DESIGN OF COMPOSITE

BEAMS USING LIGHT
STEEL SECTIONS



































AUTHOR: AIDA RODERA GARCÍA
TUTOR: MIRAMBELL ARRIZABALAGA, ENRIQUE
POPO-OLA, SUNDAY O.

ii
PROYECTO DE VIGAS MIXTAS EMPLEANDO PERFILES DE ACERO LIGERO

Autor: RODERA GARCÍA, AIDA
Tutor: MIRAMBELL ARRIZABALAGA, ENRIQUE
POPO-OLA, SUNDAY O.


RESUMEN

La construcción mixta se viene empleando como un método de construcción desde hace décadas, sin
embargo tradicionalmente se han utilizado secciones de acero laminado en caliente en lugar de perfiles
ligeros (conformados en frío). Los principales componentes de la tradicional construcción mixta han sido
las estructuras de acero laminado en caliente, las chapas de acero, los conectores y el hormigón in-situ
con armadura pasiva. Las ventajas de este método de construcción son varias entre las que destacan la
velocidad de la construcción gracias al rápido montaje de la estructura metálica, la economía en el uso de
materiales, su resistencia última y su buen comportamiento en servicio. A estas ventajas pueden añadirse
otras más si se emplean secciones de acero ligero en lugar de las tradicionales conformadas en caliente.
Las mejoras que el acero ligero incorpora son básicamente su menor coste y peso debido al ahorro de
material.

Las estructuras de acero ligero abarcan secciones C, Z o con otras formas similares, de acero galvanizado
y conformado en frío, con unos espesores entre 1.2 y 3.2 mm. Trabajos previos han estudiado el
comportamiento de estas secciones actuando como vigas o columnas bajo diferentes estados de cargas,
pero la presencia conjunta de este tipo de secciones y del hormigón in-situ es un campo que aún no se
conoce en profundidad.

En el caso particular de las vigas mixtas de acero ligero se emplean secciones doble C en lugar de perfiles
I de acero laminado en caliente, pero la forma general de construcción es similar a la llevada a cabo en la
construcción mixta convencional. Es importante resaltar el hecho de que no pueden ser empleados
conectadores soldados debido al relativamente pequeño espesor de la sección de acero conformado en
frío, y por tanto ha sido necesario desarrollar otras alternativas para los conectadores. Dichos
conectadores constan de elementos de acero perfilados, fijados mediante espigas que pueden ser
conducidas neumáticamente. Para conocer el comportamiento de estos conectadores se han llevado a cabo
algunos ensayos que ofrecen una serie de valores de sus resistencias de cálculo.

Con el objetivo de ofrecer una guía para el dimensionamiento de vigas mixtas empleando perfiles ligeros,
se ha llevado a cabo un cuidadoso estudio, desarrollándose ejemplos de cálculo, los cuales se pueden
adaptar con facilidad a una condiciones de proyecto determinadas, y tablas para facilitar la rápida
selección de un perfil adecuado, en función de la carga, el grado de acero empleado, y la luz a salvar.

Para alcanzar este objetivo global, en primer lugar se ha realizado un análisis de las formas genéricas de
la construcción mixta a través de documentación existente, lo cual permite conocer las posibilidades de
las losas y vigas mixtas así como las propiedades que son requeridas en los materiales involucrados.
Posteriormente se ha centrado el estudio en el caso particular de la construcción mixta usando secciones
de acero ligero.

Una vez se conocen la resistencia de los materiales y las dimensiones de los elementos, se estudia el
comportamiento de las losas mixtas y de las vigas mixtas. Empleando perfiles ligeros conformados en frío
(esbeltos), debido a su pequeño espesor, hay algunas diferencias en el modo de cálculo de la resistencia
de la viga mixta. Estas diferencias han sido tenidas en cuenta, y para clarificar como se ha de llevar a
cabo el dimensionamiento y la verificación de una viga mixta, dos ejemplos de cálculo han sido
desarrollados paso a paso. Uno muestra el caso en el que la viga carece de apoyos provisionales durante la
etapa de construcción y otro en el que si los tiene. Siguiendo el mismo procedimiento de los ejemplos, se
han realizado diferentes tablas para los casos de empleo de apoyos provisionales y de ausencia de los
mismos, variando el grado del acero empleado y la carga variable aplicada. En las tablas resulta complejo
obtener una idea general de cuales son las relaciones entre las distintas variables, por eso se presentan
unos gráficos que las muestran con claridad. Estas tablas y gráficos pretenden ser útiles en la etapa de
diseño facilitando al ingeniero la elección del perfil ligero adecuado en base a las cargas existentes y a la
luz requerida.

iii
ABSTRACT

Composite construction is well established for some decades as a construction method but it has
traditionally used hot rolled steel sections rather than light steel (cold formed) sections. The main
components of traditional composite construction have been hot rolled steel framework, steel decking,
shear connectors and in-situ concrete with mesh reinforcing steel. The benefits of this construction
method are several and the most important of them are speed of construction due to the rapid erection of
the steel framework, economy in use of materials, robustness to damage and good performance in service.
To these benefits some more can be added if light steel sections are used instead of the traditional hot
rolled. The advantage that light steel gives are basically two: that cold formed steel is cheaper that hot
rolled and that is also lighter in weight.

Light steel framing comprises galvanized cold formed steel sections of C or Z or similar forms of 1.2 to
3.2 mm thickness. Previous works have studied how these sections behave as beams or columns under
different loads cases, but the composite action of light steel sections with in-situ concrete is a field not yet
fully explored.

Composite light steel beams use back to back double C sections rather than hot rolled steel I beams, but
the general form of construction is similar to conventional composite construction. Importantly, welded
shear connectors cannot be used for the relatively thin steel used in light steel construction, and therefore
it has been necessary to develop alternative forms of shear connectors using powder actuated, or
pneumatically driven pins. These shear connectors use profiled strip steel elements which are fixed by
pins. To know the resistance and behaviour of these innovative shear connectors some tests have been
carried out determine the design resistance of these connectors.

The aim of this project is to provide guidance on the design of composite beams using light steel sections,
a carefully study has been carried out getting eventually design examples which illustrate the calculus
method and can be adapted in a easy way to a design particular characteristic, and design tables to aid
rapid selection of light steel sections, depending on the span, the loading and the steel grade used.

To be able to achieve the objectives a progressive work has been carried out. First a literature review on
generic forms of composite construction such as composite slabs and beams as well as the types of shear
connectors was carried out. The review also types of the materials involved and their properties. With the
information already available from previous studies it was possible to get deeper knowledge of the
specific shear connectors and beams sections used in composite light steel construction.

Once the materials resistance values and elements dimensions are known, the design of the composite
slabs and composite beams was studied. However using cold formed steel sections (slender), the thin
thickness of the steel, means that there are some differences in the calculation of the resistance capacity of
the composite beam. These differences have been taken into account and to show how the design process
of a composite beam works, two design examples have been developed step by step. One is for the case
when the beam is not propped during the construction stage and the other one for when the beam is
propped. Following this process design tables have been computed for the cases of propped and
unpropped and using different steel grades and imposed load. With tables is quite difficult to get a general
idea of which relations exist between the different variables, this is the reason why some graphs are
presented which show the relations with clarity. The objective of these design tables and graphs are for
use during the design stage, making it easier for engineer selection the light steel section base on loading
and the span required.











iv
INDEX Page No.


Notation 1

1. Introduction 3
1.1 Background 3
1.2 Objectives 4

2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions 5
2.1 Types of composite slabs 5
2.2 Types of composite beams 7
2.3 Types of shear connectors 8
2.3.1 Headed stud shear connector 8
2.3.2 Oscillating perfobondstrip 8
2.3.3 Continuous perfobondstrip 8
2.3.4 Waveform strips 8
2.3.5 T-shape connector 9
2.3.6 Hilti HVB shear connectors 9
2.3.7 Profiled shear connectors 9
2.3.8 Shear connectors’ strength and ductility 11
2.4 Material properties 11
2.4.1 Structural steel 11
2.4.2 Profiled steel decking 12
2.4.3 Concrete (NWC and LWC) 12
2.4.4 Reinforcement bars 13
2.4.5 Shear connectors 14
2.5 Comparison between BS 5950 and EC4 Part 1.1 14
2.5.1 Structural steel 14
2.5.2 Profiled steel decking 14
2.5.3 Concrete 14
2.5.4 Reinforcement bars 15
2.5.5 Shear connectors 15
2.5.6 Partial safety factors 15

3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel
sections 18
3.1 Generic forms 18
3.2 Types of light steel composite frames, floors, beams and walls 19
3.2.1 Light steel composite frames 19
3.2.2 Light steel composite floors 20
3.2.3 Light steel composite beams 21
3.2.4 Light steel composite wall 22
3.3 Types of shear connectors 22
3.3.1 Hilti HVB shear connectors 23
3.3.2 Profiled shear connectors 23
3.4 Material properties 25
3.4.1 Light steel sections 25
3.4.2 Profiled steel decking 27

v

4. Basis of design of composite slabs 29
4.1 Definition 29
4.2 Construction stage condition 29
4.3 Composite stage condition 30
4.4 Fire resistance 32
4.5 Example guide 34

5. Basis of design of composite beams 37
5.1 Construction condition 37
5.2 Effective slab width 38
5.3 Plastic analysis of composite action 38
5.4 Shear resistance 41
5.5 Shear connection (full and partial) 42
5.6 Transverse reinforcement 46
5.7 Local buckling 47
5.8 Serviceability conditions 49
5.8.1 Control of deflections 50
5.8.2 Crack control 52
5.8.3 Vibration response 52

6. Design examples 54
6.1 Unpropped beam 54
6.2 Propped beam 64

7. Load-span design tables for composite beams using light steel section and
profiled shear connectors 77
7.1 Properties of light steel sections 77
7.1.1 Class classification 77
7.1.2 Shear buckling 78
7.2 Design criteria 81
7.3 Propped and unpropped beams 81
7.4 Use of design tables 86

8. Conclusions 89

9. Bibliographic references 91

10. Supplementary bibliography 92

Annex 1: Generic C sections properties 93

Annex 2: Section class classification 96
A2.1 Single generic C section class classification 97
A2.2 Composite beams cross sections class classification 98

Annex 3: Heavy cold formed steel sections 103
A3.1 Heavy cold formed sections 104


1
NOTATION


EC4 Definition

A
a
cross-sectional area of the steel section
A
cv
cross-sectional area of concrete per unit length in any shear plane
A
ε
amount of the reinforcement crossing each shear plane
b beams spacing
b width of the steel section flange
b
eff
effective breadth of slab
E elastic modulus
f
ck
characteristic strength of concrete or cylinder strength
f
cu
cube strength of concrete
f
d
design tensile strength of steel
f
sk
yield strength of the reinforcement
f
y
yield strength of structural steel
f
yp
yield strength of the deck
F action or force
G permanent loads
h height of the steel section
h
c
height of concrete slab above deck profile
h
p
deck profiled height
h
t
slab depth
I second moment of area
L length of beam, beam span
M
Rd
design value of moment resistance
M
Sd
design value of applied moment
n modular ratio of steel to concrete
N number of shear connectors
N
f
number of shear connectors for full shear connection
PNA plastic neutral axis
P
Rd
resistance of a shear connector
Q variable loads
r ratio of cross-sectional area of the steel section relative to the concrete section
R
c
plastic axial compressive resistance of the slab
R
q
longitudinal shear force transfer
R
s
plastic axial tensile resistance of the steel section
t
f
thickness of the steel section flange
t
w
thickness of the steel section web
V shear force
W section modulus
γ
G
partial safety factor on permanent loads
γ
Q
partial safety factor on variable loads
γ partial safety factor on materials
δ deflections
ε √(235/f
y
)
ρ dry density of concrete
ζ
Rd
basic shear strength of concrete

2
The subscripts to the above symbols are as follows:
a steel
c concrete
s reinforcement
p steel deck
pl plastic resistance of section
Rd design value of resistance
Sd design value of action or force

The member axes in all Eurocodes are:
x axis along member
y major axis bending
z minor axis bending





































3
1. Introduction


1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 BACKGROUND

Composite construction achieves important benefits by making steel and concrete work
together, but these advantages can be improved if light cold formed steel sections
instead of hot rolled sections are used. The advantages of the light steel composite
construction are:

• to get a rapid erection of the steel framework.
• robustness to damage and good performance in service.
• weight and cost of materials are reduced.

In modern composite construction, the steel framing elements are erected first and
provide a stable structure that is capable of supporting construction loads. The
composite action that developed later with the concrete or other material serves to
provide resistance to imposed loads, and importantly, to improve the stiffness of the
construction. Often serviceability criteria dominate in modern design and therefore
control of deflections and vibration response are as important as load resistance.

After several years of experience on composite construction as a construction method,
light steel sections have been introduced in this type of construction. The general
principles of composite design using light steel sections are the following:

• During construction light steel beams are designed ELASTICALLY to support
the construction loads. Sometimes it is necessary to use single temporary props
to control deflections at this stage.
• Once the steel and concrete are acting compositely, composite light steel beams
are design PLASTICALLY to support the loads acting at the ultimate limit state.
It is possible to carry out plastic design because the steel section acts entirely in
tension.
• A minimum degree of shear connection is required. This must be compatible
with the deformation capacity of the shear connectors.

Light steel sections introduce some particularities in composite construction. Composite
light steel beams use double C sections rather than hot rolled I, and profiled strip steel
connectors fixed by powder actuated pins instead of welded shear connectors.

The main objective is therefore to explore innovative composite construction
technology where light steel sections act compositely with in-situ concrete. This will
lead to increase speed of construction, longer spans, economy of materials and good
performance in service, particularly in low and medium-rise buildings (which means
buildings with no more than 6 levels).



4
1. Introduction


1.2 OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this study is to find out the possibilities of light cold formed sections in
composite construction to clarify in which designs can be considered and make use of
all the benefits they incorporate.

To achieve this final objective requires a determinate process:

• Review the general forms of composite construction and the properties of the
materials involved.
• Review various opportunities for composite construction using light steel frames
and components.
• Knowledge of innovative shear connectors, based on strip steel and powder
actuated pins, for use with light steel composite construction.
• Definition and behaviour of a composite slab.
• Design and analyse a typical light steel composite beam.
• Complete work example for light steel sections composite beams propped and
unpropped during construction.
• Prepare design tables for light steel composite beams to be used by design
engineers.



























5
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


2. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FORMS OF COMPOSITE
CONSTRUCTIONS


2.1 TYPES OF COMPOSITE SLABS

The classification of slabs depends basically on their geometry properties and the
construction stage conditions. The common span of composite slabs is between 3m and
4 m, but these values are considering unpropped construction stage. If temporary
propping is used it is possible to used longer spans. Considering a shallow decking, slab
thicknesses are in the range 100 mm to 200 mm, and for deep decking between 280 mm
and 320 mm.

The most common composite slabs consist on the combination of steel decking and in-
situ concrete placed onto the steel decking. When the concrete has gained strength, it
acts as a composite slab with the tensile strength of the decking. There are different
types of in-situ composite slabs considering their dimensions and also the steel decking
used.

In the actual building construction pre-cast concrete floors are widely used. There is an
increase of composite frames and slim floors construction where the pre-cast slabs are
design to interact structurally with the steel frame. In the same way as in-situ composite
slabs, the composite action can be developed by welded shear connectors attached to the
steel beams and by transverse reinforcement. The most common types of pre-cast slabs
are:

• Hollow core units, with continuous circular or elongated openings along
their length. The depth is between 150 mm and 260 mm (see Figure 2.1).
• Solid planks, which are designed to use with an in-situ concrete topping. The
depth of the solid planks is between 75 mm and 100 mm, but without
considering the concrete topping (see Figure 2.2).

There is a wide variety of composite slabs considering all the combinations of
composite slabs with in-situ concrete and the wide range of pre-cast slab products
available from various manufacturers.

There is a different type of composite slab construction called slim floor. The main
difference of this construction is that the supporting beams are contained within the
depth of the concrete slab. This is achieved by supporting the slab off the bottom
flanges of the beams. The slim floor construction use hot rolled beams together with
composite slabs using deep decking. Other forms of slim floor construction, using
precast concrete planks to form the slab, are less effective in several aspects, such as
ease of service integration (see Figure 2.3).




6
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions




Figure 2.1 Examples of hollow core slabs






Figure 2.2 Example of solid planks slabs




Figure 2.3 Basic components of the “Slimflor” system

7
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


2.2 TYPES OF COMPOSITE BEAMS

Composite beams typically consist of steel “I” sections acting structurally with a
concrete slab by means of shear connectors attached to the top flange of the steel
section. The beams are generally designed to be simply supported, and an effective part
of the slab is taken as acting as a part of the composite section on either side of the
centreline of the section. It is possible a significant saving in steel weight and/or
structural floor depth due to the composite action of the steel beam and the concrete slab
which increases the stiffness of the beam and the load capacity.

The size of the steel section used is often chosen by limitations on serviceability
considerations. Composite beams tend to be used for long span applications, (in excess
9 m), which means that deflection and dynamic criteria may be critical.

There are two main groups of composite beams in composite construction, primary
beams and secondary beams. Primary beams have decking spanning in a direction
parallel to them, so the decking do not provide laterally restrain. Secondary beams are
perpendicular to the decking spanning direction and the top flange of the steel beam is
restrained laterally due to the decking and fixings. This is very important to consider at
the design stage to choose the proper steel “I” section.





Figure 2.4 Primary and secondary beams



8
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


2.3 TYPES OF SHEAR CONNECTORS

There are quite different types of shear connectors, some welded and other nailed
connectors. Welded connectors were commonly used in composite construction, but
with the development of the use of thinner steel sheets, it has been necessary the use of
nailed instead of welded. The choice of a specific type of connector is based on its
ultimate resistance which depends not only on its own properties, also on the concrete
grade used.

2.3.1 Headed studs

The standard dimensions of headed studs are Ø 19 mm and a length of 125 mm. The
behaviour of the headed studs does not vary a lot when concrete properties are changed.
Their load capacity is much lower than that of perfobondstrip and T-shape connectors,
and it is always around the same value although fibre concrete, light weight concrete or
higher strength concrete is used. Headed studs characteristic resistance is lower than
that of perfobondstrip and T-shape connectors, and it depends on the number of studs
used (see Figure 2.5)

2.3.2 Oscillating perfobondstrip

Oscillating perfobondstrip with a height of 100 mm, a thickness of 8 mm, 5 holes Ø 50
mm and bend in 1.5 wave with an amplitude of 110 mm. Its curve form will give a
better force transfer between steel and concrete compared with a straight one.

The load capacity of this type of connector is larger than for example that of the headed
studs and T-shape connectors, but in the case of ordinary strength and normal weight
concrete, its performance is a bit disappointing due to a fast drop of the load capacity
after the peak. But this behaviour disappears if light weight concrete (LC30/37),
concrete with fibres or a high strength (C70/85) is used, and in these cases oscillating
perfobondstrip connectors behave very well. Oscillating perfobondstrip connectors have
also a higher characteristic resistance than others connectors as headed studs and T-
shape connectors, and should be taken into account that the failure modes are different
for lower and higher concrete strength (see Figure 2.6).

2.3.3 Continuous perfobondstrip

Continuous perfobondstrip with a height of 100 mm, a thickness of 12 mm and 5 holes
Ø 50 mm. The evolution in the behaviour of the continuous perfobondstrip, according to
the change in concrete properties, is similar to oscillating perfobondstrip, but always
archiving lower load capacity and characteristic resistance (see Figure 2.7).

2.3.4 Waveform strip

Waveform strip with a width of 50 mm, a thickness of 6 mm and bend in 2 waves with
amplitude 110 mm. Welded with prop-welds Ø 25 mm. It had a very


9
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions



disappointing behaviour in tests. Due to that its use is not recommended (see Figure
2.8).

2.3.5 T-shape connectors

A section with a length of 300 mm of a standard T-shape 120 welded to the beam. T-
shape connectors performed very well compared to headed studs. T-shape connectors
achieve the same load capacity as oscillating perfobondstrip, but have a much larger
ductility. This type of connectors show an increase in their load capacity and ductility if
the concrete used is with fibres, light weight concrete or a higher strength concrete. For
the T-shape connectors, after LC62/75, the concrete is no longer decisive, but the
strength of the connector itself.

Without considering the perfobondstrip, the T-shape connectors have the highest
characteristic resistance and the mode of failure changes for different concrete strengths
(see Figure 2.9).

2.3.6 Hilti HVB shear connectors

Hilti HVB shear connectors can be found between the nailed shear connectors which are
presented as an alternative to welded headed studs connectors for composite beams.
Hilti HVB shear connectors are cold formed angle shear connectors, fixed by two
powder-actuated fasteners driven with a powder-actuated tool, placed on one leg of the
angle. It is possible to use one, two or three connectors in each steel decking rib,
depending on the requirements (see Figure 2.10).

2.3.7 Profiled shear connectors

Profiled shear connectors are a type of nailed strip shear connectors. There are two
elements with the same importance in the nailed shear connector system, the strip shear
connector itself and the powder-actuated fasteners. The strip is formed by folding a flat
zinc-coated steel sheet with a thickness in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 mm. The distance
between the two troughs of the trapezoidal strip connector has to be chosen to fit to the
geometry of the decking, in composite beams. The legs of the connector have to be
higher than the metal deck and they act as a diagonal reinforcement of the concrete rib.
The strip connector is fixed to the beam flange by power-actuated fasteners. The
connectors are designed to be used with automatic installation systems.

Push-out tests results indicate that optimised profiled strip shear connectors will achieve
ultimate resistance in the range of 20 kN per fastener and also sufficient ductility to
allow plastic beam design (see Figure 2.11).






10
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions




Figure 2.5 Headed studs Figure 2.6 Oscillating perfobondstrip














Figure 2.7 Continuous perfobondstrip Figure 2.8 Waveform strip




Figure 2.9 T-shape connector Figure 2.10 Hilti HVB shear connector








11
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions




Figure 2.11 Profiled shear connector


2.3.8 Shear connectors’ strength and ductility

The results of some push-out tests on shear connector devices for steel-concrete
structures are presented by Galjaard and Walraven (2001). The tests are carried out in
accordance with Eurocode 4 (1997) for standard push-out tests. Large differences in
ductility and strength between the various connector devices and concrete types have
been observed.


Table 2.1 Strength of different shear connectors
Normal weight concrete
Concrete grade 30/37
Light weight concrete
Concrete grade 30/37
Strength P
Rk

(kN)
Ductility δ
uk

(mm)
Strength P
Rk

(kN)
Ductility δ
uk

(mm)
Headed studs 102 5.0 92 4.9
Continuous
perfobondstrip
653 0.8 485 2.9
Oscillating
perfobondstrip
974 1.9 858 2.7
Waveform strip 200 1.8 N/A N/A
T-shape
connector
633 16.1 657 38.8
Hilti HVB 28 N/A 25 N/A
Profiled Strip
Shear
20 > 6 N/A N/A


2.4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES

2.4.1 Structural steel

In composite construction design, the two grades of steel that can be used are: S275 and
S355. This nomenclature means that minimum yield strength of 275 N/mm
2
and 355
N/mm
2
respectively, is guaranteed.



12
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


Table 2.2 Steel properties
Nominal thickness of element, t (mm)
t ≤ 40 mm 40 mm < t ≤ 100 mm
Nominal steel
grade
f
y
(N/mm
2
) f
u
(N/mm
2
) f
y
(N/mm
2
) f
u
(N/mm
2
)
S275 275 430 255 410
S355 355 510 335 490


2.4.2 Profiled steel decking

The way in which the grades of steel for profiled steel sheeting or decking are specified
is in terms of the yield strength of the steel. Yield strength of 280 and 350 N/mm
2
are
the common grades for sheet steel used (see 3.4.2).

2.4.3 Concrete (NWC and LWC)

The concrete grade in Eurocode is specified in terms of the cylinder strength, f
ck
.
Hence C30 concrete means that the concrete compression strength is 30 N/mm
2
. If
cubes were used instead of cylinders, then the resulting strength from testing (f
cu
) would
be different. The approximate conversion to become cylinder strength to cube strength
is:

f
ck ≈
0,8 f
cu
(2.1)

The mean compression strength (f
ck
and f
cu
), tensile strength (f
ct
) and elastic moduli of
concrete (E
c
) are presented in the following table for various concrete strengths:


Table 2.3 Concrete properties
Strength class of concrete
Properties of concrete
C20 C25 C30 C35 C40 C45 C50
f
ck
(N/mm
2
) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
f
cu
(N/mm
2
) 25 30 37 45 50 55 60
f
ct
(N/mm
2
) 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.1
E
c
(kN/mm
2
) 29 30.5 32 33.5 35 36 37


For both, normal weight concrete (NWC) and light weight concrete (LWC), a concrete
grade between C25 and C35 is normally chosen, in accordance with the design
requirements. Light weight concrete is commonly used because of the obvious
advantages of approximately 25% weight saving (dry densities: NWC density 2350
kg/m
3
, LWC density 1850 kg/m
3
), and also because LWC has better insulation qualities
than NWC.




13
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


The concrete grade is normally chosen on the following basis:
- overall structural requirements
- exposure conditions
- flooring to be laid on the slab

As a minimum standard, grade C30 should be specified. In case of concrete used as a
wearing surface, the minimum grade should be C35 (although C40 is preferred).

Because the concrete is only exposed on one surface of the composite floor, it can take a
longer period of time to cure and dry than a traditional reinforced concrete slab. If
moisture sensitive floorings or adhesives are to be applied, many months may be needed
before the slab is sufficiently dry to accept them. If the time for drying allowed in the
contract programme is inadequate, measures such as the specification of special ”quick
dry” concrete may need to be considered.

2.4.4 Reinforcement bars

The reinforcement used in composite slabs construction is usually reinforcement which
takes the form of a relatively light mesh, commonly supplemented by some bar
reinforcement. The mesh reinforcement is required to perform a number of different
functions:

• Provide bending resistance at the supports of the slab in the fire condition.
• Control and reduce cracking at the supports. This cracking occurs because of
flexural tension and differential shrinkage effects.
• Distribute the effects of localised point loads and line loads along a greater area.
• Increase the strength at the edges of openings.
• Acts as transverse reinforcement to the composite beams

The most common mesh sizes are A142 and A193, where the numbers indicate the
cross-sectional area (mm
2
) of reinforcing bars per metre width. The mesh is normally
manufactured in “sheets” that are 2.4 m wide and 4.8 m long. Mesh with layers of bars
equally spaced in both directions is normally used. Mesh sizes less than A142 are not
recommended because of their poor performance as fire reinforcement and inability to
control shrinkage. But A142 is more common than A193.

Sometimes bar reinforcement may be used to supplement the mesh. With the use of
these supplement bars it is possible to achieve some benefits as:

• To increase the fire resistance periods.
• To reinforce the slab around significant openings.
• When additional transverse reinforcement is needed.
• To achieve better crack control.

In shallow composite slabs, the reinforcement should be supported sufficiently high
above the top of the deck to allow concrete placement around the bars. It is necessary to
have a proper cover. In practice, for the “mild” exposure conditions that exist internally
14
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


in most buildings, this means that the mesh should be placed ideally in a zone between
20 mm and 40 mm from the upper surface of the slab.

2.4.5 Shear connectors

The properties and proportions of shear connectors used depend mainly on the thickness
and shape of the steel sheet and the concrete grade used. Normally the steel used to
fabric shear connectors is of 500 N/mm
2
ultimate tensile strength.
The characteristic resistances of the shear connector are tabulated in function of their
dimensions and the characteristic strength of the concrete used.


2.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN BS5950 AND EC4 PART 1.1

There are quite differences between Eurocode (EC) 4 and British Standard (BS) 5950,
not only about design equations, also about materials properties and partial safety
factors.

2.5.1 Structural steel

The properties of structural steels are in accordance with Eurocode 4 and BS after the
EN 10025 (which replaces BS 4360 for these grades). In this case both of them agree
that the two grades of steel that can be used in composite construction like structural
steel are S275 and S355.
Since 1993 the nomenclature for strength grades used are the same for both codes, when
BS adopt the Eurocode.

2.5.2 Profiled steel decking

The profiled steel sheeting or decking are classified based on the grade of the steel used.
Eurocode and BS agree that the yield strength of 280 and 350 N/mm
2
are the most
appropriate. In BS these are known as Z28 and Z35 respectively.

2.5.3 Concrete

There is a significant difference in how the concrete grade is specified in Eurocode and
in BS. The concrete grade is specified in terms of the cylinder strength, f
ck
in Eurocodes,
instead of the cube strength f
cu
as in BS. The approximate conversion to be able to
change from one of them to another one is:

f
ck ≈
0,8 f
cu
(2.2)

Hence C30 concrete based on cylinder strength is 37 N/mm
2
cube strength. The
designation of concrete grade is therefore C30/37 defining the cylinder/cube strength.




15
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


2.5.4 Reinforcement bars

The most common tensile grade used is 500 N/mm
2
. Reinforcement is normally used
like mesh. Meshes of around 2.4m x 4.8m are fabric to use. The most common mesh
sizes are A142 and A193, where the numbers indicate the cross-sectional area (mm
2
) of
reinforcing bars per metre width. These values are the same in Eurocode and BS.

2.5.5 Shear connectors

The dimensions and properties of the different shear connectors are defined in Eurocode
and also in BS. The commonly ultimate tensile strength used in the fabrication of the
connectors is 500 N/mm
2
. This is common in both codes, but it has to be taken into
account that many forms of shear connectors are permitted and they have different
resistances.

2.5.6 Partial safety factors

Partial safety factors are applied to each of the materials involved in the composite
construction. Also some factors are applied to the loads and they are different between
the Eurocode 4 and BS.


Table 2.4 Partial safety factor according to Eurocode 4 ENV 1994 (1994)
(
*
)

Limit State Partial safety
factors on: Ultimate Serviceability Fire
Structural steel 1.05 1.0 0.9
Concrete

1.5 1.3 1.0
Shear
connectors
1.25 1.0 1.0
Shear bond 1.25 1.0 0
Materials
Reinforcement 1.15 1.0 1.0
(*) Nowadays the ENV is in a changing process into the EN














16
2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions


Table 2.5 Loads factors according to Eurocode 4 and BS
Limit state
Loads factors
Ultimate Serviceability
Imposed
(variable) load
1.5 1.0
Eurocode 4 Dead
(permanent)
load
1.35 1.0
Imposed
(variable) load
1.6 1.0
BS Dead
(permanent)
load
1.4 1.0


To illustrate the differences between both codes the following table summaries
the main points where EC4 Part 1.1 has a criteria and BS5950 a different one on the
design of composite beams.









17
Table 2.6 Summary of code designs of composite beams
(*) Design value for 19 mm diameter headed studs (100 mm high) in Grade 25 (cylinder) normal weight concrete
(**) Design value for lightweight concrete (density = 1800 kg/m
3
)



Stress blocks

Headed stud shear
connector design
resistance (kN)
Serviceability
limits

Code/Method Load factors Effective breadth
Steel Concrete NWC
(*)
LWC
(**)

Minimum shear
connection
Steel Concrete
BS 5950 Part 3 1.6Q + 1.4G
Span/4 but < 0.8b
primary beams
f
y
0.57f
ck
80 72 0.4 for L < 10 m f
y
0.5f
cu
Eurocode 4 1.5Q + 1.35G Span/4 0.95f
y
0.57f
ck
73 66 0.4 for L < 5 m None None
18
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


3. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FORMS OF COMPOSITE
CONSTRUCTION USING LIGHT STEEL SECTIONS


3.1 GENERIC FORMS

Composite construction using hot rolled steel elements has been carefully studied and is
properly established. But light steel construction comprises cold formed steel sections
instead of hot rolled steel sections, and there are quite big differences in their
behaviours.

It is important to understand the design principles and practical considerations taken
into account, because if not the design of cold rolled sections may appear to be more
complicated than the design of hot rolled sections.

One of the most important aspects that have to be considered carefully working with
these thin cold formed elements are the methods of cutting, joining and attachment of
other members and materials

Nowadays cold formed steel sections are widely used in building applications and
decking is used in composite floors and also in flat roofs. Some of the most important
advantages related with the used of cold formed elements are:

• For a given section depth, a high load resistance may be achieved
• Long span capability
• Good dimensional accuracy
• Good durability response in internal environments
• Freedom for long term creep and shrinkage
• Lighter constructions

Composite construction using light steel frames and components has different
applications:

- Composite beams using double-C sections, also called back to back, with steel
decking and in-situ concrete working composite due to strip shear connectors
attached by powder actuated pins.
- Composite frames using C and Z sections with steel decking and in-situ concrete
in which the framework acts as permanent formwork.
- Vertically orientated steel decking acting with in-situ concrete to form a double
skin composite wall.
- Heavy duty flooring acting compositely with light steel floor joists to improve
the stiffness of the floor.
- Heavy duty walling acting compositely with light steel wall panels to improve
the diaphragm action of the wall.



19
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


3.2 TYPES OF LIGHT STEEL COMPOSITE FRAMES, FLOORS, BEAMS
AND WALLS

3.2.1 Light steel composite frames

In different places around the world is possible to find cold-formed sections or decking
used to provide the formwork to in-situ concrete frames. In France a system of slim
floor construction is used in which the Z sections used as secondary beams span
between the primary slim floor beams. The secondary beams dimensions might be
chosen to match with the slab requirements of the construction (see Figure 3.1).

A wide ribbed U section which acts compositely with in-situ concrete, has been
developed in Finland by a steel company. The U section is propped during the
construction stage and incorporates composite concrete-filled hollow sections with
saddles on which the U section beam is supported. If additional bar reinforcement is
placed, no fire protection is required, as in a common T beam (see Figure 3.2).

Other different composite frame which has some disadvantages has been developed in
Australia. A profiled decking is used to provide permanent formwork to the sides and
soffit of deep beams and large columns. But secondary frames are required to support
the decking and to resist concrete pressures, which may be considered a disadvantage
(see Figure 3.3).

Composite frames consisting in C and Z sections combined forming primary and
secondary beams, and complete frameworks which support in-situ concrete have been
developed in New Zealand and Canada. This system achieves excellent seismic
resistance by confining the in-situ concrete (see Figure 3.4).





Figure 3.1 Slim floor beam using
composite Z sections as secondary
beams






Figure 3.2 Finnish system of light steel
composite construction











20
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections




Figure 3.3 Profiled sheeting used as
permanent formwork to deep beams and
columns



Figure 3.4 Light steel framework as
permanent formwork to in-situ concrete

3.2.2 Light steel composite floors

In housing and in low-rise building construction is very common to use light steel floor
joints. They comprise C sections which are placed 400 to 600 mm apart. Floor boarding
attached to the joints improved their stiffness considerably. Layers of board,
plasterboard and suspended ceilings are often used to increase the acoustic insulation of
the floor.

A system which provides a very stiff construction comprise profiled decking as part of a
composite flooring system in which boarding is fixed by frequent pins and screws. The
high stiffness of this construction improves the lateral transfer of loads across the
decking (see Figure 3.5)




Figure 3.5 Composite floor system




21
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


3.2.3 Light steel composite beams

The general form of construction is similar to conventional composite construction, but
composite light steel beams do not use hot rolled steel I beams, composite light steel
beams use cold formed double C steel sections. Nailed shear connectors are used in
light composite beams instead of welded ones. These no welded shear connectors use
“top hat” or profiled strip steel elements which are fixed by 2, 3 or 4 pins per deck rib.
The “top hat” or profiled shape is designed to support properly the reinforcement, in
form of mesh, and to help to provide crack control, especially at the supports. They are
designed on these bases because the real form is not very important due to the low force
that is transferred locally to the concrete.

The light steel composite beams load-span characteristic may be determined from
conventional composite theory. If the span capacity of non-composite and composite
beams is compared, only the 60% of the composite beam span can be achieved with
non-composite beams. The increase in the stiffness is over 5 times that of the steel
section. This is one of the main benefits of composite construction (see Figure 3.6).

The design criteria are:

1. Bending resistance of the steel section under construction loads using elastic
properties.
2. Bending resistance of the composite section, taking account of partial shear
connection
3. Based on elastic composite properties, imposed load deflections
4. Total deflections, which include the deflections at the construction stage and
under imposed loads.
5. Minimum natural frequency (> 4 Hz).















Figure 3.6 Light steel composite beam



22

3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


3.2.4 Light steel composite wall

Composite walls consist on two skins of decking orientated vertically and in-situ
concrete placed between them. Commonly, re-entrant steel decking is used, but also
trapezoidal steel decking or inter-locking wall units are used (see Figure 3.7). Ties are
placed at approximately 1.0 m apart vertically to resist the concrete pressures during
construction. It is difficult to achieve shear transfer at the top of the wall. Because of
this the composite wall is more efficient when is slender, so that its composite
properties are utilized in resisting buckling at mid-height.

Hence the main advantages of light steel composite walls are the possibility of achieve
slender wall construction, a permanent formwork which required no external support
and to eliminate bracing acting as a shear wall.


Composite walls using re-entrant steel decking
Inter-locking wall units
Composite walls using trapezoidal steel decking


Figure 3.7 Different forms of composite walls using decking and inter-locking units


3.3 TYPES OF SHEAR CONNECTORS

In light steel composite construction welded headed stud connectors cannot be used due
to the thin steel decking. As an alternative, nailed strip shear connectors are presented.
The most common nailed strip shear connectors are the Hilti HVB shear connectors and
profiled shear connectors.



