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RayNotes2009

OLevelSc(Physics)v2.0
Generalnotesanddefinitionsforinstantrevision
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Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

PhysicsDefinitions
1. 2. 3. 4.

SpeedDistancetravelledperunittime. VelocityRateofchangeofdisplacement. AccelerationRateofchangeofvelocity.

Electromagneticinductionisthephenomenonofproducinganemfinacircuitdueto
changingmagneticfield.

5.

Amplitudereferstothemaximumdisplacementfromrestposition.

6. Wavelengthreferstothedistancebetweenonecresttothenextsuccessivecrest. 7. 8. 9.

Frequencyreferstothenumberofwavesproducedperunittime. Periodreferstothetimetakenforonecompletewave.

Speedreferstothedistancetravelledbythewaveperunittime.

10. 11. 12. 13.

Echoisreflectedsoundfromhardandsmoothsurfaces. Soundisproducedbyvibrationsplacedinamedium AWaveisaphenomenoninwhichenergyistransferredthroughvibrations

Transversewavesarewaveswherethedirectionoftravelisperpendiculartothe
directionofvibrationofparticleinamedium.(Light/wateraretransversewaves)

14.

Longitudinalwavesarewaveswherethedirectionoftravelisparalleltothedirection
ofvibrationofparticlesinamedium.(Soundislongitudinalwave)

15. 16. 17.

KineticenergyTheabilitytodoworkduetotheobjectsspeed. GravitationalPotentialenergyTheabilitytodoworkduetotheobjectsheight.

Inertiaisanobjectsresistancetoachangeinvelocity.(Heavierobjectshavegreaterinertia) 18. Workisdonewhenanobjectmovesinthesamedirectionoftheforceactingonit. 19. Refractionisthebendingoflightrayasittravelsacross2differentmediums. 20. DensityMassperunitvolume

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

GeneralPhysicsnotes
(ExamNotesforthissubjectispostedinrandomorder) Readthruthissetofnotesbeforeenteringtheexamhall! Ifyouseethissymbol: thetopicmightbeonlyforstudentstakingPurePhysics. ThisisthefirstreleaseofPhysicsNotesfromRayNotes,pleasefeedbackorprovide suggestionsforimprovements.

Waystoincreaseemfinsolenoid
1. Useastrongermagnet. 2. Increasethespeedofmovingthemagnets. 3. Increasethenumberofturnsonthecoil.

Waystoincreaseemfina.c.generator
1. Decreasedistancebetweenthemagnetandcoil. 2. Useastrongermagnet. 3. Increasespeedofmovingthemagnets 4. Increasenumberofturnsinthecoil.
(emfreferstoelectromotiveforce,whichcanalsobeconsideredasvoltage)

Whenawaterwavemovesfromdeeptoshallow,
Wavelengthbecomeshorter Frequencyremainsthesame Speedbecomesslower Extrainfo: Temperaturecanbemeasuredusingthefollowingmethods: Expansionoffixedmassofliquid. Changesofresistanceofapieceofmetalwithtime. Expansionofgasatconstantpressure.

Factorsthataffectspeedofsound
1. TemperatureThehigher,thefaster 2. MediumSolidisfasterthanliquid,whichisfasterthangas 3. HumidityMorehumidfasterthanlesshumid

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

CharacteristicsofImageformedonplanemirror
1) Samesize 2) Laterallyinverted 3) Imageisvirtual

WhatisMomentofaforceaboutapoint?
Theturningeffectitcausesonthebodyaboutthepivot.

Principleofmoments
Thesumofclockwisemomentsaboutapointisequaltothesumofanticlockwisemomentsabout thesamepoint, Moment=ForcexPerpendiculardistancefrompivot.

CenterofGravity/Mass
Thepointwhichtheweightoftheobjectappearstoact.

Whyconstanttemperatureatmelting?
Duringmelting,heatenergyisusedtoweakentheattractionbetweenthesolidparticlessothat theycanrollandslideoveroneanotherandbecomeliquidparticles. TheheatenergyisnotusedtoincreasetheKineticenergyofparticles.

