to terrorism. political circumstances. or overly subjective responses from the students. In order to illustrate how empathy. If used in an exclusive manner. At the same time.”10 Empathy in theater stimulates both the emotional processes and the cognitive skills highlighted by Jensen. that empathy does not consist of simply experiencing human emotions and feelings. In both fields. and may contribute to abate the learners’ psychological barriers and encourage their understanding of the “products” and “practices” of the FL culture from the inside. Antigoni. As Jensen claims. she was aiming to prevent the risks intrinsic to the use of empathy. both in theater and history. the notion of empathy has been debated at length in the theory of theater and in the teaching of history and is still under discussion. Brecht’s theory aimed to contrast the “empathy theater” that relied on the suspension of disbelief. Brecht argued. or “epic theater. ideological motivations. it was crucial for the instructor to first conceive and then develop ways to explore all the potential of empathy as a cultural learning tool. ethical.” fought . In fact.”9 It is important to point out. Consequently. was based on the study of the history of Italy from the late 1960s to the early 1980s and centered on issues of political violence and terrorism. such as critical thought and self-reflection about historical. however.298 Chapter Thirteen Using empathy in FL teaching and learning is an excellent method to facilitate the process of “perspective taking. The technique of estrangement. it is necessary to offer a preliminary explanation of the theory of empathy.” as empathy has been defined by Downey. superficial. in fact.
sembra del tutto oggettivo eppure al contempo su un piano soggettivo sta vivendo intensamente un’altra realtà. suddenly. il mio corpo seduto che racconta. and actors share Brecht’s views. However. Similar theoretical discussions on the oscillation between affective and cognitive activities generated by empathy have been present in the .16 You move from an intense and participatory emotion to. and detachment. As Baliani suggests. in theater. Intimità e distanza si intrecciano. when the actor invokes the emotional participation of the public in his re-counting. Brecht postulated the ideal combination of “the technique of empathy and the technique of estrangement” and claimed this strategy to be an excellent “method of rehearsal.15 In this way. empatia e straniamento avvengono in contemporanea. his monologue continuously shifts between the epic mode. in fact. The spectator sees me narrating but. Brecht explained. dove è richiesta una lucidità del pensiero.Re-Creating Antigoni 299 against such passivity and aimed to trigger the spectators’ critical detachment from the fictional world of the stage. per poi essere di nuovo colpiti da un soprassalto di stupore. the author of the monologue Corpo di Stato (Body of State) and whose work is at the core of the Antigoni project. it is critical to “break up the possibility of empathizing too much with what is being said. as Baliani's narrative unfolds. directors. in which the actor detaches himself from the events and raises the audience's awareness of it. lo spettatore vede me che racconto ma al tempo stesso percepisce l’immaginario che gli sto evocando. it is experiencing intensely another reality. Ciò che gli appare sulla scena. intimacy.13 Several contemporary playwrights. because neither activity could occur without the intermittent presence of the other. in a journal entry of 1940. the audience's reaction is concurrently one of stupor. Marco Baliani.” and. has based his performances on the alternation between empathetic and epic modes. at the same time. What appears on stage—my seated body narrating—seems completely objective and yet. at the same time. In Baliani's words: Si passa da un’emotività partecipe e intensa ad una distanza improvvisamente fredda. “generates emotions” in a way that “moves the spectator” and stimulates her intellectual reaction. Intimacy and distance are linked. perceives the images I am evoking.14 For one. a cold distance for which clarity of thought is required and then you give a gasp of stupor. Empathy as well as estrangement. especially in the Italian tradition.”12 He argued that alternating between emotional absorption and detachment could stimulate critical thought. empathy and alienation concurrently overlap. and embodied interpretation. on a subjective plane.
one of the main goals of using empathy in history should be to lead students “to confront the strangeness of the past and to construct more complex models of period values and beliefs. including those in higher education. but also its practical implications. We know the territory.”21 Overall.20 This goal acknowledges the importance for students to “recognize that cultures use different patterns of interaction and can apply this knowledge to their own culture.” which can make the use of empathy effective and conducive to the active and epistemologically correct learning of history: 1) establishing a firm connection between imagination and historical evidence.”17 She claims that empathy in the teaching of history should serve “as a way of stopping the natural tendencies of pupils to project modern ideas and assumptions onto people in the past. that she has called “delicate dilemmas.”22 All in all.”19 Counsell’s concept of empathy targets primarily K-12 students. viewpoints. Research on teaching history has explored many ways in which empathy may be nurtured and developed. distancing. . 3) encouraging identification and emotional connections with the object of study in order to convey a deep sense of significance and stimulate the learners’ motivations and interests. helping the students to really advance in translingual and transcultural competence. namely. otherness and (whisper who dares) empathy. she argues. not personal terms. 2) framing empathy activities in historical. comparisons. developing a pedagogy of empathy in FL education might help educators find new paths toward achieving the “Comparisons” goal.300 Chapter Thirteen teaching of history since the early 1980s. Cunningham has identified four critical requisites. Her argument may very fruitfully integrate the fourth of the five goals set by the ACTFL National Standards. In both fields. and 4) considering the events in context in order to balance the learners’ opinions and ethical positions with “perspective taking. special importance is given to the alternation between self-projection and contextualization insofar as the integration of affective and cognitive activities has proved to promote in learners psychological involvement and deeper analytical consideration of the cultural content at hand. the discussion about empathy or such perspective taking in theater and in history emphasizes similar challenges as well as positive potential. and avoiding the imposition of present understanding of certain aspects of culture onto the past in a way that could elicit low-level anachronistic responses. but it may be useful for FL learners at any level of language proficiency and instruction. Counsell ironically reminds us that perspective taking “is history-teacher heartland—imagination. discussing not only theoretical aspects of the question.”18 On the contrary.
the Antigones focus on the conflict between personal and public spheres and on the psychological and political vulnerability that derives from this conflict. but as allusive texts. In her preface to the 1987 edition of Sophocles’s Antigone. The title Antigoni is the Italian plural for the Greek Antigone. Pasolini’s “Il romanzo delle stragi” (“The Novel of Massacres.” 1974). for burying her brother Polynices against Creon’s will or despite Creon’s prohibition. In particular. come Antigone. . which constitutes the mythical and archetypical background of the students’ play. Italian intellectual Rossana Rossanda argues that the Greek heroine continues to “recur” in Western culture with a unique voice. philosophers.C. writers. Le parole di Antigone e Creonte sembrano eterne. And this necessarily raises athe? question: to what extent is the Antigone recurring in these times speaking about Sophocles’s Antigone. . more generally. 1999).Re-Creating Antigoni 301 The “Recurring” Antigone The course and theatrical workshop held at the University of Pennsylvania in 2005 ended with the performance of a play entitled Antigoni. They come back not to be examined and to reveal new meanings. Antigone’s and Creon’s words sound eternal against completely different cultural backgrounds. regardless of the specific contexts in which she appears: Certo è che ad alcune tragedie si ritorna ma altre. the students’ adaptation includes several Antigone-like characters who comment on the emotional. su sfondi culturali del tutto diversi. . an original theatrical pièce adapted from a number of different texts such as Sophocles’s Antigone (442 a. . to be lived again to relive?. by political violence. and to what extent is she speaking about us. E ne viene necessaria la domanda: quanto l’Antigone ricorrente nei nostri anni ci parla dell’Antigone sofoclea. and partially written by the students. e quanto invece di noi?23 It is true that we return to some tragedies. Baliani’s Corpo di Stato (1998).24 Since Hegel’s seminal interpretation of Antigone as the advocate of the private . Oedipus’s brother-in-law and tyrant of Thebes. and ethical questions elicited by the issues of terrorism and. seem to return to us. sembrano tornare. and intellectuals have explored the myth of Antigone. Non per essere scavate e rivelare nuovi sensi. but others. ma come allusive. Besides some excerpts from the original Antigone. like Antigone. and Alessandro Trigona Occhipinti’s Segue Comunicato (A Communiqué Will Follow. instead? Despite the passage of time.). who was sentenced to death by Creon. rivissute. political. Rossanda’s question remains valid. For centuries. . Oedipus’s daughter. .