23

3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


There are some advantages presented by nailed shear connectors compared to welded
studs:

• Minimum installation equipment and set-up time.
• They can be used in remote locations and small projects.
• The moisture on site and zinc coatings does not affect the installation quality

3.3.1 Hilti HVB shear connectors

Hilti HVB shear connectors are one of the types of nailed strips shear connector used in
light steel composite construction. Hilti HVB shear connectors are cold formed angle
shear connectors, fixed by two powder-actuated fasteners placed on one leg of the angle
(see Figure 2.8).

The ultimate resistance of Hilti HVB connectors depends on the dimensions of the
connector, because there are different sizes of Hilti HVB shear connectors, and on the
concrete grade.


Table 3.1 Design resistance of Hilti X-HVB connectors with a concrete grade between
C25 and C50
Design Resistance P
Rd
(kN)
Hilti X-HVB Type
NWC LWC
80 18 16
95 28 25
110 28 25
125 30 25
140 30 25


3.3.2 Profiled shear connectors

Profiled shear connectors have a trapezoidal shape to fit the geometry of metal decks.
The profiled shear connectors are designed to be able to fix them with an automatic
system to the decking and the beam by powder-actuated fasteners (Hilti), this makes the
installation a fast process.

Push-out test has been carried out according to the specifications provided in Eurocode
4 (1992) except for the fact that strip connectors were used instead of headed studs. The
push-out test programme and the description of the load-deformation behaviour were
written by Fontana, Beck and Bärtschi (2001). Results of the push-out test show that a
profiled shear connector will achieve ultimate resistance above 20 kN per fastener. And
the test also shows that the connectors will achieve sufficient ductility to allow plastic
beam design.


24
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


Nailed shear connectors consist on two different elements with the same importance, the
strip shear connector itself and the powder-actuated fasteners. The profiled strip is
formed by folding a flat zinc-coated steel sheet with a thickness in the range of 1.0 to
2.0 mm. The way on which the steel sheet is folded depends on the geometry that the
profiled shear connector needs to have to fit properly. The legs of the connector have to
be higher than the metal deck and they act as a diagonal reinforcement of the concrete
rib.





Figure 3.8 Nailed profiled shear connectors


Possible failure mechanism of profiled strip shear connectors

There are three different types of modes of failure depending on where the failure
occurs:

1. Failure in the nailed interface: the failure can take place in the interface due to
two different situations, shear failure of the nail shank or pullout of nails
combined with local bearing deformations in the flange.

2. Failure of the steel of the strip connector: the steel of the strip can fail in three
locations:
a. Net section fracture in the tension leg
b. Net section fracture in the nailed troughs
c. Local bearing failure in the nail interface

3. Concrete failure: bearing failure or shear failure of the concrete dowels and
shear failure of the concrete rib can occur. Concrete can also fail by splitting of
the concrete plate.

To allow plastic design of the composite beam the strip shear connector must develop
sufficient plastic deformations at a high load level. But to get a good efficiency of a



25
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


profiled shear connector system, it is important to develop an ultimate capacity close to
the total nail shear capacity of all fasteners installed. Edge the thickness of the sheet
must not be too thick, and on this way a brittle nail shank fracture without local bearing
deformations can be avoid. But opposite to this there are some reasons by which a stiff
strip connector sheet is required:

- Smaller shear connecting contribution of the open trapezoidal metal deck
- Greater stress in the tension legs as four nails are fixed per trough
- Existence of the ridge in the trough with two nails on both sides of the ridge.


3.4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES

3.4.1 Light steel sections

The thickness of the sheet steel used in cold formed sections, light steel sections, is
typically 0.9 to 3.2 mm. The method used to protect the steel of the corrosion is with hot
dip galvanizing of preformed strip steel. It protects the steel by loss of the zinc surface.

The specified sheet thickness includes galvanizing. The standard specification for
internal environments is G275, which refers to a zinc coating of 275 g/m
2
, total on both
faces and it means a total zinc thickness of about 0.04 mm (0.02 mm per face). A
thicker coating is used where moisture may be present over a long period
(G600).Galvanizing gives adequate protection for internal members, also for those
adjacent to the boundaries of building envelopes, hence it is usually supplied pre-
galvanized. The expected design life of galvanized products in this environment exceeds
60 years.

Zinc-rich paint has to be applied to the exposed steel in some applications. White rust
may occur if galvanized sections are stored in moist conditions, but this does not
normally affect their long term performance.

By cold reduction of hot rolled coil steel, steel strip is produced. Later it is treated with
annealing processes to improve the ductility of the material, due to cold working
reduces the ductility of the material. Grades S280 and S350 (yield strength of 280 and
350 N/mm
2
, respectively), are the most common recommended grades.
With the cold forming process the yield strength increases. This is due to cold working
by the process of “strain hardening”. The yield point is not a clearly defined transition
point, as in hot rolled steels. The 0.2% strain proof strength is commonly used as an
effective yield value.

Light steel sections are shaped to suit particular applications. The basic shapes,
especially in building applications, are the C and Z sections, but there is a wide range of
variants of these basic shapes, like those with edge lips, internal stiffeners and bends in
the webs. Also are common the sections form as modified I section and the top-hat
section. The sections are also joined together back to back or toe to toe to form
compound sections as double C sections.

26
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


Compound sections
Z sections
Zeta Lipped Z
Special sections
Modified sections Top hat Eaves beam
C sections
Plain Lipped Sigma


Figure 3.9 Examples of cold formed steel sections


Unstiffened wide and thin plates are not able to resist significant compression, this the
reason to used variants of the basic sections shapes with edge lips and internal
stiffeners. Stiffened sections are required to a structural efficiency, but in the other hand
as more stiff is a section, more difficult is to form it and more difficult to connect it with
other elements. It is necessary to find the equilibrium between practicability and
structural efficiency.

The main difference between the behaviour of hot rolled and cold formed steel sections
is that thin plate elements of cold formed sections tend to buckle locally under
compression. Cold formed cross-sections cannot generally reach their full compression
resistance based on the amount of material in the cross-section; this is reason why they
used to be classified as slender cross sections.
27
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections


There are also some benefits of cold forming on material properties as the increase in
average yield strength. This increase in strength is typically 3 to 10%.

Geometrical properties of cold rolled sections are divided in two big groups, the gross
section properties and the reduced section properties which take into account the effect
of local buckling. These two different properties are used in different cases. The gross
section properties are used to calculate the elastic stiffness of members or the moments
in continuous structures. However reduced properties are used to calculate the load
capability of the sections. Light steel section properties have been tabulated by Lawson,
Chung and Popo-Ola (2002).

3.4.2 Profiled steel decking

Profiled steel decking dimensions are in range of 45 to 80 mm height and 150 to 300
mm trough spacing, (rib spacing). This type of decking typically spans until 3 m or 4.5
m. There are two well known types of decking profiles, the re-entrant profile and the
trapezoidal profile. These two types are the most common (see Figure 3.10 and Figure
3.11).

Decking is generally rolled from 0.9 to 1.5 mm thick strip steel. Steel grades for this
application are typically S280 or S350 (steel yield strengths of 280 or 350N/mm
2
). The
steel is galvanized before forming, in the same way as light steel sections.

In composite slabs the steel decking has two main structural functions:

1. During concreting, the decking supports the weight of the wet concrete and
reinforcement, together with the temporary loads associated with the
construction process. It is normally designed to be used without temporary
propping.
2. In service, the decking acts “compositely” with the concrete to support the loads
on the floor. Composite action is obtained by shear bond and mechanical
interlock between the concrete and the decking.

The decking has also other important functions. The decking may also be used to
stabilise the beams against lateral torsional buckling during construction, and to
stabilise the building as a whole by acting as a diaphragm to transfer wind loads to the
walls and columns. The decking, together with the fabric mesh reinforcement placed in
the top of the slab, also helps to control cracking of the concrete caused by shrinkage
effects.









28
3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections




Figure 3.10 Re-entrant profiled steel decking





Figure 3.11 Trapezoidal profiled steel decking





















29
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


4. BASIS OF DESIGN OF COMPOSITE SLABS


4.1 DEFINITION

Composite slabs construction comprises two different elements, steel decking or
sheeting, and in-situ concrete. The steel decking is considered as the permanent
formwork to the in-situ concrete.

The most efficient use of composite slabs is for spans between 3 and 4 m, and the most
common is 3m. The ability of the decking to support the construction loads, without the
need for temporary propping, normally dictates these spans. If props are used, longer
spans are possible. Also some of the deeper profiles can achieve spans of up to 4.5 m
without propping during construction. The maximum span to depth ratio for the deck
will normally be 60.

The slab depths largely depend on fire insulation requirements and are usually between
100 and 200 mm. It depends on the time of fire resistant expected. To choose the
concrete type it has to take into account that it affects the stiffness of the section and the
strength of the shear connectors. Normal weight concrete (NWC) and light weight
concrete (LWC) are both used. When the concrete has gained sufficient strength it acts
as a composite slab with the tensile strength of the decking. A light mesh of
reinforcement is placed in the concrete to reduce the severity of cracking and to increase
the fire resistance.



Support beam
in-situ concrete slab
reinforcement
Support beam


Figure 4.1 Composite slab


4.2 CONSTRUCTION STAGE CONDITION

If the slab is unpropped during construction, the decking alone has to resist the self-
weight and the construction loads. In this case subsequent loads are applied to the
30
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


composite section. If the slab is propped during construction, all of the loads have to be
resisted by the composite section. This can lead to a reduction in the imposed load that
the slab can support, due to the increase of the shear in the interface between the
concrete and the decking.

The construction load, taken to act in addition to the self-weight of the slab and beam,
for the decking design is:

• An intensity of load of 1.5 kN/m
2
acting over a plan area of 3m × 3m
• Elsewhere, a reduced load of 0.5 kN/m
2


The construction loads take account of the sequential nature of the concreting and the
operations on the decking. Therefore, design cases to be considered are:

1. single span loaded to 1.5 kN/m
2
plus self-weight; adjacent spans loaded to 0.5
kN/ m
2
plus self-weight, or
2. single span loaded to 1.5 kN/ m
2
plus self-weight; adjacent spans not loaded.

Case 1 is maximum elastic moment at the supports, and 2 correspond to the maximum
elastic moment in mid-span.

The design of continuous decking is based on an elastic distribution of moments for the
construction loads. The elastic moment resistance of the section is established taking
account of the effective breadth of the thin steel elements in compression. No moment
redistribution is allowed and the common critical conditions would be the negative
moment at the supports.


4.3 COMPOSITE STAGE CONDITION

The most common mode of failure of the composite slab is due to the breakdown of
shear bond. The ultimate moment resistance of composite slabs is determined by the
breakdown of bond and mechanical interlock between the decking and the concrete,
known as shear bond. Composite slabs are usually designed as simply supported
members, and the slip between the decking and the concrete usually occurs before the
plastic moment resistance of the composite section is reached.

Eurocode 4 permits the design of composite slabs as continuous slabs by placing
reinforcement in the negative moment region. There are two methods of design of
composite slabs permitted by Eurocode 4. The traditionally used which is called “m”
and “k” method, and an alternative method based on the principles of partial shear
connection.

The performance of a particular deck profiled in a composite slab can only be well
assessed by test. Design by testing consists of two main parts with different purposes.


31
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


The test is carried out in two states:

• A dynamic part to identify those cases where there is an inherently brittle bond
between the concrete and the steel. (10,000 load cycles up to 1.5 times the
working load).
• Following the dynamic part, a static load is applied and increased until failure
occurs.

The test results are then presented in terms of empirical constants (m and k) that can be
used to quantify the interaction between the steel and concrete. The constants, m and k,
are not normally provided by the decking manufacturers, they use this information
themselves to present to the designers a range of load-span tables for their specific
products.

For the alternative method in the EC4, tests are required too. A characteristic
longitudinal shear resistance is defined based on tests. Then this resistance is used in a
modified partial shear connection analysis.

The design for serviceability is based on deflection limits but no deflection limits are
specified in Eurocode 4 for the deflection of the deck after concreting. As a further
check, it is recommended that the increased weight of concrete due to ponding should
be included in the design of the support structure if the predicted deflection, without
including the effect of ponding, is greater than one tenth of the overall slab depth.

The use of simple design rules to ensure adequate deflection behaviour of a composite
slab is accepted practice. Limits for span-to-depth ratios for slabs using NWC and LWC
are given. Confirming that the slab satisfies these limits will ensure that excessive
deflections are avoided. The effective span of the decking is defined as the smaller of:

• The distance between the centres of the supports.
• The clear span between the supports plus the effective depth of the concrete slab.

The values in the table 4.1 apply to slabs under uniformly distributed loading, with
nominal continuity reinforcement (0.1%) over the intermediate supports, and not for
slabs with full continuity reinforcement over the supports.

Deflections should be calculated explicitly for slabs that fail to satisfy span-to-depth
ratio limits. The stiffness of the slab can be determined using normal reinforced
concrete design rules (assuming fully effective bond between the decking and the
concrete).







32
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


Table 4.1 General rules for the slab: maximum span-to-depth ratios
(*)

NWC LWC
Single spans 30 25
End spans 35 30
Internal spans 38 33
(*)Values apply to supported spans with nominal continuity reinforcement, subject to
uniformly distributed loading.


There is always a risk of cracking in the concrete in all composite slabs. This is due to
the restraint to drying shrinkage provided by the steel decking and primary steelwork,
even though the decking effectively acts as reinforcement and helps to distribute the
shrinkage strains so that large cracks do not form. However, cracks do not normally
mean a durability or serviceability hazard. Only when the surface of the slab is used as a
wearing surface, or where terrazzo or other “rigid” floor covering are to be used, may
specific reinforcement be required in order to control the cracking.

When cracking is an issue, reinforcement percentages in excess of 0.3% will normally
be required in order to limit crack widths to the typically specified limit of
approximately 0.3 mm. In composite slabs mesh, rather than bars, is generally used to
control cracking.

The greatest risk of cracking is normally over supporting beams, owing to the
combination of drying shrinkage and flexural action. Induced joints may be used to
reduce the risk of random cracking at these locations. With the induced joints it is
possible to control where the crack will be form.

It is possible that larger crack widths over the intermediate supports will occur with
propped construction, because the full self-weight of the slab is applied in the composite
slab on removal of the props. Reinforcement of 0.5% of the slab cross-sectional area
should be sufficient in these cases to control cracking.


4.4 FIRE RESISTANCE

The measure to improve the fire resistance is to increase the reinforcement. To satisfy
requirements for the fire condition, an increased size of mesh may need to be used, or
extra bars may need to be placed in the troughs of the deck. In either case, the additional
reinforcement is used to compensate for the loss of strength of the decking at elevated
temperatures. A design guidance covering this aspect is normally given by the decking
manufacturers in their design tables. However, established guidance on minimum slab
thicknesses, minimum decking thickness, and the corresponding mesh sizes, for
particular fire resistance periods is given in the following tables for trapezoidal decking
and for re-entrant decking.

The data in table 4.2 may be used directly for trapezoidal decking profiles of 45 to 60
mm nominal depth (h
p
is the differential height between the thin and the most depth
33
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


parts of the decking). For decking profiles greater than 60 mm deep, slab depths given
in the table should be increased by (h
p
– 60) mm. For decking profiles that are between
45 and 55 mm deep, when spans are not greater than 3 m, the specified minimum slab
depths may be reduced by (55 – h
p
) mm.








Figure 4.2 Composite slab cross section


Table 4.2 Fire resistance specifications for trapezoidal decking
Minimum dimensions
Slab thickness
h
t
(mm)
Maximum Span
(m)
Fire resistance
(hours)
Deck
thickness
t (mm)
NWC LWC
Mesh Size
2.7 1 0.8 130 120 A142
3.0 1 0.9 130 120 A142
3.0 1 1/2 0.9 140 130 A142
3.0 2 0.9 155 140 A193
3.6 1 1.0 130 120 A193
3.6 1 1/2 1.2 140 130 A193
3.6 2 1.2 155 140 A252


The data in table 4.3 applies to re-entrant decking profiles of 38 to 50 mm nominal
depth. For profiles greater than 50 mm deep, the specified minimum slab depth should
be increased by (h
p
– 50) mm.


Table 4.3 Fire resistance specification for re-entrant decking
Minimum dimensions
Slab thickness
h
t
(mm)
Maximum Span
(m)
Fire resistance
(hours)
Deck
thickness
t (mm)
NWC LWC
Mesh Size
2.5 1 0.8 100 100 A142
2.5 1 1/2 0.8 110 105 A142
3.0 1 0.9 120 110 A142
3.0 1 1/2 0.9 130 120 A142
3.0 2 0.9 140 130 A193
3.6 1 1.0 125 120 A193
3.6 1 1/2 1.2 135 125 A193
3.6 2 1.2 145 130 A252
34
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


4.5 EXAMPLE GUIDE

In composite slabs there are three possible modes of behaviour based on the level of
interaction between the concrete and the steel decking:

— Complete interaction
— Partial interaction
— Zero interaction

And there are also three likely collapse mechanisms depending on the characteristics of
the slab:

• Failure type 1: applied moment exceeds moment resistance.
• Failure type 2: ultimate load resistance is governed by the steel concrete
interface.
• Failure type 3: applied vertical shear exceeds shear resistance.



EXERCICE

1. Check metal deck during construction

Consider the self-weight of the deck and the wet concrete, and these loads have
to be over all the deck. Consider the construction loads and distribute them to
have the more unfavourable situation for both, maximum sagging bending
moment, and maximum hogging bending moment (positive and negative
moments). They have to be less than the moment resistance of the deck, M
p.Rd
+

and M
p.Rd
-
.

2. Check deck deflection in construction

eff
I E
L p k
×
× × × × =
1
384
5
4
δ (4.1)
k=1.0 for simply supported decking
k=0.41 with two equal spans (3 supports)
k=0.52 with three equal spans
k=0.49 with four equal spans
I
eff
is the second moment of area of the effective section

Limit: L/180 or 20 mm (4.2)

3. Check design of composite slab – at ULS

Assume that slab acts as a series of simply supported beams. The moment
resistance of the slab has to be greater than the applied moment.

35
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


Design bending moment:
| |
8
2
L Q G
M
Q G
Sd
× × + ×
=
γ γ
(4.3)

Position of plastic neutral axis: X

c
ck
ap
yp p
f B
f A
X
γ
γ
× ×
×
=
85 . 0
(4.4)
where
p
A is the area of the deck (mm
2
/m)
B width took as 1000 mm
yp
f is the tensile strength of the deck
10 . 1 =
ap
γ is the partial safety factor of the deck

X d z
p
× − = 5 . 0 (4.5)

where
p
d is the total depth of the slab without half of the deck height plus the deck
thickness.

Moment resistance of the slab:
z
f
A M
ap
yp
p Rd ps
× × =
γ
,
(4.6)

4. Check longitudinal shear (m-k method)

Design shear force:
| |
2
L Q G
V
Q G
sd
× × + ×
=
γ γ
(4.7)
Longitudinal resistance is:
vs s
p
p Rd L
k
L B
A
m d B v
γ
1
,
×
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
×
× × × = (4.8)

The m-k method is semi-empirical. Direct relationship is established with the
longitudinal shear load capacity of the sheeting. L
s
depend on the type of
loading. Uniform load applied to the entire span L simply supported beam, L
s
=
L/4
25 . 1 =
vs
γ is the partial safety factor of longitudinal shear





36
4. Basis of design of composite slabs


5. Check vertical shear

Design shear force:
| |
2
L Q G
V
Q G
sd
× × + ×
=
γ γ
(4.9)
Vertical shear resistance is:
Rd p o Rd v
k k d b V τ × × × × =
2 1 .
(4.10)


where
b
o
is the average concrete rib width (over 1 m)
p
d k − = 6 . 1
1
(4.11)
ρ × + = 40 2 . 1
2
k (4.12)
p o
p
d b
A
×
= ρ (4.13)
c
ck
Rd
f
γ
τ 25 . 0 =
(4.14)

6. Serviceability limit state

Calculate the deflections with the average second moment of composite slab.
Deflections would not be design criteria for slabs that satisfy span-to-depth ratio
limits.
























37
5. Basis of design of composite beams


5. BASIS OF DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BEAMS


Composite beams consist in a concrete flange and a steel section. The concrete flange is
in compression and the steel section is largely in tension. Shear connectors make
possible to transfer the forces between the two materials. Hence the roll that shear
connectors play is very important, because with them it is possible to have a composite
behaviour.














Figure 5.1 Example of composite beams


5.1 CONSTRUCTION CONDITION

First of all the composite beam has to be design to support the construction conditions.
In unpropped construction, the steel beam is sized to support the self weight of the
concrete slab and other construction loads. The difference presented in propped
construction at this stage, is that the span of the beam considered is the distance
between two consecutive supports which can be props or edge supports, and not the
total span of the beam.

A load of 0.5 kN/m
2
is assumed to be applied to the entire area of steel decking and it
would be logical to take this same load as applied to the beam. It is treated as an
imposed load.

The steel beam is then designed in accordance with Eurocode 3. Secondary beams, that
are the beams perpendicular to the decking and the ones will be covered by this study,
are laterally restrained by the steel decking, and can develop their full moment
resistances. In primary beams the lateral restraint is provided only by the beam to beam
connections and their buckling resistance is based on the effective length of the beam
between these points.



38

5. Basis of design of composite beams


5.2 EFFECTIVE SLAB WIDTH

Not the whole slab is considered for the design; there is an effective breadth of slab. For
compatibility between designs at ULS and SLS the effective breadth is taken as L/8 on
each side of the secondary beam, being L the span length. This results in L/4, but not
exceeding the actual slab width acting with each beam. Effective breadth is represented
by b
eff
.


5.3 PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE ACTION

Once the steel and concrete are acting compositely, beams are designed plastically.
Plastic stress blocks are rectangular, unlike elastic stress blocks which are triangular,
and the plastic moment resistance is independent of the sequence of loading (i.e.
propped or unpropped construction). Like it is independent to the sequence of loading,
the moment resistance of the section is compared to the total factored moment applied
to the beam.

Materials strengths to be used in the plastic analysis are:

Concrete: 0.85 f
ck

c

c
=1.5) (5.1)

0.57f
ck
or 0.45f
cu
(5.2)

f
ck


0.8 f
cu
(5.3)

Steel: f
y

a

a
= 1.05) (5.4)

0.95f
y
(5.5)

Compressive resistance of the concrete slab is therefore:

c eff
c
ck
c
h b
f
R × × =
γ
85 , 0
(5.6)

c eff ck c
h b f R × × × = 57 . 0 (5.7)
where
h
c
is the depth of the concrete slab above the profiled decking

Tensile resistance of the steel section is:


a
y a
s
f A
R
γ
×
= (5.8)

a y s
A f R × × = 95 . 0 (5.9)
where
A
a
is the area of the steel beam

39
5. Basis of design of composite beams


Moment resistance: M
pl.Rd

a) Plastic neutral axis (PNA) in concrete slab: R
c
≥ R
s


(R
c
/h
c
)y
p

0,85 f
ck
/
γ
c
(compression)
R
s
yp P.N.A.
h / 2
h / 2
f /
γ
y a
b
eff
(tension)
h
c
h
p
h


Figure 5.2 Plastic stress blocks when PNA lies in concrete slab


(
¸
(

¸

× − + + =
2 2
,
c
c
s
p c s Rd pl
h
R
R
h h
h
R M (5.10)

c
c s
p
R
h R
y
×
= from
s p
c
c
R y
h
R
= × (5.11)
where
h
c
is the height of concrete slab above the deck
h
p
is the depth of the profiled decking
h is the depth of the steel section
y
p
is the depth of PNA since the upper surface of the slab

b) Plastic neutral axis in flange of steel beam: R
c
≤ R
s
and R
c
>R
w


y
p
xBxp
y

y
p
t
f
R
(tension)
(compression)
s
R
c


Figure 5.3 Plastic stress blocks when PNA lies in flange of steel beam
40
5. Basis of design of composite beams


R
w
is the tensile resistance of the web of beam:

( )
f w y w
t h t f R 2 95 . 0 − × × × = (5.12)

where
w
t is the web thickness
f
t is the flange thickness

The depth of web in compression should not exceed 38t
w
ε to be treated as “Class 2”.

where
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
y
f
235
ε (5.13)

p
y is the part of the steel flange which is in compression:
c s p y
R R y p B − = × × × 2


y
c s
p
p B
R R
y
× ×

=
2
(5.14)
And the compression force in the steel flange is:
2
c s
y p
R R
p B y

= × × (5.15)
where
a
y
y
f
p
γ
= (5.16)

Moment respect the upper fibre of the top flange:

(
(
¸
(

¸

×

×

× − + |
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
1
2 2
2
2 2
,
y
c s c s
s p
c
c Rd pl
Bp
R R R R h
R h
h
R M (5.17)
( )
y
c s
s p
c
c Rd pl
Bp
R R h
R h
h
R M
4 2 2
2
,

− + |
.
|

\
|
+ = (5.18)












41
5. Basis of design of composite beams


c) Plastic neutral axis within web: R
c
≤ R
s
and R
c
< R
w


P.N.A.

t
w
(tension)
R
c

Figure 5.4 Plastic stress blocks when PNA lies within the web


For simplicity, the web-flange fillet is ignored. The tensile force N
pla1
is balanced by an
equal and opposite force acting in an equivalent position on the other side of the centre
of gravity of the steel section. There is therefore an area of the web, of width t
w
, at a
stress of f
y
/ γ
a
to balance the force R
c
. The advantage of this expression is the use of the
plastic moment resistance of the steel beam M
apl.Rd
which can be taken directly from
standard tables for rolled steel sections.


Moment relation respect to the centre of gravity of the steel beam:

4 2
2
2
, ,
h
R
R
h h h
R M M
w
c
p c
c Rd apl Rd pl
× −
(
¸
(

¸
+ +
+ = (5.19)
where
M
apl,Rd
is the plastic moment resistance of the steel section alone.


5.4 SHEAR RESISTANCE

• Pure shear: the shear resistance of the web is taken as shown below:

a
v
y v
a
y
Rd pl
A
f A
f
V
γ
γ
58 , 0
3
,
= × = (5.20)
where
A
v
is the shear area of the section


• Combined bending and shear: the interaction equation used to consider at the
same time the bending moment and the shear is:

42
5. Basis of design of composite beams


( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

− − + ≤
2
1
2
1
plRd
sd
fRd Rd fRd sd
V
V
M M M M (5.21)
where
M
f,Rd
is the moment resistance of the section considering only the flanges
M
Sd
and V
Sd
are the applied moment and shear force respectively at the cross section
considered

If V
Sd
≤ 0,5 V
pl,Rd
no reduction to the moment resistance is made


5.5 SHEAR CONNECTION (FULL AND PARTIAL)

There are different types of shear connectors. If welded shear connection is used, the
headed stud common dimensions are: 19 mm diameter and 100 mm height. Using this
type of connectors, studs are welded through the decking, but they have some
limitations.

Limitations:
- The zone where the shear connectors are to be welded cannot be paint.
Hence the top flange of the beam should not be painted or the paint
removed.
- The galvanized steel should be less than 1.25 mm thick, and it has to be
clean and free from moisture.
- Connectors should be capable of resisting uplift forces caused by the
tendency of the slab to separate from the beam.


Resistances of stud shear connectors

To calculate the resistances of headed stud shear connectors, there are two design
equations to cover the different possibilities of failure:

1. Failure of the concrete:
v
c
ck
a
E
f d P
Rd
γ
α
2
29 , 0 = (5.22)
2. Shear failure of the stud, at its weld collar:
v
u
b
d
f P
Rd
γ
π
4
8 , 0
2
= (5.23)

P
Rd
= smaller ( )
b
Rd
a
Rd
P P ; (5.24)

where
f
u
is the ultimate tensile strength of the steel used in the studs (normally 500 N/mm
2
)


43
5. Basis of design of composite beams


0 , 1 1 2 , 0 ≤ |
.
|

\
|
+ =
d
h
α takes into account the height and diameter of the stud
γ
v
= 1,25 is the partial safety factor at the ultimate limit state
These formulae apply for stud diameters smaller than 22 mm.


Degree of shear connection

In the plastic design of composite beams, the longitudinal shear force to be transferred
between the points of zero and maximum moment should be the smaller of R
c
or R
s
. If
so, full shear connection is provided.

If less shear connectors than the number required for full shear connection are provided
it is not possible to develop the full plastic moment resistance of the composite section.
In this case the degree of shear connection may be defined as:

s
q
f
R
R
N
N
= for R
s
< R
c
(5.25)

c
q
f
R
R
N
N
= for R
c
< R
s
(5.26)
where
R
q
is the total shear force transferred by the shear connectors between the points of zero
and maximum moment
N
f
is the number of shear connectors for full shear connection
N is the number of shear connectors provided over the relevant part of the span.

Moment resistance of a composite section with partial shear connection

When R
q
, resistance of shear connection, is less than both R
c
and R
s
there is no full
shear connection and the moment resistance is reduced.

p a q
Q N R × = (5.27)

There are two different methods to determining the reduced moment resistance:

1. “Linear-interaction” approach

( )
Rd apl Rd pl
f
Rd apl Rd
M M
N
N
M M
, , ,
− + = (5.28)
where
M
pl,Rd
is the moment resistance of the composite section for full shear connection
M
apl,Rd
is the moment resistance of the steel section


44
5. Basis of design of composite beams


An adequate design is that which satisfies M
Sd
≤ M
Rd
. This check may be repeated at
point load positions by redefining N as the number of shear connectors from the support
to the point considered.

2. Stress block method

This method is exact in that the equilibrium of the section is solved by equating the
force in the concrete to the force transferred by the shear connectors R
q
. No design
formulae are given in Eurocode 4. The stress block method leads to significantly higher
moment resistance than the linear interaction method for degrees of shear connection
between 0.4 and 0.7.

a) Plastic neutral axis in flange of steel beam: R
q
≥ R
w


( )
( )
y
q s
c
q
p c q s c
Bp
R R
R
R
h h R
h
R M
4 2
1
2
2


|
|
.
|

\
|
− + + = (5.29)

That is the same as:
( )
( )
y
q s
f
p c c
f
s c
Bp
R R
N
N
h h R
N
N h
R M
4
5 , 0 1
2
2


|
|
.
|

\
|
− + + = (5.30)

b) Plastic neutral axis within the web: R
q
< R
w


1) Web Class 1 or Class 2

ε 76 ≤
w
t
d
or
v q w
R R t
d


1
76ε
(5.31)

( )
4 2
1
2
2
,
d
R
R
R
R
h h
h
R M M
v
q
c
q
p c q Rd apl c

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + + + = (5.32)

That is the same as:
( )
4
5 , 0 1
2
2
2
,
d
R
R
N
N
N
N
h h
h
R
N
N
M M
v
c
f f
p c c
f
Rd apl c
|
|
.
|

\
|

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + + + = (5.33)

2)
v q w
R R t
d

>
1
76ε
(5.34)
( )
( )( )
4
2
2
1
2
2
,
d
R
R R R R R R
R
R
h h
h
R M M
v
o q v q v q
c
q
p c q Rd apl c
− − − +

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + + + =
(5.35)


45
5. Basis of design of composite beams


where
M
c
is the reduced moment resistance
d is the clear depth of the steel web
t
w
is the thickness of the steel web
ε = (275/p
y
)
0,5
y w v
p t d R × × = is the resistance of clear web depth

y o
p t R w × × × =
2
38 ε

is the resistance of slender web


Minimum degree of shear connection

A minimum degree of shear connection limit is introduced in order to ensure adequate
deformation capacity of the shear connectors. In principle, the use of stress-block
method imposes greater deformations on the shear connectors at failure and therefore,
any general limit is conservative for the linear interaction method.

The general limits on the degree of shear connection for a composite slab (with b
o
/h
p

2 and h
p
≤ 60mm):

L ≤ 25 m N/N
f
≥ 1-(355/f
y
) (1-0,04 L
e
) ≥ 0,4
L > 25 m N/N
f
≥ 1.0

L is the beam span


Influence of deck shape

The deck shape influence on the strength of shear connectors. Strength reduction factor
k
t
for shear connectors is calculated with the following equation:

( )
p
p
p
r
t
h
h h
h
b
N
k

× × =
0
7 , 0
(5.36)

with
k
t
≤ 1.0 for N
r
= 1
k
t
≤ 0.8 for N
r
= 2

where
N
r
is the number of studs per trough (N
r
< 3)
b
0
is the average trough width
h is the stud height

This formula applies to the strength of the shear connectors when the steel decking
crosses the beams and where the shear connectors project at least 35 mm above the top
of the decking. A further limit is that h < h
p
+ 75 mm in evaluating k
t
.

46
5. Basis of design of composite beams


The coefficient 0.7 has been established on basis of test evidence. It is a reduction from
the coefficient 0.85 used in previous guidance. It is also recognised that the formula
may be unconservative for shear connectors in pairs and therefore the upper limit on k
t

is 0.8.

For primary beams, where the decking is placed parallel to the beams, the constant in
the above equation is reduced from 0.7 to 0.6. However, no further reduction is made
for the number of shear connectors in this case and the limit on k
t
is 1.0 for N
r
=1 or 2.


5.6 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT

The longitudinal shear strength of the concrete slab should be checked in order to ensure
transfer of force from shear connectors into the slab without splitting the concrete. This
may require provision of transverse reinforcement perpendicular to the beam. Potential
shear planes through the slab lie on either side of the shear connectors.

The shear resistance per unit length of shear plane along the beam is:

ν
Rd
= 2.5A
cv
η τ
Rd
+ A
e
f
sk

s
≤ 0.2 A
cv
η f
ck

c
(5.37)

where
A
cv
is the cross-section area of concrete per unit length in any shear plane
τ
Rd
is the basic shear strength of concrete (see table 5.1)
A
e
is the amount of the reinforcement crossing each shear plane
f
sk
is the yield strength of the reinforcement
η is taken as 1,0 for normal weight concrete and 0.3+0.7(ρ/2400) for lightweight
concrete.


Table 5.1 Basic shear strength of concrete (ENV 1994 (1994))
Strength
class of
concrete
C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60
f
ck

(N/mm
2
)
20 25 30 35 40 45 50
τ
Rd

(N/mm
2
)
0.26 0.30 0.34 0.38 0.42 0.46 0.50


A component arising from the tensile strength of the deck may be added to the
longitudinal shear resistance. Its full strength can be used when the deck crosses the
beam (secondary beams), and is continuous. When the deck is discontinuous, the
anchorage force developed by the shear connectors may be included, provided both
ends of the deck are properly attached. The anchorage force per unit length of the beam
is given as:

47
5. Basis of design of composite beams



( )
ap
yp s
r
pd
f dt
s
N
γ
ν
4
=
(5.38)
where
N
r
is the number of shear connectors in each group on the beam flange
d is the stud diameter
t
s
is the sheet thickness
f
yp
is the design strength of the sheet steel used to form the profile decking
s is the shear connecting spacing

The coefficient 4 should be replaced by (1+ a /(1.1d)) where "a" is the distance of the
edge of the sheet from the centre of the stud. This approach is very conservative and full
end anchorage is achieved when the edge distance, a, exceeds 2d. In practice the edge
distance should exceed 40 mm.

The total longitudinal shear resistance, for an internal beam, per unit length of the beam
is determined by shear failure along two shear planes and is therefore equal to 2(ν
Rd
+

ν
pd
). Where the decking is not properly anchored or where longitudinal sheet overlaps
are close to the beam, the contribution of the decking should be neglected.


5.7 LOCAL BUCKLING

In the ultimate limit state analysis of composite beams, it is important to consider the
possibility of local buckling. This is done by defining the class of cross-section. As the
plate elements in structural sections are relatively thin compared with their width, when
loaded in compression (as a result of axial loads applied to the whole section and/or
from bending) they may buckle locally. The disposition of any plate element within the
cross section to buckle may limit the axial load carrying capacity, or the bending
resistance of the section. Avoidance of premature failure arising from the effects of
local buckling may be achieved by limiting the width-to-thickness ratio for individual
elements within the cross section. This is the basis of the section classification
approach. The composite beam section classification is based on an effective width of
slab acting together with the steel beam.

Properties of each section class:

Class 1 and 2: capable of developing the full plastic bending moment. Class 1 sections
can also rotate after formation of a plastic hinge, but this is not important for simply
supported beams.
Class 3: because of local buckling in the part of the steel section under compression,
full plastic moment resistance cannot be achieved, although stresses in the extreme
fibres of the steel section can reach yield.
Class 4: local buckling occurs before yield is reached in the extreme fibres.




48
5. Basis of design of composite beams


Classification of composite section:

Compression flange:

For simply supported beams the compression flange is the top flange, and it is restrained
from buckling by the concrete slab to which it is attached by shear connectors. Flange
buckling is assumed to be prevented, and the flange may be defined as Class 1.

Web:

If the plastic neutral axis (PNA) lies in the concrete slab or the upper flange of the
section, the composite section can be considered as Class 1 since the web is in tension
throughout. When the PNA is in the web, the slenderness of the web should be checked
to determine the classification of the web, and hence the classification of the cross-
section. But this condition is not common in simply supported beams.

Therefore in composite beams, to know if it is possible that local buckling occurs or not,
it is necessary to analysis where the PNA lies. The plastic axial resistance of the steel
beam, in tension, is represented by R
s
and of the concrete slab, in compression, by R
c
:

a
y a
s
f A
R
γ
×
= (5.39)
c eff
c
ck
c
h b
f
R × × =
γ
85 , 0
(5.40)
where
a
γ =1.05
c
γ =1.5
a
A is the area of the steel beam
eff
b is the effective width of the slab

The concrete in the ribs is ignored so the maximum depth of concrete in compression is
limited to the thickness of the slab above the profiles h
c
. Considering the longitudinal
equilibrium of the composite section it can be seen that the PNA is located in the
thickness h
c
of the concrete of the slab if R
c
> R
s
.