Note: Convectionoccurswhenthereisdifferenceindensity Radiationoccurswhenthereisdifferenceinsurroundingtemperatures.

Whenathermometerisplacedintohotwater,whythereadingdropsfirstthenincreases.
Theglassbulbexpandsbeforethemercuryexpands.

Energychangesofaoscillatingpendulumasitcomestorest.
Duetofrictionandairresistance,kineticenergywillbechangedtoheatenergy.

Precautionswhenhandlingradioactivesubstances
1) Radioactivesubstancesshouldnotbetouched. 2) Donotpointtheirraysatanyperson. 3) Wearaphotosensitivebadgetocheckwhetherapersonisexposedtoanoverdoseofradiation.

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

OperationofTransformer
1. 2. 3. 4. Alternatingcurrentissuppliedtoprimarycoil. Alternatingcurrentcausesironcoretomagnetiseandmagneticfieldtochange. Magneticfieldsfollowironcoreandlinktosecondarycoil. Henceemfisinducedinsecondarycoilbyelectromagneticinduction.

OperationofACGenerator
1. Turnthewire. 2. Thewirecutsthroughthemagneticfieldasitturns. 3. Thisproducesaninducedemf. 4. Becauseoftheload,aninducedcurrentisproduced.

ElectromagneticSpectrum

GammaRay|XRay|Ultraviolet|VisibleLight|Infrared|Microwave|Radiowave
HighestFrequency ShortestWavelength LowestFrequency LongestWavelength Xray Photographs Checking signatures

Killcancer cells

Enableus tosee

TVRemote control

Cooking Food

TV,Radio broadcast

Note: Animagethatisrealisalwaysinverted! AnimagethatisVirtualisalwaysupright! (REALINVERTED) (VIRTUALUPRIGHT)


Note:Ifanobjectismovingatconstantspeed,theresultantforceiszero! Ifacarisdrivingaroundacircleataconstantspeed,itsvelocityisnotconstant! *TheCarisaccelerating! (BecauseVelocityhasmagnitudeanddirection.Whenthecaristurningaroundthecircle,its directionchangesconstantly) Remember:Speedhasmagnitudeonly,Velocityhasmagnitudeanddirection. *Accelerationistherateofchangeofvelocity. Achangeinvelocityisacceleration.

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

HowtocheckifpointCisthecenterofgravityoftheobject?
IfthemetalsheetcanbebalancedonthetipofthefingerdirectlybelowpointC,thenitisthe centerofgravity.

Howtomeasureperiodofapendulum?
Measurethetimetfor20oscillationswithastopwatch Calculatetheaveragetimefor1completeoscillation,T= /20
t

Extrainfo:Whenthecurrentintheelectriccircuitincreases,itstemperatureincreases,and thenitwillcauseitsresistancetoincrease. CurrentIncrease Temperatureincrease Resistanceincrease


ExamplesofEnergyChanges
KinetictoGravitationalPotentialEnergy(GPE) Amanrunningupaflightofstairs. ChemicaltoHeat AlightedCandle GavitationalPotentialEnergy(GPE)toKineticEnergy Acarspeedingdownahill.

Note:Heat/energyfromthesunreachesEarthbyRadiation!!

Heater

Water

Whynoconvectioncurrentifheatedfromtop?
Thehotlessdensewaterremainsatthetopwhilethecolddenserwaterremainsatthe bottom.Hencenoconvectioncurrentisproduced.

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

Howheatislostwhenahotbowlismovedfromoventotable?
Heatislostbyradiationbecausethehotbowlisatahighertemperaturethanits surroundings. Heatisalsolostbyconvection.Thehotairabovethehotbowlislessdensethanthe surroundingair. Generalnote:ConvectionisduetodifferenceinDensity.Radiationisduetodiffintemp.

ConstrictioninClinicalThermometer:
Usedtopreventmercuryfromfallingbackintothebulbwhenitisremovedfromthepatients mouthorarmpit.