302 Chapter Thirteen and affective sphere versus the sphere of reason (of the State). and her many readings are philosophical distillations of the basic oppositions inherent to the human condition: man-woman. old age-youth. society-individual. The abduction and assassination of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro (1978) and the bombings of Piazza Fontana (1969) and of the Bologna train station (1980) represented the most tragic moments of those years. Since the beginning of gli anni di piombo. clandestinely in Prague--the play is uncannily appropriate to every struggle for freedom. the figure of Antigone has embodied the contradictions intrinsic to our political and ethical paradigms: between norms and laws. Antigone still inspires us and is invoked in very different contexts. for the personal liberty that Antigone demands for herself. and human-divinity. the Greek heroine has been considered a postfeminist voice of “différence. Antigone has been seen as a problematic figure. for example.”26 Over time. private and public. and cinematic renditions of the most controversial and violent period of Italian recent history. in Poland a month before martial law was declared.27 Allusions or explicit references to the figure of Antigone also appear in the literary. as an archetype of political disobedience in Liliana Cavani’s 1969 feature film I cannibali (The Cannibals) and as a figure of mourning in Marco Baliani’s 1998 previously mentioned theatrical monologue Corpo di Stato. theatrical. and she is foreshadowed as an epitome of empathy in the female protagonist of Marco Bellocchio’s 2003 film Buongiorno. In . transgression and tradition. Judith Malina. in Franco’s Spain. respectively. In the 1960s and 1970s. In the late 1960s and 1970s. by rightand left-wing extremist organizations. notte (Good Morning. She appears. as incarnated by Creon. Sophocles’s Antigone was a point of departure for the discussion of the use of violence in politics. power and pietas. it seemed to become the symbol of the struggle of that time and place—in bleeding Ireland.25 In more recent times. one of the founders and leaders of The Living Theatre.28 In the two courses described in this article. Italy was the arena of terrorist attacks and guerrilla actions carried out. to name a few. Night). living-dead. It is for the persistence of such tensions in contemporary societies that. Antigone has been invoked to stage the political and ethical dilemmas related to what in Italy was called “the armed struggle” or lotta armata. named gli anni di piombo (the years of lead). as Rossanda points out. folly and wisdom. Antigone was perceived as the essence of any form of rebellion to authoritarian regimes. for instance. comments in her preface to Brecht’s Antigone: The Living Theatre performed Antigone over a period of 20 years in 16 countries—and wherever we played it.
Re-Creating Antigoni 303 their reading of the play. At the University of Pennsylvania. the classes differed in terms of their communicative skills. and was a unique rewriting of. not only did they learn that political perspectives are emotionally charged and culturally constructed. and made an effort to detach themselves from their own assumptions about contemporary politics and ethics. Therefore. In these two distinct academic settings. The Antigoni Project: An Experiment in Empathy From the readings to the script Antigoni is an original theatrical pièce based on a real event of Italian recent history: the abduction and assassination of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978 at the hands of the left-wing extremist organization Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades. which included a conversation course. and after the completion of the . and philosophical implications in the historical context the Italy of gli anni di piombo. the theatrical components. and production of the Antigoni project. students learned to explore the notion of political violence and question its ethical. several texts that the students of the University of Pennsylvania had read and adapted and then performed at the end of the course. that is. the students attempted to contextualize Antigone’s claims about justice. In other words. cultural background. while the theoretical framework on empathy. The script was then re-worked and used by the students of Middlebury College during a six-week full-immersion summer course. time extension. and to reinforce their linguistic skills through the use of theater. In this process. the 2005 Antigoni project was part of the Italian Play Production course regularly offered within the upperlevel sequence. shortand long-term goals. of course. but they were also able to discuss how different subjects used and justified political violence in different historical contexts. emotional. and humanity. As mentioned. the next year. to guide them through the reading and appreciation of Italian literary texts. solidarity. the linguistic emphasis and the course organization were quite dissimilar. Antigoni is inspired by. kinship. the stages of adaptation. In addition. The general goals of Italian Play Production were to introduce students to some relevant aspects of Italian culture. a grammar review course. part of the readings. and. At that time. BR). and some of the cultural and literary objectives coincided. from the defense of one’s own country to the terrorists’ attacks. and a literature survey. by positioning themselves in the past as new Antigones. students were not required to observe a specific course progression within the sequence. varied substantially in the two settings. re-creation.
rhetorical devices. three Italian majors who were ina their sixth or seventh semester of Italian. short stories. and connect complex texts · analyze the fictional and non-fictional representations of the events in different genres and media (theater. theoretical discussions on politics and terrorism. class discussions and presentations. film. and biology) with disparate linguistic abilities who were mostly interested in the theatrical experience. Consequently.304 Chapter Thirteen language requirement they could take any of the four courses. Finally. rephrase. and. Two of the Italian majors were international students (Mexico and France) and thus native speakers of Spanish and French. Judaic studies. papers) · script a coherent and complete play to act out on the stage · understand events within their historical and cultural contexts · develop intercultural awareness by comparing the Italian experience with that of the North American current political scenario. since for half of the students in this group the theater course was their first opportunity to be exposed to sophisticated reading and writing activities. participated very actively in the rehearsals and in the final production. The sequenced activities designed for the project consisted of: · reading an array of heterogenous texts (history chapters. the Antigoni project was meant to lead students to: · further pronunciation and fluency through improvisational activities and rehearsals · recognize and practice different linguistic registers. international relations.29 In welcoming the linguistic and cultural heterogeneity of the class. respectively. and essays) . translate. which comprised eight students: one who had just completed the language requirement and was planning to declare a minor in Italian. summarize. two Italian native speakers. and one who had just returned from a semester of study in Italy. and the specific practices of the theatrical workshop. theatrical text. In particular. the instructor tailored the Antigoni project to the ample spectrum of interests and academic experiences of the students and designed a series of objectives that addressed different areas of knowledge and of language skills. four non-foreign language students (majors in business. This was in fact the case of the Antigoni project. and genres · develop the ability to understand. Through the reading and writing activities. finally. essays. their backgrounds and language skills could vary substantially in each of the four courses of this level. the teaching assistant (TA) and a student assistant. literature. she included a writing-intensive component requiring the creation of an original theatrical adaptation.