49

0,85 f
ck
/
γ
c
(compression)
R
c
R
s
yp P.N.A.
h / 2
h / 2
f /
γ
y a
b
eff
+
(tension)
h
c
h
p
h
5. Basis of design of composite beams









Figure 5.5 Plastic distribution of the normal stresses (example of plastic neutral axis in
the slab).


The depth of the plastic neutral axis y
p
measured from the upper surface of the concrete
slab is given by:
c
c
s
p
h
R
R
y × = (5.41)

If
c p
h y < , the PNA lies within the concrete slab and the composite section is classified
as Class 1, so it is capable of developing the full plastic bending moment, and the local
buckling is not considered in the design of the composite beam.


5.8 SERVICEABILITY CONDITIONS

Serviceability limit states concerns three different aspects:

a) Control of deflections
b) Cracking control
c) Vibration response

It is common to base assessments at the limit state study on elastic behaviour. To do not
be necessary to take considerations of post-elastic effects, limits are usually placed on
the stresses existing in beams at the serviceability limit state. However no stress limits
are given in Eurocode 4, because it is argued that:

• Slight yielding in the positive moment region has a limited effect on deflections
• The beneficial effects of continuity on deflection are ignored.

Deflection limits are not specified in Eurocode 4 and reference is made to Eurocode 3
for limits on deflections due to permanent and variable loads. Nowadays there are no
limits on deflections in Eurocode 4 and either in Eurocode 3.


50
5. Basis of design of composite beams


5.8.1 Control of deflections

Deflections are calculated using the second moment of area of the composite section
based on elastic properties. So first of all the second moment of area has to be
calculated. Under positive moment the concrete may be assumed to be uncracked. To
calculate the second moment of area, the composite section is considered as a
transformed steel section. The second moment of area of the composite section,
expressed as a transformed steel section, is:
( )
( )
ay
c eff p c a
c
I
n
h b
nr
h h h A
I + +
+
+ +
=
12 1 4
2
3 2
(5.42)
where
n is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete, taking into account the creep of
the concrete when it is relevant
r is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the steel section relative to the concrete
section
I
ay
is the second moment of area of the steel section

The common value of the ratio I
c
/I
ay
is in the range of 2.5 to 4.0. These values indicate
that one of the main benefits we can get with the composite action is in terms of
reduction of deflections.


Table 5.2 Deflection limits (ENV 1993-1-1 (1993))
Conditions
δ
max

(sagging in
the final
state)
δ
Q
(due to
variable
loading)
Roofs generally L/200 L/250
Roofs frequently carrying personnel other than for
maintenance
L/250 L/300
Floors generally L/250 L/300
Floors and roofs supporting brittle finish or non-
flexible partitions
L/250 L/350
Floors supporting columns L/400 L/350


The modular ratio, n, represents the ratio of the elastic modulus of steel to the time-
dependent modulus of concrete. For normal weight concrete the typically modular ratios
that may be used are 6.5 for short term (variable) loading, and 20 for long term
(permanent) loading in an internal environment. The values of secant elastic modulus of
concrete under short term loads are given in table 5.3. The elastic modulus under long
term loads is affected by creep, which causes a reduction in the stiffness of the concrete.



51
5. Basis of design of composite beams


Table 5.3 Secant elastic modulus of concrete
Strength
Class of
Concrete
20/25 25/30 30/37 35/45 40/50 45/55 50/60
E
cm

(kN/mm
2
)
29 30,5 32 33,5 35 36 37


Influence on deflections of partial shear connection

This effect is very important because deflections increase due to the effect of slip in the
shear connectors. However these effects are ignored in composite beams designed for
full shear connection. For cases of partial shear connection using shear connectors, the
deflection, δ, is increased according to:

|
|
.
|

\
|
− ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
− × + = 1 1 1
c
a
f c
N
N
C
δ
δ
δ
δ
(5.43)
where
N/N
f
is the degree of shear connection
δ
c
is the deflection of the composite beam with full shear connection
δ
a
is the deflection of the steel beam under the same loads
C is a coefficient, taken as 0.3 for unpropped construction and 0.5 for propped
construction.

This coefficient, C, is different for unpropped and propped construction due to the
higher force in the shear connectors at serviceability state in propped construction than
in unpropped construction.

In Eurocode 4 no account of slip is taken in umpropped beams when N/N
f
≥ 0.5 because
it is argued that deflections are already conservative.


Shrinkage induced deflections

Deflections produced by shrinkage are considered only in some specific cases.
Eurocode 4 is ambiguous about deflections arising from shrinkage of the concrete slab.
It states that shrinkage deflections need only be calculated for simply supported beams
when span to depth ratio of the beam exceeds 20, and when the free shrinkage strain of
the concrete exceeds 400 x 10
-6
. In practice, these deflections will only be significant for
spans greater than 12 m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres.

The curvature, K
s
, due to a free shrinkage strain, ε
s
, is:

( )
( )
c
a p c s
s
I nr
A h h h
+
+ +
=
1 2
2 ε
ϕ (5.44)
52
5. Basis of design of composite beams


where
n is the modular ratio appropriate for shrinkage calculations, n ≈ 20.

The deflection due to this curvature for simple supported beams is:

δ
s
= 0.125 k
s
L
2
(5.45)

This formula to calculate the deflection due to shrinkage ignores continuity effects at
the supports; hence it probably over-estimates shrinkage deflections by a considerable
margin.

5.8.2 Crack control

Crack control is not always necessary, only where the proper functioning of the
structure or its aesthetic aspects, appearance, would be impaired. Where it is necessary
to control cracking, the amount of reinforcement should exceed a minimum value. Due
to this extra reinforcement cracks are distributed uniformly in the negative moment
region. This minimum percentage of reinforcement, ρ, is given by:

% 100 % 100 × × × = × =
s
ct
c
c
S
f
k k
A
A
σ
ρ (5.46)
where
k
c
is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section with a value
between 0.4 and 0.9.
k is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in tension strength (k ≈ 0.8).
f
ct
is the effective tensile strength of concrete. A value of 3 N/mm
2
is the minimum
adopted.
σ
s
is the maximum permitted stress in the reinforcement.

A typical value of ρ is 0.4% to 0.6% which is well in excess of the minimum of 0.2%
necessary for shrinkage control and transverse load distribution. These bars do not need
to be placed along the entire beam, only in the negative moment region of the beams or
slabs.

5.8.3 Vibration response

Potential vibration response may be necessary to be check especially for long span
beams. Natural frequency of a beam is:

sw
f
δ
18
= cycles/sec (5.47)
where
δ
sw
is the instantaneous deflection (in mm) caused by the self weight of the floor and
other permanent loads on to the composite beam.



53
5. Basis of design of composite beams


A minimum limit on natural frequency is proposed as 4 cycles/sec for most building
applications except where is vibrating machinery, or 3 cycles/sec for car parks. The
limit may be raised to 5 cycles/sec for special buildings such as sport halls.













































54
6. Design examples


6. DESIGN EXAMPLES


The following worked examples consist on the design of a composite beam using light
steel sections, unpropped and propped during construction. In both examples the
dimensions of the beam are the same to make easier the comparison, although under
these particular conditions the beam can have a greater span if is propped. The worked
example considers different aspects:

• Design of the beam at the construction stage
• Design of the beam at the composite stage
• Serviceability limit stage considerations
- Deflections
- Transverse reinforcement
- Vibrations


6.1 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF AN UNPROPPED 4.5 m SPAN COMPOSITE
BEAM TO EUROCODE 4.












Design data

Imposed load:

Imposed load 2.5 kN/m
2


Floor dimensions:

Span L = 4.5 m
Beam spacing b = 1.5 m
Slab depth h
t
= 130 mm
Depth above profile h
c
= 80 mm
Deck profiled height h
p
= 50 mm

Unpropped construction throughout

55
6. Design examples


Shear connectors:

Top-hat shear connectors attached with 4 studs to the beam.

Materials:

Steel: Grade S280
Nominal value of yield strength
y
f = 280 N/mm
2

Partial safety factor
a
γ = 1.05

Design strength 267
05 . 1
280
= = =
a
y
d
f
f
γ
N/mm
2

Concrete: Normal weight concrete strength class C30/37
Density = 2400 Kg/m
3
(23.55 kN/m
3
)

Loading:

Self weight of the concrete slab

Weight =
( )
6
9 9 3
3
3
10 47275 . 2
10
55 . 23
150
10
55 . 23
10
1
300
10
30 120 50 10 130

× = × = × ×
(
¸
(

¸

× + − × kN/mm
2
=
= 2.47275 kN/m
2


Construction Stage:

Concrete slab = 2.47 kN/m
2

Steel deck = 0.15 kN/m
2

Reinforcement (allow) = 0.04 kN/m
2

Steel beam (allow) = 0.05 kN/m
2


Total = 2.71 kN/m
2


Construction Load = 0.50 kN/m
2



Composite Stage:

Concrete slab = 2.47 kN/m
2

Steel deck = 0.15 kN/m
2

Reinforcement (allow) = 0.04 kN/m
2

Steel beam (allow) = 0.05 kN/m
2


Total = 2.71 kN/m
2



56
6. Design examples


Ceiling and services = 0.50 kN/m
2


Imposed:

Total imposed load = 2.5 kN/m
2


Initial selection of beam size

The response of a DOUBLE GENERIC C SECTION is going to be studied. A suitable
section for imposed load of 2.5 kN/m
2
would be a 200 x 65 x 1.6 Grade S280

Section properties and dimensions:

200 = h mm
130 65 2 = × = b mm
2 . 3 6 . 1 2 = × =
w
t mm
6 . 1 =
f
t mm
82 . 10 =
a
A cm
2

646.4 =
xx
I cm
4

64.65 =
xx
W cm
3


Nominal value of yield strength 280 =
y
f N/mm
2
(
f
t < 40 mm)

Construction stage design

Ultimate limit stage loading

Dead load factor 35 . 1 =
G
γ
Imposed load factor 5 . 1 =
Q
γ

Slab + beam = 2.71 x 1.35 = 3.6585 kN/m
2

Construction = 0.50 x 1.5 = 0.75 kN/m
2

Total = 4.4085 kN/m
2


Total design load = F = 4.4085x 4.5 x 1.5 = 29.7574 kN

Design moment = 7385 . 16
8
5 . 4 29.7574
=
×
=
sd
M kNm

It is assumed that the beam in the construction stage is laterally restrained by the
decking since the decking spans perpendicular to the beam and is directly attached to it.

Moment resistance of the steel beam =
Rd a
M
.


57
6. Design examples


24 . 17
10
267 65 . 64
3
.
=
×
= × =
d xx Rd a
f W M kNm > 7385 . 16 KNm


Composite stage design

Ultimate limit stage loading

Slab + beam = 2.71 x 1.35 = 3.6585 kN/m
2

Ceiling + services = 0.50 x 1.35 = 0.675 kN/m
2

Imposed load = 2.5 x 1.5 = 3.75 kN/m
2


Total = 8.0835 kN/m
2


Total design load = F = 8.0835 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 54.5636 kN

Design moment = 6920 . 30
8
5 . 4 54.5636
=
×
=
sd
M kNm


Effective width of compression flange: b
eff


125 . 1
8
5 . 4 2
8
2
=
×
=
×
=
o
eff
l
b m < 1.5 m (beam spacing)


1. Compressive resistance of slab: R
c


c eff
c
ck
c
h b
f
R × × =
γ
85 , 0


where
ck
f
is the characteristic strength of concrete = 30 N/mm
2


c
γ
is the partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5

1530
10
80
1125
5 . 1
30 85 . 0
3
= × ×
×
=
c
R kN


2. Tensile resistance of steel section: R
s


d a s
f A R × =
288.4813
10
10
267 82 . 10
3
2
= × × =
s
R kN
58
6. Design examples


3. Moment resistance with full shear connection:

Since
s
R <
c
R the plastic neutral axis (P.N.A.) lies in the concrete flange, therefore the
moment resistance of the composite beam is:

(
¸
(

¸

× − + + =
2 2
.
c
c
s
p c s Rd pl
h
R
R
h h
h
R M

9817 . 64174
2
80
1530
288.4813
50 80
2
200
288.4813
.
=
(
¸
(

¸

× − + + × =
Rd pl
M kNmm

64.1750
.
=
Rd pl
M kNm >
sd
M = 30.6920 kNm

The plastic neutral axis depth is:

0840 . 15 80
1530
288.4813
= × = × =
c
c
s
p
h
R
R
y mm

15.0840 mm < 80 mm → the P.N.A lies in the concrete flange so composite section is
Class 1.


4. Shear connector resistance:

In light steel sections, top-hat connectors are used. Each top-hat connector is fixed by
four studs. The resistance of each stud has been calculated in several tests by Lawson
and Popo-Ola (1998), and it has a value of 18 kN. Hence the resistance of a shear
connector is equal to:

Stud resistance = 18 kN
Shear connector resistance
u
P = 72 18 4 = × kN
6 . 57 8 . 0 = × =
u Rd
P P kN

Due to the geometry of the top-hat, if a connector is placed in each decking elevation
between the points of zero and maximum moment the longitudinal shear force transfer
is:

R
q
(4 studs) 6 . 129
2
5 . 4 6 . 57
2
=
×
=
×
=
L P
Rd
kN





59
6. Design examples


5. Degree of shear connection:

There is a minimum degree of shear connection which for beams with a span equal or
less than 5 m is 0.4.

449 . 0
4813 . 288
6 . 129
= = =
s
q
f
R
R
N
N
> 0.4

The degree of shear connection cannot be higher than 1 and less than a minimum equal
to 0.4.

4 . 0 449 . 0 1 > >


6. Moment resistance with partial shear connection:

Using the linear interaction method, the moment resistance of a composite beam is
obtained as follows:

( )
Rd a Rd pl
f
Rd a Rd
M M
N
N
M M
. . .
− × + =
where
24 . 17
.
= × =
d xx Rd a
f W M kNm
=
f
N
N
Degree of shear connection
=
Rd pl
M
.
Moment resistance based on full shear connection

( ) 3254 . 38 24 . 17 1750 . 64 449 . 0 24 . 17 = − × + =
Rd
M kNm

6920 . 30 3254 . 38 = > =
Sd Rd
M M kNm

Increase in moment resistance due to composite action:

223 . 2
24 . 17
3254 . 38
.
= =
Rd a
Rd
M
M



7. Vertical shear:

Beam + slab = 2.71 x 1.35 x 4.5 x 1.5 / 2 = 12.3474kN
Ceiling + services = 0.5 x 1.35 x 4.5 x 1.5 / 2 = 2.2781 kN
Imposed load = 2.5 x 1.5 x 4.5 x 1.5 / 2 = 12.6563 kN

Total shear force:
Sd
V = 27.2818 kN
60
6. Design examples


Shear resistance: V
pl,Rd


3
.
d
v Rd pl
f
A V × =

where
w v
ht A =
45826 . 98534
3
267
2 . 3 200
.
= × × =
Rd pl
V N
5344 . 98
.
=
Rd pl
V kN

2818 . 27 =
Sd
V kN ≤ 5344 . 98
.
=
Rd pl
V kN
267 . 49 5 . 0
.
= ×
Rd pl
V kN > 2818 . 27 =
Sd
V KN (there is no interaction bending moment-
shear force)


8. Shear buckling resistance:

Shear buckling resistance must be checked if the web slenderness (d/t
w
) exceeds 69ε:
w
t
d
> 69ε

where
d is the height of the web
w
t is the thickness of the web
ε
280
235 235
= =
y
f

8 . 196 6 . 1 2 200 2 = × − = × − =
f
t h d mm
2 . 3 6 . 1 2 = × =
w
t mm

5 . 61
2 . 3
8 . 196
=

69ε = 63.2

61.5 < 63.2 → therefore the possibility of buckling in shear is not necessary to be
checked.






61
6. Design examples


Serviceability limit stage

1. Elastic stress

In Eurocode 4, ENV 1994 (1994), no stress checks are required for normal conditions,
so no stress limits are given.


2. Deflections

• Non-composite stage deflection: δ

Self weight of slab and beam = 2.71 kN/mm
2

Design load F = 2.71 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 18.2925 kN

a
E = 205 kN/mm
2


xx a
I E
FL
384
5
3
= δ
( )
3802 . 16
10 4 . 646 205 384
10 5 . 4 18.2925 5
4
3
3
=
× × ×
× × ×
= δ mm

• Composite stage deflection: δ
c


Imposed load = 2.5 kN/mm
2

Design Load F = 2.5 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 16.875 kN


( )
( )
xx
c eff c p a
c
I
n
h b
nr
h h h A
I +
×
+
+
+ +
=
12 1 4
2
3 2


01202006 . 0
80 1125
10 82 . 10
2
=
×
×
=
×
=
c eff
a
h b
A
r

n = Modular ratio = 10, for normal weight concrete

( )
( )
5 . 46126288 10 4 . 646
10 12
80 1125
01202006 . 0 10 1 4
80 50 2 200 10 82 . 10
4
3 2 2
= × +
×
×
+
× + ×
+ × + × ×
=
c
I mm
4
7
10 61262885 . 4 × =
c
I mm
4





62
6. Design examples


Deflection with full shear connection

c a
c
I E
FL
384
5
3
= δ

( )
1175 . 2
10 61262885 . 4 205 384
10 5 . 4 875 . 16 5
7
3
3
=
× × ×
× × ×
=
c
δ mm


As partial shear connection exists, the effect of slip has to be taken into account:
(
¸
(

¸

− ×
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + = 1 1 3 . 0 1
c
a
f c
N
N
δ
δ
δ
δ


1109 . 15
10 4 . 646
10 61266505 . 4 1175 . 2
4
7
=
×
× ×
=
×
=
xx
c c
a
I
I δ
δ mm
( ) 2643 . 4 1
1175 . 2
1100 . 15
449 . 0 1 3 . 0 1 1175 . 2 =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

− × − + × = δ mm

4.2643 ≈
1055
L
<
350
L

The deflection due to imposed load is satisfactory

• Total deflection:

Construction stage = 16.3802 mm
Imposed load = 4.2643 mm
Ceiling + services ≈ 8529 . 0
5 . 2
2643 . 4 5 . 0
=
×
mm

Total = 21.4973 mm

The limit on the maximum total deflection for a composite beam is the following:

5 . 22
200
4500
200
= =
L
mm > total deflection = 21.4973 mm

The total deflection is also satisfactory.


3. Transverse reinforcement

The resistance of concrete flange to splitting will be check, using A142 mesh
reinforcement in the slab.

63
6. Design examples


• Shear resistance per shear surface,
Rd
v

c
ck
cv
s
sk e
Rd cv Rd
f
A
f A
A v
γ
η
γ
ητ 2 . 0 5 . 2 ≤ + =

e
A = 142 mm
2
/m
η = 1 for normal weight concrete
cv
A = 105 x 10
3
mm
2
/m
ck
f = 30 N/mm
2

sk
f = 460 N/mm
2

5 . 1
8 . 1
25 . 0 25 . 0
05 . 0
× = × =
c
ctk
Rd
f
γ
τ = 0.3
c
γ = 1.5
s
γ = 1.15


55 . 135 10
15 . 1
460 142
3 . 0 1 10 105 5 . 2
3 3
= ×
(
¸
(

¸
×
+ × × × × =

Rd
v kN/m

420 10
5 . 1
30 1
10 105 2 . 0 2 . 0
3 3
= ×
(
¸
(

¸
×
× × × =

c
ck
vc
f
A
γ
η
kN/m > 135.55 kN/m


• Shear force per unit length, v

Placing the top-hat connectors in the way there are four studs per trough:

96
3 . 0
5 . 0 6 . 57
=
×
=
Sd
v kN/m <
Rd
ν = 135.55 kN/m

A142 mesh is satisfactory


4. Vibration (Simplified approach)

Loading:

Beam + slab = 2.71 kN/m
2

Ceiling + services = 0.50 kN/m
2

10% of imposed load = 0.25 kN/m
2

Total = 3.46 kN/m
2


Total weight of floor, F = 3.46 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 23.355 kN
64
6. Design examples


Increase of second moment of area of the composite section based on elastic
properties
c
I , by 10% to allow for the increased dynamic stiffness of the composite
beam,
1 c
I
7 7
1
10 07389174 . 5 10 61262885 . 4 1 . 1 × = × × =
c
I mm
4


Instantaneous deflection caused by re-application of the self weight of the floor and the
beam to the composite beam,
a
δ

1
3
384
5
c a
a
I E
L F
× ×
× ×
= δ

( )
6642 . 2
10 07389174 . 5 205 384
10 5 . 4 355 . 23 5
7
3
3
=
× × ×
× × ×
=
a
δ mm


Natural frequency ≈ 0279 . 11
6642 . 2
18 18
= =
a
δ
Hz > 4 Hz

5. Conclusion

The design is limited basically by the moment resistance of the beam in the construction
stage rather than serviceability criteria. The maximum span of the secondary beams that
is possible to consider in the design is limited by moment resistance at the construction
stage, if the span would be increased the beam would fail before the composite
behaviour.


6.2 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF A 4.5 m SPAN BEAM, PROPPED DURING
CONSTRUCTION

The main differences on the design of a composite beam propped during construction
are the following:

• The beam functions exclusively as composite
• Deflections:
Sum of:
- Dead loads on composite section
- Imposed loads on composite section

Using props during construction sometimes it is possible to get a greater span, but not in
all cases, it depends on the imposed loads because all of the loads have to be resisted by
the composite section.


65
6. Design examples












Design data

Imposed load:

Imposed load 2.5 kN/m
2


Floor dimensions:

Span L = 4.5 m
Beam spacing b = 1.5 m
Slab depth h
t
= 130 mm
Depth above profile h
c
= 80 mm
Deck profiled height h
p
= 50 mm

Beam propped during construction. Props are placed in the middle of the span.

Shear connectors:

Top-hat shear connectors attached with 4 studs to the beam.

Materials:

Steel: Grade S280
Nominal value of yield strength
y
f = 280 N/mm
2

Partial safety factor
a
γ = 1.05

Design strength 267
05 . 1
280
= = =
a
y
d
f
f
γ
N/mm
2

Concrete: Normal weight concrete strength class C30/37
Density = 2400 Kg/m
3
(23.55 kN/m
3
)






66
6. Design examples


Loading:

Self weight of the concrete slab

Weight =
= ( )
6
9 9 3
3
3
10 47275 . 2
10
55 . 23
150
10
55 . 23
10
1
300
10
30 120 50 10 130

× = × = × ×
(
¸
(

¸

× + − × kN/mm
2

Weight = 2.47275 kN/m
2


Construction Stage:

Concrete slab = 2.47 kN/m
2

Steel deck = 0.15 kN/m
2


Reinforcement (allow) = 0.04 kN/m
2

Steel beam (allow) = 0.05 kN/m
2


Total = 2.71 kN/m
2


Construction Load = 0.50 kN/m
2



Composite Stage:

Concrete slab = 2.47 kN/m
2

Steel deck = 0.15 kN/m
2

Reinforcement (allow) = 0.04 kN/m
2

Steel beam (allow) = 0.05kN/m
2


Total = 2.71 kN/m
2


Ceiling and services = 0.50 kN/m
2


Imposed:

Total imposed load = 2.5 kN/m
2


Initial selection of beam size

The response of a DOUBLE GENERIC C SECTION is going to be studied. A suitable
section for imposed load of 2.5 kN/m
2
would be a 200 x 65 x 1.6 Grade S280

Section properties and dimensions:

200 = h mm
130 65 2 = × = b mm

67
6. Design examples


2 . 3 6 . 1 2 = × =
w
t mm
6 . 1 =
f
t mm
82 . 10 =
a
A cm
2

646.4 =
xx
I cm
4

64.65 =
xx
W cm
3


Nominal value of yield strength 280 =
y
f N/mm
2
(
f
t < 40 mm)

Construction stage design

During the construction stage the span of the beam is half of the final span, due to the
prop placed in the middle span.

Ultimate limit stage loading

Dead load factor 35 . 1 =
G
γ
Imposed load factor 5 . 1 =
Q
γ

Slab + beam = 2.71 x 1.35 = 3.6585 kN/m
2

Construction = 0.50 x 1.5 = 0.75 kN/m
2

Total = 4.4085 kN/m
2


Total design load = F = 4.4085x
2
5 . 4
x 1.5 = 14.8787 kN

Design moment = 4.1846
8
2
5 . 4
8787 . 14
=
×
=
sd
M kNm

It is assumed that the beam in the construction stage is laterally restrained by the
decking since the decking spans perpendicular to the beam and is directly attached to it.

Moment resistance of the steel beam =
Rd a
M
.


24 . 17
10
267 65 . 64
3
.
=
×
= × =
d xx Rd a
f W M kNm > 4.1846 kNm



Composite stage design

In the composite stage the props have been removed and the beam span is 4.5 m.


68
6. Design examples


Ultimate limit stage loading

Slab + beam = 2.71x 1.35 = 3.6585 kN/m
2

Ceiling + services = 0.50 x 1.35 = 0.675 kN/m
2

Imposed load = 2.5 x 1.5 = 3.75 kN/m
2


Total = 8.0835kN/m
2


Total design load = F = 8.0835 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 54.5636 kN


Design moment = 6920 . 30
8
5 . 4 54.5636
=
×
=
sd
M kNm


Effective width of compression flange: b
eff


125 . 1
8
5 . 4 2
8
2
=
×
=
×
=
o
eff
l
b m


1. Compressive resistance of slab: R
c


c eff
c
ck
c
h b
f
R × × =
γ
85 , 0


where
ck
f
is the characteristic strength of concrete = 30 N/mm
2


c
γ
is the partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5

1530
10
80
1125
5 . 1
30 85 . 0
3
= × ×
×
=
c
R kN


2. Tensile resistance of steel section: R
s


d a s
f A R × =
4813 . 288
10
10
267 82 . 10
3
2
= × × =
s
R kN





69
6. Design examples


3. Moment resistance with full shear connection:

Since
s
R <
c
R the plastic neutral axis (P.N.A.) lies in the concrete flange therefore the
composite section is Class 1. The moment resistance of the composite beam is:

(
¸
(

¸

× − + + =
2 2
.
c
c
s
p c s Rd pl
h
R
R
h h
h
R M

9817 . 64174
2
80
1530
4813 . 288
50 80
2
200
4813 . 288
.
=
(
¸
(

¸

× − + + × =
Rd pl
M kNmm

64.1750
.
=
Rd pl
M kNm >
sd
M = 30.6920 kNm


The plastic neutral axis depth is:

0840 . 15 80
1530
4813 . 288
= × = × =
c
c
s
p
h
R
R
y mm

0840 . 15 mm < 80 mm → P.N.A lies in the concrete flange.


4. Shear connector resistance:

In light steel sections, top-hat connectors are used. Each top-hat connector is fixed by
four studs. The resistance of each stud has been calculated in several tests by Lawson
and Popo-Ola (1998), and it has a value of 18 kN. Hence the resistance of a shear
connector is equal to:

Stud resistance = 18 kN
Shear connector resistance
u
P = 72 18 4 = × kN
6 . 57 72 8 . 0 8 . 0 = × = × =
u Rd
P P kN

Due to the geometry of the top-hat, if a connector is placed in each decking elevation
between the points of zero and maximum moment, the longitudinal shear force transfer
is:

R
q
(4 studs) 6 . 129
2
5 . 4 6 . 57
2
=
×
=
×
=
L P
Rd
kN





70
6. Design examples


5. Degree of shear connection:

There is a minimum degree of shear connection which for beams with a span equal or
less than 5 m is 0.4.

449 . 0
4813 . 288
6 . 129
= = =
s
q
f
R
R
N
N
> 0.4

The degree of shear connection cannot be higher than 1, and less than 0.4.

4 . 0 449 . 0 1 > >


6. Moment resistance with partial shear connection:

Using the linear interaction method, the moment resistance of a composite beam is
obtained as follows:

( )
Rd a Rd pl
f
Rd a Rd
M M
N
N
M M
. . .
− × + =
where
24 . 17
.
= × =
d xx Rd a
f W M kNm
=
f
N
N
Degree of shear connection
=
Rd pl
M
.
Moment resistance based on full shear connection

( ) 3254 . 38 24 . 17 1750 . 64 449 . 0 24 . 17 = − × + =
Rd
M kNm

6920 . 30 3254 . 38 = > =
Sd Rd
M M kNm

Increase in moment resistance due to composite action:

223 . 2
24 . 17
3254 . 38
.
= =
Rd a
Rd
M
M



7. Vertical shear:

Beam + slab = 2.71 x 1.35 x 4.5 x 1.5 / 2 = 12.3474 kN
Ceiling + services = 0.5 x 1.35 x 4.5 x 1.5 / 2 = 2.2781 kN
Imposed load = 2.5 x 1.5 x 4.5 x 1.5 / 2 = 12.6563 kN

Total shear force:
Sd
V = 27.2818 kN

71
6. Design examples


Shear resistance: V
pl,Rd


3
,
d
v Rd pl
f
A V × =

where
w v
ht A =
4459 . 98534
3
267
2 . 3 200
.
= × × =
Rd pl
V N
5344 . 98
.
=
Rd pl
V kN

2818 . 27 =
Sd
V kN ≤ 5344 . 98
.
=
Rd pl
V kN

267 . 49 5 . 0
.
= ×
Rd pl
V kN > 2818 . 27 =
Sd
V KN (there is no interaction bending
moment-shear force)


8. Shear buckling resistance:

Shear buckling resistance must be checked if the web slenderness (d/t
w
) exceeds 69ε:
w
t
d
> 69ε

where
d is the height of the web
w
t is the thickness of the web
ε
280
235 235
= =
y
f

8 . 196 6 . 1 2 200 2 = × − = × − =
f
t h d mm
2 . 3 6 . 1 2 = × =
w
t mm

5 . 61
2 . 3
8 . 196
=

69ε = 63.2

61.5 < 63.2 → therefore the possibility of buckling in shear is not necessary to be
checked.




72
6. Design examples


Serviceability limit stage


1. Elastic stress

In Eurocode 4, ENV 1994 (1994), no stress checks are required for normal conditions,
so no stress limits are given.


2. Deflections

The beam functions exclusively as composite, so the deflections to be considered are
composite stage deflections. The deflections caused by the dead weight of the slab and
the beam when the props are removed, and the deflections caused by the weight of the
floor finished (ceiling&services and imposed loads).

Second moment of area of the composite section:

( )
( )
xx
c eff c p a
c
I
n
h b
nr
h h h A
I +
×
+
+
+ +
=
12 1 4
2
3 2



01202006 . 0
80 1125
10 82 . 10
2
=
×
×
=
×
=
c eff
a
h b
A
r

n = Modular ratio = 10, for normal weight concrete

( )
( )
5 . 46126288 10 4 . 646
10 12
80 1125
01202006 . 0 10 1 4
80 50 2 200 10 82 . 10
4
3 2 2
= × +
×
×
+
× + ×
+ × + × ×
=
c
I mm
4
7
10 61262885 . 4 × =
c
I mm
4


• Slab and beam weight deflections:

Self weight of slab and beam = 2.71 kN/mm
2

Design load F = 2.71 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 18.2925 kN

a
E = 205 kN/mm
2

c a
I E
FL
384
5
3
1
= δ
( )
2953 . 2
10 61262885 . 4 205 384
10 5 . 4 2925 . 18 5
7
3
3
1
=
× × ×
× × ×
= δ mm


73
6. Design examples


• Imposed loads deflections:

Imposed load = 2.5 kN/mm
2

Design load F = 2.5 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 16.875 kN


Deflection with full shear connection

c a
I E
FL
384
5
3
2
= δ

( )
1175 . 2
10 61262885 . 4 205 384
10 5 . 4 875 . 16 5
7
3
3
2
=
× × ×
× × ×
= δ mm



As partial shear connection exists, the effect of slip has to be taken into account on the
deflections due to imposed load and also on the deflections of dead loads (Slab+beam
weight and ceiling&services).


It is necessary to check the deflection due to the imposed load:

(
¸
(

¸

− ×
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + = 1 1 5 . 0 1
2
2
2
*
2
δ
δ
δ
δ
a
f
N
N


1109 . 15
10 4 . 646
10 61262885 . 4 1175 . 2
4
7
2
2
=
×
× ×
=
×
=
xx
c
a
I
I δ
δ mm

( ) 6955 . 5 1
1175 . 2
1109 . 15
449 . 0 1 5 . 0 1 1175 . 2
*
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

− × − + × = δ mm

5.6955 ≈
790
L
<
350
L


The deflection due to imposed load is satisfactory

The effect of slip has to be considered also on the deflection due to the slab and beam
self weight, when the props are removed.

(
¸
(

¸

− ×
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + = 1 1 5 . 0 1
1
1
1
*
1
δ
δ
δ
δ
a
f
N
N


74
6. Design examples


3802 . 16
10 4 . 646
10 61262885 . 4 2953 . 2
4
7
1
1
=
×
× ×
=
×
=
xx
c
a
I
I δ
δ mm
( ) 1740 . 6 1
2953 . 2
3802 . 16
449 . 0 1 5 . 0 1 2953 . 2
*
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

− × − + × = δ mm


• Total deflection:

Slab+beam weight = 6.1740 mm
Imposed load = 5.6955 mm
Ceiling + services ≈ 1391 . 1
5 . 2
6955 . 5 5 . 0
=
×
mm
Total = 13.0086 mm

The limit on the maximum total deflection for a composite beam is the following:

4 . 20
250
4500
200
= =
L
mm > total deflection = 18.3892 mm

The total deflection is also satisfactory.


3. Transverse reinforcement

The resistance of concrete flange to splitting will be check, using A142 mesh
reinforcement in the slab.

• Shear resistance per shear surface,
Rd
v

c
ck
cv
s
sk e
Rd cv Rd
f
A
f A
A v
γ
η
γ
ητ 2 . 0 5 . 2 ≤ + =

e
A = 142 mm
2
/m
η = 1 for normal weight concrete
cv
A = 105 x 10
3
mm
2
/m
ck
f = 30 N/mm
2

sk
f = 460 N/mm
2

5 . 1
8 . 1
25 . 0 25 . 0
05 . 0
× = × =
c
ctk
Rd
f
γ
τ = 0.3
c
γ = 1.5
s
γ = 1.15


75
6. Design examples


55 . 135 10
15 . 1
460 142
3 . 0 1 10 105 5 . 2
3 3
= ×
(
¸
(

¸
×
+ × × × × =

Rd
v kN/m

420 10
5 . 1
30 1
10 105 2 . 0 2 . 0
3 3
= ×
(
¸
(

¸
×
× × × =

c
ck
vc
f
A
γ
η
kN/m > 135.55 kN/m


• Shear force per unit length, v

Placing the top-hat connectors in the way there are four studs per trough:

96
3 . 0
5 . 0 6 . 57
=
×
=
Sd
v kN/m < =
Rd
ν 135.55 kN/m

A142 mesh is satisfactory


4. Vibration (Simplified approach)

Loading:

Beam + slab = 2.71 kN/m
2

Ceiling + services = 0.50 kN/m
2

10% of imposed load = 0.25 kN/m
2

Total = 3.46 kN/m
2


Total weight of floor, F = 3.46 x 4.5 x 1.5 = 23.355 kN

Increase of second moment of area of the composite section based on elastic
properties
c
I , by 10% to allow for the increased dynamic stiffness of the composite
beam,
1 c
I
7 7
1
10 07389174 . 5 10 61262885 . 4 1 . 1 × = × × =
c
I mm
4


Instantaneous deflection caused by re-application of the self weight of the floor and the
beam to the composite beam,
a
δ

1
3
384
5
c a
a
I E
L F
× ×
× ×
= δ

( )
6642 . 2
10 07389174 . 5 205 384
10 5 . 4 355 . 23 5
7
3
3
=
× × ×
× × ×
=
a
δ mm



76
6. Design examples


Natural frequency ≈ 0279 . 11
6642 . 2
18 18
= =
a
δ
Hz > 4 Hz

5. Conclusion

When the beam is propped during the construction stage, its span is not limited
by the moment resistance at the construction stage rather than in the case of an
unpropped construction. If props are used, the design is limited basically by the total
deflection which is a serviceability criterion.


































77
7. Load-span design tables

7. LOAD-SPAN DESIGN TABLES FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS
USING LIGHT STEEL SECTION AND PROFILED SHEAR
CONNECTORS


7.1 PROPERTIES OF LIGHT STEEL SECTIONS

7.1.1 Class classification

The particular cold formed sections analysed are Generic C sections which properties
have been tabulated by Lawson, Chung and Popo-Ola (2002) (see Annex 1). If we
check the class classification for the single light steel sections according to the criteria
of Eurocode 3, showed in table 7.1, the result is that all sections are slender (see Annex
2.1).

The following table gives the limiting proportions for compression elements of Class 1
to 3. When any of the compression elements within a section fail to satisfy the limit for
Class 3 the whole section is classified as Class 4 (commonly referred to as slender), and
local buckling should be taken into account in the design using an effective cross
section.


Table 7.1 Maximum slenderness ratios for the elements of a rolled section in
compression and bending
Element Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

Flange

c / t
f
= 10 ε c / t
f
= 11 ε c / t
f
= 15 ε
Web subject to
bending

d / t
w
= 72 ε

d / t
w
= 83 ε d / t
w
= 124 ε
Web subject to
compression

d / t
w
= 33 ε

d / t
w
= 38 ε d / t
w
= 42 ε


As the Annex 2.1 tables show, all the single sections are Class 4, and this means that
local buckling may occur in compression elements before yield is reached. However in
composite construction the sections used are back to back double sections, not single
sections, and working compositely with a concrete slab. In this case the class
classification of the section is different.