ElectricCircuits
Note:Justrememberthatforwhatevercircuits,thevoltageisalwaysconstant!

Soifthecurrentincrease,theresistancemustdecrease.. Iftheresistanceincrease,thecurrentmustdecrease.. Inotherwords,thehigherthecurrentinthecircuit,theloweristheresistanceofthe circuit.

Voltage=ResistancexCurrent
Calculatingresistance:
Forparallelcircuits 1 /R1+1/R2+1/R3=Totalresistance ForSeriescircuit R1+R2+R3=Totalresistance
Constant

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

Whenalightbulbisswitchedon,whythefilamentreachesaconstanttemperature?
Thepowerdissipatedinthefilamentbecomesequaltotherateofheatradiatedbyit.

Note:Colourislinkedtoradiation. Blackisgoodabsorber&emitterofheat.

WhybettertopushatBthanA?
TheturningeffectproducedwhenforceisappliedatBisgreater. (Turningeffect=ForcexDistance)

B A

Effectofapplyingforceonarustybolt/nut.
Itwillchangetheshapeofedgesofnut. Heatwillbeproducedbecauseoffriction,Itmightalsobreak.

WhyraynotchangedirectionatB?
Therayisperpendiculartotheboundary.

Imageproducedbyamagnifyingglass:
Virtual,Upright,Magnified.

Emfofacell Totalenergyusedtodriveunitchargeroundthecompletecircuit.

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

LIGHTRAY

Bendsaway fromnormal

AIR

AIR

SOLID SOLID Airtosolid Bendsto normal. Bendsto normal Solidtoair Bendsaway fromnormal

Note:WhendoingcalculationsforPhysics,AllunitsmustbechangedtoitsSIunits. E.g.MassmustbecalculatedinKG,DistancemustbecalculatedinMetres. Ifnot,answerswillbewrong.

ComparingspeedsofLight
Inavacuum,speedofredlightandspeedofbluelightisthesame. (Allelectromagneticwavestravelatsamespeedinavacuum.) Inaglass,speedofbluelightisslowerthanspeedofredlight becauseBluelighthasshorterwavelengthbutsamefrequency.

Howsoundwavestravelthroughair?
Byproducingalternatecompressionsandrarefactionsalongthepathofairparticles.

Goodradiatorofheat
Blacksurface Roughsurface

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

IcepointThemeltingpointofpureiceundernormalpressureactingonit.
ProcessofcreatingConvectioncurrent
1. 2. 3. 4. Thebottomlayerisheated,themoleculesmovefaster. Thedensitydecreasesandhotwaterrises. Cooleranddenserwaterabovesinksdownandtakesitsplace. Convectioncurrentisduetoachangeindensity.

Differencebetweenevaporation&boiling:

EVAPORATION
1) 2) 3)

BOILING

Takesplaceonthesurface Occursthroughouttheliquid Temperaturemaychangeinthisprocess Temperatureremainsconstant Takesplaceatanytemperature Takesplaceataconstanttemp.

CharacteristicsofImageformedonplanemirror.
1. Itissamesizeastheobject 2. Itisvirtual 3. Laterallyinverted

Inasoundwave,
Thefrequencyaffectsthepitch Amplitudeaffectstheloudness Qualityaffectsthetoneofthesound.
Bothwaveshavedifferentquality (Differentsoundtones)

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

HumanHearingrange

20Hz 20KHz(20000Hz)
Lowerfrequency(Below20Hz)Infrasound HigherFrequency(Above20000Hz)Ultrasound

CompressionandRarefactionsofsoundwave
Compressionoccurwhentheairparticlesareclosertogetherandtheairpressureishigher thanthesurroundingpressure. Rarefactionoccurswhentheairparticlesarefurtherapartandtheairpressureislower thanthesurroundingpressure.
Compression&Rarefaction onlyoccurinLongitudinal Waves (Nottransversewaves)

Science(Physics)OLevel(GeneralEdition)v2.0RAYNotes2009(Hardcopy)

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