The primary readings comprised a corpus of works of different genres and media: Marco Baliani’s 1998 monologue Corpo di Stato. students read the secondary texts either in English or in Italian.Re-Creating Antigoni · · · · · · establishing a context for such readings exploring historical and literary identities identifying and choosing perspectives role-playing situations debating characters’ standpoints writing. staging. and translated and subtitled the whole play for the final production. an extract from Anna Laura Braghetti’s and Paola Tavella’s 2003 memoir Il prigioniero (The Prisoner).30 The production took place at the end of the semester in a nonprofessional venue. created one entire Quadro. rewrote some parts of the texts. Habermas and J. however. listed below. the students generated the plot and structure of their own play. or a Tragedy of Power”). and Jean Baudrillard’s The Spirit of Terrorism. and acting a full play 305 The primary readings. The audience of the play production consisted of about one hundred and fifty spectators: the Italian faculty and students at Penn as well as local Italophiles and members of the Italian and Italian-American communities in Philadelphia. Adriano Sofri’s 1991 L'ombra di Moro (Moro’s Shadow). “Le cose mai uscite da quella prigione” (“The Things That Never Came out of That Prison”). The texts that shaped the narrative of Antigoni were extracts from both the primary and secondary readings used in the course. Derrida. The secondary readings included historical information. Italo Calvino’s 1978 “Il potente intercambiabile” (“Interchangeable Power”). were all in Italian. which intensified during the last month of classes. extracts provided from essays on the Italian context of gli anni di piombo and from the contemporary philosophical reflection on international terrorism: Christopher Duggan’s essay A Concise History of Italy. notte. Giovanna Borradori’s Terrorism in a Time of Terror: Dialogues with J. that is. Working on the readings.” Leonardo Sciascia’s 1978 essay “L’affaire Moro” (“The Moro Affair”). Sophocles’s Antigone provided the archetypical tragic background for a reflection on . Pier Paolo Pasolini’s 1974 article “Cos'è questo golpe? Io so” (“What Is this Coup? I Know”) also known as “Il romanzo delle stragi. or act. Marco Bellocchio’s 2003 feature film Buongiorno. and “Moro ovvero una tragedia del potere” (“Moro. depending on their language proficiency. and Alessandro Trigona Occhipinti’s 1999 play Segue comunicato. one of the three skyscrapers in the University of Pennsylvania dorm system. The course timetable consisted of three weekly contact hours plus a three-hour theater workshop dedicated to improvisation and rehearsal.
(2) analysis of literary and cultural elements. and empathizing with the perspectives of the authors and/or characters. and social life.” and “legitimate war. and Baudrillard mentioned above. A questionnaire created by the instructor helped students to problematize the notion of terrorism and to navigate through the readings. such as pre-reading activities.”31 These questions sparked discussions about the ethical and emotional dilemmas central to most of the course readings and highlighted the role of history. and the factual motivations that triggered terrorist actions and political violence as events grounded in history and cultural contexts. by reading excerpts from the texts by Habermas. which includes general information on Italy from the Resistance to the 1980s. and religious terrorism. which were challenging not only for their philosophical language. Through the understanding of the historical context and of the philosophical discussion on terrorism. understanding. and subjectivity in the understanding of political violence and terrorism. also in the light of the 2001 international terrorist attack in the United States. and role-plays focusing on both cognitive and affective aspects. They focused on gli anni di piombo. the instructor developed specific pedagogical tools. questionnaires. and the unexpected connections between the meanings of the words “border. both in historical and philosophical terms. In order to guide the students through this multifold process. for example. Derrida.” “resistance.” and “war. a primary objective for the University of Pennsylvania student team involved analyzing different points of view. the definitions and historical contexts of “partisan war.” the subtle and intricate distinctions between ideological. and (3) recognizing. The questionnaire concerned. they were able to grasp the diversity of the points of view. but also for the controversial issues that they addressed.306 Chapter Thirteen the conflict between the personal and the political. personal experience. politics. Likewise. In the transition from the reading of the texts to the writing of the script. as well as their own. From Duggan’s Concise History. an activity which unfolded in three progressive steps: (1) comprehension of the context. First of all. they read the chapter on the Italian Republic. The variety of the readings was not only instrumental to provide the students with different perspectives on the controversial historical event known as the Moro Affair. students worked on their understanding of Italy’s history. but also to encourage them to question their own ideas about terrorism. ethnic. through the critical analysis of . definitions of terrorism. the ideological nuances. they examined and criticized the current. with particular emphasis on the Aldo Moro murder case. Subsequently.” “terrorism.
and categorizing the masculine and feminine features in their personalities.esprimere chiaramente un sentimento (rabbia. they identified emotions and feelings elicited by the conflict between Antigone and Creon. They especially debated how emphasizing certain feelings and other psychological traits contributed to the characterization of Antigone as a subversive female figure with respect to Creon’s authority vis-à-vis the authority of Creon. First of all. pietà. rimorso. such as loneliness. students realized that meaning is very rarely objective and is often charged with ideology. Reading the original Antigone constituted a pivot point in the students’ learning because it bridged strategies usually adopted in literary analysis to the dynamic process of perspective taking. which kind of laws femininity rejects in this tragedy and why. anticipating their actions and behaviors. students switched to a more empathy-oriented and creative approach. Furthermore. which required writing a first-person narrative and presenting it to the class in the form of a short monologue. Here is an example of one of the prompts: Assumendo la prospettiva di Ismene o Emone. to what extent one should be loyal to the State. . and regret. several students wondered why Antigone does not deny her fault in the face of authority thus avoiding being punished. paura. fear. . scrivi un monologo di 250 parole in reazione alle seguenti domande: “Provi pena per Creonte perché inizialmente ha cercato di fare il bene e poi è stato travolto dalle circostanze. which fully involved the students’ affective and cognitive spheres. they read aloud passages of the tragedy working on their tone and pace to express different emotions. etc. if masculinity in Antigone is depicted as a negative. o credi che sia un uomo autoritario che ha ricevuto ciò che merita? Perché? E Antigone? Quali sentimenti provi per lei? Pietà? Comprensione? Qualcos’altro? Spiega.). such as examining the relationships and conflicts between characters. Interestingly. tyrannical. They concluded the analysis of Antigone with a dramatic activity. After some typical comprehension activities. guilt. For instance. hate. finally. and they discussed the impact of such emotions on the development of the tragic conflict. amore. and. pity.Re-Creating Antigoni 307 the terms discussed in these texts. anger.spiegare almeno due ragioni del comportamento di Antigone e Creonte. these class discussions alternated in their concern for political versus private matters. and therefore as a bad trait. the philosophical and ethical consistency of these readings prepared the students for the analysis of the core concepts of Sophocles’s Antigone.” Il monologo deve: . Then. which masculine features the heroine shows and to what end she employs them. odio.
explain at least two reasons for Antigone’s and Creon’s behavior. the dichotomy between public and private that this tragedy exemplifies helped students to gain deeper insights about the other course readings on political violence and terrorism and it challenged their own ethical and political convictions.308 Chapter Thirteen .be gendered. . regret.tenere conto del contesto della tragedia e non trasportare Antigone e Creonte nel presente! Presenterai il tuo monologo alla classe. etc. . pity.take into account the context of the tragedy and not treat Antigone and Creon as if they were living today! You will present your monologue to the class. the empathy approach to Antigone prepared students to react constructively to the “delicate dilemmas” highlighted by Cunningham in the learning of history. As a result of the empathy approach adopted in the reading. Taking on the perspective of Ismene or Haemon. . that is. it needs to reflect your gender. As mentioned . and the play Segue comunicato. Ismene o Emone. .essere sessuato. fear. In other words.clearly express one feeling (anger. to provide a gendered response. or do you believe that he is an authoritarian man who got what he deserved? Why? What about Antigone? What feelings do you have for her? Pity? Understanding? Something else? Explain.). The practice of perspective taking was fully developed with the reading of the theatrical monologue Corpo di Stato. Overall. The requirements in this drama activity to express one feeling. cioè deve riflettere il sesso del personaggio con cui ti identifichi. peaking with the abduction and assassination of Aldo Moro in 1978.” The monologue should: . write a 250-word monologue reacting to the following questions: “Do you pity Creon because initially he tried to do good and then he was overcome by circumstances. hate. depending on the character you identify with. to explain at least two reasons. the reading and dramatization of the text naturally stimulated students to explore both affective and cognitive dimensions of their interaction with the text. and in spite of Antigone’s mythical backdrop. the memoir Il prigioniero. because of the vibrant connections of the “recurring” Antigone in Western contemporary culture.32 Baliani’s Corpo di Stato is very rich in detailing the narrator’s and his companions’ thoughts and emotions against the background of the social and political turmoil of the 1970s. and to take into account the context reflect the instructor’s methodological concern with balancing emotional identification with a motivated and contextualized interpretation of the text. love.