In calculation for the construction stage of a composite beam the classification of the
cross section should be based on the plain steel section, but secondary beams are
laterally restrained by the steel decking and can develop their full moment resistances.

78
7. Load-span design tables


Once the composite action is achieved, to know if local buckling can occur or not, the
position of the plastic neutral axis has to be checked. These calculations have been
carried out for all the cases treated in this project, with the different sections and
imposed loads (see Annex 2.2). The plastic neutral axis lies within the concrete slab in
all the combinations studied; hence the composite sections are classified as Class 1 and
local buckling has not to be considered in the design.

7.1.2 Shear buckling

Working with light steel sections it is important to consider the possibility of buckling
in shear. Shear buckling resistance must be checked if the web slenderness (d/t
w
)
exceeds 69ε:

w
t
d
> 69ε (7.1)

where
d is the height of the web
w
t is the thickness of the web
y
f
235
= ε

The possibility of buckling in shear has been checked for all the Generic C double
sections studied in this project as the table 7.2 shows. Only with two of the Generic C
double sections studied and in the case that steel grade S350 is used, shear in buckling
may happed. These two sections are 200x65x1.6 and 300x65x2.4 back to back double
sections.

The shear buckling resistance of these two sections has to be calculated to know if that
means a hazard or not.
















79
7. Load-span design tables


Table 7.2 Study of the possibility of buckling in shear of the different sections
D
(mm)
t
(mm)
tw
(mm)
d
(mm)
d/tw

69ε
(fy=280
N/mm
2
)

69ε
(fy=350
N/mm
2
)

100 1,2 2,4 97,6 40,667 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
125 1,2 2,4 122,6 51,083 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
125 1,6 3,2 121,8 38,063 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
150 1,6 3,2 146,8 45,875 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
150 1,8 3,6 146,4 40,667 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
165 1,6 3,2 161,8 50,563 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
165 1,8 3,6 161,4 44,833 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
180 1,6 3,2 176,8 55,250 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
180 1,8 3,6 176,4 49,000 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
180 2,0 4 176 44,000 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
200 1,6 3,2 196,8 61,500 63,213 ok 56,539 Buckli.
200 1,8 3,6 196,4 54,556 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
200 2,0 4 196 49,000 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
220 2,0 4 216 54,000 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
220 2,4 4,8 215,2 44,833 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
250 2,4 4,8 245,2 51,083 63,213 ok 56,539 ok
300 2,4 4,8 295,2 61,500 63,213 ok 56,539 Buckli.
300 3,0 6 294 49,000 63,213 ok 56,539 ok


Shear buckling resistance has been calculated with the simple post-critic method for
these two sections:

a
ba w
Rd ba
t d
V
γ
τ × ×
=
.
(7.2)

where the value of the simple post-critic resistance
ba
τ depend on the value of the web
slenderness
w λ
_


τ
ε
λ
k
t d
w
w
× ×
=
4 . 37
/
_
(7.3)



80
7. Load-span design tables


where
τ
k = 5.34 is the shear buckling coefficient

For both sections, 200x65x1.6 and 300x65x2.4, the value of the web slenderness is:
w λ
_
= 0.868

Therefore
0.8 <
w λ
_
< 1.2

And according to the simple post-critic method

|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− − =
3
8 . 0 625 . 0 1
_
y
w
ba
f
λ
τ (7.4)

With the simple post-critic resistance the shear buckling resistance is calculated for each
section, showed in table 7.3, and it can be compared with the shear force
Sd
V to know if
the buckling in shear may be a problem or not with these sections. As it is possible to
see in table 7.4, shear force in the cases studied is always lower than the shear buckling
resistance of the section, hence shear buckling will never happen.


Table 7.3 Shear buckling resistance
Generic C section
w λ
_
ba
τ (N/mm
2
)
Rd ba
V
.
(kN)
200x65x1.6 0.868 193.43 116.014
300x65x2.4 0.868 193.43 261.032


Table 7.4 Shear force values






200x65x1.6
Unpropped (S350)
200x65x1.6 Propped
(S350)
300x65x2.4
Unpropped (S350)
300x65x2.4 Propped
(S350)
Imposed
load
(kN)
L
(m)
V
Sd

(kN)
Imposed
load
(kN)
L
(m)
V
Sd

(kN)
Imposed
load
(kN)
L
(m)
V
Sd

(kN)
Imposed
load
(kN)
L
(m)
V
Sd

(kN)
1.5 4.7 23.2 1.5 5.3 26.3 1.5 7.3 35.9 1.5 7.9 38.9
2.5 4.6 27.8 2.5 4.9 29.7 2.5 7.0 42.4 2.5 7.3 44.3
3.5 4.4 31.6 3.5 4.6 33.1 3.5 6.8 48.9 3.5 6.9 49.6
4.5 4.3 35.7 4.5 4.4 36.6 4.5 6.6 54.9 4.5 6.6 54.9
81
7. Load-span design tables


7.2 DESIGN CRITERIA

Design tables have been calculated for double Generic C light steel sections (see tables
7.5 to 7.8). These tables contain a wide range of cases although one of the parameters
involved has been considered fixed, the beam spacing. On this way the design tables
can be used to design composite beams and also to compare how sections span capacity
vary with the construction conditions, steel grade and imposed load applied.

Design criteria:

- a: moment resistance of the beam exceeded in the construction stage
- b: interaction between shear force and bending moment
- c: moment resistance of the composite beam with full shear connection exceeded
- d: moment resistance of the composite beam with partial shear connection exceeded
- e: limit on the degree of partial shear connection not satisfied. This is not a failure
criterion but it is a warning that the shear connection provided is less than the
Eurocode limit of 40%.
- g: total deflection of L
E
/200 exceeded for unpropped, (equal to L
E
/250 for propped)
- h: imposed load deflection of span/350 exceeded
- i: natural frequency is less than 4 Hz


7.3 DESIGN TABLES. PROPPED AND UNPROPPED BEAMS

The two first tables are for unpropped beams during construction (tables 7.5 and 7.6)
and the second ones are for propped beams (tables 7.7 and 7.8). The parameters showed
in the tables are the maximum span that each section can achieve followed by the design
criteria which limits this maximum span. The number of connectors required for these
conditions and the deflection that the beam self weight and the imposed loads mean.

Tables’ notation:

L
E
: span of the beam (secondary beam)
δ
E
: deflection due to imposed loads
δ
S
: deflection due to beam self weight
N: number of shear connectors











82
BEAM DATA
• Internal beam
• Uniform load
• Beam spacing 1.5 m
• Steel strength S 280
• Stud resistance 18 kN
SLAB DATA
• Slab depth 130 mm
• Concrete strength C30/37



Beam is unpropped during construction

Table 7.5 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: unpropped – f
y
= 280 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGNATION
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
100x55x1.2 2,4 a 1,1 9,7
8 2,4 a 1,9 9,7 8 2,4 g 2,5 9,0 7 2,2 b 2,7 7,2 7
125x55x1.2 2,8 a 1,3 10,3
9 2,8 a 2,2 10,7 9 2,8 a 3,0 10,3 9 2,7 g 3,6 9,7 9
125x55x1.6 3,2 g 1,8 13,4
10 3,1 g 2,8 12,3 10 3,0 g 3,6 11,1 10 3,0 g 4,2 10,1 9
150x65x1.6 3,8 g 2,3 15,8
12 3,7 g 3,5 14,6 12 3,6 g 4,5 13,0 11 3,5 g 5,3 11,7 11
150x65x1.8 3,9 g 2,4 16,3
13 3,9 g 4,0 16,2 13 3,7 g 4,7 13,2 12 3,6 g 5,6 12,0 12
165x65x1.6 4,0 g 2,4 16,3
13 4,0 g 4,0 16,0 13 3,9 g 4,8 13,8 12 3,8 g 5,7 12,5 12
165x65x1.8 4,2 g 2,7 17,6
14 4,1 g 4,1 15,8 13 4,0 g 5,1 14,1 13 3,9 g 6,1 12,8 12
180x65x1.6 4,3 g 2,5 16,8
14 4,2 g 4,1 16,2 14 4,1 g 5,2 14,6 13 4,0 d 6,1 13,0 13
180x65x1.8 4,5 g 2,9 18,6
14 4,4 g 4,5 17,1 14 4,3 g 5,5 14,9 14 4,1 d 6,4 13,3 13
180x65x2.0 4,6 g 3,1 19,1
15 4,5 g 4,6 17,0 15 4,4 g 5,8 15,3 14 4,3 d 6,8 13,7 14
200x65x1.6 4,6 a 2,7 17,4
15 4,6 a 4,5 17,4 15 4,5 g 5,8 15,8 14 4,2 d 6,1 12,7 14
200x65x1.8 4,8 g 3,1 19,4
16 4,8 g 5,1 19,0 16 4,6 g 6,1 16,1 15 4,4 d 6,5 13,0 14
200x65x2.0 5,0 g 3,4 20,7
16 4,9 g 5,1 18,7 16 4,8 g 6,4 16,5 15 4,5 d 6,9 13,4 15
220x65x2.0 5,4 g 3,7 22,1
18 5,3 g 5,5 19,6 17 5,1 g 7,0 17,6 17 4,8 d 7,0 13,4 15
220x65x2.4 5,7 g 4,0 23,1
19 5,5 g 6,0 20,6 18 5,4 g 7,6 18,3 17 5,0 d 7,7 14,1 16
250x65x2.4 6,3 g 4,6 25,5
21 6,1 g 6,8 22,6 20 5,9 g 8,5 20,0 19 5,5 d 8,0 14,2 18
300x65x2.4 7,3 g 5,4 29,3
24 7,1 g 8,0 25,8 23 6,7 d 9,4 21,2 22 6,1 d 8,5 14,5 20
300x65x3.0 7,8 g 6,0 31,0
25 7,5 g 8,8 27,1 25 7,2 d 10,6 23,0 24 6,6 d 9,6 15,9 21
83
BEAM DATA
• Internal beam
• Uniform load
• Beam spacing 1.5 m
• Steel strength S 350
• Stud resistance 18 kN
SLAB DATA
• Slab depth 130 mm
• Concrete strength C30/37



Beam is unpropped during construction

Table 7.6 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: unpropped – f
y
= 350 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGNATION
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
100x55x1.2 2,5 g 1,4 10,5
8 2,4 g 2,1 9,5 7 2,3 g 2,7 8,6 7 2,3 g 3,2 7,9 7
125x55x1.2 2,9 g 1,7 12,4
9 2,8 g 2,6 11,2 9 2,8 g 3,3 10,1 9 2,7 g 3,9 9,3 9
125x55x1.6 3,2 g 2,0 13,3
10 3,1 g 3,0 11,8 10 3,0 g 3,8 10,8 10 2,9 g 4,4 9,7 9
150x65x1.6 3,8 g 2,5 15,6
12 3,7 g 3,7 13,9 12 3,6 g 4,7 12,5 11 3,5 g 5,5 11,3 11
150x65x1.8 3,9 g 2,6 16,0
12 3,8 g 3,9 14,3 12 3,7 g 4,9 12,8 12 3,6 g 5,8 11,6 11
165x65x1.6 4,1 g 2,8 17,7
13 3,9 g 4,0 14,9 13 3,8 g 5,1 13,3 12 3,7 g 6,0 12,1 12
165x65x1.8 4,2 g 2,8 17,3
13 4,1 g 4,2 15,2 13 4,0 g 5,4 13,6 13 3,9 g 6,3 12,3 12
180x65x1.6 4,3 g 2,9 17,8
14 4,2 g 4,3 15,8 13 4,1 g 5,6 14,4 13 4,0 g 6,5 12,8 13
180x65x1.8 4,5 g 3,1 18,3
14 4,3 g 4,6 16,2 14 4,2 g 5,8 14,5 14 4,1 g 6,8 13,1 13
180x65x2.0 4,6 g 3,2 18,9
15 4,5 g 4,8 16,7 14 4,4 g 6,1 14,9 14 4,2 g 7,1 13,4 14
200x65x1.6 4,7 g 3,2 19,2
15 4,6 g 4,8 17,1 15 4,4 g 6,1 15,2 14 4,3 g 7,1 13,8 14
200x65x1.8 4,9 g 3,4 19,8
16 4,7 g 5,1 17,6 15 4,6 g 6,4 15,6 15 4,5 g 7,5 14,1 14
200x65x2.0 5,0 g 3,6 20,4
16 4,9 g 5,3 17,9 16 4,7 g 6,7 16,1 15 4,6 g 7,8 14,4 15
220x65x2.0 5,4 g 3,9 21,8
17 5,2 g 5,8 19,2 17 5,1 g 7,3 17,1 16 4,9 g 8,5 15,4 16
220x65x2.4 5,7 g 4,2 22,9
18 5,5 g 6,3 20,1 18 5,4 g 7,9 17,9 17 5,2 g 9,1 16,0 17
250x65x2.4 6,3 g 4,8 25,2
20 6,1 g 7,0 22,1 20 5,9 g 8,8 19,6 19 5,7 g 10,2 17,5 19
300x65x2.4 7,3 g 5,6 28,9
24 7,0 g 8,3 25,2 23 6,8 g 10,4 22,4 22 6,6 g 11,9 19,9 22
300x65x3.0 7,8 g 6,2 30,6
25 7,5 g 9,1 26,7 25 7,3 g 11,3 23,6 24 7,1 g 13,0 20,9 23
84
BEAM DATA
• Internal beam
• Uniform load
• Beam spacing 1.5 m
• Steel strength S 280
• Stud resistance 18 kN
SLAB DATA
• Slab depth 130 mm
• Concrete strength C30/37



Beam is propped during construction

Table 7.7 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: propped – f
y
= 280 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGNATION
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
100x55x1.2 3,3 g 4,2 7,7
11 3,0 g 5,2 5,6 9 2,6 b 4,8 3,7 8 2,2 b 3,9 2,3 7
125x55x1.2 4,0 g 5,2 9,3
13 3,6 g 6,2 6,8 11 3,2 b 6,6 5,1 10 2,8 b 5,4 3,3 9
125x55x1.6 3,9 g 4,9 8,9
12 3,5 g 6,2 6,7 11 3,3 g 6,9 5,3 11 3,1 g 7,3 4,4 10
150x65x1.6 4,5 g 5,8 10,4
15 4,2 g 7,3 7,9 13 3,9 g 8,2 6,3 12 3,6 d 8,3 5,0 12
150x65x1.8 4,6 g 5,9 10,6
15 4,2 g 7,4 8,0 14 4,0 g 8,3 6,4 13 3,7 g 8,7 5,3 12
165x65x1.6 4,9 g 6,2 11,2
16 4,5 g 7,8 8,5 14 4,2 g 8,7 6,7 13 3,8 d 8,2 4,9 12
165x65x1.8 4,9 g 6,3 11,4
16 4,5 g 8,0 8,6 15 4,3 g 8,9 6,9 14 3,9 d 8,8 5,3 13
180x65x1.6 5,2 g 6,6 12,0
17 4,8 g 8,4 9,1 15 4,4 d 9,1 7,0 14 4,0 d 8,2 4,9 13
180x65x1.8 5,3 g 6,7 12,1
17 4,9 g 8,5 9,2 16 4,5 g 9,5 7,4 15 4,1 d 8,8 5,3 13
180x65x2.0 5,3 g 6,8 12,3
17 4,9 g 8,6 9,4 16 4,6 g 9,6 7,5 15 4,3 d 9,3 5,6 14
200x65x1.6 5,6 g 7,2 13,0
18 5,2 g 9,0 9,8 17 4,7 d 9,1 7,0 15 4,2 d 8,2 4,9 14
200x65x1.8 5,7 g 7,3 13,1
18 5,3 g 9,2 10,0 17 4,8 d 9,7 7,5 16 4,4 d 8,8 5,3 14
200x65x2.0 5,8 g 7,4 13,3
19 5,3 g 9,4 10,2 17 5,0 d 10,3 8,0 16 4,5 d 9,3 5,6 15
220x65x2.0 6,2 g 7,9 14,3
20 5,7 g 10,1 10,9 19 5,3 d 10,4 8,0 17 4,8 d 9,4 5,7 15
220x65x2.4 6,4 g 8,2 14,7
21 5,9 g 10,4 11,3 19 5,6 d 11,5 8,9 18 5,0 d 10,4 6,2 16
250x65x2.4 7,1 g 9,0 16,3
23 6,6 g 11,5 12,5 21 6,0 d 11,8 9,1 20 5,5 d 10,6 6,4 18
300x65x2.4 8,1 g 10,3 18,7
27 7,5 d 13,2 14,3 25 6,7 d 12,3 9,5 22 6,1 d 11,2 6,7 20
300x65x3.0 8,5 g 10,8 19,6
28 7,9 g 13,8 15,0 26 7,2 d 14,0 10,8 24 6,6 d 12,7 7,7 21
85
BEAM DATA
• Internal beam
• Uniform load
• Beam spacing 1.5 m
• Steel strength S 350
• Stud resistance 18 kN
SLAB DATA
• Slab depth 130 mm
• Concrete strength C30/37



Beam is propped during construction

Table 7.8 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: propped – f
y
= 350 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGNATION
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
100x55x1.2 3,0 g 3,8 6,8
9 2,7 g 4,8 5,2 9 2,5 g 5,3 4,1 8 2,4 g 5,6 3,4 7
125x55x1.2 3,5 g 4,5 8,1
11 3,2 g 5,7 6,1 10 3,0 g 6,3 4,8 10 2,8 g 6,7 4,0 9
125x55x1.6 3,6 g 4,7 8,4
12 3,4 g 5,9 6,4 11 3,2 g 6,6 5,1 10 3,0 g 7,0 4,2 9
150x65x1.6 4,3 g 5,5 9,9
14 4,0 g 7,0 7,6 13 3,7 g 7,8 6,1 12 3,5 g 8,3 5,0 11
150x65x1.8 4,4 g 5,6 10,1
14 4,1 g 7,2 7,8 13 3,8 g 8,0 6,2 12 3,6 g 8,5 5,1 12
165x65x1.6 4,6 g 5,9 10,6
15 4,3 g 7,5 8,1 14 4,0 g 8,4 6,5 13 3,8 g 8,9 5,3 12
165x65x1.8 4,7 g 6,0 10,8
15 4,4 g 7,7 8,3 14 4,1 g 8,6 6,6 13 3,9 g 9,1 5,5 12
180x65x1.6 4,9 g 6,3 11,3
16 4,6 g 8,0 8,7 15 4,3 g 8,9 6,9 14 4,1 g 9,5 5,7 13
180x65x1.8 5,2 g 7,0 12,7
17 4,7 g 8,2 8,9 15 4,4 g 9,2 7,1 14 4,2 g 9,7 5,8 13
180x65x2.0 5,1 g 6,6 11,8
17 4,8 g 8,3 9,0 15 4,5 g 9,4 7,2 14 4,3 g 10,0 6,0 14
200x65x1.6 5,3 g 6,8 12,3
17 4,9 g 8,6 9,4 16 4,6 g 9,7 7,5 15 4,4 g 10,3 6,2 14
200x65x1.8 5,4 g 6,9 12,5
18 5,0 g 8,8 9,6 16 4,7 g 9,9 7,7 15 4,5 g 10,6 6,4 15
200x65x2.0 5,6 g 7,1 12,8
18 5,2 g 9,1 9,8 17 4,9 g 10,1 7,8 16 4,6 g 10,8 6,5 15
220x65x2.0 6,0 g 7,6 13,8
19 5,5 g 9,7 10,5 18 5,2 g 10,9 8,4 17 5,0 g 11,6 7,0 16
220x65x2.4 6,2 g 7,9 14,3
20 5,8 g 10,2 11,0 19 5,4 g 11,4 8,8 18 5,2 g 12,1 7,3 17
250x65x2.4 6,8 g 8,7 15,7
22 6,4 g 11,2 12,1 21 6,0 g 12,5 9,7 20 5,7 g 13,3 8,0 19
300x65x2.4 7,9 g 10,0 18,1
26 7,3 g 12,9 14,0 24 6,9 g 14,4 11,2 23 6,6 g 15,4 9,3 21
300x65x3.0 8,3 g 10,6 19,2
27 7,7 g 13,6 14,7 25 7,3 g 15,3 11,8 24 6,9 g 16,2 9,8 23
86
7. Load-span design tables


7.4 USE OF DESIGN TABLES

Composite beams design tables are very useful for the engineer in particular during the
design stage of a project. They help to get the most economic selection according with
the project requirements.

Once the imposed load is determined the engineer has to decide the span - spacing
combination more competent. Changing one of these two variables it is possible to get
different sections suitable for the load conditions. If the span remains fixed and the
spacing is reduced, the tables show the possibility of use a smaller section which
obviously is more economic. Hence for a determinate spacing, if a reduction of the steel
section is required it is necessary to reduce the span of the beam.

This information can be found within the design tables, however is easier to appreciate
these relations if the dates are plotted in graphics (see Figure 7.1).

Depth-Span
Unpropped beam - S280
Imposed Load 2.5 kN/m2
0
50
100
150
200
250
2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5
Span (m)
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

1
.
6

m
m

t
h
i
c
k

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
Spacing 1000
Spacing 1200
Spacing 1500
Spacing 2400

Depth-Span
Unpropped beam - S350
Imposed Load 2.5 kN/m2
0
50
100
150
200
250
2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5
Span (m)
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

1
.
6

m
m

t
h
i
c
k

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
Spacing 1000
Spacing 1200
Spacing 1500
Spacing 2400

Figure 7.1 Relation between span-depth of 1.6 mm thick section, under an imposed load
equal to 2.5 kN/ m
2
, depending on the spacing
87
7. Load-span design tables


Other possibility is to know in which imposed load conditions a specific section would
respond positively. If the spacing is fixed, the imposed load that the section can resist,
varying the span of the beam, can be determinate. This process is very easy with the aid
of graphics (see Figure 7.2).


Imposed Load-Span
Spacing = 1500 mm
Unpropped - S280
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5
Span (m)
I
m
p
o
s
e
d

l
o
a
d

(
k
N
/
m
2
)
125x55x1.6
150x65x1.6
165x65x1.6
180x65x1.6
200x65x1.6



Imposed Load-Span
Spacing 1500 mm
Unpropped - S350
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5
Span (m)
I
m
p
o
s
e
d

l
o
a
d

(
k
N
/
m
2
)
125x55x1.6
150x65x1.6
165x65x1.6
180x65x1.6
200x65x1.6





88
7. Load-span design tables


Imposed Load-Span
Spacing 1500 mm
Propped - S280
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6
Span (m)
I
m
p
o
s
e
d

l
o
a
d

(
k
N
/
m
2
)
125x55x1.6
150x65x1.6
165x65x1.6
180x65x1.6
200x65x1.6




Imposed Load-Span
Spacing 1500 mm
Propped - S350
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5
Span (m)
I
m
p
o
s
e
d

L
o
a
d

(
k
N
/
m
2
)
125x55x1.6
150x65x1.6
165x65x1.6
180x65x1.6
200x65x1.6

Figure 7.2 Relation between span-imposed load with spacing equal to 1500 mm for
different sections.


Design tables show all the combinations that are possible warranting a good behaviour,
and using them it is easier to determine which combination is the right one.

89
8. Conclusions


8. CONCLUSIONS


A wide range of possibilities of cold formed sections and light steel framing has been
developed in recent years. It is appreciated that the design of these sections may appear
to be more complicated than that of hot rolled sections. It is therefore important to
understand the design principles and also the practical considerations of the structural use
of these sections.

Composite construction is widespread in building practice and the development of light
steel composite structures has a great demand because the clear benefits that they
incorporate. Using light cold formed sections of 1.2 to 3.0 mm thickness as composite
beams, means an economic benefit due to the reduction of material involved.

Differences in design of composite beams with light cold formed sections compared to
hot rolled steel sections exist. Light steel sections are slender and the possibility of local
buckling has to be checked. However working composite with in-situ concrete has being
demonstrated that local buckling of light steel sections is not a common design criterion.
Other point which has great importance is the type of shear connectors used. As light
steel sections have so thin steel elements, has been necessary to design innovative shear
connectors and to carry out several tests with the purpose of improve their performance
and determine their design resistance.

Knowing light steel sections special properties, secondary beams of a composite slab
have been designed to study the performance of these thin sections working compositely
with in situ concrete. Design tables, which are very useful in the design stage, have been
computed.

The design tables shown cover a limited range of light steel double Generic C sections
possibilities, specially because the beams spacing has been fixed to compare how the
span vary with the dimension of the section. However some general conclusions can be
observed through design tables:

• When the steel grade of the sections is S280 and the imposed loads are quite low,
with propped construction greater spans can be designed. The reason is that in unpropped
construction beams fail because of the moment resistance in construction stage is
exceeded.

If imposed loads increase there is almost not difference between the span that can be
achieved with propped construction compared to the unpropped one, in both cases total
deflections and moment resistance with partial shear connection limit the beam span.
When the beam is propped during construction, all the loads have to be resisted by the
composite section and this impedes to get greater spans.

• If the steel of the sections has higher yield strength, grade S350, in propped and
unpropped construction and with different imposed loads, the beam span is limited by
total deflections. The Eurocode restrictions for total deflections of composite beams
90
8. Conclusions


depend on whether props have been used during the constructions :

~ Unpropped construction, total deflection < L
E
/200
~ Propped construction, total deflection < L
E
/250

Although in propped construction lower total deflections are achieved, these regulation
limits allow greater spans in unpropped construction than in propped one under high
imposed loads. This effect is not presented with lower loads due to the bigger spans that
with props can be achieved.

Once the imposed load is fixed and knowing the total dimension of the composite slab,
the engineer has to select the beams spacing and span. With these decisions taken, design
tables give the dimensions, depth and thickness, of the section that will resist these
conditions. Light steel sections of 1.2 to 3.0 mm thickness look weak because their
slenderness, but they can support imposed loads about 4.5 kN/m
2
with spans of more than
8 m.

Comparing the design tables of light steel sections and heavy cold formed sections (H-
CFS), it is possible to observe that greater spans can be achieved using these last ones.
But often the spans that light steel sections can offer satisfy the construction demand. H-
CFS use steel of 3 to 6 mm thickness so the cost that can be saved by the reduction in
weight of material is lower than using light steel sections. Hence using light steel sections
when the construction requirements allow it, increase economic and environmental
benefits.





91
9. Bibliographic references


9. BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES


1. Galjaard, H. C., Walraven, J. C. (2001), Static tests on various types of shear
connectors for composite structures- Connections between Steel and Concrete,
edited by R. Eligehausen, Vol. Two. University of Stuttgart, Germany.

2. ENV 1993-1-1 (1993) Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. Part 1-1: General
Rules and Rules for Buildings. European Committee for Standardisation (CEN).

3. ENV 1994-1-1 (1994) Eurocode 4. Design of composite steel and concrete
structures. Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. European
Committee for Standardisation (CEN) .

4. ENV 1994-2 (1997) Eurocode 4. Design of composite steel and concrete structures.
Part 2: Composite bridges. European Committee for Standardisation (CEN).

5. Fontana, M., Beck, H., Bärtschi, R. (2001), Experimental investigation on the
behaviour of strip shear connectors with powder actuated fasteners-Connections
between Steel and Concrete, edited by R. Eligehausen, Vol. Two. University of
Stuttgart, Germany.

6. Lawson, R.M., Chung, K.F., Popo-Ola, S.O. (2002), Building Design Using Cold
Formed Steel Sections-Section Properties and Load Tables, The Steel
Construction Institute.

7. Lawson, R.M., Popo-Ola, S.O. (2002), Opportunities for Heavy Cold Formed Steel
Sections, The Steel Construction Institute.

8. Lawson, R.M., Popo-Ola, S.O. (1998), Push-out tests with strip connector fastened
with HILTI X-EDNK22 pins into cold formed steel sections, The Steel
Construction Institute.















92
10. Supplementary bibliography


10. SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY


• “Cold-Formed Steel Design”, Second Edition. Edited by Wei-Wen, Yu, 1991.
New York. Wiley Publications.
• “Composite Beam Design to Eurocode 4”. Edited by R. M. Lawson and K. F.
Chung, 1994. Steel Construction Institute.
• “Composite Slabs and Beams using Steel Decking: best practice for design and
construction”. Edited by G. H. Couchman, D. L. Mullett and J. W. Rackham,
2000. The Metal Cladding & Roofing Manufacturers Association.
• “Design of Composite Beams Using Precast Concrete Slabs”. Edited by S. J.
Hicks and R. M. Lawson, 2003. Steel Construction Institute.



































93


ANNEX 1


GENERIC C SECTIONS PROPERTIES







































94
GENERIC C SECTIONS

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES

Single section

Table A1.1 Section properties of Generic C single sections
D
(mm)
B
(mm)
T
(mm)
Area
(cm
2
)
Weight
(kg/m)
I
x x
(cm
4
)
I
y y

(cm
4
)
r
x x

(cm)
r
y y
(cm)
W
x x

(cm
3
)
W
y y

(cm
3
)
J
(cm
4
)
C
w

(cm
6
)
e
s

(mm)
100 55 1,2 2,67 2,09 44,3 11,5 4,07 2,07 8,87 3,22 0,0120 255 -26,6
125 55 1,2 2,96 2,32 73,9 12,4 5,00 2,05 11,83 3,31 0,0133 401 -25,1
125 55 1,6 3,93 3,08 97,0 16,1 4,97 2,02 15,52 4,28 0,0319 513 -24,6
150 65 1,6 4,63 3,63 165,4 25,6 5,98 2,35 22,06 5,66 0,0376 1127 -28,1
150 65 1,8 5,19 4,08 184,7 28,4 5,96 2,34 24,63 6,27 0,0536 1244 -27,8
165 65 1,6 4,86 3,82 206,2 26,4 6,51 2,33 25,00 5,72 0,0394 1387 -27,3
165 65 1,8 5,46 4,28 230,4 29,3 6,50 2,32 27,93 6,34 0,0563 1532 -27,1
180 65 1,6 5,10 4,00 252,5 27,1 7,04 2,31 28,06 5,77 0,0413 1681 -26,6
180 65 1,8 5,72 4,49 282,2 30,1 7,02 2,29 31,36 6,40 0,0591 1856 -26,4
180 65 2,0 6,34 4,98 311,2 33,0 7,01 2,28 34,59 7,00 0,0812 2023 -26,1
200 65 1,6 5,41 4,25 323,2 28,0 7,73 2,28 32,32 5,83 0,0439 2125 -25,7
200 65 1,8 6,07 4,77 361,3 31,1 7,71 2,26 36,14 6,47 0,0627 2348 -25,5
200 65 2,0 6,73 5,28 398,7 34,0 7,70 2,25 39,87 7,08 0,0862 2560 -25,2
220 65 2,0 7,12 5,59 499,6 35,0 8,37 2,22 45,43 7,14 0,0912 3174 -24,4
220 65 2,4 8,50 6,67 590,9 40,7 8,34 2,19 53,73 8,30 0,1578 3664 -23,8
250 65 2,4 9,21 7,23 802,8 42,1 9,34 2,14 64,23 8,40 0,1709 4903 -22,7
300 65 2,4 10,39 8,15 1249,4 44,1 10,97 2,06 83,31 8,53 0,1928 7444 -21,0
300 65 3,0 12,88 10,11 1531,2 52,4 10,90 2,02 102,09 10,14 0,3762 8780 -20,2

x x
t
D
B
95


Double section

Table A1.2 Section properties of double Generic C sections
D
(mm)
B
(mm)
T
(mm)
Area
(cm
2
)
Weight
(kg/m)
I
x x
(cm
4
)
I
y y

(cm
4
)
r
x x

(cm)
r
y y
(cm)
W
x x

(cm
3
)
W
y y

(cm
3
)
J
(cm
4
)
C
w

(cm
6
)
e
s

(mm)
100 55 1,2 5,34 4,19 88,6 42,8 4,07 2,83 17,73 7,79 0,0239 1135 -
125 55 1,2 5,92 4,64 147,8 42,9 5,00 2,69 23,66 7,79 0,0265 1733 -
125 55 1,6 7,85 6,17 194,0 55,9 4,97 2,67 31,05 10,17 0,0637 2198 -
150 65 1,6 9,26 7,27 330,9 87,0 5,98 3,07 44,13 13,39 0,0751 4869 -
150 65 1,8 10,39 8,15 369,4 96,9 5,96 3,05 49,27 14,90 0,1072 5353 -
165 65 1,6 9,73 7,63 412,5 87,0 6,51 2,99 50,01 13,39 0,0789 5859 -
165 65 1,8 10,91 8,57 460,7 96,9 6,50 2,98 55,86 14,90 0,1127 6443 -
180 65 1,6 10,19 8,00 505,0 87,0 7,04 2,92 56,13 13,39 0,0827 6940 -
180 65 1,8 11,44 8,98 564,3 96,9 7,02 2,91 62,72 14,91 0,1181 7634 -
180 65 2,0 12,68 9,95 622,4 106,4 7,01 2,90 69,17 16,37 0,1623 8285 -
200 65 1,6 10,82 8,49 646,4 87,1 7,73 2,84 64,65 13,39 0,0878 8524 -
200 65 1,8 12,15 9,54 722,6 96,9 7,71 2,82 72,27 14,91 0,1254 9379 -
200 65 2,0 13,46 10,57 797,3 106,4 7,70 2,81 79,75 16,38 0,1724 10183 -
220 65 2,0 14,25 11,18 999,2 106,5 8,37 2,73 90,85 16,38 0,1824 12277 -
220 65 2,4 17,00 13,34 1181,9 124,7 8,34 2,71 107,46 19,18 0,3155 14042 -
250 65 2,4 18,41 14,45 1605,5 124,7 9,34 2,60 128,46 19,19 0,3418 18067 -
300 65 2,4 20,77 16,31 2498,9 124,8 10,97 2,45 166,61 19,19 0,3857 25902 -
300 65 3,0 25,76 20,22 3062,3 150,1 10,90 2,41 204,18 23,09 0,7523 30070 -

NOTE: Gross sections properties are independent on the design yield strength, so these properties tables can be used for steel grade S280 and
S350 N/mm
2
.
D
B
y
y
x x
B
t
96


ANNEX 2


SECTIONS CLASS CLASIFICATION











































97




Annex 2. Sections class classification


A2.1 SINGLE GENERIC C SECTION CLASS CLASSIFICATION:

The elements of the single Generic C sections, flange and web, have been class
classification according to the Eurocode limits.


Table A2.1 Single Generic C section class classification (f
y
= 280 N/mm
2
, 92 . 0 = ε )
D
(mm)
B
(mm)
t
(mm)
c
(mm)
c/tf Flange d/t
w

Web
under
Bending
Web
under
Compres
sion
CLASS
100 55 1,2 27,5 22,92 class4 83,33 - class4 class4
125 55 1,2 27,5 22,92 class4 104,17 - class4 class4
125 55 1,6 27,5 17,19 class4 78,13 - class4 class4
150 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 93,75 - class4 class4
150 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 83,33 - class4 class4
165 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 103,13 - class4 class4
165 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 91,67 - class4 class4
180 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 112,50 - class4 class4
180 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 100,00 - class4 class4
180 65 2,0 32,5 16,25 class4 90,00 - class4 class4
200 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 125,00 class4 class4 class4
200 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 111,11 - class4 class4
200 65 2,0 32,5 16,25 class4 100,00 - class4 class4
220 65 2,0 32,5 16,25 class4 110,00 - class4 class4
220 65 2,4 32,5 13,54 - 91,67 - class4 class4
250 65 2,4 32,5 13,54 - 104,17 - class4 class4
300 65 2,4 32,5 13,54 - 125,00 class4 class4 class4
300 65 3,0 32,5 10,83 - 100,00 - class4 class4



98
Annex 2. Sections class classification


Table A2.2 Single Generic C section class classification (f
y
= 350 N/mm
2
, 82 . 0 = ε )
D
(mm)
B
(mm)
t
(mm)
c
(mm)
c/tf Flange d/t
w

Web
under
Bending
Web
under
Compres
sion
CLASS
100 55 1,2 27,5 22,92 class4 83,33 - class4 class4
125 55 1,2 27,5 22,92 class4 104,17 class4 class4 class4
125 55 1,6 27,5 17,19 class4 78,13 - class4 class4
150 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 93,75 - class4 class4
150 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 83,33 - class4 class4
165 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 103,13 class4 class4 class4
165 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 91,67 - class4 class4
180 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 112,50 class4 class4 class4
180 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 100,00 - class4 class4
180 65 2,0 32,5 16,25 class4 90,00 - class4 class4
200 65 1,6 32,5 20,31 class4 125,00 class4 class4 class4
200 65 1,8 32,5 18,06 class4 111,11 class4 class4 class4
200 65 2,0 32,5 16,25 class4 100,00 - class4 class4
220 65 2,0 32,5 16,25 class4 110,00 class4 class4 class4
220 65 2,4 32,5 13,54 class4 91,67 - class4 class4
250 65 2,4 32,5 13,54 class4 104,17 class4 class4 class4
300 65 2,4 32,5 13,54 class4 125,00 class4 class4 class4
300 65 3,0 32,5 10,83 - 100,00 - class4 class4


A2.2 COMPOSITE BEAMS CROSS SECTIONS CLASS CLASSIFICATION

If the plastic neutral axis depth since the upper surface of the slab, y
p
, is smaller than the
concrete depth above the steel decking, 80 mm, the composite cross section is classified
as Class 1. With the compressive resistance of the concrete slab (R
c
) and the tensile
resistance of the steel section (R
s
) is possible to calculate the depth of the plastic neutral
axis y
p
.