” those who think that there are some agents “infiltrated from the secret services” among the BR. Riesci a capire di chi sono le diverse posizioni? In altre parole. what did the Christian Democrats think? What did the extremist groups think? What did Craxi’s followers think? After reading Armando’s story. che cosa pensavano i democristiani? Che cosa pensavano i comunisti? Che cosa pensavano i gruppi estremisti? Che cosa pensavano i seguaci di Craxi? Dopo aver letto la storia di Armando. quelli che pensano che si debba “trattare in ogni modo per ottenere la liberazione di Aldo Moro”. is an example of how the students explored and role-played the different and complex perspectives that the monologue highlights on the thorny question of negotiation for the release of Aldo Moro: In Armando (p. young radicals. The following activity. extracted from a worksheet on Corpo di Stato. fa’ una breve ricerca e preparati a sostenere diversi punti di vista in un dibattito in classe sull’argomento della negoziazione per la liberazione del prigioniero. also had the effect of expanding students’ general and specialized vocabulary. This technique. Employing reading and role-play activities such as those described above. the young Marco. 51) Marco summarizes the positions of the various political sides on the abduction of Moro: those who argue that the BR are “comrades who are making a mistake. you will assume the position of a political party that your professor will assign to you. politicians. In Armando (p. assumerai la posizione di un partito politico che ti verrà assegnato dalla professoressa. Corpo di Stato is exemplary in this regard because the narrator continually switches from identification with the narrated self. and Aldo Moro himself. was very helpful for the students’ grasp of the political nuances. Baliani’s work presents a continual alternation of empathy and epic modes. Empathizing with the social actors of the Moro Case. that is. Nel dibattito. Marco riassume le posizioni delle varie parti politiche sul rapimento di Aldo Moro: quelli che sostengono che le BR sono “compagni che sbagliano”. in order to understand the historical context of the play. In the debate. those who think that they should negotiate in order to obtain the liberation of Moro in any possible way. 51). and his companions (empathy mode) to critical detachment from them (epic mode). The . also helps to increase their interest for and understanding of historical events. Can you understand to whom the various positions belong? In other words. which aims to increase spectator awareness. namely. do some research and get ready to support different points of view in a class debate on negotiating the prisoner’s release. quelli che pensano che fra le BR ci siano degli “infiltrati manovrati dai servizi segreti. brigatisti (members of the Red Brigades).Re-Creating Antigoni 309 in the previous discussion on the role of empathy in theater.
Per la parte di Cecilia. Molti di loro vivono ancora là e sono stati condannati in contumacia (= in assenza). Be ready to interpret a monologue of 150 words for each character that you will perform in front of the police (and in front of the class!). Il dramma si svolge in un’alternanza di passato e presente. Students memorized the vocabulary and used such information in their role-plays: Nella lettura di questa parte del testo. The empathy approach trained students not only to value emotions as much as reasoning. sia razionali che emotive. For Cecilia’s part. mentre Paolo vede parecchie analogie. for instance.310 Chapter Thirteen following extract from a worksheet on Segue comunicato includes important information and vocabulary on the sheltering in France of Italian women and men charged with accusations of terrorism. al contrario. Tieni presente che Cecilia è molto combattuta fra il suo credo politico e il senso di colpa per la violenza usata. but also to focus on such elements as purpose and audience in their analysis and dramatization of the texts. da tenere di fronte alla polizia (e davanti alla classe!). The drama takes place in an alternation of past and present. in cui Cecilia si difende spiegando le motivazioni. keep in mind this information: In the 1970s France welcomed the Italian terrorist refugees and has not allowed their deportation to Italy. The reading comprehension activities on Segue comunicato. Cecilia sostiene che le due situazioni sono molto diverse. while Paolo sees many analogies. Paolo and Cecilia compare the death of Paolo’s father with that of other men killed by terrorism in the 1970s. In the reading of this part of the text. dovrai immaginare una confessione da fare alla polizia. ricorda queste informazioni: Negli anni ’70 la Francia ha accolto i terroristi italiani in fuga e non ne ha permesso l’estradizione in Italia. dovrai preparare un discorso di accusa contro Cecilia. Per la parte di Paolo. culminated in a role-play that posed great emphasis on self-defense and accusation as specific purposes and on the police as a concrete audience: Paolo e Cecilia confrontano la morte del padre di Paolo con quella di altri uomini uccisi negli anni ’70 dal terrorismo. in which you explain the rational and . Preparati a interpretare un monologo di 150 parole per ognuno dei due personaggi. you should imagine a confession to the police. Cecilia claims that the two situations are very different. delle sue azioni. Ricorda che Paolo è molto triste e arrabbiato per la morte del padre e per la scelta di sua madre nella lotta clandestina. Many of them still live there and they have been tried and sentenced in absentia. Cecilia o Paolo. sempre da fare alla polizia.
311 By and large. violence. which introduces the audience to the figure of Aldo Moro and to the historical events of the time. concepts. and people’s ideas and experiences described in the course readings. Students argued that the figure of Antigone. more complex point than that of the depiction of the history of terrorism in Italy in the 1970s. guilt. Calvino’s. They also aimed to create a narrative that was illustrative of some larger.” or diary. such as: What does the play tell the spectators about the students? Their community? Their generation? The human condition? In addition. and part of Quadro II of the play Antigoni were actually based on Corpo di Stato. they found traces of the “recurring” Antigone in “Diario. the tragic epitome of the conflict between the personal and the political.Re-Creating Antigoni emotional motives for Cecilia’s actions. Pasolini’s. The Antigoni created by the students at Penn engages the audience in these topics from the beginning and for the whole play. and of four Quadri . and Sciascia’s essays and created a few character-narrators who embodied the different authors’ perspectives and linked the Quadri. For Paolo’s part. you should prepare an accusation speech against Cecilia to make to the police as well. and emotions into a coherent narration and an original interpretation. In this way. Quadro I. The narrators’ monologues echo the words of Antigone on the concepts of justice. Therefore. These activities also worked as preliminary steps to advance from the reading to the adaptation and final production. Antigoni is comprised of a prologue. in which Baliani recalls Antigone’s mournful lamentations in order to comment on the creative process of the monologue and on the terrorist actions of the 1970s. and death and they project Antigone’s reflection on the topic of political violence onto the contemporary scene. Keep in mind that Cecilia is torn between her political beliefs and her sense of guilt for her use of violence. could take such a leading role. Remember that Paolo is very sad and angry about his father’s death and about his mother’s choice to go underground. the actual writing of the play Antigoni took place only after students arranged the mass of information. Students then scripted some brief but intense monologues from Sofri’s. a sort of appendix to Corpo di Stato. The Prologue. however. perspectives. The figure of Antigone could establish a connection with the spectators and raise some important questions. the primary task in the design of the play was to organize the diverse students’ input around a leading theme or character. Corpo di Stato also served to establish a conceptual link with the tragic background of Sophocles’s Antigone and was a great source of inspiration for the students’ play. first-person narrative writing and role-playing were unconventional yet very fruitful ways for students to understand the historical events.
confessions. and like the original Antigone. In other words. it meant becoming a freedom fighter or a terrorist. when for young activists—and there were many—choosing to follow their passions and impulses meant taking on arms and fighting against the State. ci sentivamo buoni e volevamo essere buoni”. “Noi eravamo buoni. Indeed. Each Quadro presents various situations and characters and is introduced by a different female characternarrator inspired by Sophocles’s Antigone. dreams. we hoped that we were right. raise several questions. one of the Antigoni characters says: Cercavamo nuove strade. a partisan from the Italian Resistance during World War II. we felt good and wanted to be good.312 Chapter Thirteen pivoting around specific historical and ethical issues: the conflict between duty and sacrifice. depending on the perspective from which one considered these options. the relationship between passion and ideology. the legacy of history on contemporary events. and lucid reflections that conjure up the images of people who died for political reasons: Aldo Moro. E invece…33 We were looking for new avenues. ahistorical past. noi credevamo di essere nel giusto. new answers. Their projection in the context of gli anni di piombo emphasizes the crucial issue of the time. nuove risposte. dressed in jeans and red tee-shirts to symbolize the communist utopia. Noi pensavamo. while the modern Antigoni articulate their existential and political dilemmas in relatively long monologues. other young men sentenced to death by the Fascists and . the Antigoni express their anxieties for the forms of injustice that they see around them. While she is reflecting on her past as a clandestine fighter. but remains in the background and appears only three times to comment on the events from a mythical. they are convinced of being on the right side. such as: can one sacrifice her own feelings in the name of politics—or for political reasons? How can one solve the conflict between sense of duty and care? Is there a distinction between the State and the individual who is in charge of it? Or are they both only symbols of power? In the monologues. These disquieting women. Anzi. We thought. The Greek heroine herself is also a character in the students’ play. and the problem of political violence in the contemporary world. “We were good.” And instead… What are these women’s answers to the issue of political violence? How do they explain what it meant to be revolutionary during gli anni di piombo? And to what extent do they still feel revolutionary today? The doubts and the questions are shaped as memories.
The Quadro closes with a coupe de théâtre which aims to raise some questions. and debate the issue of political violence as a means to pursue social justice. ma alla fine. Sono immature. ma non si girano. and the reasons for his killing. the violent character addresses the audience: Picchiatore: Vi è piaciuto? Vi piace quando qualcuno si fa picchiare? Siamo simili. Giovani. Sono solamente ragazze con punti di vista diversi. all the women of the play gather in a contemporary university setting where they discuss the figure of Aldo Moro. Pensate che quello che ho fatto è normale. cade sul pavimento.Re-Creating Antigoni 313 Nazis during the Republic of Salò. Deve farlo per almeno un minuto per dare al pubblico l’opportunità di fare qualcosa. He looks at them for a long time. Le ragazze hanno paura di lui. They are scared. Siamo uguali. Picchiatore: Ne volete anche voi? Scuotono la testa. “with violence”: La picchia veramente. Ma senza importanza. but eventually she falls on the floor. in the fourth Quadro. Sono studentesse. Ho picchiato lei perché potevo farlo. senza esperienza. He looks at the other girls. the original part entirely written by the students. forse. his political role. non hanno bisogno del mio aiuto. an eerie male character. a young man who rejects armed struggle. While the young women are still talking about political violence. but they do not move. Ma avete ascoltato il dilemma di queste donne. as the script says. Non sono terroriste. Si censurano da sole. Il picchiatore si gira verso le altre ragazze.” appears on the stage and beats one of them fiercely. D’altronde questo è il regno della censura. Forse no. They argue about individualism and collectivism. She tries to fight back. Un po’ sciocche. “represents the everyman. The Antigoni speak to these ghost-like characters and then pose their questions directly to the audience. Non hanno vissuto la vita. Guarda per molto tempo le donne. Beater: Do you want some too? They nod no. who. and an intellectual who denounces the corruption and cruelty of political power. La ragazzza prova a difendersi. No. . He beats her for real. He needs to do it for at least one minute to give the public the opportunity to do something. Interestingly. that is. Perché no? Non volevo mica censurarle. Then.
Le donne come gli uomini. Il picchiatore esce di scena. They are immature. Or rather. Tutti. Avete guardato quest’azione finale senza muovervi. as Rossanda would say. the “beater” challenges the spectators’ own perspectives on the issue of violence. both personal and collective. individualistic. The beater leaves the stage. You are cowards. But unimportant in the grand scale of things. Without an ounce of solidarity.314 Chapter Thirteen No. All of you. They are only girls with differing points of view. or. Perhaps not. without experience. without trying to stop me. You think that my behavior was normal. in the Italian setting. Why not? I did not want to censure these girls. perhaps. In addition. With the man’s harsh apostrophe to the audience and the controversial open ending. the conclusion also projects this very conflict onto the audience. Morirete presto anche voi. However. Senza solidarietà. la vostra società. O meglio. and do not need my help for it. They do that very well themselves. the ending provides an exemplary synthesis of the way in which the University of Pennsylvania students understood the alternation of epic mode and empathy theorized by Brecht and. They are students. non avevo una vera ragione. it is “recurring” and affecting the present time and private self. You have watched this final action without moving. it was the students’ intention to prevent a consolatory finale and to raise awareness in the audience about the ethical responsibilities. Lasciate stare. I did not have any real reason for my act. A bit foolish. The women like the men. There it is. the open ending shows that the tension between the private and public sphere at the core of Sophocles’Antigone is not limited to ann historical past. and it becomes definitive only when the “beater” explains to the public that his . You will soon die too. Young ladies. The change of mode unfolds progressively in the ending. Never mind. Finally. No. your society. I have hit her because I could. as related to the use violence. Eccola. But you have listened to the dilemma of these women. This is the reign of censorship. una ragione ce l’avevo: le ho colpite per vedere quello che avreste fatto voi. And you did nothing. my reason was that I hit the girl to see what you would do. individualisti. senza provare a fermarmi. E voi non avete fatto niente. By eliciting their sense of guilt for passively witnessing the attack. by Baliani. Rather it reverberates on the here and now. The monologue of the “beater” is unsettling. Siete vili. No. They are not terrorists. We are equal. They have not experienced life. Did you like that? Does it appeal to you when someone is attacked? We are similar.