99
Table A2.3 Composite cross section class checking: unpropped - f
y
= 280 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGNATION
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
100x55x1.2 2,4 816 142,3 14,0 2,4 816 142,3 14,0 2,4 816 142,3 14,0 2,2 748 142,3 15,2
125x55x1.2 2,8 952 157,8 13,3 2,8 952 157,8 13,3 2,8 952 157,8 13,3 2,7 918 157,8 13,8
125x55x1.6 3,2 1088 209,4 15,4 3,1 1054 209,4 15,9 3,0 1020 209,4 16,4 3,0 1020 209,4 16,4
150x65x1.6 3,8 1292 246,9 15,3 3,7 1258 246,9 15,7 3,6 1224 246,9 16,1 3,5 1190 246,9 16,6
150x65x1.8 3,9 1326 277,0 16,7 3,9 1326 277,0 16,7 3,7 1258 277,0 17,6 3,6 1224 277,0 18,1
165x65x1.6 4,0 1360 259,4 15,3 4,0 1360 259,4 15,3 3,9 1326 259,4 15,6 3,8 1292 259,4 16,1
165x65x1.8 4,2 1428 291,1 16,3 4,1 1394 291,1 16,7 4,0 1360 291,1 17,1 3,9 1326 291,1 17,6
180x65x1.6 4,3 1462 271,8 14,9 4,2 1428 271,8 15,2 4,1 1394 271,8 15,6 4,0 1360 271,8 16,0
180x65x1.8 4,5 1530 305,1 16,0 4,4 1496 305,1 16,3 4,3 1462 305,1 16,7 4,1 1394 305,1 17,5
180x65x2.0 4,6 1564 338,1 17,3 4,5 1530 338,1 17,7 4,4 1496 338,1 18,1 4,3 1462 338,1 18,5
200x65x1.6 4,6 1564 288,5 14,8 4,6 1564 288,5 14,8 4,5 1530 288,5 15,1 4,2 1428 288,5 16,2
200x65x1.8 4,8 1632 323,9 15,9 4,8 1632 323,9 15,9 4,6 1564 323,9 16,6 4,4 1496 323,9 17,3
200x65x2.0 5,0 1700 359,0 16,9 4,9 1666 359,0 17,2 4,8 1632 359,0 17,6 4,5 1530 359,0 18,8
220x65x2.0 5,4 1836 379,9 16,6 5,3 1802 379,9 16,9 5,1 1734 379,9 17,5 4,8 1632 379,9 18,6
220x65x2.4 5,7 1938 453,2 18,7 5,5 1870 453,2 19,4 5,4 1836 453,2 19,7 5,0 1700 453,2 21,3
250x65x2.4 6,3 2142 491,0 18,3 6,1 2074 491,0 18,9 5,9 2006 491,0 19,6 5,5 1870 491,0 21,0
300x65x2.4 7,3 2482 553,9 17,9 7,1 2414 553,9 18,4 6,7 2278 553,9 19,5 6,1 2074 553,9 21,4
300x65x3.0 7,8 2652 686,9 20,7 7,5 2550 686,9 21,6 7,2 2448 686,9 22,4 6,6 2244 686,9 24,5



100

Table A2.4 Composite cross section class checking: unpropped - f
y
= 350 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGN.
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
100x55x1.2 2,5 850 177,9 16,7 2,4 816 177,9 17,4 2,3 782 177,9 18,2 2,3 782 177,9 18,2
125x55x1.2 2,9 986 197,2 16,0 2,8 952 197,2 16,6 2,8 952 197,2 16,6 2,7 918 197,2 17,2
125x55x1.6 3,2 1088 261,8 19,3 3,1 1054 261,8 19,9 3,0 1020 261,8 20,5 2,9 986 261,8 21,2
150x65x1.6 3,8 1292 308,6 19,1 3,7 1258 308,6 19,6 3,6 1224 308,6 20,2 3,5 1190 308,6 20,7
150x65x1.8 3,9 1326 346,2 20,9 3,8 1292 346,2 21,4 3,7 1258 346,2 22,0 3,6 1224 346,2 22,6
165x65x1.6 4,1 1394 324,2 18,6 3,9 1326 324,2 19,6 3,8 1292 324,2 20,1 3,7 1258 324,2 20,6
165x65x1.8 4,2 1428 363,8 20,4 4,1 1394 363,8 20,9 4,0 1360 363,8 21,4 3,9 1326 363,8 21,9
180x65x1.6 4,3 1462 339,8 18,6 4,2 1428 339,8 19,0 4,1 1394 339,8 19,5 4,0 1360 339,8 20,0
180x65x1.8 4,5 1530 381,4 19,9 4,3 1462 381,4 20,9 4,2 1428 381,4 21,4 4,1 1394 381,4 21,9
180x65x2.0 4,6 1564 422,6 21,6 4,5 1530 422,6 22,1 4,4 1496 422,6 22,6 4,2 1428 422,6 23,7
200x65x1.6 4,7 1598 360,6 18,1 4,6 1564 360,6 18,4 4,4 1496 360,6 19,3 4,3 1462 360,6 19,7
200x65x1.8 4,9 1666 404,9 19,4 4,7 1598 404,9 20,3 4,6 1564 404,9 20,7 4,5 1530 404,9 21,2
200x65x2.0 5,0 1700 448,7 21,1 4,9 1666 448,7 21,5 4,7 1598 448,7 22,5 4,6 1564 448,7 23,0
220x65x2.0 5,4 1836 474,9 20,7 5,2 1768 474,9 21,5 5,1 1734 474,9 21,9 4,9 1666 474,9 22,8
220x65x2.4 5,7 1938 566,6 23,4 5,5 1870 566,6 24,2 5,4 1836 566,6 24,7 5,2 1768 566,6 25,6
250x65x2.4 6,3 2142 613,8 22,9 6,1 2074 613,8 23,7 5,9 2006 613,8 24,5 5,7 1938 613,8 25,3
300x65x2.4 7,3 2482 692,4 22,3 7,0 2380 692,4 23,3 6,8 2312 692,4 24,0 6,6 2244 692,4 24,7
300x65x3.0 7,8 2652 858,6 25,9 7,5 2550 858,6 26,9 7,3 2482 858,6 27,7 7,1 2414 858,6 28,5


101


Table A2.5 Composite cross section class checking: propped - f
y
= 280 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGN.
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
100x55x1.2 3,3 1122 142,3 10,1 3,0 1020 142,3 11,2 2,6 884 142,3 12,9 2,2 748 142,3 15,2
125x55x1.2 4,0 1360 157,8 9,3 3,6 1224 157,8 10,3 3,2 1088 157,8 11,6 2,8 952 157,8 13,3
125x55x1.6 3,9 1326 209,4 12,6 3,5 1190 209,4 14,1 3,3 1122 209,4 14,9 3,1 1054 209,4 15,9
150x65x1.6 4,5 1530 246,9 12,9 4,2 1428 246,9 13,8 3,9 1326 246,9 14,9 3,6 1224 246,9 16,1
150x65x1.8 4,6 1564 277,0 14,2 4,2 1428 277,0 15,5 4,0 1360 277,0 16,3 3,7 1258 277,0 17,6
165x65x1.6 4,9 1666 259,4 12,5 4,5 1530 259,4 13,6 4,2 1428 259,4 14,5 3,8 1292 259,4 16,1
165x65x1.8 4,9 1666 291,1 14,0 4,5 1530 291,1 15,2 4,3 1462 291,1 15,9 3,9 1326 291,1 17,6
180x65x1.6 5,2 1768 271,8 12,3 4,8 1632 271,8 13,3 4,4 1496 271,8 14,5 4,0 1360 271,8 16,0
180x65x1.8 5,3 1802 305,1 13,5 4,9 1666 305,1 14,7 4,5 1530 305,1 16,0 4,1 1394 305,1 17,5
180x65x2.0 5,3 1802 338,1 15,0 4,9 1666 338,1 16,2 4,6 1564 338,1 17,3 4,3 1462 338,1 18,5
200x65x1.6 5,6 1904 288,5 12,1 5,2 1768 288,5 13,1 4,7 1598 288,5 14,4 4,2 1428 288,5 16,2
200x65x1.8 5,7 1938 323,9 13,4 5,3 1802 323,9 14,4 4,8 1632 323,9 15,9 4,4 1496 323,9 17,3
200x65x2.0 5,8 1972 359,0 14,6 5,3 1802 359,0 15,9 5,0 1700 359,0 16,9 4,5 1530 359,0 18,8
220x65x2.0 6,2 2108 379,9 14,4 5,7 1938 379,9 15,7 5,3 1802 379,9 16,9 4,8 1632 379,9 18,6
220x65x2.4 6,4 2176 453,2 16,7 5,9 2006 453,2 18,1 5,6 1904 453,2 19,0 5,0 1700 453,2 21,3
250x65x2.4 7,1 2414 491,0 16,3 6,6 2244 491,0 17,5 6,0 2040 491,0 19,3 5,5 1870 491,0 21,0
300x65x2.4 8,1 2754 553,9 16,1 7,5 2550 553,9 17,4 6,7 2278 553,9 19,5 6,1 2074 553,9 21,4
300x65x3.0 8,5 2890 686,9 19,0 7,9 2686 686,9 20,5 7,2 2448 686,9 22,4 6,6 2244 686,9 24,5

102



Table A2.6 Composite cross section class checking: propped - f
y
= 350 N/mm
2

IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGN.
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
L
E

(m)
R
c

(kN)
R
s

(kN)
y
p

(mm)
100x55x1.2 3,0 1020 177,9 14,0 2,7 918 177,9 15,5 2,5 850 177,9 16,7 2,4 816 177,9 17,4
125x55x1.2 3,5 1190 197,2 13,3 3,2 1088 197,2 14,5 3,0 1020 197,2 15,5 2,8 952 197,2 16,6
125x55x1.6 3,6 1224 261,8 17,1 3,4 1156 261,8 18,1 3,2 1088 261,8 19,3 3,0 1020 261,8 20,5
150x65x1.6 4,3 1462 308,6 16,9 4,0 1360 308,6 18,2 3,7 1258 308,6 19,6 3,5 1190 308,6 20,7
150x65x1.8 4,4 1496 346,2 18,5 4,1 1394 346,2 19,9 3,8 1292 346,2 21,4 3,6 1224 346,2 22,6
165x65x1.6 4,6 1564 324,2 16,6 4,3 1462 324,2 17,7 4,0 1360 324,2 19,1 3,8 1292 324,2 20,1
165x65x1.8 4,7 1598 363,8 18,2 4,4 1496 363,8 19,5 4,1 1394 363,8 20,9 3,9 1326 363,8 21,9
180x65x1.6 4,9 1666 339,8 16,3 4,6 1564 339,8 17,4 4,3 1462 339,8 18,6 4,1 1394 339,8 19,5
180x65x1.8 5,2 1768 381,4 17,3 4,7 1598 381,4 19,1 4,4 1496 381,4 20,4 4,2 1428 381,4 21,4
180x65x2.0 5,1 1734 422,6 19,5 4,8 1632 422,6 20,7 4,5 1530 422,6 22,1 4,3 1462 422,6 23,1
200x65x1.6 5,3 1802 360,6 16,0 4,9 1666 360,6 17,3 4,6 1564 360,6 18,4 4,4 1496 360,6 19,3
200x65x1.8 5,4 1836 404,9 17,6 5,0 1700 404,9 19,1 4,7 1598 404,9 20,3 4,5 1530 404,9 21,2
200x65x2.0 5,6 1904 448,7 18,9 5,2 1768 448,7 20,3 4,9 1666 448,7 21,5 4,6 1564 448,7 23,0
220x65x2.0 6,0 2040 474,9 18,6 5,5 1870 474,9 20,3 5,2 1768 474,9 21,5 5,0 1700 474,9 22,3
220x65x2.4 6,2 2108 566,6 21,5 5,8 1972 566,6 23,0 5,4 1836 566,6 24,7 5,2 1768 566,6 25,6
250x65x2.4 6,8 2312 613,8 21,2 6,4 2176 613,8 22,6 6,0 2040 613,8 24,1 5,7 1938 613,8 25,3
300x65x2.4 7,9 2686 692,4 20,6 7,3 2482 692,4 22,3 6,9 2346 692,4 23,6 6,6 2244 692,4 24,7
300x65x3.0 8,3 2822 858,6 24,3 7,7 2618 858,6 26,2 7,3 2482 858,6 27,7 6,9 2346 858,6 29,3
103


ANNEX 3


HEAVY COLD FORMED SECTIONS











































104
Annex 3. Heavy cold formed sections


A3.1 HEAVY COLD FORMED SECTIONS

Construction and Engineering Products (CEP) is a specialist roll-forming division
within the Corus Special Strip Business Unit, located in Newport, South Wales. They
are studying the opportunity for use Heavy Cold Formed Sections (H-CFS) in the
building construction industry.

H-CFS use steel of 3 to 6 mm thickness. The market assessment shows that there is
potential for the use of these heavier cold formed steel sections for applications which
lie between the existing light steel cold formed sections and hot rolled sections.

The comparison made between proposed H-CFS and existing hot rolled sections
demonstrates that, for similar second moment of inertia, the corresponding weight of H-
CFS is less than those of hot rolled sections. Hence cost can be saved by the reduction
in weight of material and the H-CFS can be used for longer span applications than the
existing cold rolled sections.

In previous projects H-CFS properties have been provided by Popo-Ola and Lawson
(2002). Using these properties, the performance of H-CFS as composite beams has been
studied considering H-CFS as secondary beams of a composite slab, fixed by Hilti X-
HVB shear connectors and a beams spacing equal to 2.4 m.




Figure A3.1 Composite beam: H-CFS lipped double C section and Hilti X-HVB shear
connectors





105
Annex 3. Heavy cold formed sections


Tables A3.1 and A3.2 show the values of the double lipped C and double extended C,
heavy cold formed sections properties used for this study.

Tables A3.3 and A3.4 show the results of the span-load calculations carried out. If these
results are compared with the results of light steel analysis (see tables 7.5 to 7.8), it is
appreciable that bigger spans with greater beams spacing can be achieved using H-CFS.
However light steel sections means more economic benefits than H-CFS.

106




Table A3.1 Section properties of heavy cold formed double lipped C sections



























D
(mm)
B
(mm)
t
(mm)
Area
(cm
2
)
Weight
(kg/m)
I
x x
(cm
4
)
I
y y

(cm
4
)
r
x x

(cm)
r
y y
(cm)
W
x x

(cm
3
)
W
y y

(cm
3
)
J
(cm
4
)
C
w

(cm
6
)
e
s

(mm)
200 75 3,0 21,02 16,50 1263,7 222,1 7,75 3,25 126,4 29,6 0,61 20209 -
200 75 4,0 27,47 21,56 1615,8 278,3 7,67 3,18 161,6 37,1 1,44 23827 -
200 75 4,5 30,57 24,00 1778,0 302,9 7,63 3,15 177,8 40,4 2,03 25109 -
250 75 3,0 23,98 18,83 2143,7 222,2 9,45 3,04 171,5 29,6 0,70 31455 -
250 75 4,0 31,43 24,67 2753,8 278,5 9,36 2,98 220,3 37,1 1,64 37218 -
250 75 4,5 35,03 27,50 3037,6 303,2 9,31 2,94 243,0 40,4 2,32 39299 -
300 75 3,0 26,94 21,15 3323,5 222,3 11,11 2,87 221,6 29,6 0,79 45183 -
300 75 4,0 35,39 27,78 4284,6 278,7 11,00 2,81 285,7 37,2 1,85 53590 -
300 75 4,5 39,49 31,00 4735,1 303,5 10,95 2,77 315,7 40,5 2,62 56664 -
350 75 3,0 29,90 23,47 4840,0 222,4 12,72 2,73 276,6 29,6 0,87 61394 -
350 75 4,0 39,35 30,89 6257,8 278,9 12,61 2,66 357,6 37,2 2,06 72946 -
350 75 4,5 43,95 34,50 6926,1 303,8 12,55 2,63 395,8 40,5 2,91 77206 -
400 75 3,0 32,86 25,80 6730,4 222,5 14,31 2,60 336,6 29,7 0,96 80089 -
400 75 4,0 43,31 34,00 8722,9 279,1 14,19 2,54 436,2 37,2 2,26 95288 -
400 75 4,5 48,41 38,00 9666,5 304,1 14,13 2,51 483,4 40,5 3,21 100930 -
450 75 3,0 35,82 28,12 9031,6 222,5 15,88 2,49 401,4 29,7 1,05 101270 -
450 75 4,0 47,27 37,11 11729,4 279,3 15,75 2,43 521,4 37,2 2,47 120617 -
450 75 4,5 52,87 41,50 13012,0 304,4 15,69 2,40 578,4 40,6 3,51 127836 -
107




Table A3.2 Section properties of heavy cold formed double extended C sections



























D
(mm)
Btop
(mm)
Bbot
(mm)
t
(mm)
Area
(cm
2
)
Weight
(kg/m)
I
x x
(cm
4
)
I
y y

(cm
4
)
r
x x

(cm)
r
y y
(cm)
W
x x

(cm
3
)
W
y y

(cm
3
)
J
(cm
4
)
C
w

(cm
6
)
200 75 100 4,0 28,66 22,50 1745,1 375,9 7,80 3,62 163,5 43,0 1,4980 29133
200 75 100 5,0 35,57 27,92 2138,5 471,4 7,75 3,64 200,3 53,9 2,9169 34727
200 75 100 6,0 42,35 33,24 2513,6 567,3 7,70 3,66 235,3 64,8 5,0143 39661
250 75 100 4,0 32,62 25,61 2951,3 376,1 9,51 3,40 222,8 43,0 1,7050 46297
250 75 100 5,0 40,53 31,82 3627,2 471,8 9,46 3,41 273,8 53,9 3,3236 55358
250 75 100 6,0 48,31 37,92 4275,9 568,0 9,41 3,43 322,7 64,9 5,7200 63436
300 75 100 4,0 36,58 28,71 4564,9 376,3 11,17 3,21 288,9 43,0 1,9120 67503
300 75 100 5,0 45,59 35,71 5622,1 472,2 11,12 3,22 355,8 54,0 3,7304 80885
300 75 100 6,0 54,27 42,60 6641,7 568,7 11,06 3,24 420,2 65,0 6,4257 92900
400 75 100 4,0 44,50 34,93 9213,0 376,8 14,39 2,91 441,3 43,1 2,3260 122117
400 75 100 5,0 55,41 43,50 11379,2 473,0 14,33 2,92 544,9 54,1 4,5439 146726
400 75 100 6,0 66,19 51,96 13482,1 570,1 14,27 2,93 645,5 65,1 7,8371 169022
108
HEAVY COLD FORMED DOUBLE LIPPED C SECTIONS

BEAM DATA
• Internal beam
• Uniform load
• Beam spacing 2.4 m
• Steel strength S350
• Pin resistance 18 kN
SLAB DATA
• Slab depth 130 mm
• Concrete strength C30/37



Beam is unpropped during construction


Table A3.3 Design table for composite beam with double lipped C, H-CFS.
IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGNATION
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
200x75x3.0 5,0 g 3,9 19,6 16 4,8 g 5,7 17,2 15 4,6 g 7,1 15,2 15 4,3 d 6,7 11,0 14
200x75x4.0 5,4 g 4,3 21,1 17 5,2 g 6,3 18,4 17 5,0 g 7,8 16,2 16 4,7 d 8,0 12,7 15
200x75x4.5 5,5 g 4,5 21,7 18 5,3 g 6,6 18,9 17 5,2 g 8,1 16,6 17 4,9 d 8,6 13,5 16
250x75x3.0 5,9 g 4,8 23,2 19 5,7 g 7,0 20,1 18 5,4 d 7,9 16,0 17 4,9 d 7,2 11,3 16
250x75x4.0 6,4 g 5,3 24,9 21 6,2 g 7,7 21,6 20 6,0 d 9,5 18,8 19 5,5 d 8,8 13,3 18
250x75x4.5 6,6 g 5,5 25,6 21 6,4 g 8,0 22,3 21 6,2 g 9,9 19,5 20 5,7 d 9,4 14,3 18
300x75x3.0 6,8 g 5,7 26,6 22 6,6 g 8,2 23,0 21 6,1 d 8,5 16,8 20 5,6 d 7,9 11,9 18
300x75x4.0 7,4 g 6,3 28,6 24 7,1 g 9,1 24,8 23 6,7 d 10,2 19,7 22 6,2 d 9,5 14,1 20
300x75x4.5 7,6 g 6,5 29,4 25 7,4 g 9,5 25,5 24 7,0 d 11,0 21,1 23 6,4 d 10,3 15,0 21
350x75x3.0 7,7 g 6,5 29,8 25 7,4 g 9,4 25,9 24 6,7 d 9,1 17,5 22 6,2 d 8,5 12,5 20
350x75x4.0 8,4 g 7,2 32,2 27 8,1 g 10,7 28,4 27 7,5 d 11,1 20,8 24 6,9 d 10,3 14,8 22
350x75x4.5 8,6 g 7,5 33,2 28 8,3 g 10,9 28,6 27 7,8 d 11,9 22,2 26 7,2 d 11,2 15,9 23
400x75x3.0 8,6 g 7,3 33,1 28 8,2 d 10,2 27,5 27 7,4 d 9,7 18,3 24 6,8 d 9,0 13,0 22
400x75x4.0 9,3 g 8,2 35,7 31 9,0 g 11,8 30,8 29 8,2 d 11,9 21,8 27 7,6 d 11,0 15,6 25
400x75x4.5 9,6 g 8,5 36,9 32 9,3 g 12,3 31,8 30 8,6 d 12,9 23,5 28 7,9 d 12,0 16,8 26
450x75x3.0 9,5 g 8,2 36,5 31 8,9 d 10,9 28,7 29 8,1 d 10,4 19,2 26 7,4 d 9,6 13,6 24
450x75x4.0 10,3 g 9,1 39,3 34 9,9 g 13,1 33,8 33 9,0 d 12,6 22,9 29 8,3 d 11,8 16,4 27
450x75x4.5 10,6 g 9,5 40,5 35 10,2 g 13,7 34,9 34 9,4 d 13,7 24,7 31 8,6 d 12,8 17,7 28
109
HEAVY COLD FORMED DOUBLE EXTENDED C SECTIONS

BEAM DATA
• Internal beam
• Uniform load
• Beam spacing 2.4 m
• Steel strength S350
• Pin resistance 18 kN
SLAB DATA
• Slab depth 130 mm
• Concrete strength C30/37



Beam is unpropped during construction


Table A3.4 Design table for composite beam with double extended C, H-CFS.
IMPOSED
LOAD kN/m
2
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
DESIGNATION
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
L
E
(m)

δ
E
(mm)
δ
S

(mm)
N
200x75x100x4.0 5,5 g 4,5 21,7 18 5,3 g 6,5 18,8 17 5,1 g 8,1 16,5 17 4,8 d 7,7 12,1 15
200x75x100x5.0 5,9 g 4,9 22,9 19 5,7 g 7,1 20,0 18 5,5 g 8,8 17,5 18 5,2 d 9,0 13,8 17
200x75x100x6.0 6,2 g 5,2 24,1 20 6,0 g 7,5 20,9 19 5,8 g 9,3 18,3 19 5,5 d 10,1 15,4 18
250x75x100x4.0 6,5 g 5,5 25,5 21 6,3 g 8,0 22,1 21 6,0 d 9,1 17,9 19 5,5 d 8,5 12,7 18
250x75x100x5.0 7,0 g 6,0 27,0 23 6,7 g 8,6 23,4 22 6,5 g 10,6 20,4 21 6,0 d 9,9 14,7 19
250x75x100x6.0 7,4 g 6,4 28,3 24 7,1 g 9,2 24,6 23 6,9 g 11,3 21,4 22 6,4 d 11,3 16,4 21
300x75x100x4.0 7,5 g 6,5 29,1 25 7,3 g 9,4 25,1 24 6,8 d 10,0 18,9 22 6,2 d 9,3 13,5 20
300x75x100x5.0 8,1 g 7,0 31,0 26 7,8 g 10,1 26,6 25 7,4 d 11,7 21,8 24 6,8 d 10,9 15,6 22
300x75x100x6.0 8,5 g 7,5 32,6 28 8,2 g 10,8 28,0 27 7,9 g 13,3 24,4 26 7,3 d 12,4 17,6 24
400x75x100x4.0 9,5 g 8,4 36,4 31 9,1 g 12,1 31,3 30 8,3 d 11,6 21,2 27 7,6 d 10,8 15,1 25
400x75x100x5.0 10,2 g 9,1 38,7 33 9,8 g 13,1 33,2 32 9,1 d 13,7 24,5 30 8,3 d 12,8 17,6 27
400x75x100x6.0 10,7 g 9,8 40,8 35 10,3 g 14,0 34,9 34 9,8 d 15,7 27,7 32 9,0 d 14,7 19,9 29




PROYECTO DE VIGAS MIXTAS EMPLEANDO PERFILES DE ACERO LIGERO Autor: RODERA GARCÍA, AIDA Tutor: MIRAMBELL ARRIZABALAGA, ENRIQUE POPO-OLA, SUNDAY O. RESUMEN La construcción mixta se viene empleando como un método de construcción desde hace décadas, sin embargo tradicionalmente se han utilizado secciones de acero laminado en caliente en lugar de perfiles ligeros (conformados en frío). Los principales componentes de la tradicional construcción mixta han sido las estructuras de acero laminado en caliente, las chapas de acero, los conectores y el hormigón in-situ con armadura pasiva. Las ventajas de este método de construcción son varias entre las que destacan la velocidad de la construcción gracias al rápido montaje de la estructura metálica, la economía en el uso de materiales, su resistencia última y su buen comportamiento en servicio. A estas ventajas pueden añadirse otras más si se emplean secciones de acero ligero en lugar de las tradicionales conformadas en caliente. Las mejoras que el acero ligero incorpora son básicamente su menor coste y peso debido al ahorro de material. Las estructuras de acero ligero abarcan secciones C, Z o con otras formas similares, de acero galvanizado y conformado en frío, con unos espesores entre 1.2 y 3.2 mm. Trabajos previos han estudiado el comportamiento de estas secciones actuando como vigas o columnas bajo diferentes estados de cargas, pero la presencia conjunta de este tipo de secciones y del hormigón in-situ es un campo que aún no se conoce en profundidad. En el caso particular de las vigas mixtas de acero ligero se emplean secciones doble C en lugar de perfiles I de acero laminado en caliente, pero la forma general de construcción es similar a la llevada a cabo en la construcción mixta convencional. Es importante resaltar el hecho de que no pueden ser empleados conectadores soldados debido al relativamente pequeño espesor de la sección de acero conformado en frío, y por tanto ha sido necesario desarrollar otras alternativas para los conectadores. Dichos conectadores constan de elementos de acero perfilados, fijados mediante espigas que pueden ser conducidas neumáticamente. Para conocer el comportamiento de estos conectadores se han llevado a cabo algunos ensayos que ofrecen una serie de valores de sus resistencias de cálculo. Con el objetivo de ofrecer una guía para el dimensionamiento de vigas mixtas empleando perfiles ligeros, se ha llevado a cabo un cuidadoso estudio, desarrollándose ejemplos de cálculo, los cuales se pueden adaptar con facilidad a una condiciones de proyecto determinadas, y tablas para facilitar la rápida selección de un perfil adecuado, en función de la carga, el grado de acero empleado, y la luz a salvar. Para alcanzar este objetivo global, en primer lugar se ha realizado un análisis de las formas genéricas de la construcción mixta a través de documentación existente, lo cual permite conocer las posibilidades de las losas y vigas mixtas así como las propiedades que son requeridas en los materiales involucrados. Posteriormente se ha centrado el estudio en el caso particular de la construcción mixta usando secciones de acero ligero. Una vez se conocen la resistencia de los materiales y las dimensiones de los elementos, se estudia el comportamiento de las losas mixtas y de las vigas mixtas. Empleando perfiles ligeros conformados en frío (esbeltos), debido a su pequeño espesor, hay algunas diferencias en el modo de cálculo de la resistencia de la viga mixta. Estas diferencias han sido tenidas en cuenta, y para clarificar como se ha de llevar a cabo el dimensionamiento y la verificación de una viga mixta, dos ejemplos de cálculo han sido desarrollados paso a paso. Uno muestra el caso en el que la viga carece de apoyos provisionales durante la etapa de construcción y otro en el que si los tiene. Siguiendo el mismo procedimiento de los ejemplos, se han realizado diferentes tablas para los casos de empleo de apoyos provisionales y de ausencia de los mismos, variando el grado del acero empleado y la carga variable aplicada. En las tablas resulta complejo obtener una idea general de cuales son las relaciones entre las distintas variables, por eso se presentan unos gráficos que las muestran con claridad. Estas tablas y gráficos pretenden ser útiles en la etapa de diseño facilitando al ingeniero la elección del perfil ligero adecuado en base a las cargas existentes y a la luz requerida.

ii

ABSTRACT Composite construction is well established for some decades as a construction method but it has traditionally used hot rolled steel sections rather than light steel (cold formed) sections. The main components of traditional composite construction have been hot rolled steel framework, steel decking, shear connectors and in-situ concrete with mesh reinforcing steel. The benefits of this construction method are several and the most important of them are speed of construction due to the rapid erection of the steel framework, economy in use of materials, robustness to damage and good performance in service. To these benefits some more can be added if light steel sections are used instead of the traditional hot rolled. The advantage that light steel gives are basically two: that cold formed steel is cheaper that hot rolled and that is also lighter in weight. Light steel framing comprises galvanized cold formed steel sections of C or Z or similar forms of 1.2 to 3.2 mm thickness. Previous works have studied how these sections behave as beams or columns under different loads cases, but the composite action of light steel sections with in-situ concrete is a field not yet fully explored. Composite light steel beams use back to back double C sections rather than hot rolled steel I beams, but the general form of construction is similar to conventional composite construction. Importantly, welded shear connectors cannot be used for the relatively thin steel used in light steel construction, and therefore it has been necessary to develop alternative forms of shear connectors using powder actuated, or pneumatically driven pins. These shear connectors use profiled strip steel elements which are fixed by pins. To know the resistance and behaviour of these innovative shear connectors some tests have been carried out determine the design resistance of these connectors. The aim of this project is to provide guidance on the design of composite beams using light steel sections, a carefully study has been carried out getting eventually design examples which illustrate the calculus method and can be adapted in a easy way to a design particular characteristic, and design tables to aid rapid selection of light steel sections, depending on the span, the loading and the steel grade used. To be able to achieve the objectives a progressive work has been carried out. First a literature review on generic forms of composite construction such as composite slabs and beams as well as the types of shear connectors was carried out. The review also types of the materials involved and their properties. With the information already available from previous studies it was possible to get deeper knowledge of the specific shear connectors and beams sections used in composite light steel construction. Once the materials resistance values and elements dimensions are known, the design of the composite slabs and composite beams was studied. However using cold formed steel sections (slender), the thin thickness of the steel, means that there are some differences in the calculation of the resistance capacity of the composite beam. These differences have been taken into account and to show how the design process of a composite beam works, two design examples have been developed step by step. One is for the case when the beam is not propped during the construction stage and the other one for when the beam is propped. Following this process design tables have been computed for the cases of propped and unpropped and using different steel grades and imposed load. With tables is quite difficult to get a general idea of which relations exist between the different variables, this is the reason why some graphs are presented which show the relations with clarity. The objective of these design tables and graphs are for use during the design stage, making it easier for engineer selection the light steel section base on loading and the span required.

iii

3.4.3.7 Profiled shear connectors 2.4 Light steel composite wall 22 3.1 Generic forms 18 Types of light steel composite frames.1 2.2.4.5.3.1 Light steel sections 25 3.3 Concrete 2.2 Types of composite beams 2.3.6 Hilti HVB shear connectors 2.4 3. 3.3 Types of shear connectors 2.2 Profiled steel decking 2.5.1 Background 1.4.2.6 Partial safety factors Page No.4.1 Light steel composite frames 19 3.3.5.1 Types of composite slabs 2.5 Shear connectors 2.3 Types of shear connectors 22 3.4 Waveform strips 2.5 Comparison between BS 5950 and EC4 Part 1.1 Hilti HVB shear connectors 23 3.1 Headed stud shear connector 2.2.3 Continuous perfobondstrip 2.3.2 Profiled steel decking 2.5. floors.2 Profiled shear connectors 23 Material properties 25 3.5 Shear connectors 2.2 Light steel composite floors 20 21 3.5.4.4.2.8 Shear connectors’ strength and ductility Material properties 2.2 Objectives Literature review on forms of composite constructions 2. beams and walls 19 3. Introduction 1.2 Profiled steel decking 27 iv .5.4 Reinforcement bars 2.3.4 Reinforcement bars 2.2 3.INDEX Notation 1.1 Structural steel 2. 1 3 3 4 5 5 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 11 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 2.4.1 Structural steel 2.3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections 18 3.3 Light steel composite beams 3.3.2 Oscillating perfobondstrip 2.4 2.5 T-shape connector 2.3.3 Concrete (NWC and LWC) 2.

1 Control of deflections 5.5 Shear connection (full and partial) 5.4 Fire resistance 4.8 5.1 Unpropped beam 6.1 Heavy cold formed sections v .4 5.4 Use of design tables 86 8.8.6 Transverse reinforcement 5.2 Design criteria 81 7. Load-span design tables for composite beams using light steel section and profiled shear connectors 77 77 7.8.8. 9.2 Composite beams cross sections class classification Annex 3: Heavy cold formed steel sections A3.2 Effective slab width 5.1.2 Shear buckling 7.1 Properties of light steel sections 7. 7.1 Construction condition 5.5 Example guide Basis of design of composite beams 5.1.2 Crack control 5.3 Vibration response Design examples 6.3 4.1 Definition 4.1 Class classification 77 78 7.2 Construction stage condition Composite stage condition 4. Basis of design of composite slabs 4.1 Single generic C section class classification A2.3 Propped and unpropped beams 81 7.7 Local buckling Serviceability conditions 5.4. 6. Conclusions Bibliographic references Supplementary bibliography 89 91 92 93 96 97 98 103 104 Annex 1: Generic C sections properties Annex 2: Section class classification A2.2 Propped beam 29 29 29 30 32 34 37 37 38 38 41 42 46 47 49 50 52 52 54 54 64 5.3 Plastic analysis of composite action Shear resistance 5. 10.

beam span design value of moment resistance design value of applied moment modular ratio of steel to concrete number of shear connectors number of shear connectors for full shear connection plastic neutral axis resistance of a shear connector variable loads ratio of cross-sectional area of the steel section relative to the concrete section plastic axial compressive resistance of the slab longitudinal shear force transfer plastic axial tensile resistance of the steel section thickness of the steel section flange thickness of the steel section web shear force section modulus partial safety factor on permanent loads partial safety factor on variable loads partial safety factor on materials deflections √(235/fy) dry density of concrete basic shear strength of concrete 1 .NOTATION EC4 Definition Aa Acv Aε b b beff E fck fcu fd fsk fy fyp F G h hc hp ht I L MRd MSd n N Nf PNA PRd Q r Rc Rq Rs tf tw V W γG γQ γ δ ε ρ ζRd cross-sectional area of the steel section cross-sectional area of concrete per unit length in any shear plane amount of the reinforcement crossing each shear plane beams spacing width of the steel section flange effective breadth of slab elastic modulus characteristic strength of concrete or cylinder strength cube strength of concrete design tensile strength of steel yield strength of the reinforcement yield strength of structural steel yield strength of the deck action or force permanent loads height of the steel section height of concrete slab above deck profile deck profiled height slab depth second moment of area length of beam.

The subscripts to the above symbols are as follows: a steel c concrete s reinforcement p steel deck pl plastic resistance of section Rd design value of resistance Sd design value of action or force The member axes in all Eurocodes are: x axis along member y major axis bending z minor axis bending 2 .

composite light steel beams are design PLASTICALLY to support the loads acting at the ultimate limit state. and importantly. the steel framing elements are erected first and provide a stable structure that is capable of supporting construction loads. This must be compatible with the deformation capacity of the shear connectors. This will lead to increase speed of construction. economy of materials and good performance in service. Introduction 1. and profiled strip steel connectors fixed by powder actuated pins instead of welded shear connectors.1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Composite construction achieves important benefits by making steel and concrete work together. to improve the stiffness of the construction. A minimum degree of shear connection is required. • robustness to damage and good performance in service. • weight and cost of materials are reduced. particularly in low and medium-rise buildings (which means buildings with no more than 6 levels). 1. In modern composite construction. Often serviceability criteria dominate in modern design and therefore control of deflections and vibration response are as important as load resistance. After several years of experience on composite construction as a construction method. Once the steel and concrete are acting compositely. 3 . Composite light steel beams use double C sections rather than hot rolled I. Sometimes it is necessary to use single temporary props to control deflections at this stage. longer spans. light steel sections have been introduced in this type of construction. The advantages of the light steel composite construction are: • to get a rapid erection of the steel framework. The composite action that developed later with the concrete or other material serves to provide resistance to imposed loads. It is possible to carry out plastic design because the steel section acts entirely in tension. but these advantages can be improved if light cold formed steel sections instead of hot rolled sections are used.1. The main objective is therefore to explore innovative composite construction technology where light steel sections act compositely with in-situ concrete. • Light steel sections introduce some particularities in composite construction. The general principles of composite design using light steel sections are the following: • • During construction light steel beams are designed ELASTICALLY to support the construction loads.