rehearsals. to that of the “beater. this scene forces the audience to shift perspective from that of the spectators. referring both to the private (“you are cowards”) and the public dimensions (“your society . The Penn students’ drama was so vivid and compelling that Middlebury students adopted it as a script for their Italian theater production the next year. the literary. First of all. Likewise. “We are similar. the perspective-taking approach adopted in the course called students to . and political content of Teatri di guerra intellectually challenged students to explore major aspects of Italy’s past. entertained and distant. the “beater” calls the spectators upon the core of the conflict. Finally.” with whom they are explicitly asked to identify when he states. needed to bring their communicative abilities to a higher level of sophistication during the limited time of the summer immersion.” At this point. and historical content. it provided students with an actual stage on which they could practice and reinforce their interpersonal communicative skills through improvisation. or Theaters of War. the primary goal of Teatri di guerra was to perfect the oral and aural skills of those students who. We are equal. and super-intensive language and culture program. The theater course was one of the electives in the Master’s program.” The “reawakening” of the audience in the monologue of the “beater” powerfully condenses the succession of empathy and epic modes conducted in the Antigoni project. All in all. More importantly. without an ounce of solidarity. historical. . Staging Antigoni for the community The Antigoni project at Middlebury College was carried out in 2006. although advanced. This scene is particularly intense when performed on stage and highlights the students’ strong emotional involvement as well as their willingness to question the ramifications of political violence in our private lives. the whole play attests to a high degree of sociopolitical awareness on behalf of the students. individualistic”). full-immersion. And you did nothing. were close to those designed at Penn with regard to the cultural. buttressing their interpretive skills and expanding the breadth of their specialized vocabulary. showing that the practice of empathy promotes not only affective processes but also cognitive skills. that in the Middlebury summer school was titled Teatri di guerra. with grim tone. However.Re-Creating Antigoni 315 real purpose for attacking the girl was “to see what you would do. No. in the setting of the Italian summer school that is renowned for its very selective. and mise-en-scène. . The objectives of the course. literary. Teatri di guerra was an ideal venue to this end.
even to the less expert members of the community. It constitutes a central extracurricular activity and a meaningful cultural opportunity for the larger community of learners. Staging the dilemmas of the Antigoni in the context of gli anni di piombo aimed to spark interest. or simply attend it as spectators. the team intervened substantially on the paratext in order to . and politics.316 Chapter Thirteen embody the cultural and political points of view expressed in the texts. empathy should always be firmly connected to historical evidence. which is produced every year. like elementary and intermediate students.34 To pursue this goal the instructor supplemented the corpus of readings with historical and secondary texts. The Italian play. but a likely reconstruction of the events that could stimulate discussion and raise political awareness visà-vis the contemporary international scenario. Middlebury students used Antigoni. the original adaptation authored by the University of Pennsylvania Italian theater team in 2005. facilitate understanding.35 Students read all the texts exclusively in Italian as required by the language policy of the Middlebury Summer School. the Antigoni play turned the stage into a space of political discussion. For the final play production. The main preoccupation of the Middlebury group was framing the play in such a way that it did not seem a piece of fiction. and staff crew. As Cunningham suggests. students were eager to understand and be able to express the feelings and meditations of the protagonists of gli anni di piombo. teachers. there was an important contextdriven feature to take into account as well. This was not an easy task. In addition. by blending literature. among others. guest speakers. Because of the priorities outlined above and the time restrictions of the summer program. is the culminating social and cultural event of the Middlebury summer program. such as excerpts from Paul Ginsborg’s Storia d’Italia (History of Italy) and from Carl Schmitt’s Teoria del partigiano (Theory of the Partisan). and family members who participate in the production as actors. Besides the course format and goals.” The Middlebury Italian theater group strove to make the production accessible and meaningful to all. and stimulate the emotional involvement of the heterogeneous Middlebury community in the subject of the play. through which to critique ideological stances and to involve the audience in a process of “coming to awareness. enhancing their mastering of the rhetorical layers of the language. extras. Since the summer school required an Italian-only speaking environment and subtitles could not be used. Above all. in order to avoid the risk of overly subjective or eccentric responses to imagined situations. history. the writing-intensive component developed at Penn was not incorporated in the Middlebury syllabus.
the right-wing bombings of Piazza Fontana. questions. several victims of the left-wing guerilla organizations. While the two courses differed due to the academic setting. To this suggestive introduction. aiming to perfect their interpersonal and interpretive skills and to advance their intercultural understanding from the inside. The rest of the text was altered only slightly. language proficiency. When the smoke of the Molotovs dissolved. time frame. the issue of the dehumanization of the victims of terrorism. and people’s indifference to everyday violence. The sequenced activities designed for the . they intervened on the prologue. In the background. finally. Finally. The original text introduced the figure of Aldo Moro with a symbolic but not much informative exchange. and comments included in the playbill were meant to solicit the spectators’ reflection on the central topics of the play and to question their convictions on terrorism and political violence before the beginning of the play production Antigoni. the University of Pennsylvania undergraduate curriculum and the Middlebury College graduate school. the theater team attempted to revive the “flavor” of the 1970s for that portion of native speakers in the campus community that had actually lived through gli anni di piombo in Italy. and Molotov cocktails. sticks. However. for example.Re-Creating Antigoni 317 facilitate the comprehension of the play. their overarching goals converged. with his abduction and assassination. To this end. and. These questions concerned. The students navigated through the Antigoni project by using empathy as a cultural learning tool. and Bologna. the figure of Aldo Moro. they incorporated in the playbill historical information and a detailed synopsis with comments and questions about controversial topics. Epilogue In both contexts. the Antigoni project was a successful way to experiment with empathy in the study of Italian history through theater. a sort of documentary on gli anni di piombo began. and purpose of study. the legacy of the past in the contemporary context. Brescia. the Middlebury class added a powerful scene in which a mass of protesting students ran onto the stage with chains. the ideological reasons behind the decision to join the armed struggle. They kept the original cover of the playbill changing only the logistical details. The participation in the theatrical endeavor on behalf of the Italian on-campus community was impressive. several 1970s political songs played. The information. A few student actors commented on a slide show with images of the student and worker movements.
the theatrical monologue Corpo di Stato. had a very exciting epilogue in the spring of 2009 when playwright and actor Marco Baliani and director Maria Maglietta toured several colleges in the United States. finally. there is no or very little connection between scholars’ academic pursuits and their teaching subject matter. my students at Dickinson College participated in the performance as enthusiastic and appreciative spectators. for which I have borrowed from history teaching the definition of “perspective taking. staging. questioning.” helped students to abate their psychological barriers to language learning and to develop an original path to understanding. and writing. therefore. All too often. . Furthermore. Within this framework adaptation. the two theater teams privileged different aspects of the process. and reasoning on issues of political violence and terrorism related to the history of Italy from the late 1960s to the early 1980s. engaging in role-playing situations. while Middlebury students centered on the staging of the Antigoni and privileged the contextualization and the interpretive exchanges inside the community. constituted the conclusion of a longterm pedagogical exploration in the territory of empathy in theater and history and the final stage of my long-term scholarly project on the representation of terrorism in film and theater. and acting out a full play. staging one of the core texts of the Antigoni project. Baliani’s performances. This approach. taking on different perspectives. Antigoni made my scholarly activity come to life in the classroom. The Antigoni project. the adoption of Sophocles’ Antigone shaped the tragic background of the project and served to interrogate the ethical and political issues at stake.318 Chapter Thirteen project spanned from reading a corpus of heterogeneous texts to contextualizing the readings.36 Although they hadn’t engaged with Baliani’s text as deeply as the students at Penn or Middlebury had. Yet in different contexts and pedagogical experiments. Penn students emphasized the writing portion of the project and authored the original Antigoni adaptation.