• Prepare design tables for light steel composite beams to be used by design engineers. for use with light steel composite construction. based on strip steel and powder actuated pins. To achieve this final objective requires a determinate process: • Review the general forms of composite construction and the properties of the materials involved. • Definition and behaviour of a composite slab.2 OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to find out the possibilities of light cold formed sections in composite construction to clarify in which designs can be considered and make use of all the benefits they incorporate. 4 .1. • Complete work example for light steel sections composite beams propped and unpropped during construction. • Design and analyse a typical light steel composite beam. • Knowledge of innovative shear connectors. Introduction 1. • Review various opportunities for composite construction using light steel frames and components.

such as ease of service integration (see Figure 2. Other forms of slim floor construction. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FORMS OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTIONS 2. The slim floor construction use hot rolled beams together with composite slabs using deep decking. This is achieved by supporting the slab off the bottom flanges of the beams. The common span of composite slabs is between 3m and 4 m. 5 .2). the composite action can be developed by welded shear connectors attached to the steel beams and by transverse reinforcement. The depth of the solid planks is between 75 mm and 100 mm. but without considering the concrete topping (see Figure 2. slab thicknesses are in the range 100 mm to 200 mm. The most common composite slabs consist on the combination of steel decking and insitu concrete placed onto the steel decking.1 TYPES OF COMPOSITE SLABS The classification of slabs depends basically on their geometry properties and the construction stage conditions. are less effective in several aspects. The depth is between 150 mm and 260 mm (see Figure 2. using precast concrete planks to form the slab. There is an increase of composite frames and slim floors construction where the pre-cast slabs are design to interact structurally with the steel frame. and for deep decking between 280 mm and 320 mm. The most common types of pre-cast slabs are: • • Hollow core units. If temporary propping is used it is possible to used longer spans. There are different types of in-situ composite slabs considering their dimensions and also the steel decking used. Considering a shallow decking. When the concrete has gained strength.3). it acts as a composite slab with the tensile strength of the decking. but these values are considering unpropped construction stage. In the same way as in-situ composite slabs. Solid planks. In the actual building construction pre-cast concrete floors are widely used. There is a different type of composite slab construction called slim floor.1). The main difference of this construction is that the supporting beams are contained within the depth of the concrete slab.2. which are designed to use with an in-situ concrete topping. with continuous circular or elongated openings along their length. There is a wide variety of composite slabs considering all the combinations of composite slabs with in-situ concrete and the wide range of pre-cast slab products available from various manufacturers. Literature review on forms of composite constructions 2.

2 Example of solid planks slabs Figure 2.2.1 Examples of hollow core slabs Figure 2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions Figure 2.3 Basic components of the “Slimflor” system 6 .

Primary beams have decking spanning in a direction parallel to them. which means that deflection and dynamic criteria may be critical. Composite beams tend to be used for long span applications. There are two main groups of composite beams in composite construction. It is possible a significant saving in steel weight and/or structural floor depth due to the composite action of the steel beam and the concrete slab which increases the stiffness of the beam and the load capacity. Secondary beams are perpendicular to the decking spanning direction and the top flange of the steel beam is restrained laterally due to the decking and fixings. Figure 2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions 2.2. The size of the steel section used is often chosen by limitations on serviceability considerations.4 Primary and secondary beams 7 . (in excess 9 m).2 TYPES OF COMPOSITE BEAMS Composite beams typically consist of steel “I” sections acting structurally with a concrete slab by means of shear connectors attached to the top flange of the steel section. so the decking do not provide laterally restrain. primary beams and secondary beams. The beams are generally designed to be simply supported. and an effective part of the slab is taken as acting as a part of the composite section on either side of the centreline of the section. This is very important to consider at the design stage to choose the proper steel “I” section.

2. The choice of a specific type of connector is based on its ultimate resistance which depends not only on its own properties. a thickness of 12 mm and 5 holes Ø 50 mm. 5 holes Ø 50 mm and bend in 1. It had a very 8 . 2. but always archiving lower load capacity and characteristic resistance (see Figure 2.1 Headed studs The standard dimensions of headed studs are Ø 19 mm and a length of 125 mm.7). The evolution in the behaviour of the continuous perfobondstrip. but with the development of the use of thinner steel sheets. Headed studs characteristic resistance is lower than that of perfobondstrip and T-shape connectors. concrete with fibres or a high strength (C70/85) is used. it has been necessary the use of nailed instead of welded.3. But this behaviour disappears if light weight concrete (LC30/37).6). a thickness of 8 mm. but in the case of ordinary strength and normal weight concrete. The behaviour of the headed studs does not vary a lot when concrete properties are changed. and in these cases oscillating perfobondstrip connectors behave very well. Their load capacity is much lower than that of perfobondstrip and T-shape connectors.3 Continuous perfobondstrip Continuous perfobondstrip with a height of 100 mm. a thickness of 6 mm and bend in 2 waves with amplitude 110 mm. and it depends on the number of studs used (see Figure 2.3. some welded and other nailed connectors.5) 2. according to the change in concrete properties. Welded connectors were commonly used in composite construction. is similar to oscillating perfobondstrip. Oscillating perfobondstrip connectors have also a higher characteristic resistance than others connectors as headed studs and Tshape connectors.5 wave with an amplitude of 110 mm.2 Oscillating perfobondstrip Oscillating perfobondstrip with a height of 100 mm.3 TYPES OF SHEAR CONNECTORS There are quite different types of shear connectors. and it is always around the same value although fibre concrete. its performance is a bit disappointing due to a fast drop of the load capacity after the peak. The load capacity of this type of connector is larger than for example that of the headed studs and T-shape connectors. Literature review on forms of composite constructions 2. 2.3. also on the concrete grade used.3.4 Waveform strip Waveform strip with a width of 50 mm. light weight concrete or higher strength concrete is used. Its curve form will give a better force transfer between steel and concrete compared with a straight one. and should be taken into account that the failure modes are different for lower and higher concrete strength (see Figure 2. 2. Welded with prop-welds Ø 25 mm.

9).3. 2.3. in composite beams. The connectors are designed to be used with automatic installation systems. Due to that its use is not recommended (see Figure 2. two or three connectors in each steel decking rib.10). after LC62/75. 9 . depending on the requirements (see Figure 2. fixed by two powder-actuated fasteners driven with a powder-actuated tool. the concrete is no longer decisive. Hilti HVB shear connectors are cold formed angle shear connectors. The strip connector is fixed to the beam flange by power-actuated fasteners.0 to 2. 2. Without considering the perfobondstrip.2. light weight concrete or a higher strength concrete.3. placed on one leg of the angle. the strip shear connector itself and the powder-actuated fasteners.8). Tshape connectors performed very well compared to headed studs. It is possible to use one.7 Profiled shear connectors Profiled shear connectors are a type of nailed strip shear connectors.5 T-shape connectors A section with a length of 300 mm of a standard T-shape 120 welded to the beam.0 mm. This type of connectors show an increase in their load capacity and ductility if the concrete used is with fibres. 2. There are two elements with the same importance in the nailed shear connector system. T-shape connectors achieve the same load capacity as oscillating perfobondstrip. but have a much larger ductility. The legs of the connector have to be higher than the metal deck and they act as a diagonal reinforcement of the concrete rib. The strip is formed by folding a flat zinc-coated steel sheet with a thickness in the range of 1. Literature review on forms of composite constructions disappointing behaviour in tests.6 Hilti HVB shear connectors Hilti HVB shear connectors can be found between the nailed shear connectors which are presented as an alternative to welded headed studs connectors for composite beams. but the strength of the connector itself. The distance between the two troughs of the trapezoidal strip connector has to be chosen to fit to the geometry of the decking. For the T-shape connectors. the T-shape connectors have the highest characteristic resistance and the mode of failure changes for different concrete strengths (see Figure 2.11). Push-out tests results indicate that optimised profiled strip shear connectors will achieve ultimate resistance in the range of 20 kN per fastener and also sufficient ductility to allow plastic beam design (see Figure 2.

Literature review on forms of composite constructions Figure 2.7 Continuous perfobondstrip Figure 2.8 Waveform strip Figure 2.10 Hilti HVB shear connector 10 .2.5 Headed studs Figure 2.6 Oscillating perfobondstrip Figure 2.9 T-shape connector Figure 2.

11 .3.2.9 2. the two grades of steel that can be used are: S275 and S355.7 N/A 38. Table 2. The tests are carried out in accordance with Eurocode 4 (1997) for standard push-out tests. This nomenclature means that minimum yield strength of 275 N/mm2 and 355 N/mm2 respectively. is guaranteed.0 Continuous 653 0.4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Light weight concrete Concrete grade 30/37 Strength PRk Ductility δuk (kN) (mm) 92 4.1 Structural steel In composite construction design.8 N/A N/A 2.1 connector Hilti HVB 28 N/A Profiled Strip 20 >6 Shear 2.8 perfobondstrip Oscillating 974 1.9 perfobondstrip Waveform strip 200 1.9 485 858 N/A 657 25 N/A 2. Literature review on forms of composite constructions Figure 2.8 T-shape 633 16.8 Shear connectors’ strength and ductility The results of some push-out tests on shear connector devices for steel-concrete structures are presented by Galjaard and Walraven (2001).11 Profiled shear connector 2.4. Large differences in ductility and strength between the various connector devices and concrete types have been observed.1 Strength of different shear connectors Normal weight concrete Concrete grade 30/37 Strength PRk Ductility δuk (kN) (mm) Headed studs 102 5.

2.2 Profiled steel decking The way in which the grades of steel for profiled steel sheeting or decking are specified is in terms of the yield strength of the steel.4.3 Concrete (NWC and LWC) The concrete grade in Eurocode is specified in terms of the cylinder strength. The approximate conversion to become cylinder strength to cube strength is: fck ≈ 0.2. in accordance with the design requirements.1 37 For both. then the resulting strength from testing (fcu) would be different. t (mm) Nominal steel t ≤ 40 mm 40 mm < t ≤ 100 mm grade fy (N/mm2) fu (N/mm2) fy (N/mm2) fu (N/mm2) S275 275 430 255 410 S355 355 510 335 490 2. and also because LWC has better insulation qualities than NWC.1) The mean compression strength (fck and fcu). Hence C30 concrete means that the concrete compression strength is 30 N/mm2. Light weight concrete is commonly used because of the obvious advantages of approximately 25% weight saving (dry densities: NWC density 2350 kg/m3. Literature review on forms of composite constructions Table 2. Yield strength of 280 and 350 N/mm2 are the common grades for sheet steel used (see 3.3 Concrete properties Properties of concrete fck (N/mm ) fcu (N/mm2) fct (N/mm2) Ec (kN/mm2) 2 Strength class of concrete C20 C25 C30 C35 20 25 30 35 25 30 37 45 2. 12 .2 29 30.5 C40 40 50 3. a concrete grade between C25 and C35 is normally chosen. normal weight concrete (NWC) and light weight concrete (LWC).4.9 3.4.2 2. fck.2 Steel properties Nominal thickness of element.8 fcu (2.6 2. tensile strength (fct) and elastic moduli of concrete (Ec) are presented in the following table for various concrete strengths: Table 2. If cubes were used instead of cylinders.5 35 C45 45 55 3.2).8 36 C50 50 60 4.5 32 33. LWC density 1850 kg/m3).

It is necessary to have a proper cover. In practice.overall structural requirements . In case of concrete used as a wearing surface. Literature review on forms of composite constructions The concrete grade is normally chosen on the following basis: .8 m long. But A142 is more common than A193. With the use of these supplement bars it is possible to achieve some benefits as: • • • • To increase the fire resistance periods. it can take a longer period of time to cure and dry than a traditional reinforced concrete slab. The mesh reinforcement is required to perform a number of different functions: • • • • • Provide bending resistance at the supports of the slab in the fire condition. Acts as transverse reinforcement to the composite beams The most common mesh sizes are A142 and A193. the minimum grade should be C35 (although C40 is preferred). Because the concrete is only exposed on one surface of the composite floor. This cracking occurs because of flexural tension and differential shrinkage effects. The mesh is normally manufactured in “sheets” that are 2. for the “mild” exposure conditions that exist internally 13 . Distribute the effects of localised point loads and line loads along a greater area. If the time for drying allowed in the contract programme is inadequate. commonly supplemented by some bar reinforcement. the reinforcement should be supported sufficiently high above the top of the deck to allow concrete placement around the bars. When additional transverse reinforcement is needed. To achieve better crack control. Sometimes bar reinforcement may be used to supplement the mesh. In shallow composite slabs. To reinforce the slab around significant openings.4 Reinforcement bars The reinforcement used in composite slabs construction is usually reinforcement which takes the form of a relatively light mesh.exposure conditions .2.4 m wide and 4. measures such as the specification of special ”quick dry” concrete may need to be considered.4. 2. where the numbers indicate the cross-sectional area (mm2) of reinforcing bars per metre width. If moisture sensitive floorings or adhesives are to be applied. grade C30 should be specified. Increase the strength at the edges of openings. Control and reduce cracking at the supports. Mesh with layers of bars equally spaced in both directions is normally used.flooring to be laid on the slab As a minimum standard. many months may be needed before the slab is sufficiently dry to accept them. Mesh sizes less than A142 are not recommended because of their poor performance as fire reinforcement and inability to control shrinkage.

also about materials properties and partial safety factors. fck in Eurocodes.5.4.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN BS5950 AND EC4 PART 1. this means that the mesh should be placed ideally in a zone between 20 mm and 40 mm from the upper surface of the slab.1 Structural steel The properties of structural steels are in accordance with Eurocode 4 and BS after the EN 10025 (which replaces BS 4360 for these grades).2) Hence C30 concrete based on cylinder strength is 37 N/mm2 cube strength. Eurocode and BS agree that the yield strength of 280 and 350 N/mm2 are the most appropriate. 2.5 Shear connectors The properties and proportions of shear connectors used depend mainly on the thickness and shape of the steel sheet and the concrete grade used. The designation of concrete grade is therefore C30/37 defining the cylinder/cube strength. 2.8 fcu (2. The approximate conversion to be able to change from one of them to another one is: fck ≈ 0. Normally the steel used to fabric shear connectors is of 500 N/mm2 ultimate tensile strength.2. In this case both of them agree that the two grades of steel that can be used in composite construction like structural steel are S275 and S355. The characteristic resistances of the shear connector are tabulated in function of their dimensions and the characteristic strength of the concrete used. The concrete grade is specified in terms of the cylinder strength.5. Literature review on forms of composite constructions in most buildings.3 Concrete There is a significant difference in how the concrete grade is specified in Eurocode and in BS. Since 1993 the nomenclature for strength grades used are the same for both codes. when BS adopt the Eurocode. 14 . not only about design equations.2 Profiled steel decking The profiled steel sheeting or decking are classified based on the grade of the steel used.5. 2.1 There are quite differences between Eurocode (EC) 4 and British Standard (BS) 5950. instead of the cube strength fcu as in BS. 2. 2. In BS these are known as Z28 and Z35 respectively.

where the numbers indicate the cross-sectional area (mm2) of reinforcing bars per metre width.2.0 Reinforcement 1.5 1. Also some factors are applied to the loads and they are different between the Eurocode 4 and BS.05 1.0 (*) Nowadays the ENV is in a changing process into the EN Materials 1.5 Shear connectors The dimensions and properties of the different shear connectors are defined in Eurocode and also in BS.4 Partial safety factor according to Eurocode 4 ENV 1994 (1994) (*) Partial safety Limit State factors on: Ultimate Serviceability Fire Structural steel 1.25 1.5.9 Concrete 1. This is common in both codes. The most common mesh sizes are A142 and A193.4 Reinforcement bars The most common tensile grade used is 500 N/mm2.0 Shear 1. Meshes of around 2.0 15 .3 1. These values are the same in Eurocode and BS.4m x 4. 2.15 1. but it has to be taken into account that many forms of shear connectors are permitted and they have different resistances. Table 2.6 Partial safety factors Partial safety factors are applied to each of the materials involved in the composite construction.0 0. Literature review on forms of composite constructions 2.0 0 1.8m are fabric to use.5. 2. Reinforcement is normally used like mesh.5.25 1.0 connectors Shear bond 1. The commonly ultimate tensile strength used in the fabrication of the connectors is 500 N/mm2.

5 Loads factors according to Eurocode 4 and BS Limit state Loads factors Ultimate Imposed 1.2.0 To illustrate the differences between both codes the following table summaries the main points where EC4 Part 1.0 1.5 (variable) load Eurocode 4 Dead (permanent) 1.1 has a criteria and BS5950 a different one on the design of composite beams.4 load Serviceability 1.6 (variable) load BS Dead (permanent) 1.35 load Imposed 1.0 1.0 1. 16 . Literature review on forms of composite constructions Table 2.

Table 2.6 Summary of code designs of composite beams Headed stud shear connector design resistance (kN) Serviceability limits Minimum shear connection Steel Concrete

Stress blocks Code/Method Load factors Effective breadth Steel Concrete

NWC(*)

LWC(**)

BS 5950 Part 3

1.6Q + 1.4G

Span/4 but < 0.8b primary beams

fy

0.57fck

80

72

0.4 for L < 10 m

fy

0.5fcu

Eurocode 4

1.5Q + 1.35G

Span/4

0.95fy

0.57fck

73

66

0.4 for L < 5 m

None

None

(*) Design value for 19 mm diameter headed studs (100 mm high) in Grade 25 (cylinder) normal weight concrete (**) Design value for lightweight concrete (density = 1800 kg/m3)

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3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections

3. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FORMS OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION USING LIGHT STEEL SECTIONS
3.1 GENERIC FORMS

Composite construction using hot rolled steel elements has been carefully studied and is properly established. But light steel construction comprises cold formed steel sections instead of hot rolled steel sections, and there are quite big differences in their behaviours. It is important to understand the design principles and practical considerations taken into account, because if not the design of cold rolled sections may appear to be more complicated than the design of hot rolled sections. One of the most important aspects that have to be considered carefully working with these thin cold formed elements are the methods of cutting, joining and attachment of other members and materials Nowadays cold formed steel sections are widely used in building applications and decking is used in composite floors and also in flat roofs. Some of the most important advantages related with the used of cold formed elements are: • • • • • • For a given section depth, a high load resistance may be achieved Long span capability Good dimensional accuracy Good durability response in internal environments Freedom for long term creep and shrinkage Lighter constructions

Composite construction using light steel frames and components has different applications: - Composite beams using double-C sections, also called back to back, with steel decking and in-situ concrete working composite due to strip shear connectors attached by powder actuated pins. - Composite frames using C and Z sections with steel decking and in-situ concrete in which the framework acts as permanent formwork. - Vertically orientated steel decking acting with in-situ concrete to form a double skin composite wall. - Heavy duty flooring acting compositely with light steel floor joists to improve the stiffness of the floor. - Heavy duty walling acting compositely with light steel wall panels to improve the diaphragm action of the wall.

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3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections

3.2 TYPES OF LIGHT STEEL COMPOSITE FRAMES, FLOORS, BEAMS AND WALLS 3.2.1 Light steel composite frames In different places around the world is possible to find cold-formed sections or decking used to provide the formwork to in-situ concrete frames. In France a system of slim floor construction is used in which the Z sections used as secondary beams span between the primary slim floor beams. The secondary beams dimensions might be chosen to match with the slab requirements of the construction (see Figure 3.1). A wide ribbed U section which acts compositely with in-situ concrete, has been developed in Finland by a steel company. The U section is propped during the construction stage and incorporates composite concrete-filled hollow sections with saddles on which the U section beam is supported. If additional bar reinforcement is placed, no fire protection is required, as in a common T beam (see Figure 3.2). Other different composite frame which has some disadvantages has been developed in Australia. A profiled decking is used to provide permanent formwork to the sides and soffit of deep beams and large columns. But secondary frames are required to support the decking and to resist concrete pressures, which may be considered a disadvantage (see Figure 3.3). Composite frames consisting in C and Z sections combined forming primary and secondary beams, and complete frameworks which support in-situ concrete have been developed in New Zealand and Canada. This system achieves excellent seismic resistance by confining the in-situ concrete (see Figure 3.4).

Figure 3.1 Slim floor beam using composite Z sections as secondary beams

Figure 3.2 Finnish system of light steel composite construction

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2. plasterboard and suspended ceilings are often used to increase the acoustic insulation of the floor. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections Figure 3.2 Light steel composite floors Figure 3. A system which provides a very stiff construction comprise profiled decking as part of a composite flooring system in which boarding is fixed by frequent pins and screws. Floor boarding attached to the joints improved their stiffness considerably.3 Profiled sheeting used as permanent formwork to deep beams and columns 3.5 Composite floor system 20 .4 Light steel framework as permanent formwork to in-situ concrete In housing and in low-rise building construction is very common to use light steel floor joints. They comprise C sections which are placed 400 to 600 mm apart. The high stiffness of this construction improves the lateral transfer of loads across the decking (see Figure 3.3.5) Figure 3. Layers of board.

5. Total deflections. in form of mesh. 3 or 4 pins per deck rib. This is one of the main benefits of composite construction (see Figure 3.2. but composite light steel beams do not use hot rolled steel I beams. The design criteria are: 1. composite light steel beams use cold formed double C steel sections. imposed load deflections 4. taking account of partial shear connection 3. Nailed shear connectors are used in light composite beams instead of welded ones. These no welded shear connectors use “top hat” or profiled strip steel elements which are fixed by 2.6 Light steel composite beam 21 . The light steel composite beams load-span characteristic may be determined from conventional composite theory. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections 3. Based on elastic composite properties. The increase in the stiffness is over 5 times that of the steel section.3. only the 60% of the composite beam span can be achieved with non-composite beams. They are designed on these bases because the real form is not very important due to the low force that is transferred locally to the concrete.6). which include the deflections at the construction stage and under imposed loads. Bending resistance of the steel section under construction loads using elastic properties. Bending resistance of the composite section. Figure 3. 2.3 Light steel composite beams The general form of construction is similar to conventional composite construction. Minimum natural frequency (> 4 Hz). If the span capacity of non-composite and composite beams is compared. especially at the supports. The “top hat” or profiled shape is designed to support properly the reinforcement. and to help to provide crack control.

but also trapezoidal steel decking or inter-locking wall units are used (see Figure 3.7 Different forms of composite walls using decking and inter-locking units 3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections 3. It is difficult to achieve shear transfer at the top of the wall. Ties are placed at approximately 1. Hence the main advantages of light steel composite walls are the possibility of achieve slender wall construction.2. The most common nailed strip shear connectors are the Hilti HVB shear connectors and profiled shear connectors.4 Light steel composite wall Composite walls consist on two skins of decking orientated vertically and in-situ concrete placed between them.3 TYPES OF SHEAR CONNECTORS In light steel composite construction welded headed stud connectors cannot be used due to the thin steel decking. a permanent formwork which required no external support and to eliminate bracing acting as a shear wall. so that its composite properties are utilized in resisting buckling at mid-height. Commonly. re-entrant steel decking is used.0 m apart vertically to resist the concrete pressures during construction.7). 22 . Inter-locking wall units Composite walls using re-entrant steel decking Composite walls using trapezoidal steel decking Figure 3. As an alternative. Because of this the composite wall is more efficient when is slender.3. nailed strip shear connectors are presented.

3. Results of the push-out test show that a profiled shear connector will achieve ultimate resistance above 20 kN per fastener. because there are different sizes of Hilti HVB shear connectors. 23 .1 Design resistance of Hilti X-HVB connectors with a concrete grade between C25 and C50 Design Resistance PRd (kN) Hilti X-HVB Type NWC LWC 80 18 16 95 28 25 110 28 25 125 30 25 140 30 25 3. The ultimate resistance of Hilti HVB connectors depends on the dimensions of the connector. Beck and Bärtschi (2001). They can be used in remote locations and small projects.8). The profiled shear connectors are designed to be able to fix them with an automatic system to the decking and the beam by powder-actuated fasteners (Hilti). And the test also shows that the connectors will achieve sufficient ductility to allow plastic beam design.2 Profiled shear connectors Profiled shear connectors have a trapezoidal shape to fit the geometry of metal decks. The push-out test programme and the description of the load-deformation behaviour were written by Fontana. fixed by two powder-actuated fasteners placed on one leg of the angle (see Figure 2. Table 3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections There are some advantages presented by nailed shear connectors compared to welded studs: • • • Minimum installation equipment and set-up time. Push-out test has been carried out according to the specifications provided in Eurocode 4 (1992) except for the fact that strip connectors were used instead of headed studs. The moisture on site and zinc coatings does not affect the installation quality 3.3.1 Hilti HVB shear connectors Hilti HVB shear connectors are one of the types of nailed strips shear connector used in light steel composite construction. Hilti HVB shear connectors are cold formed angle shear connectors.3. this makes the installation a fast process. and on the concrete grade.

Failure in the nailed interface: the failure can take place in the interface due to two different situations. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections Nailed shear connectors consist on two different elements with the same importance. Concrete failure: bearing failure or shear failure of the concrete dowels and shear failure of the concrete rib can occur. But to get a good efficiency of a 24 . Figure 3. 2.3. To allow plastic design of the composite beam the strip shear connector must develop sufficient plastic deformations at a high load level. Failure of the steel of the strip connector: the steel of the strip can fail in three locations: a. Local bearing failure in the nail interface 3.8 Nailed profiled shear connectors Possible failure mechanism of profiled strip shear connectors There are three different types of modes of failure depending on where the failure occurs: 1. The profiled strip is formed by folding a flat zinc-coated steel sheet with a thickness in the range of 1. Concrete can also fail by splitting of the concrete plate.0 to 2.0 mm. shear failure of the nail shank or pullout of nails combined with local bearing deformations in the flange. the strip shear connector itself and the powder-actuated fasteners. Net section fracture in the nailed troughs c. The way on which the steel sheet is folded depends on the geometry that the profiled shear connector needs to have to fit properly. Net section fracture in the tension leg b. The legs of the connector have to be higher than the metal deck and they act as a diagonal reinforcement of the concrete rib.

are the C and Z sections. The 0.4. as in hot rolled steels. Light steel sections are shaped to suit particular applications. MATERIAL PROPERTIES 3. Also are common the sections form as modified I section and the top-hat section.1 Light steel sections The thickness of the sheet steel used in cold formed sections. is typically 0. it is important to develop an ultimate capacity close to the total nail shear capacity of all fasteners installed. A thicker coating is used where moisture may be present over a long period (G600). Zinc-rich paint has to be applied to the exposed steel in some applications.2% strain proof strength is commonly used as an effective yield value. internal stiffeners and bends in the webs. due to cold working reduces the ductility of the material. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections profiled shear connector system.02 mm per face). The basic shapes.04 mm (0. and on this way a brittle nail shank fracture without local bearing deformations can be avoid.Galvanizing gives adequate protection for internal members. light steel sections. are the most common recommended grades. But opposite to this there are some reasons by which a stiff strip connector sheet is required: 3. but there is a wide range of variants of these basic shapes. It protects the steel by loss of the zinc surface.9 to 3. By cold reduction of hot rolled coil steel.3. Later it is treated with annealing processes to improve the ductility of the material. The specified sheet thickness includes galvanizing. This is due to cold working by the process of “strain hardening”. but this does not normally affect their long term performance. also for those adjacent to the boundaries of building envelopes. White rust may occur if galvanized sections are stored in moist conditions.2 mm. especially in building applications. The expected design life of galvanized products in this environment exceeds 60 years. The standard specification for internal environments is G275. steel strip is produced. The yield point is not a clearly defined transition point. Edge the thickness of the sheet must not be too thick. which refers to a zinc coating of 275 g/m2. The method used to protect the steel of the corrosion is with hot dip galvanizing of preformed strip steel. respectively). hence it is usually supplied pregalvanized. 25 . The sections are also joined together back to back or toe to toe to form compound sections as double C sections. With the cold forming process the yield strength increases. Grades S280 and S350 (yield strength of 280 and 350 N/mm2. like those with edge lips. total on both faces and it means a total zinc thickness of about 0.4 Smaller shear connecting contribution of the open trapezoidal metal deck Greater stress in the tension legs as four nails are fixed per trough Existence of the ridge in the trough with two nails on both sides of the ridge.

Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections Z sections Lipped Z Zeta C sections Plain Lipped Sigma Special sections Top hat Modified sections Eaves beam Compound sections Figure 3. It is necessary to find the equilibrium between practicability and structural efficiency. Stiffened sections are required to a structural efficiency. this is reason why they used to be classified as slender cross sections. 26 .3. The main difference between the behaviour of hot rolled and cold formed steel sections is that thin plate elements of cold formed sections tend to buckle locally under compression. more difficult is to form it and more difficult to connect it with other elements.9 Examples of cold formed steel sections Unstiffened wide and thin plates are not able to resist significant compression. Cold formed cross-sections cannot generally reach their full compression resistance based on the amount of material in the cross-section. this the reason to used variants of the basic sections shapes with edge lips and internal stiffeners. but in the other hand as more stiff is a section.

4. There are two well known types of decking profiles.9 to 1.3. the re-entrant profile and the trapezoidal profile. This increase in strength is typically 3 to 10%. Composite action is obtained by shear bond and mechanical interlock between the concrete and the decking. 2. Chung and Popo-Ola (2002). These two different properties are used in different cases. Steel grades for this application are typically S280 or S350 (steel yield strengths of 280 or 350N/mm2).11). During concreting. Light steel section properties have been tabulated by Lawson. and to stabilise the building as a whole by acting as a diaphragm to transfer wind loads to the walls and columns.10 and Figure 3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections There are also some benefits of cold forming on material properties as the increase in average yield strength.2 Profiled steel decking Profiled steel decking dimensions are in range of 45 to 80 mm height and 150 to 300 mm trough spacing. However reduced properties are used to calculate the load capability of the sections. in the same way as light steel sections. In service. The decking. The decking has also other important functions. It is normally designed to be used without temporary propping. 27 . together with the temporary loads associated with the construction process. the decking acts “compositely” with the concrete to support the loads on the floor. Geometrical properties of cold rolled sections are divided in two big groups. (rib spacing). In composite slabs the steel decking has two main structural functions: 1.5 m. The steel is galvanized before forming. The decking may also be used to stabilise the beams against lateral torsional buckling during construction. also helps to control cracking of the concrete caused by shrinkage effects. The gross section properties are used to calculate the elastic stiffness of members or the moments in continuous structures. 3. Decking is generally rolled from 0. the gross section properties and the reduced section properties which take into account the effect of local buckling. These two types are the most common (see Figure 3. together with the fabric mesh reinforcement placed in the top of the slab. This type of decking typically spans until 3 m or 4. the decking supports the weight of the wet concrete and reinforcement.5 mm thick strip steel.

10 Re-entrant profiled steel decking Figure 3. Literature review on forms of composite construction using light steel sections Figure 3.3.11 Trapezoidal profiled steel decking 28 .

The most efficient use of composite slabs is for spans between 3 and 4 m. normally dictates these spans. the decking alone has to resist the selfweight and the construction loads.1 Composite slab 4.5 m without propping during construction. To choose the concrete type it has to take into account that it affects the stiffness of the section and the strength of the shear connectors. If props are used.1 BASIS OF DESIGN OF COMPOSITE SLABS DEFINITION Composite slabs construction comprises two different elements. A light mesh of reinforcement is placed in the concrete to reduce the severity of cracking and to increase the fire resistance. In this case subsequent loads are applied to the 29 . When the concrete has gained sufficient strength it acts as a composite slab with the tensile strength of the decking. 4. steel decking or sheeting. The steel decking is considered as the permanent formwork to the in-situ concrete. and in-situ concrete. without the need for temporary propping.2 CONSTRUCTION STAGE CONDITION If the slab is unpropped during construction. The maximum span to depth ratio for the deck will normally be 60.4. It depends on the time of fire resistant expected. longer spans are possible. The slab depths largely depend on fire insulation requirements and are usually between 100 and 200 mm. Basis of design of composite slabs 4. and the most common is 3m. Also some of the deeper profiles can achieve spans of up to 4. The ability of the decking to support the construction loads. in-situ concrete slab Support beam reinforcement Support beam Figure 4. Normal weight concrete (NWC) and light weight concrete (LWC) are both used.

The performance of a particular deck profiled in a composite slab can only be well assessed by test. design cases to be considered are: 1. 30 . adjacent spans loaded to 0.4. Basis of design of composite slabs composite section. The traditionally used which is called “m” and “k” method.5 kN/ m2 plus self-weight. Composite slabs are usually designed as simply supported members. due to the increase of the shear in the interface between the concrete and the decking. The ultimate moment resistance of composite slabs is determined by the breakdown of bond and mechanical interlock between the decking and the concrete. If the slab is propped during construction. This can lead to a reduction in the imposed load that the slab can support. Therefore.5 kN/m2 The construction loads take account of the sequential nature of the concreting and the operations on the decking. all of the loads have to be resisted by the composite section. known as shear bond. for the decking design is: • • An intensity of load of 1. taken to act in addition to the self-weight of the slab and beam. No moment redistribution is allowed and the common critical conditions would be the negative moment at the supports. and the slip between the decking and the concrete usually occurs before the plastic moment resistance of the composite section is reached. and an alternative method based on the principles of partial shear connection.5 kN/m2 plus self-weight.5 kN/ m2 plus self-weight. Design by testing consists of two main parts with different purposes. and 2 correspond to the maximum elastic moment in mid-span. single span loaded to 1.5 kN/m2 acting over a plan area of 3m × 3m Elsewhere. Eurocode 4 permits the design of composite slabs as continuous slabs by placing reinforcement in the negative moment region. There are two methods of design of composite slabs permitted by Eurocode 4. or 2. The construction load. a reduced load of 0. 4. single span loaded to 1. adjacent spans not loaded. The elastic moment resistance of the section is established taking account of the effective breadth of the thin steel elements in compression.3 COMPOSITE STAGE CONDITION The most common mode of failure of the composite slab is due to the breakdown of shear bond. Case 1 is maximum elastic moment at the supports. The design of continuous decking is based on an elastic distribution of moments for the construction loads.

4. Basis of design of composite slabs

The test is carried out in two states: • • A dynamic part to identify those cases where there is an inherently brittle bond between the concrete and the steel. (10,000 load cycles up to 1.5 times the working load). Following the dynamic part, a static load is applied and increased until failure occurs.

The test results are then presented in terms of empirical constants (m and k) that can be used to quantify the interaction between the steel and concrete. The constants, m and k, are not normally provided by the decking manufacturers, they use this information themselves to present to the designers a range of load-span tables for their specific products. For the alternative method in the EC4, tests are required too. A characteristic longitudinal shear resistance is defined based on tests. Then this resistance is used in a modified partial shear connection analysis. The design for serviceability is based on deflection limits but no deflection limits are specified in Eurocode 4 for the deflection of the deck after concreting. As a further check, it is recommended that the increased weight of concrete due to ponding should be included in the design of the support structure if the predicted deflection, without including the effect of ponding, is greater than one tenth of the overall slab depth. The use of simple design rules to ensure adequate deflection behaviour of a composite slab is accepted practice. Limits for span-to-depth ratios for slabs using NWC and LWC are given. Confirming that the slab satisfies these limits will ensure that excessive deflections are avoided. The effective span of the decking is defined as the smaller of: • • The distance between the centres of the supports. The clear span between the supports plus the effective depth of the concrete slab.

The values in the table 4.1 apply to slabs under uniformly distributed loading, with nominal continuity reinforcement (0.1%) over the intermediate supports, and not for slabs with full continuity reinforcement over the supports. Deflections should be calculated explicitly for slabs that fail to satisfy span-to-depth ratio limits. The stiffness of the slab can be determined using normal reinforced concrete design rules (assuming fully effective bond between the decking and the concrete).

31

4. Basis of design of composite slabs

Table 4.1 General rules for the slab: maximum span-to-depth ratios(*) NWC LWC Single spans 30 25 End spans 35 30 Internal spans 38 33 (*)Values apply to supported spans with nominal continuity reinforcement, subject to uniformly distributed loading. There is always a risk of cracking in the concrete in all composite slabs. This is due to the restraint to drying shrinkage provided by the steel decking and primary steelwork, even though the decking effectively acts as reinforcement and helps to distribute the shrinkage strains so that large cracks do not form. However, cracks do not normally mean a durability or serviceability hazard. Only when the surface of the slab is used as a wearing surface, or where terrazzo or other “rigid” floor covering are to be used, may specific reinforcement be required in order to control the cracking. When cracking is an issue, reinforcement percentages in excess of 0.3% will normally be required in order to limit crack widths to the typically specified limit of approximately 0.3 mm. In composite slabs mesh, rather than bars, is generally used to control cracking. The greatest risk of cracking is normally over supporting beams, owing to the combination of drying shrinkage and flexural action. Induced joints may be used to reduce the risk of random cracking at these locations. With the induced joints it is possible to control where the crack will be form. It is possible that larger crack widths over the intermediate supports will occur with propped construction, because the full self-weight of the slab is applied in the composite slab on removal of the props. Reinforcement of 0.5% of the slab cross-sectional area should be sufficient in these cases to control cracking. 4.4 FIRE RESISTANCE

The measure to improve the fire resistance is to increase the reinforcement. To satisfy requirements for the fire condition, an increased size of mesh may need to be used, or extra bars may need to be placed in the troughs of the deck. In either case, the additional reinforcement is used to compensate for the loss of strength of the decking at elevated temperatures. A design guidance covering this aspect is normally given by the decking manufacturers in their design tables. However, established guidance on minimum slab thicknesses, minimum decking thickness, and the corresponding mesh sizes, for particular fire resistance periods is given in the following tables for trapezoidal decking and for re-entrant decking. The data in table 4.2 may be used directly for trapezoidal decking profiles of 45 to 60 mm nominal depth (hp is the differential height between the thin and the most depth

32

4. Basis of design of composite slabs

parts of the decking). For decking profiles greater than 60 mm deep, slab depths given in the table should be increased by (hp – 60) mm. For decking profiles that are between 45 and 55 mm deep, when spans are not greater than 3 m, the specified minimum slab depths may be reduced by (55 – hp) mm.