ma esplicitamente a p. l’Uomo ricorda Aldo Moro. ma il simbolo.dramma. Quali sono i suoi obiettivi? Che cosa le risponde l’Uomo? 3. Quali sono le analogie tra la situazione dell’Uomo e quella di Moro? Scrivile qui sotto: .Cercavo solo di dire quanto sia difficile nella realtà distinguere la funzione che l’uomo ricopre… dall’uomo stesso. la funzione….htm Informazioni Nella lettura di questa parte del testo. 43-44. Qual è questo fatto? 4. Segue comunicato (1998-99) http://www.” (44).” (13) L’Uomo dice: “Dimenticavo che voi non colpite mai l’uomo. Molti di loro vivono ancora là e sono stati condannati “in contumacia” (= in assenza). Cecilia dice: “Conosco l’uomo. il suo agire…. Comprensione Scrivi le risposte alle domande 1-4. Cecilia spiega il proprio punto di vista sulla lotta rivoluzionaria. i due ricordano il fatto che li ha spinti a prendere le armi per la lotta armata. Preparati a discutere le tue idee in classe. Il dramma si volge in un’alternanza di passato e presente. anche se il suo nome non è mai citato direttamente. ricorda queste informazioni: Negli anni ’70 la Francia ha accolto i terroristi italiani in fuga e non ne ha permesso l’estradizione in Italia.it/libreria/copioni/segue_comunicato. Nel colloquio fra Amedeo e Cecilia (30-35). Contro quale “funzione” combattono i terroristi? 2. 1. Nel colloquio fra Cecilia e l’Uomo (19-22). In molte parti del testo.Re-Creating Antigoni 319 Appendix A Activity Worksheet on Alessandro Trigona Occhipinti.
Ricorda che Paolo è molto triste e arrabbiato per la morte del padre e per la scelta di sua madre nella lotta clandestina. Preparati a interpretare un monologo di 150 parole per ognuno dei due personaggi. . in cui Cecilia si difende spiegando le motivazioni. mentre Paolo vede parecchie analogie. Per la parte di Paolo. dovrai immaginare una confessione da fare alla polizia. Cecilia sostiene che le due situazioni sono molto diverse. Paolo e Cecilia confrontano la morte del padre di Paolo con quella di altri uomini uccisi negli anni ’70 dal terrorismo. delle sue azioni.320 Chapter Thirteen L’Uomo Aldo Moro Role-play! 5. da tenere di fronte alla polizia (e davanti alla classe!). dovrai preparare un discorso di accusa contro Cecilia. sia razionali che emotive. sempre da fare alla polizia. Tieni presente che Cecilia è molto combattuta fra il suo credo politico e il senso di colpa per la violenza usata. Cecilia o Paolo. Per la parte di Cecilia. al contrario.
2003. Romanzi e racconti. Italo. DVD. 2002.” In Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Philosophy in a Time of Terror: Dialogues with J. Adriana. 1991. Habermas & J. Ho cavalcato in groppa ad una sedia. 1994. Appiah. Brezzi. Giovanna. Milan: Mondadori. New York: W. Antigone e la Philîa. translated and edited by John Willett. and the Question of Gender.W. Kwame Anthony. Lo spirito del terrorismo. Madison. Norton & Company. Translated and edited by Nicoletta Marini-Maio. Baudrillard. Ellen Nerenberg and Thomas Simpson. Carlorosi. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bertolt. Forthchoming.. 1945-1985. 2002. London: Verso. Buongiorno. Butler. Calvino. New York: Columbia University Press. Pisa: Titivillus. Milan: Cortina Ed. Night]. “Confronting New Techonologies: A Cross-cultural Telecollaborative Project across the Ocean. Derrida. Habermas & J. “On the Body of Antigone. 2011. 2003. 1984. Vol. 01 Home Entertainment. Cavarero. —.Re-Creating Antigoni 321 Bibliography Anouilh. Antigone. and Kathryn McMahon. 1959. Milan: Franco Angeli. Francesca. Brecht. Milan: Mondadori. —. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press. Judith. 2003. The Spirit of Terrorism and Other Essays. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Cambridge. Filosofia del terrore.” In Stately Bodies: Literature. edited by Emanuele Occhipinti. New York: Hill and Wang. Dialoghi con J. . Body of State. —. Jean. 2006. Baliani. 175-212. 9199. Corpo di Stato. 2004. “Alienation Effect in Chinese Acting. 2010. —. Rome-Bari: Laterza. Francesca Helm. 2000. Le passioni tra etica e politica. —. 2004. MA: Integral Editions. Jean. Nicoletta Marini-Maio.” In Teaching Italian and Italian Culture: Case-Studies from an International Perspective. Serra. Silvia. translated by Judith Malina. Antigone’s Claim: Kinship between Life and Death. 1. 2008. —. Borradori. Marco. Milan: Garzanti. 2003. Translated by A. Sophocles’ Antigone. 1995. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. Saggi. Translated by Chris Turner. New York: Applause. 13-98. Derrida. notte [Good Morning. Philosophy.
Kim. Elizabeth Anne Yeager. —. Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art. Maximiliane Mainka. Counsell. DVD. Malvezzi. Fo. Nicoletta. Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus. “Intercultural Conversation: Building Understanding Together. Piero. assessment. . Christine. eds. Katja Rupé. Dooley. Alf Brustellin. Koss. “Editorial.” Social Studies Research and Practice 3.’” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research 36:3 (2007): 223-235. and Giovanni Pirelli. edited by Nicoletta Marini-Maio and Colleen RyanScheutz. and Amy S. translated by T. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Deborah L. Forthcoming. Dario.” The Art Bulletin 88. “Il caso Moro. 1979. Foster.” Teaching History 100 (2000): 2.” Teaching History 114 (2004): 24-29. 2001. Lettere di condannati a morte della Resistenza italiana. and Bernhard Sinkel. Davis. Edgar Reitz. Inc. eds. Ozro Luke. 2001. Literature. “Developing Historical Empathy through Debate: An Action Research Study. Jensen. Milan: Kaos. Knox. Speculum de l'autre femme. Dirs. 2010. 1997. Luce. 239-266. The French Play. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Karen. Hans Peter Cloos. Ebesu Hubbard. Les.. 1975. Marini-Maio. and Culture through Theater. Einaudi. Il manuale minimo dell’attore. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.” Fabulazzo. Paris: Editions de Minuit. “On the Limits of Empathy. Cunningham. Calgary: University of Calgary Press. 1974. Historical Empathy and Perspective Taking in the Social Studies.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52. A Specter Is Haunting Italy: The Double Plot of the Moro Case in Cinema and Theater. and Stuart J. “Intercultural Communication in the Global Village: How to Understand ‘The Other. Hegel. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning. Deutschland im Herbst [Germany in Autumn]. Torino. Turin: Einaudi. New Haven: Yale University Press. Jill. Irigaray. 2006. “Full-Scale Play Production: Filling the Empty Space between Language and Literature with Fo and Pirandello.1 (2008): 5567. Rainer Werner Fassbinder.322 Chapter Thirteen Council of Europe. Kinowelt/ Arthaus.6 (2009): 497506. Essif. 2008. 2002. Min-Sun.1 (2006): 139-57.Volker Schlöndorff. —. Juliet.” In Set the Stage: Teaching Italian Language. “Empathy without Illusions. M. teaching. Alexander Kluge.
Yonkers. translated by Luisa Biondetti. Palermo: Sellerio. Occhipinti. Antigones. NY: National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. George. 2009). Antigone. MLA Report 2007. “Sophocles’ Antigone: Conflict. Milan: Mondadori. 2006. edited by Walter Siti and Silvia De Laude. Italian.” In The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schmitt. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press. Milan: Feltrinelli. 2008. 2007. Segue comunicato (May 30. Portuguese. Sciascia. Teaching Italian and Italian Culture: CaseStudies from an International Perspective. Carl. Japanese. 1987. Rossanda. New York: Applause.. edited by Ozro Luke Davis.” Saggi sulla politica e la società. vision. “Preface. 1986. Sofri. 13-20. Phillips.” In Bertolt Brecht. Russian. Leonardo. Inc.” Language Teaching 41. Elizabeth Anne. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2005. Pasolini. . 234-245. rev. Sophocles’ Antigone.dramma. ed. http://www. “14 novembre 1974: Il romanzo delle stragi. French. Classical Languages. Foster.” In Historical Empathy and Perspective Taking in the Social Studies.Re-Creating Antigoni 323 Malina. and Spanish. Elizabeth Anne Yeager. Pier Paolo. Martha. “The Role of Empathy in the Development of Historical Understanding. translated by Judith Malina. Oxford: Clarendon. Alessandro Trigona. and Stuart J. L’affaire Moro. Emanuele. and Stuart J.htm Occhipinti. 362-363. Chinese.” In Profession 2007. Foster. Judith. Yeager. German. Palermo: Sellerio.” In Sophocles. Teoria del partigiano. 12. Rossana. “Antigone ricorrente. Adriano. “Foreign Language Standards and the Contexts of Communication. Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century: Including Arabic. 51-82.1 (2008): 93-102. Milan: Adelphi. and simplification. June K.it/libreria/copioni/segue_comunicato. New York: MLA. L’ombra di Moro. 1999. 2001. v-vii. 1984. Nussbaum. 1984. “Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World. Stainer. 1978. 1991. 3rd ed..
152. For a more ample discussion of the Standards approach to intercultural understanding. 23 Rossanda. esthetic. 12. “Alienation Effect in Chinese Acting. 69-71. Marini-Maio and McMahon. With regard to Brecht’s alienation effect and its use in foreign language theater. see Kim and Hubbard. 15-19. 21 Standards. 24-29. 56. 126.324 Chapter Thirteen Notes 1 2 Phillips. Body of State. 3 MLA Report 2007. Essif discusses in depth theatrical adaptation and re-creation in the FL. author and actor of Corpo di Stato. cited in Koss. cited in Koss. Baliani’s discussion on empathy and epic mode in theater is also part of the introduction to Body of State. 2. 29-30. 1995. 14 See 1997 Nobel winner playwright and actor Dario Fo’s interpretation of “teatro epico” (epic theater) in Fabulazzo. Antigones. 5 Koss. see Steiner. 19 Counsell.” see Appiah. Ho calvalcato. Helm. 9 In “Perspective Taking and Historical Thinking: Doing History in a Fifth-Grade Classroom. 22 See Cunningham. For a definition of “cosmopolitan” and “cosmopolitanism. 10 Jensen. 12 Brecht. 16 Baliani.” 91-99. Marco Baliani. 11 Brecht. 29-30. 24 For a comprehensive illustration of the philosophical. 286. 17 Counsell. 152. see Dooley. 7 For an overall discussion of the notion of intercultural communication. 6 In The French Play. San Francisco.” in Baliani. Downey was the first to define empathy as “perspective taking” in the field of history teaching. 139. 8 See Standards. 4 Koss. The critical studies and texts which were most relevant for my theatrical experiments . 2. 20 Standards. See Yeager and Foster.” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. 15 “Interview with Marco Baliani and Maria Maglietta. see Carlorosi. Translation NMM. and theatrical interpretations of Antigone from antiquity to 1984. 13 Brecht. see Matthias in this book. 50. For an overarching analysis of the role of intercultural communication to respond to the challenges posed by multiculturalism in the contemporary world. elaborates on the succession of epic theater and empathy in Ho cavalcato in groppa ad una sedia. 93. Matthew T. 2. 139. 18 Counsell. 216.
and subtitling. lighting. stage production. in his opinion? What are the differences? Habermas makes a distinction between three different kinds of terrorism: what are they? What are the differences between these three kinds? (62-63) Derrida challenges the distinction between terrorism and war and explores the relationship of political violence with power (112-115. Sophocles’ Antigone. Silvia Carlorosi.” 241-44. Antigone. I followed the time structure. 11. What are the analogies. and Nussbaum. 27 See Brezzi. vision. Three people of the RAF were arrested and died in prison. Both were extremely generous in offering their time and energy to help the students in rehearsals. in Derrida’s opinion. and progression of the theatrical workshop I have described in detail in the essay “Full-Scale Play Production. 29 I would like to take this opportunity to thank wholeheartedly the TA. and Cavarero further developed the feminist perspective. 164-66). 30 In this course. Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art. a former brigatista. the German feature film Deutschland im Herbst (Germany in Autumn). Brecht. organization. 28 Similar readings of the figure of Antigone in relation to terrorism and political violence are frequent in contexts other than Italy as well. Segue comunicato stages the conflict between a young man and his mother. 32 Corpo di Stato is a piece of narrative theater which elaborates on the emotional and ideological reasons which triggered the outburst of political violence in Italy in the 1970s.” 25 Malina. and Eleonora Raspi. now sheltered in France. They also participated in the final production in a brief. How can one overcome this trauma? The page numbers here refer to the Italian edition of Borradori’s book. The film was the intellectuals’ reaction to the events of 1977 which involved the left-wing extremist group Red Army Faction who kidnapped and murdered German official Hanns Martin Schleyer. former member of the Brigate Rosse at the time of the Moro Affair and co-author of the book. Anouilh. Luce Irigaray was the first to propose a feminist reading of the Greek heroine grounded in the notion of “différence. “Sophocles’ Antigone: Conflict. 26 Contesting Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytical interpretation of Antigone. See. Butler. The film foreshadows their treatment as scapegoats for Schleyer’s death and appeals explicitly to the figure of Antigone as a symbolic rebel to the laws of the State. but intense role (Eleonora) and as extras (both). What is. It was created both in English and in Italian to support work of the less advanced students: Why does Habermas argue that terrorism is a “retrospective designation” (62)? Habermas compares and contrasts partisans with terrorists. 31 Here is a short excerpt from the original questionnaire. a native-speaker student assistant. or member of the Red Brigades. vii. for instance. Il prigioniero is a memoir of the life of Anna Laura Braghetti. the experience of terrorism is a trauma. and simplification. who collaborated on the staging of Antigoni.” Nussbaum. the primary objective of terrorist action? Is the number of victims important in terrorist action? Why? (116) In Derrida’s opinion. In the . 1217-18.Re-Creating Antigoni 325 on Antigone were: Hegel.
The tour was also the occasion for the author to translate Baliani’s work into English together with Ellen Nerenberg. Middlebury College. I would like to thank wholeheartedly Marco and Maria and all those who made this extraordinary event possible.326 Chapter Thirteen reading of these texts as well.T. Northwestern University. 34 See Cunningham. Northwestern University. The tour received the support of the Italian Cultural Institutes of Chicago and Washington. . and Tom Simpson. including first-person narrative writing and roleplaying. 35 The readings also included Dario Fo’s La tragedia di Aldo Moro. 36 Marco Baliani and Maria Maglietta’s tour in North American universities took place in April 2009 thanks to the coordinated efforts of the author and colleagues from Wesleyan University. Yale University. and several short stories from Italo Calvino’s Ultimo viene il Corvo. 33 This part of the students’ script includes several passages from A. Occhipinti’s Segue comunicato. the collection Lettere di condannati a morte della Resistenza italiana. beside typical comprehension strategies. Wesleyan University. Indiana University. and New York University. students employed the empathy approach.
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