Figure 4.2 Composite slab cross section Table 4.2 Fire resistance specifications for trapezoidal decking Minimum dimensions Maximum Span Fire resistance Deck Slab thickness thickness (m) (hours) ht (mm) t (mm) NWC LWC 2.7 1 0.8 130 120 3.0 1 0.9 130 120 3.0 1 1/2 0.9 140 130 3.0 2 0.9 155 140 3.6 1 1.0 130 120 3.6 1 1/2 1.2 140 130 3.6 2 1.2 155 140

Mesh Size A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A193 A252

The data in table 4.3 applies to re-entrant decking profiles of 38 to 50 mm nominal depth. For profiles greater than 50 mm deep, the specified minimum slab depth should be increased by (hp – 50) mm. Table 4.3 Fire resistance specification for re-entrant decking Minimum dimensions Maximum Span Fire resistance Deck Slab thickness thickness (m) (hours) ht (mm) t (mm) NWC LWC 2.5 1 0.8 100 100 2.5 1 1/2 0.8 110 105 3.0 1 0.9 120 110 3.0 1 1/2 0.9 130 120 3.0 2 0.9 140 130 3.6 1 1.0 125 120 3.6 1 1/2 1.2 135 125 3.6 2 1.2 145 130

Mesh Size A142 A142 A142 A142 A193 A193 A193 A252 33

2. 34 . The moment resistance of the slab has to be greater than the applied moment.49 with four equal spans Ieff is the second moment of area of the effective section δ =k× (4. Check design of composite slab – at ULS (4.2) Assume that slab acts as a series of simply supported beams. They have to be less than the moment resistance of the deck.4. EXERCICE 1. Check metal deck during construction Consider the self-weight of the deck and the wet concrete. • Failure type 3: applied vertical shear exceeds shear resistance.0 for simply supported decking k=0. Consider the construction loads and distribute them to have the more unfavourable situation for both. Check deck deflection in construction 5 1 × p × L4 × 384 E × I eff k=1. maximum sagging bending moment.5 EXAMPLE GUIDE In composite slabs there are three possible modes of behaviour based on the level of interaction between the concrete and the steel decking: — Complete interaction — Partial interaction — Zero interaction And there are also three likely collapse mechanisms depending on the characteristics of the slab: • Failure type 1: applied moment exceeds moment resistance. Basis of design of composite slabs 4. • Failure type 2: ultimate load resistance is governed by the steel concrete interface. and maximum hogging bending moment (positive and negative moments).41 with two equal spans (3 supports) k=0.Rd-.1) Limit: L/180 or 20 mm 3.Rd+ and Mp. and these loads have to be over all the deck.52 with three equal spans k=0. Mp.

3) Position of plastic neutral axis: X A p × f yp X = γ ap γc 0. Moment resistance of the slab: f yp M ps . Direct relationship is established with the longitudinal shear load capacity of the sheeting. Uniform load applied to the entire span L simply supported beam.4) where A p is the area of the deck (mm2/m) B width took as 1000 mm f yp is the tensile strength of the deck γ ap = 1. Rd = A p × ×z γ ap (4.10 is the partial safety factor of the deck z = d p − 0.8) The m-k method is semi-empirical. Ls depend on the type of loading.4.6) 4.25 is the partial safety factor of longitudinal shear 35 .7) Longitudinal resistance is: Ap   1 v L .5) where d p is the total depth of the slab without half of the deck height plus the deck thickness. Check longitudinal shear (m-k method) Design shear force: Vsd = [γ G ×G +γQ ×Q × L ] 2 (4. Rd = B × d p ×  m × + k×   γ B × Ls   vs (4. Basis of design of composite slabs Design bending moment: M Sd [γ = G × G + γ Q × Q × L2 8 ] (4.85 × B × f ck (4. Ls = L/4 γ vs = 1.5 × X (4.

Rd = bo × d p × k1 × k 2 × τ Rd where bo is the average concrete rib width (over 1 m) k1 = 1. Check vertical shear Design shear force: Vsd = [γ G ×G +γQ ×Q × L ] 2 (4.13) (4.4.12) (4.9) (4.14) τ Rd = 0.6 − d p k 2 = 1.11) (4.25 f ck γc 6. Deflections would not be design criteria for slabs that satisfy span-to-depth ratio limits.10) Vertical shear resistance is: Vv. Serviceability limit state Calculate the deflections with the average second moment of composite slab. 36 .2 + 40 × ρ Ap ρ= bo × d p (4. Basis of design of composite slabs 5.

because with them it is possible to have a composite behaviour. Basis of design of composite beams 5. Figure 5. In unpropped construction.5. 37 . that are the beams perpendicular to the decking and the ones will be covered by this study. Secondary beams.1 CONSTRUCTION CONDITION First of all the composite beam has to be design to support the construction conditions. BASIS OF DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BEAMS Composite beams consist in a concrete flange and a steel section. The steel beam is then designed in accordance with Eurocode 3. is that the span of the beam considered is the distance between two consecutive supports which can be props or edge supports. Shear connectors make possible to transfer the forces between the two materials. The difference presented in propped construction at this stage. Hence the roll that shear connectors play is very important. and can develop their full moment resistances. the steel beam is sized to support the self weight of the concrete slab and other construction loads.1 Example of composite beams 5. The concrete flange is in compression and the steel section is largely in tension.5 kN/m2 is assumed to be applied to the entire area of steel decking and it would be logical to take this same load as applied to the beam. It is treated as an imposed load. In primary beams the lateral restraint is provided only by the beam to beam connections and their buckling resistance is based on the effective length of the beam between these points. are laterally restrained by the steel decking. and not the total span of the beam. A load of 0.

85 fck/γc (γc=1.85 f ck Rc = × beff × hc γc Rc = 0.95 × f y × Aa where Aa is the area of the steel beam (5.8) (5.05) Compressive resistance of the concrete slab is therefore: 0.45fcu fck ≈ 0.5.7) where hc is the depth of the concrete slab above the profiled decking Tensile resistance of the steel section is: Rs = Aa × f y γa Rs = 0. unlike elastic stress blocks which are triangular. Basis of design of composite beams 5. the moment resistance of the section is compared to the total factored moment applied to the beam. Effective breadth is represented by beff.3) (5.5) 0.4) (5. there is an effective breadth of slab.6) (5. 5.57fck or 0. Materials strengths to be used in the plastic analysis are: Concrete: 0.5) (5.8 fcu Steel: fy/γa 0. For compatibility between designs at ULS and SLS the effective breadth is taken as L/8 on each side of the secondary beam.2) (5. and the plastic moment resistance is independent of the sequence of loading (i.9) 38 . Like it is independent to the sequence of loading. propped or unpropped construction). being L the span length.1) (5. Plastic stress blocks are rectangular. beams are designed plastically.3 PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE ACTION Once the steel and concrete are acting compositely.57 × f ck × beff × hc (5.e. This results in L/4.2 EFFECTIVE SLAB WIDTH Not the whole slab is considered for the design. but not exceeding the actual slab width acting with each beam.95fy (γa= 1.

10) (5.11) b) Plastic neutral axis in flange of steel beam: Rc ≤ Rs and Rc >Rw (compression) R c yp ypxBxpy R s tf (tension) Figure 5.N.3 Plastic stress blocks when PNA lies in flange of steel beam 39 .2 Plastic stress blocks when PNA lies in concrete slab h R h  M pl . Basis of design of composite beams Moment resistance: Mpl.85 f γ ck / c (Rc/hc)yp Figure 5.Rd a) Plastic neutral axis (PNA) in concrete slab: Rc ≥ Rs (compression) b hc hp h /2 h h /2 f y / γa (tension) Rs eff P.5. yp 0.A. Rd = Rs  + hc + h p − s × c  Rc 2  2 Rc Rs × hc from × y p = Rs hc Rc where hc is the height of concrete slab above the deck hp is the depth of the profiled decking h is the depth of the steel section yp is the depth of PNA since the upper surface of the slab yp = (5.

14) (5.12) where t w is the web thickness t f is the flange thickness The depth of web in compression should not exceed 38twε to be treated as “Class 2”.5.18) 40 . Basis of design of composite beams Rw is the tensile resistance of the web of beam: Rw = 0. where  ε=   f  y    235  (5. Rd = Rc  c + h p  + Rs − 2 × s × ×  2  2 2 Bp y 2  2   2 h ( R − Rc ) h  M pl .17) (5.13) y p is the part of the steel flange which is in compression: Rs − Rc 2× B × py And the compression force in the steel flange is: R − Rc y p × B × py = s 2 where fy py = 2 × B × p y × y p = R s − Rc → yp = (5. Rd = Rc  c + h p  + Rs − s 2 4 Bp y  2  (5.95 × f y × t w × (h − 2t f ) (5.16) Moment respect the upper fibre of the top flange: h  R − Rc Rs − Rc 1   h M pl .15) γa (5.

Rd  hc + 2h p + h  Rc2 h + Rc  × − 2   Rw 4 (5. The advantage of this expression is the use of the plastic moment resistance of the steel beam Mapl.19) where Mapl. Moment relation respect to the centre of gravity of the steel beam: M pl .A.Rd is the plastic moment resistance of the steel section alone. Rd = M apl .20) where Av is the shear area of the section • Combined bending and shear: the interaction equation used to consider at the same time the bending moment and the shear is: 41 . of width tw. the web-flange fillet is ignored.4 Plastic stress blocks when PNA lies within the web For simplicity.N. at a stress of fy/ γa to balance the force Rc. Rd = fy 3γ a × Av = 0. 5. c tw (tension) Figure 5. Basis of design of composite beams c) Plastic neutral axis within web: Rc ≤ Rs and Rc < Rw R P. There is therefore an area of the web.5.58 f y Av γa (5.Rd which can be taken directly from standard tables for rolled steel sections. The tensile force Npla1 is balanced by an equal and opposite force acting in an equivalent position on the other side of the centre of gravity of the steel section.4 SHEAR RESISTANCE • Pure shear: the shear resistance of the web is taken as shown below: V pl .

24) a b PRd = smaller PRd . Resistances of stud shear connectors To calculate the resistances of headed stud shear connectors. studs are welded through the decking. Hence the top flange of the beam should not be painted or the paint removed.5 SHEAR CONNECTION (FULL AND PARTIAL) There are different types of shear connectors. Connectors should be capable of resisting uplift forces caused by the tendency of the slab to separate from the beam.Rd no reduction to the moment resistance is made 5. If welded shear connection is used.5. Using this type of connectors. the headed stud common dimensions are: 19 mm diameter and 100 mm height.22) (5. but they have some limitations. at its weld collar: πd 2 P b = 0. The galvanized steel should be less than 1.21) where Mf. there are two design equations to cover the different possibilities of failure: 1. PRd ( ) where fu is the ultimate tensile strength of the steel used in the studs (normally 500 N/mm2) 42 . and it has to be clean and free from moisture. Basis of design of composite beams M sd ≤ M fRd + (M Rd 2   2V   sd   − M fRd )1 −    V plRd − 1       (5. Shear failure of the stud.Rd is the moment resistance of the section considering only the flanges MSd and VSd are the applied moment and shear force respectively at the cross section considered If VSd ≤ 0.29αd 2 f ck c γv 2. Limitations: The zone where the shear connectors are to be welded cannot be paint.23) (5. Failure of the concrete: E a PRd = 0.5 Vpl.25 mm thick.8 f u 4γ v Rd (5.

Rd is the moment resistance of the steel section 43 . Basis of design of composite beams h  + 1 ≤ 1. If less shear connectors than the number required for full shear connection are provided it is not possible to develop the full plastic moment resistance of the composite section.27) M Rd = M apl .25 is the partial safety factor at the ultimate limit state These formulae apply for stud diameters smaller than 22 mm. “Linear-interaction” approach (5.2 Degree of shear connection In the plastic design of composite beams. the longitudinal shear force to be transferred between the points of zero and maximum moment should be the smaller of Rc or Rs.5. full shear connection is provided.26) = Nf Rc where Rq is the total shear force transferred by the shear connectors between the points of zero and maximum moment Nf is the number of shear connectors for full shear connection N is the number of shear connectors provided over the relevant part of the span. In this case the degree of shear connection may be defined as: Rq N = for Rs < Rc Nf Rs (5. is less than both Rc and Rs there is no full shear connection and the moment resistance is reduced.28) where Mpl. Rd − M apl . If so.25) Rq N for Rc < Rs (5. resistance of shear connection. Rd ) Nf (5. α = 0. Rd + N (M pl . Rq = N a × Q p There are two different methods to determining the reduced moment resistance: 1.0 takes into account the height and diameter of the stud  d γv = 1. Moment resistance of a composite section with partial shear connection When Rq.Rd is the moment resistance of the composite section for full shear connection Mapl.

The stress block method leads to significantly higher moment resistance than the linear interaction method for degrees of shear connection between 0. a) Plastic neutral axis in flange of steel beam: Rq ≥ Rw Rq  h M c = Rs + Rq (hc + h p )1 −  2R 2 c  That is the same as:  h N N M c = Rs + Rc (hc + h p )1 − 0. Basis of design of composite beams An adequate design is that which satisfies MSd ≤ MRd. Rd h Rq   + Rq  + (hc + h p )1 −  2R 2 c   44 .34) 2  Rq + (Rv − Rq )(Rv − Rq − 2 Ro ) d   −  4 Rv  (5. Rd h Rq   + Rq  + (hc + h p )1 −  2R 2 c   (5. 2. This check may be repeated at point load positions by redefining N as the number of shear connectors from the support to the point considered.32) That is the same as: M c = M apl . Stress block method This method is exact in that the equilibrium of the section is solved by equating the force in the concrete to the force transferred by the shear connectors Rq. Rd h  N N  Rc  + (hc + h p )1 − 0.30) b) Plastic neutral axis within the web: Rq < Rw 1) Web Class 1 or Class 2 d d 76ε ≤ 76ε or ≤ t w 1 − R q Rv tw (5.33) 2) d 76ε > t w 1 − Rq Rv (5.29)  (Rs − Rq )2 −  4 Bp y  (5.35) M c = M apl . No design formulae are given in Eurocode 4.4 and 0.5  2 Nf Nf   (Rs − Rq ) −  4 Bp y  2 (5.7.5 +  Nf Nf 2     N  −    N   f   Rc2 d   R 4  v 2 (5.5.31) 2   Rq d   −  R 4 v  M c = M apl .

0 L is the beam span Influence of deck shape The deck shape influence on the strength of shear connectors. The general limits on the degree of shear connection for a composite slab (with bo/hp ≥ 2 and hp ≤ 60mm): L ≤ 25 m N/Nf ≥ 1-(355/fy ) (1-0.5.0 for Nr = 1 kt ≤ 0. Basis of design of composite beams where Mc is the reduced moment resistance d is the clear depth of the steel web tw is the thickness of the steel web ε = (275/py)0. 45 . any general limit is conservative for the linear interaction method.7 × Nr b0 (h − h p ) × hp hp (5.4 L > 25 m N/Nf ≥ 1. In principle.8 for Nr = 2 where Nr is the number of studs per trough (Nr < 3) b0 is the average trough width h is the stud height This formula applies to the strength of the shear connectors when the steel decking crosses the beams and where the shear connectors project at least 35 mm above the top of the decking. Strength reduction factor kt for shear connectors is calculated with the following equation: kt = 0. the use of stress-block method imposes greater deformations on the shear connectors at failure and therefore.36) with kt ≤ 1.5 Rv = d × t w × p y is the resistance of clear web depth Ro = 38 × ε × tw 2 × p y is the resistance of slender web Minimum degree of shear connection A minimum degree of shear connection limit is introduced in order to ensure adequate deformation capacity of the shear connectors. A further limit is that h < hp + 75 mm in evaluating kt.04 Le) ≥ 0.

1 Basic shear strength of concrete (ENV 1994 (1994)) Strength class of C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 concrete fck 20 25 30 35 40 (N/mm2) τRd 0.7(ρ/2400) for lightweight concrete.85 used in previous guidance. The anchorage force per unit length of the beam is given as: 46 .30 0.37) where Acv is the cross-section area of concrete per unit length in any shear plane τRd is the basic shear strength of concrete (see table 5. It is also recognised that the formula may be unconservative for shear connectors in pairs and therefore the upper limit on kt is 0.50 A component arising from the tensile strength of the deck may be added to the longitudinal shear resistance. provided both ends of the deck are properly attached. where the decking is placed parallel to the beams. When the deck is discontinuous.5.8.5Acv η τRd + Ae fsk /γs ≤ 0. However. For primary beams. Table 5.0 for normal weight concrete and 0. The shear resistance per unit length of shear plane along the beam is: νRd = 2.26 0.46 C50/60 50 0. the anchorage force developed by the shear connectors may be included.2 Acv η fck /γc (5. Basis of design of composite beams The coefficient 0.6. 5. Its full strength can be used when the deck crosses the beam (secondary beams). no further reduction is made for the number of shear connectors in this case and the limit on kt is 1. the constant in the above equation is reduced from 0.0 for Nr =1 or 2.42 (N/mm2) C45/55 45 0.34 0.1) Ae is the amount of the reinforcement crossing each shear plane fsk is the yield strength of the reinforcement η is taken as 1.7 has been established on basis of test evidence. This may require provision of transverse reinforcement perpendicular to the beam. Potential shear planes through the slab lie on either side of the shear connectors. It is a reduction from the coefficient 0.3+0.7 to 0.38 0.6 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT The longitudinal shear strength of the concrete slab should be checked in order to ensure transfer of force from shear connectors into the slab without splitting the concrete. and is continuous.

Class 1 sections can also rotate after formation of a plastic hinge.1d)) where "a" is the distance of the edge of the sheet from the centre of the stud. although stresses in the extreme fibres of the steel section can reach yield. when loaded in compression (as a result of axial loads applied to the whole section and/or from bending) they may buckle locally. per unit length of the beam is determined by shear failure along two shear planes and is therefore equal to 2(νRd + νpd). for an internal beam. Basis of design of composite beams ν pd = N r (4dt s f yp ) γ ap s (5. or the bending resistance of the section. exceeds 2d. The composite beam section classification is based on an effective width of slab acting together with the steel beam. The disposition of any plate element within the cross section to buckle may limit the axial load carrying capacity. Class 3: because of local buckling in the part of the steel section under compression. As the plate elements in structural sections are relatively thin compared with their width.7 LOCAL BUCKLING In the ultimate limit state analysis of composite beams. This is done by defining the class of cross-section. Avoidance of premature failure arising from the effects of local buckling may be achieved by limiting the width-to-thickness ratio for individual elements within the cross section. 47 . This approach is very conservative and full end anchorage is achieved when the edge distance. Class 4: local buckling occurs before yield is reached in the extreme fibres. The total longitudinal shear resistance. 5. This is the basis of the section classification approach. a. Properties of each section class: Class 1 and 2: capable of developing the full plastic bending moment. it is important to consider the possibility of local buckling.38) where Nr is the number of shear connectors in each group on the beam flange d is the stud diameter ts is the sheet thickness fyp is the design strength of the sheet steel used to form the profile decking s is the shear connecting spacing The coefficient 4 should be replaced by (1+ a /(1. In practice the edge distance should exceed 40 mm. Where the decking is not properly anchored or where longitudinal sheet overlaps are close to the beam. the contribution of the decking should be neglected. but this is not important for simply supported beams.5. full plastic moment resistance cannot be achieved.

Basis of design of composite beams Classification of composite section: Compression flange: For simply supported beams the compression flange is the top flange.05 γ c =1. Web: If the plastic neutral axis (PNA) lies in the concrete slab or the upper flange of the section.5. by Rc: Rs = Rc = Aa × f y γa 0. the slenderness of the web should be checked to determine the classification of the web. is represented by Rs and of the concrete slab.40) where γ a =1. Considering the longitudinal equilibrium of the composite section it can be seen that the PNA is located in the thickness hc of the concrete of the slab if Rc > Rs. and the flange may be defined as Class 1. Flange buckling is assumed to be prevented. and it is restrained from buckling by the concrete slab to which it is attached by shear connectors. But this condition is not common in simply supported beams. it is necessary to analysis where the PNA lies. When the PNA is in the web. The plastic axial resistance of the steel beam. Therefore in composite beams. 48 . in tension. to know if it is possible that local buckling occurs or not. and hence the classification of the crosssection. the composite section can be considered as Class 1 since the web is in tension throughout.5 Aa is the area of the steel beam beff is the effective width of the slab The concrete in the ribs is ignored so the maximum depth of concrete in compression is limited to the thickness of the slab above the profiles hc. in compression.39) × beff × hc γc (5.85 f ck (5.

so it is capable of developing the full plastic bending moment.85 f γ ck / c R c s Figure 5. the PNA lies within the concrete slab and the composite section is classified as Class 1.A. Basis of design of composite beams (compression) + b eff hc hp h /2 h h /2 f y / γa (tension) R P. The depth of the plastic neutral axis yp measured from the upper surface of the concrete slab is given by: R (5. limits are usually placed on the stresses existing in beams at the serviceability limit state. 5. To do not be necessary to take considerations of post-elastic effects. yp 0. because it is argued that: • • Slight yielding in the positive moment region has a limited effect on deflections The beneficial effects of continuity on deflection are ignored. Deflection limits are not specified in Eurocode 4 and reference is made to Eurocode 3 for limits on deflections due to permanent and variable loads. 49 .41) y p = s × hc Rc If y p < hc .5. However no stress limits are given in Eurocode 4.5 Plastic distribution of the normal stresses (example of plastic neutral axis in the slab). Nowadays there are no limits on deflections in Eurocode 4 and either in Eurocode 3. and the local buckling is not considered in the design of the composite beam.N.8 SERVICEABILITY CONDITIONS Serviceability limit states concerns three different aspects: a) Control of deflections b) Cracking control c) Vibration response It is common to base assessments at the limit state study on elastic behaviour.

The elastic modulus under long term loads is affected by creep. expressed as a transformed steel section. To calculate the second moment of area.42) 4(1 + nr ) 12n where n is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete. n. The values of secant elastic modulus of concrete under short term loads are given in table 5. Table 5.2 Deflection limits (ENV 1993-1-1 (1993)) Conditions Roofs generally Roofs frequently carrying personnel other than for maintenance Floors generally Floors and roofs supporting brittle finish or nonflexible partitions Floors supporting columns δmax (sagging in the final state) L/200 L/250 L/250 L/250 L/400 δQ (due to variable loading) L/250 L/300 L/300 L/350 L/350 The modular ratio. The second moment of area of the composite section.5. and 20 for long term (permanent) loading in an internal environment. Under positive moment the concrete may be assumed to be uncracked.0.1 Control of deflections Deflections are calculated using the second moment of area of the composite section based on elastic properties. is: 2 Aa (hc + 2h p + h ) beff hc3 Ic = + + I ay (5.3.5 for short term (variable) loading. 50 .5 to 4. taking into account the creep of the concrete when it is relevant r is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the steel section relative to the concrete section Iay is the second moment of area of the steel section The common value of the ratio Ic/Iay is in the range of 2.8. the composite section is considered as a transformed steel section. For normal weight concrete the typically modular ratios that may be used are 6. These values indicate that one of the main benefits we can get with the composite action is in terms of reduction of deflections. Basis of design of composite beams 5. which causes a reduction in the stiffness of the concrete. So first of all the second moment of area has to be calculated. represents the ratio of the elastic modulus of steel to the timedependent modulus of concrete.

due to a free shrinkage strain. C.5. εs. taken as 0. Ks. Shrinkage induced deflections Deflections produced by shrinkage are considered only in some specific cases. is different for unpropped and propped construction due to the higher force in the shear connectors at serviceability state in propped construction than in unpropped construction. For cases of partial shear connection using shear connectors.5 for propped construction.44) 51 . The curvature. This coefficient.43) where N/Nf is the degree of shear connection δc is the deflection of the composite beam with full shear connection δa is the deflection of the steel beam under the same loads C is a coefficient. It states that shrinkage deflections need only be calculated for simply supported beams when span to depth ratio of the beam exceeds 20. Eurocode 4 is ambiguous about deflections arising from shrinkage of the concrete slab.5 40/50 35 45/55 36 50/60 37 29 30. and when the free shrinkage strain of the concrete exceeds 400 x 10-6. δ. the deflection. is increased according to:   N  δa δ  ×  − 1 = 1 + C × 1 −  δ  N  δc f   c   (5. Basis of design of composite beams Table 5. However these effects are ignored in composite beams designed for full shear connection.3 for unpropped construction and 0.3 Secant elastic modulus of concrete Strength Class of 20/25 25/30 30/37 Concrete Ecm (kN/mm2) 35/45 33.5 32 Influence on deflections of partial shear connection This effect is very important because deflections increase due to the effect of slip in the shear connectors. In practice. In Eurocode 4 no account of slip is taken in umpropped beams when N/Nf ≥ 0.5 because it is argued that deflections are already conservative. is: ϕs = ε s (hc + 2h p + h )Aa 2(1 + nr )I c (5. these deflections will only be significant for spans greater than 12 m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres.

hence it probably over-estimates shrinkage deflections by a considerable margin. These bars do not need to be placed along the entire beam. is given by: AS f (5.2% necessary for shrinkage control and transverse load distribution. A value of 3 N/mm2 is the minimum adopted. ρ= A typical value of ρ is 0. 5.2 Crack control Crack control is not always necessary.46) × 100% = k c × k × ct × 100% σs Ac where kc is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section with a value between 0. would be impaired.8). only where the proper functioning of the structure or its aesthetic aspects. fct is the effective tensile strength of concrete. ρ.4% to 0. Where it is necessary to control cracking.8. n ≈ 20.5.125 ks L2 (5. The deflection due to this curvature for simple supported beams is: δs = 0. only in the negative moment region of the beams or slabs. This minimum percentage of reinforcement. k is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in tension strength (k ≈ 0. Natural frequency of a beam is: f = 18 δ sw cycles/sec (5.3 Vibration response Potential vibration response may be necessary to be check especially for long span beams.6% which is well in excess of the minimum of 0. 5.4 and 0.9. the amount of reinforcement should exceed a minimum value.45) This formula to calculate the deflection due to shrinkage ignores continuity effects at the supports. σs is the maximum permitted stress in the reinforcement.47) where δsw is the instantaneous deflection (in mm) caused by the self weight of the floor and other permanent loads on to the composite beam. Basis of design of composite beams where n is the modular ratio appropriate for shrinkage calculations. Due to this extra reinforcement cracks are distributed uniformly in the negative moment region. appearance.8. 52 .

The limit may be raised to 5 cycles/sec for special buildings such as sport halls. Basis of design of composite beams A minimum limit on natural frequency is proposed as 4 cycles/sec for most building applications except where is vibrating machinery. 53 .5. or 3 cycles/sec for car parks.

unpropped and propped during construction. Design data Imposed load: Imposed load 2. DESIGN EXAMPLES The following worked examples consist on the design of a composite beam using light steel sections.5 kN/m2 Floor dimensions: Span L = 4. Design examples 6.5 m Slab depth ht = 130 mm Depth above profile hc = 80 mm Deck profiled height hp = 50 mm Unpropped construction throughout 54 .5 m SPAN COMPOSITE BEAM TO EUROCODE 4.Vibrations 6.Transverse reinforcement .1 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF AN UNPROPPED 4.5 m Beam spacing b = 1.Deflections .6. In both examples the dimensions of the beam are the same to make easier the comparison. The worked example considers different aspects: • • • Design of the beam at the construction stage Design of the beam at the composite stage Serviceability limit stage considerations . although under these particular conditions the beam can have a greater span if is propped.

71 kN/m2 55 .05 kN/m2 = 2.47275 kN/m2 Construction Stage: Concrete slab Steel deck Reinforcement (allow) Steel beam (allow) Total Construction Load Composite Stage: Concrete slab Steel deck Reinforcement (allow) Steel beam (allow) Total = = = = 2.04 kN/m2 0.47 kN/m2 0.05 Concrete: Normal weight concrete strength class C30/37 Density = 2400 Kg/m3 (23.05 kN/m2 = = = = 2.47275 × 10 −6 kN/mm2 =  × 3 × 9 300  10 10 10 9  = 2.55 130 × 10 3 − 50(120 + 30 ) × = 150 × = 2.71 kN/m2 = 0.15 kN/m2 0.47 kN/m2 0. Materials: Steel: Grade S280 Nominal value of yield strength f y = 280 N/mm2 Partial safety factor γ a = 1.05 280 = 267 N/mm2 γ a 1.55 kN/m3) Design strength f d = fy = Loading: Self weight of the concrete slab Weight =  10 3  1 23.55 23.50 kN/m2 = 2.04 kN/m2 0. Design examples Shear connectors: Top-hat shear connectors attached with 4 studs to the beam.6.15 kN/m2 0.

7574 kN Design moment = M sd = 29.4085 kN/m2 Total design load = F = 4.2 mm t f = 1.82 cm2 I xx = 646. Design examples Ceiling and services Imposed: Total imposed load = 0.6 Grade S280 Section properties and dimensions: h = 200 mm b = 2 × 65 = 130 mm t w = 2 × 1.5 = 16.4 cm4 W xx = 64.71 x 1.7574 × 4.6 mm Aa = 10.35 = 3.5 = 0. A suitable section for imposed load of 2.6 = 3.75 kN/m2 Total = 4.5 x 1.5 Slab + beam = 2.35 Imposed load factor γ Q = 1.50 x 1. Rd 56 .5 kN/m2 Initial selection of beam size The response of a DOUBLE GENERIC C SECTION is going to be studied. Moment resistance of the steel beam = M a.7385 kNm 8 It is assumed that the beam in the construction stage is laterally restrained by the decking since the decking spans perpendicular to the beam and is directly attached to it.50 kN/m2 = 2.6585 kN/m2 Construction = 0.5 kN/m2 would be a 200 x 65 x 1.65 cm3 Nominal value of yield strength f y = 280 N/mm2 ( t f < 40 mm) Construction stage design Ultimate limit stage loading Dead load factor γ G = 1.5 = 29.4085x 4.6.

85 × 30 80 × 1125 × 3 = 1530 kN 1.7385 KNm 10 3 Composite stage design Ultimate limit stage loading Slab + beam = 2.5 = 54. Compressive resistance of slab: Rc Rc = 0.35 = 3.50 x 1.5636 × 4.5 = 30.5 = 3.5 Rc = 0.65 × 267 = 17.6.71 x 1. Rd = W xx × f d = 64.85 f ck γc × beff × hc where 2 f ck is the characteristic strength of concrete = 30 N/mm γ c is the partial safety factor for concrete = 1.6920 kNm 8 Effective width of compression flange: beff beff = 2 × l o 2 × 4 .5 10 2.35 = 0. Design examples M a.82 × 267 × 10 2 = 288.0835 kN/m2 Total design load = F = 8.5 x 1.125 m < 1.6585 kN/m2 Ceiling + services = 0.75 kN/m2 Total = 8.5636 kN Design moment = M sd = 54.4813 kN 10 3 57 .5 m (beam spacing) 8 8 1.0835 x 4.5 = = 1.675 kN/m2 Imposed load = 2.5 x 1. Tensile resistance of steel section: Rs Rs = Aa × f d Rs = 10.24 kNm > 16.

4813 80   200 + 80 + 50 − ×  = 64174. if a connector is placed in each decking elevation between the points of zero and maximum moment the longitudinal shear force transfer is: Rq (4 studs) = PRd × L 57.4813 × hc = × 80 = 15. Design examples 3.9817 kNmm M pl . 4. Shear connector resistance: In light steel sections.8 × Pu = 57. therefore the moment resistance of the composite beam is: h R h  M pl .) lies in the concrete flange.A lies in the concrete flange so composite section is Class 1.6.6 kN 2 2 58 .6 kN Due to the geometry of the top-hat. Rd = 64. and it has a value of 18 kN. top-hat connectors are used.5 = = 129. Moment resistance with full shear connection: Since Rs < Rc the plastic neutral axis (P.N. The resistance of each stud has been calculated in several tests by Lawson and Popo-Ola (1998).N.6920 kNm The plastic neutral axis depth is: yp = Rs 288.1750 kNm > M sd = 30.Rd = Rs  + hc + h p − s × c  Rc 2  2 288. Each top-hat connector is fixed by four studs.6 × 4.0840 mm < 80 mm → the P.Rd = 288.A. Hence the resistance of a shear connector is equal to: Stud resistance = 18 kN Shear connector resistance Pu = 4 × 18 = 72 kN PRd = 0.0840 mm Rc 1530 15.4813 ×  1530 2  2 M pl .

Rq N 129.2781 kN Imposed load = 2.5 / 2 = 12.Rd 17.6.1750 − 17.24 + 0.449 × (64.2818 kN 59 .3254 kNm M Rd = 38.449 > 0.5 x 1.Rd = Moment resistance based on full shear connection M Rd = 17.4 6.24 7. Moment resistance with partial shear connection: Using the linear interaction method.5 x 1.3474kN Ceiling + services = 0.4 Nf Rs 288. Vertical shear: Beam + slab = 2.4.4.5 x 1.5 / 2 = 12.Rd − M a.71 x 1.223 M a.5 x 4.5 / 2 = 2.35 x 4.3254 > M Sd = 30.Rd + N × (M pl . Design examples 5.24 kNm N = Degree of shear connection Nf M pl .6 = = = 0.6920 kNm Increase in moment resistance due to composite action: M Rd 38.3254 = = 2.24) = 38.449 > 0.Rd ) Nf where M a.5 x 1. the moment resistance of a composite beam is obtained as follows: M Rd = M a.5 x 1.4813 The degree of shear connection cannot be higher than 1 and less than a minimum equal to 0. Degree of shear connection: There is a minimum degree of shear connection which for beams with a span equal or less than 5 m is 0.6563 kN Total shear force: VSd = 27. 1 > 0. Rd = W xx × f d = 17.35 x 4.

6 = 196.2 mm 196.6 = 3.2 → therefore the possibility of buckling in shear is not necessary to be checked.2818 kN ≤ V pl .45826 N fd 3 V pl .5 3.Rd = Av × where Av = ht w V pl .5344 kN 0. Design examples Shear resistance: Vpl. Shear buckling resistance: Shear buckling resistance must be checked if the web slenderness (d/tw) exceeds 69ε: d > 69ε tw where d is the height of the web t w is the thickness of the web ε= 235 = fy 235 280 d = h − 2 × t f = 200 − 2 × 1.Rd = 98.Rd = 200 × 3.2 × 267 3 = 98534.5 × V pl .2818 KN (there is no interaction bending momentshear force) 8.267 kN > VSd = 27.5344 kN VSd = 27.8 mm t w = 2 × 1.6.8 = 61.Rd = 98. 60 .2 69ε = 63.2 61.Rd V pl .5 < 63.Rd = 49.

4 × 10 4 = 46126288.5 = 18. no stress checks are required for normal conditions.71 kN/mm2 Design load F = 2.5 kN/mm2 Design Load F = 2. Elastic stress In Eurocode 4.2925 kN E a = 205 kN/mm2 δ= 5 FL3 384 E a I xx 5 × 18.01202006 beff × hc 1125 × 80 n = Modular ratio = 10. ENV 1994 (1994). 2.2925 × 4.71 x 4.82 × 10 2 = = 0.01202006) 12 × 10 I c = 4.5 x 1.82 × 10 2 × (200 + 2 × 50 + 80) 1125 × 80 3 Ic = + + 646.61262885 × 10 7 mm4 2 61 .5 x 1. Deflections • Non-composite stage deflection: δ Self weight of slab and beam = 2.5 = 16.875 kN Aa (h + 2h p + hc ) 4(1 + nr ) 2 Ic = + beff × hc3 12n + I xx r= Aa 10. Design examples Serviceability limit stage 1. for normal weight concrete 10.5 × 10 3 δ= = 16.6.5 mm4 4 × (1 + 10 × 0.5 x 4.4 × 10 4 ( ) 3 • Composite stage deflection: δc Imposed load = 2. so no stress limits are given.3802 mm 384 × 205 × 646.

8529 mm 2.1175 × 4. the effect of slip has to be taken into account:   δ N  δ a = 1 + 0.3(1 − 0.1175 × 1 + 0.5 × 4. using A142 mesh reinforcement in the slab.2643 mm  2.2643 mm 0.875 × (4.449) ×  4.61266505 × 10 7 = 15.2643 ≈ L L < 1055 350 The deflection due to imposed load is satisfactory • Total deflection: Construction stage = 16. 3. Design examples Deflection with full shear connection δc = 5FL3 384 E a I c 3 5 × 16.1100   − 1  = 4.4973 mm The limit on the maximum total deflection for a composite beam is the following: L 4500 = = 22. 62 . Transverse reinforcement The resistance of concrete flange to splitting will be check.61262885 × 10 7 As partial shear connection exists.1175 mm 384 × 205 × 4.6.5 Total = 21.4973 mm 200 200 The total deflection is also satisfactory.3802 mm Imposed load = 4.5 × 10 3 ) δc = = 2.4 × 10 4 15.5 mm > total deflection = 21.1175  δ = 2.1109 mm 646.31 −  ×  − 1 δc  N f  δ c    δa = δc × Ic I xx =   2.2643 Ceiling + services ≈ = 0.

6.55 kN/m 1. F = 3.5 × 105 × 10 3 × 1 × 0.5 γ c = 1. Vibration (Simplified approach) Loading: Beam + slab = 2.3 1 .46 kN/m2 Total weight of floor.05 γc = 0.25 × f ctk 0.5 = 23. v Rd Ae f sk ≤ 0.15    0. v Placing the top-hat connectors in the way there are four studs per trough: v Sd = 57.355 kN 63 .2 × 105 × 10 3 ×  × 10 = 420 kN/m > 135.50 kN/m2 10% of imposed load = 0.6 × 0.5 x 1.2 Acv v Rd = 2.25 × 1 .15 142 × 460   v Rd = 2.3 + × 10 −3 = 135.5   • Shear force per unit length.55 kN/m γc 1 .55 kN/m 0.5 γ s = 1.5 Acvητ Rd + γs ηf ck γc Ae = 142 mm2/m η = 1 for normal weight concrete Acv = 105 x 103 mm2/m f ck = 30 N/mm2 f sk = 460 N/mm2 τ Rd = 0.3 A142 mesh is satisfactory 4.25 kN/m2 Total = 3.2 Avc ηf ck  1 × 30  −3 = 0. Design examples • Shear resistance per shear surface.8 = 0.5 = 96 kN/m < ν Rd = 135.71 kN/m2 Ceiling + services = 0.46 x 4.

6642 mm 384 × 205 × 5.1 × 4. I c1 I c1 = 1.355 × 4.0279 Hz > 4 Hz The design is limited basically by the moment resistance of the beam in the construction stage rather than serviceability criteria. it depends on the imposed loads because all of the loads have to be resisted by the composite section.6642 = 11. 6.2 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF A 4. Conclusion 18 δa = 18 2.Imposed loads on composite section Using props during construction sometimes it is possible to get a greater span.Dead loads on composite section .5 × 10 3 δa = = 2. but not in all cases. δ a δa = 5 × F × L3 384 × E a × I c1 5 × 23.6. Design examples Increase of second moment of area of the composite section based on elastic properties I c . if the span would be increased the beam would fail before the composite behaviour. 64 . by 10% to allow for the increased dynamic stiffness of the composite beam.07389174 × 10 7 mm4 Instantaneous deflection caused by re-application of the self weight of the floor and the beam to the composite beam.61262885 × 10 7 = 5.07389174 × 10 7 ( ) 3 Natural frequency ≈ 5.5 m SPAN BEAM. PROPPED DURING CONSTRUCTION The main differences on the design of a composite beam propped during construction are the following: • • The beam functions exclusively as composite Deflections: Sum of: . The maximum span of the secondary beams that is possible to consider in the design is limited by moment resistance at the construction stage.

05 280 = 267 N/mm2 γ a 1.55 kN/m3) Design strength f d = = fy 65 .5 kN/m2 Floor dimensions: Span L = 4.6. Shear connectors: Top-hat shear connectors attached with 4 studs to the beam.5 m Beam spacing b = 1. Materials: Steel: Grade S280 Nominal value of yield strength f y = 280 N/mm2 Partial safety factor γ a = 1. Props are placed in the middle of the span.05 Concrete: Normal weight concrete strength class C30/37 Density = 2400 Kg/m3 (23.5 m Slab depth ht = 130 mm Depth above profile hc = 80 mm Deck profiled height hp = 50 mm Beam propped during construction. Design examples Design data Imposed load: Imposed load 2.

47 kN/m2 0. A suitable section for imposed load of 2. Design examples Loading: Self weight of the concrete slab Weight =  10 3  1 23.05 kN/m2 Total Construction Load Composite Stage: Concrete slab Steel deck Reinforcement (allow) Steel beam (allow) Total Ceiling and services Imposed: Total imposed load = 2.71 kN/m2 = 0.04 kN/m2 0.04 kN/m2 Steel beam (allow) = 0.15 kN/m2 0.50 kN/m2 Initial selection of beam size The response of a DOUBLE GENERIC C SECTION is going to be studied.47275 kN/m Construction Stage: Concrete slab Steel deck = 2.55 = 130 × 10 3 − 50(120 + 30 ) × = 150 × = 2.05kN/m2 = 2.6 Grade S280 Section properties and dimensions: h = 200 mm b = 2 × 65 = 130 mm 66 .71 kN/m2 = 0.55 23.47275 × 10 −6 kN/mm2 × 3 × 9 9 300  10 10 10  2 Weight = 2.47 kN/m2 = 0.6.5 kN/m2 would be a 200 x 65 x 1.5 kN/m2 = = = = 2.50 kN/m2 = 2.15 kN/m2 Reinforcement (allow) = 0.

5 2 = 4.5 Slab + beam = 2.4085x 4. Rd M a.1846 kNm 10 3 Composite stage design In the composite stage the props have been removed and the beam span is 4.35 = 3.5 = 14.6.65 cm3 Nominal value of yield strength f y = 280 N/mm2 ( t f < 40 mm) Construction stage design During the construction stage the span of the beam is half of the final span. Moment resistance of the steel beam = M a.5 = 0.5 m.6 mm Aa = 10.75 kN/m2 Total = 4.50 x 1.82 cm2 I xx = 646. due to the prop placed in the middle span.8787 × 8 It is assumed that the beam in the construction stage is laterally restrained by the decking since the decking spans perpendicular to the beam and is directly attached to it.6585 kN/m2 Construction = 0.65 × 267 = 17.1846 kNm Design moment = M sd = 14.8787 kN 2 4. Ultimate limit stage loading Dead load factor γ G = 1.24 kNm > 4.35 Imposed load factor γ Q = 1.4085 kN/m2 Total design load = F = 4. Design examples t w = 2 × 1.71 x 1.6 = 3. 67 .4 cm4 W xx = 64. Rd = W xx × f d = 64.5 x 1.2 mm t f = 1.

0835 x 4.5 Rc = 0. Design examples Ultimate limit stage loading Slab + beam = 2. Compressive resistance of slab: Rc Rc = 0.35 = 0.5636 kN 54. Tensile resistance of steel section: Rs Rs = Aa × f d Rs = 10.5 = 54.5 x 1.6585 kN/m2 Ceiling + services = 0.675 kN/m2 Imposed load = 2.6.71x 1.85 × 30 80 × 1125 × 3 = 1530 kN 1.5 10 2.35 = 3.4813 kN 10 3 68 .6920 kNm 8 Design moment = M sd = Effective width of compression flange: beff beff = 2 × l o 2 × 4 .50 x 1.82 × 267 × 10 2 = 288.5636 × 4.0835kN/m2 Total design load = F = 8.85 f ck γc × beff × hc where 2 f ck is the characteristic strength of concrete = 30 N/mm γ c is the partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5 = 3.5 = 30.5 = = 1.125 m 8 8 1.5 x 1.75 kN/m2 Total = 8.

6920 kNm The plastic neutral axis depth is: yp = Rs 288.A. if a connector is placed in each decking elevation between the points of zero and maximum moment.) lies in the concrete flange therefore the composite section is Class 1.1750 kNm > M sd = 30.5 = = 129. top-hat connectors are used.A lies in the concrete flange.N. Each top-hat connector is fixed by four studs. 4. Hence the resistance of a shear connector is equal to: Stud resistance = 18 kN Shear connector resistance Pu = 4 × 18 = 72 kN PRd = 0. Moment resistance with full shear connection: Since Rs < Rc the plastic neutral axis (P.4813 × hc = × 80 = 15. Design examples 3. The resistance of each stud has been calculated in several tests by Lawson and Popo-Ola (1998).6 kN Due to the geometry of the top-hat.Rd = Rs  + hc + h p − s × c  Rc 2  2 288.0840 mm < 80 mm → P. and it has a value of 18 kN.4813 80   200 M pl .8 × Pu = 0.N.0840 mm Rc 1530 15.8 × 72 = 57. the longitudinal shear force transfer is: Rq (4 studs) = PRd × L 57. Rd = 64. Shear connector resistance: In light steel sections.4813 ×  + 80 + 50 − ×  = 64174.9817 kNmm 1530 2  2 M pl .6 × 4.Rd = 288.6.6 kN 2 2 69 . The moment resistance of the composite beam is: h R h  M pl .

24) = 38. Rd = W xx × f d = 17.Rd + N × (M pl .3254 > M Sd = 30.3254 = = 2.71 x 1.4813 The degree of shear connection cannot be higher than 1.3474 kN Ceiling + services = 0.4 Nf Rs 288.Rd 17.5 / 2 = 12.5 x 1.449 > 0.1750 − 17. 1 > 0.5 x 4.4 6. the moment resistance of a composite beam is obtained as follows: M Rd = M a.6563 kN Total shear force: VSd = 27.Rd − M a.449 × (64. Rq 129.5 / 2 = 12.3254 kNm M Rd = 38.35 x 4.24 + 0.5 x 1.5 x 1.223 M a.24 kNm N = Degree of shear connection Nf M pl . and less than 0.2818 kN 70 . Moment resistance with partial shear connection: Using the linear interaction method.6 N = = = 0.Rd ) Nf where M a.6.Rd = Moment resistance based on full shear connection M Rd = 17. Degree of shear connection: There is a minimum degree of shear connection which for beams with a span equal or less than 5 m is 0.24 7. Design examples 5.449 > 0.4. Vertical shear: Beam + slab = 2.35 x 4.4.5 / 2 = 2.5 x 1.6920 kNm Increase in moment resistance due to composite action: M Rd 38.2781 kN Imposed load = 2.5 x 1.

71 .6 = 3.5 < 63.Rd = 98.2 × 267 3 = 98534.267 kN > VSd = 27.2 61.Rd V pl .5 3.5 × V pl .Rd = 98.6.2 69ε = 63.Rd = 49.2818 kN ≤ V pl .5344 kN 0.5344 kN VSd = 27. Shear buckling resistance: Shear buckling resistance must be checked if the web slenderness (d/tw) exceeds 69ε: d > 69ε tw where d is the height of the web t w is the thickness of the web ε= 235 = fy 235 280 d = h − 2 × t f = 200 − 2 × 1.Rd = 200 × 3.6 = 196.2 mm 196. Design examples Shear resistance: Vpl.8 mm t w = 2 × 1. Rd = Av × where Av = ht w V pl .2818 KN (there is no interaction bending moment-shear force) 8.8 = 61.4459 N fd 3 V pl .2 → therefore the possibility of buckling in shear is not necessary to be checked.

5 × 10 3 ) δ1 = = 2.5 x 1.4 × 10 4 = 46126288.6.2953 mm 384 × 205 × 4. Second moment of area of the composite section: Ic = Aa (h + 2h p + hc ) 4(1 + nr ) 2 + beff × hc3 12n + I xx r= Aa 10.82 × 10 2 × (200 + 2 × 50 + 80) 1125 × 80 3 + + 646. 2. The deflections caused by the dead weight of the slab and the beam when the props are removed. and the deflections caused by the weight of the floor finished (ceiling&services and imposed loads).82 × 10 2 = = 0.5 = 18. so no stress limits are given. Deflections The beam functions exclusively as composite.61262885 × 10 7 3 5 FL3 384 E a I c 72 .01202006 1125 × 80 beff × hc n = Modular ratio = 10. no stress checks are required for normal conditions. Design examples Serviceability limit stage 1. so the deflections to be considered are composite stage deflections.2925 kN E a = 205 kN/mm2 δ1 = 5 × 18.71 x 4.2925 × (4. Elastic stress In Eurocode 4.5 mm4 4 × (1 + 10 × 0.61262885 × 10 mm 2 Ic = • Slab and beam weight deflections: Self weight of slab and beam = 2. ENV 1994 (1994).71 kN/mm2 Design load F = 2. for normal weight concrete 10.01202006) 12 × 10 4 7 I c = 4.

875 × 4.6955 ≈ L L < 790 350 The deflection due to imposed load is satisfactory The effect of slip has to be considered also on the deflection due to the slab and beam self weight.4 × 10 4 15.6955 mm  2. Design examples • Imposed loads deflections: Imposed load = 2.1175  δ 2* = 2.1175 × 4.1175 mm 384 × 205 × 4.5 x 4.449) ×  5. the effect of slip has to be taken into account on the deflections due to imposed load and also on the deflections of dead loads (Slab+beam weight and ceiling&services).5 = 16.51 − − 1 × δ1  N f   δ1    73 .61262885 × 10 7 = 15.875 kN Deflection with full shear connection δ2 = 5 FL3 384 E a I c 5 × 16.5(1 − 0.6.1109 mm 646.5 x 1.  δ 1* N   δ a1  = 1 + 0. It is necessary to check the deflection due to the imposed load: *  δ2 N  δ a2  = 1 + 0.61262885 × 10 7 ( ) 3 As partial shear connection exists. when the props are removed.1109   − 1  = 5.5 kN/mm2 Design load F = 2.51 − − 1 × δ2  N f   δ2    δ a2 = δ2 × Ic I xx =   2.1175 × 1 + 0.5 × 10 3 δ2 = = 2.

• Shear resistance per shear surface.5 γ c = 1.0086 mm The limit on the maximum total deflection for a composite beam is the following: L 4500 = = 20.2953 × 1 + 0.1740 mm  2.449 ) ×  • Total deflection: Slab+beam weight = 6.6.25 × 1 .4 mm > total deflection = 18. 3.5(1 − 0.3802 mm 646.05 γc = 0.5 Total = 13. Design examples δ a1 = δ1 × I c I xx =   2.15 74 . v Rd Ae f sk ≤ 0.61262885 × 10 7 = 16. using A142 mesh reinforcement in the slab.4 × 10 4 16.1391 mm 2.2 Acv v Rd = 2.6955 Ceiling + services ≈ = 1.3802   − 1  = 6.8 = 0.5 × 5.2953 × 4.5 Acvητ Rd + γs ηf ck γc Ae = 142 mm2/m η = 1 for normal weight concrete Acv = 105 x 103 mm2/m f ck = 30 N/mm2 f sk = 460 N/mm2 τ Rd = 0.1740 mm Imposed load = 5.2953  δ 1* = 2.25 × f ctk 0. Transverse reinforcement The resistance of concrete flange to splitting will be check.3 1 .6955 mm 0.5 γ s = 1.3892 mm 200 250 The total deflection is also satisfactory.

25 kN/m2 Total = 3.07389174 × 10 7 ( ) 3 75 . by 10% to allow for the increased dynamic stiffness of the composite beam.46 x 4.15    0.5 = 96 kN/m < ν Rd = 135.1 × 4.6642 mm 384 × 205 × 5.3 + × 10 −3 = 135. Vibration (Simplified approach) Loading: Beam + slab = 2.55 kN/m 1.5 = 23.6 × 0.07389174 × 10 7 mm4 Instantaneous deflection caused by re-application of the self weight of the floor and the beam to the composite beam.55 kN/m = 0.55 kN/m 0.5 × 10 3 = 2.5 x 1.355 kN Increase of second moment of area of the composite section based on elastic properties I c .5 × 105 × 10 3 × 1 × 0.5    • Shear force per unit length.46 kN/m2 Total weight of floor.2 × 105 × 10 3 × γc 1 . F = 3.3 A142 mesh is satisfactory 4. v Placing the top-hat connectors in the way there are four studs per trough: v Sd = 57.6. I c1 I c1 = 1.71 kN/m2 Ceiling + services = 0.2 Avc ηf ck  1 × 30  × 10 −3 = 420 kN/m > 135. δ a 5 × F × L3 δa = 384 × E a × I c1 δa = 5 × 23. Design examples 142 × 460   v Rd = 2.61262885 × 10 7 = 5.355 × 4.50 kN/m2 10% of imposed load = 0.

Design examples Natural frequency ≈ 5. 76 .0279 Hz > 4 Hz When the beam is propped during the construction stage. its span is not limited by the moment resistance at the construction stage rather than in the case of an unpropped construction. the design is limited basically by the total deflection which is a serviceability criterion.6. Conclusion 18 δa = 18 2.6642 = 11. If props are used.

However in composite construction the sections used are back to back double sections.1). and working compositely with a concrete slab. Table 7.1 PROPERTIES OF LIGHT STEEL SECTIONS 7. all the single sections are Class 4. and this means that local buckling may occur in compression elements before yield is reached. When any of the compression elements within a section fail to satisfy the limit for Class 3 the whole section is classified as Class 4 (commonly referred to as slender). In this case the class classification of the section is different. In calculation for the construction stage of a composite beam the classification of the cross section should be based on the plain steel section. The following table gives the limiting proportions for compression elements of Class 1 to 3.1 tables show.1 Class classification The particular cold formed sections analysed are Generic C sections which properties have been tabulated by Lawson. and local buckling should be taken into account in the design using an effective cross section.1 Maximum slenderness ratios for the elements of a rolled section in compression and bending Element Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Flange Web subject to bending Web subject to compression c / tf = 10 ε d / tw = 72 ε d / tw = 33 ε c / tf = 11 ε d / tw = 83 ε d / tw = 38 ε c / tf = 15 ε d / tw = 124 ε d / tw = 42 ε As the Annex 2. If we check the class classification for the single light steel sections according to the criteria of Eurocode 3.7.1. not single sections. showed in table 7. Chung and Popo-Ola (2002) (see Annex 1). Load-span design tables 7. the result is that all sections are slender (see Annex 2. 77 . but secondary beams are laterally restrained by the steel decking and can develop their full moment resistances.1. LOAD-SPAN DESIGN TABLES FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS USING LIGHT STEEL SECTION AND PROFILED SHEAR CONNECTORS 7.

Shear buckling resistance must be checked if the web slenderness (d/tw) exceeds 69ε: d > 69ε tw where d is the height of the web t w is the thickness of the web (7.4 back to back double sections.2 shows. 78 .6 and 300x65x2. shear in buckling may happed.1) ε= 235 fy The possibility of buckling in shear has been checked for all the Generic C double sections studied in this project as the table 7. 7. Load-span design tables Once the composite action is achieved. the position of the plastic neutral axis has to be checked.2). The shear buckling resistance of these two sections has to be calculated to know if that means a hazard or not. to know if local buckling can occur or not.7. hence the composite sections are classified as Class 1 and local buckling has not to be considered in the design. with the different sections and imposed loads (see Annex 2. These two sections are 200x65x1.1. The plastic neutral axis lies within the concrete slab in all the combinations studied. These calculations have been carried out for all the cases treated in this project. Only with two of the Generic C double sections studied and in the case that steel grade S350 is used.2 Shear buckling Working with light steel sections it is important to consider the possibility of buckling in shear.

539 56.8 2.2) where the value of the simple post-critic resistance τ ba depend on the value of the web slenderness λ _ w λ _ w = d / tw 37.8 196.539 56.2 Study of the possibility of buckling in shear of the different sections 69ε 69ε tw d d/tw D t (mm) 100 125 125 150 150 165 165 180 180 180 200 200 200 220 220 250 300 300 (mm) 1.539 56.6 1.833 51. Load-span design tables Table 7.213 63.875 40.556 49. ok Shear buckling resistance has been calculated with the simple post-critic method for these two sections: Vba.6 1.083 38.8 4.213 63. ok ok ok ok ok Buckli.2 3.4 2.213 (fy=350 N/mm2) 56.2 3.4 2.000 44.2 1.4 196 216 215.2 294 40.4 176 196.2 1.3) 79 .083 61.213 63.2 3.4 2.8 146.539 56. Rd = d × t w × τ ba γa (7.4 3.000 44.213 63.213 63.539 56.539 56.500 49.000 (fy=280 N/mm2) 63.667 50.8 1.539 56.000 61.8 4.2 3.000 54.213 63.213 63.2 245.539 56.213 63.8 161.6 1.2 3.0 2.539 56.6 1.213 63.539 ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok Buckli.213 63.213 63.7.539 56.539 56.2 295.6 4 3.8 146.500 54.833 55.8 2.213 63.213 63.539 56.4 × ε × kτ (7.539 56.4 161.8 1.213 63.0 (mm) 2.6 122.063 45.250 49.213 63.6 121.539 56.539 56.6 4 4 4.6 1.8 176.6 3.563 44.539 56.6 3.213 63.213 63.4 176.0 2.667 51.4 3.8 6 (mm) 97.0 1.539 56.

0 42.5 4.8 2.5 6.6 and 300x65x2.3 1.868 λ _ w τ ba (N/mm2) 193.032 Table 7.3 35.43 193.5 4.6 Propped 300x65x2.4. hence shear buckling will never happen.5 6.9 80 .5 4.6 27.3 3.7 23.5 4.6 33.5 7.1 3.3 44.5 7.4 36.4 0.2 1.5 7.9 4.3 Shear buckling resistance Generic C section 200x65x1. the value of the web slenderness is: λ _ w = 0.43 Vba. As it is possible to see in table 7.9 29.9 38. showed in table 7.8 < λ   _ w < 1.7 4.5 5.9 49.4.868 Therefore 0.4 Propped Unpropped (S350) (S350) Unpropped (S350) (S350) Imposed Imposed Imposed Imposed L VSd L VSd L VSd L VSd load load load load (m) (kN) (m) (kN) (m) (kN) (m) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) 1.4 2.5 4.6 200x65x1.8 48.8       _  f y     3  (7.5 6.2 And according to the simple post-critic method τ ba = 1 − 0. Rd (kN) 116.5 4. shear force in the cases studied is always lower than the shear buckling resistance of the section.7 2.868 0.6 4.014 261.6 3. Table 7.9 2. 200x65x1.625 λ w − 0. Load-span design tables where kτ = 5.5 4.3.6 300x65x2.4 300x65x2.5 6.4 Shear force values 200x65x1.3 35.4 31.34 is the shear buckling coefficient For both sections.9 3. and it can be compared with the shear force VSd to know if the buckling in shear may be a problem or not with these sections.9 1.4) With the simple post-critic resistance the shear buckling resistance is calculated for each section.3 26.7.6 54.5 7.6 54.6 4.

(equal to LE /250 for propped) h: imposed load deflection of span/350 exceeded i: natural frequency is less than 4 Hz DESIGN TABLES.5 to 7. g: total deflection of LE/200 exceeded for unpropped.3 a: moment resistance of the beam exceeded in the construction stage b: interaction between shear force and bending moment c: moment resistance of the composite beam with full shear connection exceeded d: moment resistance of the composite beam with partial shear connection exceeded e: limit on the degree of partial shear connection not satisfied.8).2 DESIGN CRITERIA Design tables have been calculated for double Generic C light steel sections (see tables 7.7. Design criteria: 7. Load-span design tables 7.7 and 7.5 and 7.8). The parameters showed in the tables are the maximum span that each section can achieve followed by the design criteria which limits this maximum span. PROPPED AND UNPROPPED BEAMS The two first tables are for unpropped beams during construction (tables 7. the beam spacing. These tables contain a wide range of cases although one of the parameters involved has been considered fixed. This is not a failure criterion but it is a warning that the shear connection provided is less than the Eurocode limit of 40%.6) and the second ones are for propped beams (tables 7. Tables’ notation: LE: span of the beam (secondary beam) δE: deflection due to imposed loads δS: deflection due to beam self weight N: number of shear connectors 81 . The number of connectors required for these conditions and the deflection that the beam self weight and the imposed loads mean. steel grade and imposed load applied. On this way the design tables can be used to design composite beams and also to compare how sections span capacity vary with the construction conditions.

8 4.1 15 4.5 20.5 m • Steel strength S 280 • Stud resistance 18 kN Beam is unpropped during construction SLAB DATA • Slab depth 130 mm • Concrete strength C30/37 Table 7.7 17.7 3.9 g 8.7 12.2 14 4.3 4.8 g 3.4 a 1.3 14 4.5 16.1 18.7 8.5 17.2 10.0 150x65x1.4 12 3.6 15 4.1 19.4 4.0 300x65x3.4 14.0 23.4 g 7.1 g 2.6 3.4 16 4.5 g 2.9 4.6 25.0 100x55x1.9 7.7 18 5.3 g 2.8 a 3.8 3.6 17 5.2 2.6 23.4 g 4.6 20 5.1 21 6.0 13 3.8 4.9 18.2 2.1 14.1 g 5.5 4.7 3.6 a 4.5 g 4.7 9 2.6 b g g g g g g d d d d d d d d d d d δE δS (mm) (mm) 2.0 4.0 g 2.7 g 4.3 5.5 3.1 25 7.7 g 3.9 g 4.0 16.6 3.5 9.0 250x65x2.6 4.3 10.8 5.0 16.0 13.1 19 5.2 9.7 17.5 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: unpropped – fy = 280 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.9 g 4.0 3.6 4.1 165x65x1.6 a 2.6 18.5 24 7.5 3.8 4.0 g 4.7 12.7 13.3 220x65x2.1 11.9 N 7 9 9 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 20 21 82 .6 4.1 19.9 g 5.4 g 2.8 3.8 13.8 23 6.6 14 4.1 125x55x1.7 13.0 5.BEAM DATA • Internal beam • Uniform load • Beam spacing 1.3 g 4.0 16 4.2 2.5 14.7 22.6 220x65x2.0 17.3 10 3.7 16 4.1 14 4.9 9.0 g 3.5 6.0 7.1 6.3 13.1 15.6 7.4 16.8 g 5.6 4.8 13.8 200x65x1.8 165x65x1.1 g 6.5 N 7 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 17 17 19 22 24 LE (m) 2.3 180x65x2.0 10.1 g 8.6 5.7 9 2.0 5.7 10.3 15.3 g 5.8 13.2 g 1.6 180x65x1.6 g 6.2 5.5 15.0 15 4.5 12.4 20.1 19.5 17.1 6.8 13 3.3 g 5.2 300x65x2.0 25.4 6.2 13 3.3 25 7.6 11.8 27.7 8 2.0 31.6 18 5.4 15 4.1 4.2 14.8 g 6.1 200x65x1.4 g 5.7 g 4.4 16.4 6.1 16.5 19.4 7.5 g 6.5 g 8.5 9.1 g 7.8 g 2.0 13.6 g 4.4 a 1.8 15.8 g 6.8 a 2.1 9.8 6.0 7.7 d 9.4 21.5 200x65x2.8 22.0 g 5.5 2.4 5.2 4.0 20.2 g 2.1 14.9 180x65x1.0 5.0 4.8 a 1.8 12.4 16.3 10 3.3 g 5.8 13 4.1 16.6 12 3.4 13.7 6.5 13.6 17.0 g 3.1 6.3 125x55x1.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE δE δE δE δS δS δS N N DESIGNATION (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) 8 2.4 29.2 14.2 g 4.8 14 4.0 12.1 6.6 g 3.5 g 5.3 13 4.4 g 3.4 16 4.5 14.2 d 10.6 3.2 150x65x1.0 8.9 g 2.8 15.0 4.1 g 4.5 6.

3 12.6 g 3.5 g 3.8 14 4.6 300x65x3.5 g 1.4 13.7 g 5.4 10 3.9 5.5 m • Steel strength S 350 • Stud resistance 18 kN Beam is unpropped during construction SLAB DATA • Slab depth 130 mm • Concrete strength C30/37 Table 7.1 g 7.7 g 4.2 g 2.0 5.1 13.3 15 4.2 17 5.2 9 2.5 g 4.0 7.9 21.4 7.3 165x65x1.0 7.3 g 4.4 6.6 g 4.8 19.2 g 4.4 15.4 5.8 16.0 g 5.7 6.5 15.1 9.8 4.2 14 4.0 11.8 g 3.8 g 6.7 13 4.9 g 5.3 g 2.4 5.8 14.8 150x65x1.9 9.6 g 4.8 g 10.7 3.5 4.4 15.6 4.3 12 3.1 g 2.8 4.4 180x65x1.5 9 2.5 7 2.3 17.8 6.4 17 5.3 11.4 16.6 12 3.7 16.9 g 2.5 3.5 19.8 25.3 9.1 g 4.8 14.4 g 3.8 17.4 10.BEAM DATA • Internal beam • Uniform load • Beam spacing 1.6 20.2 15.2 18.6 16.1 18.2 13 4.5 150x65x1.5 2.2 11.9 3.0 4.9 g 1.3 14 4.8 g 5.7 g 6.7 11.8 10.7 13.7 2.0 22.0 4.2 2.4 g 2.7 25 7.8 16 4.3 10.3 2.8 17.6 28.8 g 3.5 6.1 7.7 g 3.3 g 11.5 7.2 4.9 25 7.6 250x65x2.3 g 5.9 12.0 13.6 11.7 14 4.9 N 7 9 9 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 17 19 22 23 83 .6 g 6.8 13 4.3 6.8 8.4 g 7.3 4.4 22.6 3.1 200x65x2.6 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: unpropped – fy = 350 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.7 12.3 20.7 g 4.2 19.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE δE δE δE δS δS δS N N DESIGNATION (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) 8 2.3 23.9 13.4 19.5 g 6.1 g 5.2 g 5.2 22.9 17.2 g 2.1 125x55x1.9 17.2 16 4.0 13 3.9 16 4.3 15.6 4.2 30.1 15 4.7 8.7 12.2 5.9 20.1 10.1 15.0 5.3 12 3.1 g 3.9 20 6.6 15 4.4 g 6.2 g 5.1 26.1 g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g δE δS (mm) (mm) 3.7 g 3.1 13.0 g 3.1 17.9 15 4.8 13.8 10 3.9 g 4.5 g 9.5 180x65x1.6 7.9 4.5 3.9 180x65x2.2 2.9 13 3.6 3.9 12 3.1 7.2 23 6.5 N 7 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 19 22 24 LE (m) 2.6 4.2 200x65x1.4 300x65x2.0 14.8 3.8 4.8 g 2.3 g 4.0 17.9 g 3.6 100x55x1.1 14.9 14.1 220x65x2.6 12.8 18 5.2 24 7.1 20 5.6 165x65x1.3 17.9 220x65x2.6 16.8 125x55x1.1 4.5 5.2 3.8 17.0 g 8.4 13.6 4.6 14.0 g 3.8 7.8 g 2.3 25.8 19.6 200x65x1.3 g 2.0 6.6 4.1 18 5.1 14.1 g 7.4 g 6.6 3.1 12.9 4.5 9.9 g 8.

7 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: propped – fy = 280 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.1 g 9.3 g 9.3 g 9.2 g 7.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE δE δE δS δS N N DESIGNATION (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) (m) 11 3.2 7.4 10.3 6.8 12.4 10.3 9.5 δE δS (mm) (mm) 4.0 8.8 12.4 8.3 10.0 17 4.0 d 200x65x2.5 4.6 12.3 7.0 g 5.7 5.2 6.8 9.3 8.3 27 7.9 g 6.9 10.7 6.0 16.0 14 4.8 3.2 16 4.6 b b g d g d d d d d d d d d d d d d δE δS (mm) (mm) 3.5 g 180x65x1.8 15.4 8.6 11.2 9.4 10.3 12 3.8 d 200x65x1.4 11.4 17 4.0 5.6 b 100x55x1.4 d 180x65x1.4 11.3 3.2 10.8 8.3 21 5.7 28 7.2 14.4 7.0 18 5.8 5.2 g 7.6 g 180x65x2.0 8.5 m • Steel strength S 280 • Stud resistance 18 kN Beam is propped during construction SLAB DATA • Slab depth 130 mm • Concrete strength C30/37 Table 7.5 7.0 7.9 g 10.0 5.7 3.7 d 300x65x2.3 g 165x65x1.5 g 10.3 4.5 g 8.5 14 4.0 8.9 5.9 13 3.3 d 220x65x2.5 d 13.2 g 7.4 16 4.3 18 5.0 26 7.5 11.6 5.8 19.9 14.3 20 5.7 12.7 g 7.1 6.3 11.9 g 13.5 g 7.2 4.8 11 3.7 8.8 4.0 d 250x65x2.8 4.2 13.6 4.2 g 165x65x1.9 7.7 23 6.6 15 4.2 8.3 g 6.2 12.6 4.2 g 6.1 10.2 g 9.8 17 4.7 8.2 5.0 5.3 5.8 6.5 21 6.1 9.9 19 5.2 6.8 5.1 4.5 2.0 5.4 7.1 5.6 5.9 g 8.0 4.BEAM DATA • Internal beam • Uniform load • Beam spacing 1.0 7.5 9.5 6.3 8.1 9.2 8.6 3.7 7.3 25 6.9 5.9 9.3 4.2 8.8 10.5 g 5.9 15 4.9 4.9 g 4.2 11.8 g 8.0 g 150x65x1.4 6.6 9.0 9.8 3.9 9.9 g 150x65x1.0 3.6 9 2.9 8.6 3.1 15 4.6 9.8 9.6 4.5 12.6 g 11.7 d 200x65x1.0 g 5.2 17 5.6 g 7.7 13 3.4 6.3 8.5 g 6.5 8.6 16 4.8 g 7.1 3.7 2.2 6.2 14.5 9.3 4.2 d 300x65x3.4 5.3 14.7 11 3.2 3.6 3.3 18.3 6.9 g 8.3 g 4.9 5.4 15 4.9 8.6 g 5.4 7.4 g 8.7 10.5 N 8 10 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 18 20 22 24 LE (m) 2.3 5.8 8.2 8.2 2.9 5.3 13.2 b 125x55x1.9 g 6.1 17 4.6 d 220x65x2.6 6.7 N 7 9 10 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 20 21 84 .7 g 10.5 10.4 9.3 19 5.4 4.7 6.8 5.1 19 5.0 8.4 13.0 6.3 4.1 9.1 g 10.3 8.2 16 4.0 17 4.8 4.3 g 125x55x1.4 6.6 g 6.2 4.3 g 6.6 5.

4 14 4.7 g 4.8 11.9 g 6.3 9.6 9.1 g 6.4 15.8 6.2 g 7.9 9.6 6.6 7.4 g 220x65x2.6 g 200x65x1.4 g 5.1 15 4.3 g 10.5 8.5 18 5.3 g 5.5 9.3 11.8 3.8 17 4.7 11.2 3.6 8.3 14 4.3 17 4.3 8.4 4.0 5.6 10.8 17 4.3 4.0 8.5 6.8 16 4.6 5.0 5.1 g 165x65x1.9 10.4 9.6 4.8 3.3 g 6.1 21 6.7 25 7.9 14.BEAM DATA • Internal beam • Uniform load • Beam spacing 1.7 g 13.2 4.3 g 7.6 g 7.0 12.4 g 11.5 9.0 g 250x65x2.1 10.8 4.4 8.5 5.0 19 5.6 14.4 16.6 12.8 5.6 g 8.9 g 200x65x2.2 g 220x65x2.8 13 3.0 10.5 g 4.3 4.6 3.7 17 4.3 22 6.0 10.2 12.0 7.7 8.3 5.3 10.0 6.7 g 6.5 18 5.8 5.3 15.0 g 165x65x1.6 19.1 14 4.5 7.1 4.7 26 7.3 6.6 5.0 9.5 2.8 20 5.7 g 200x65x1.8 9.0 18.3 6.1 5.8 12.0 8.7 g 150x65x1.8 g 10.1 13.7 7.9 12.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE δE δE δS δS N N DESIGNATION (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) (m) 9 2.8 5.5 3.4 7.3 g 300x65x3.9 9.4 11 3.1 27 7.5 8.0 7.8 g 8.6 6.3 8.1 12.5 g 180x65x2.0 g 8.9 4.6 13 3.2 3.1 9.3 18 5.6 10.2 8.5 8.0 6.5 4.7 g 8.2 6.5 7.6 15 4.6 13.8 5.2 7.6 16 4.9 g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g δE δS (mm) (mm) 5.2 g 7.8 8.7 6.9 10.9 6.7 15.8 N 7 9 9 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 19 21 23 85 .4 12.0 g 7.1 7.6 g 4.6 g 5.6 6.4 6.4 g 180x65x1.3 g 180x65x1.7 5.0 g 3.2 5.1 12 3.2 5.3 9.7 6.9 g 300x65x2.0 8.2 11.6 4.3 g 12.8 g 8.6 4.7 7.5 N 8 10 10 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 18 20 23 24 LE (m) 2.0 15 4.1 g 7.7 8.2 6.0 g 125x55x1.2 9.1 9.2 g 125x55x1.2 3.0 5.8 11 3.8 19 5.8 4.8 6.8 4.5 m • Steel strength S 350 • Stud resistance 18 kN Beam is propped during construction SLAB DATA • Slab depth 130 mm • Concrete strength C30/37 Table 7.2 3.7 10.1 10 3.1 6.8 9.2 9 2.0 4.2 g 9.5 δE δS (mm) (mm) 5.4 16 4.9 14.5 g 100x55x1.4 8.0 3.0 g 7.2 7.4 g 5.8 Load-span design table for double Generic C section: propped – fy = 350 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.9 g 10.9 15 4.6 3.8 g 150x65x1.1 4.9 7.5 14.4 4.1 6.9 14 4.0 24 6.4 2.4 6.2 11.5 g 9.4 g 6.7 9.8 8.4 6.7 15 4.0 8.6 11.7 10.0 5.9 11.4 g 7.2 g 5.9 g 8.

5 3 3.5 3 3.S350 Imposed Load 2.6 mm thick section.5 kN/m2 Depth of 1. They help to get the most economic selection according with the project requirements.5 kN/ m2.1 Relation between span-depth of 1. the tables show the possibility of use a smaller section which obviously is more economic.6 mm thick section (mm) 250 200 150 100 50 0 2 2. Once the imposed load is determined the engineer has to decide the span .5 4 4. Changing one of these two variables it is possible to get different sections suitable for the load conditions. however is easier to appreciate these relations if the dates are plotted in graphics (see Figure 7. depending on the spacing 86 .5 4 4.5 5 5. If the span remains fixed and the spacing is reduced. if a reduction of the steel section is required it is necessary to reduce the span of the beam.S280 Imposed Load 2. Hence for a determinate spacing.4 USE OF DESIGN TABLES Composite beams design tables are very useful for the engineer in particular during the design stage of a project.5 kN/m2 Depth of 1.5 5 5.5 Span (m) Spacing 1000 Spacing 1200 Spacing 1500 Spacing 2400 Depth-Span Unpropped beam . This information can be found within the design tables. Load-span design tables 7. under an imposed load equal to 2.1).7.spacing combination more competent.5 Span (m) Spacing 1000 Spacing 1200 Spacing 1500 Spacing 2400 Figure 7. Depth-Span Unpropped beam .6 mm thick section (mm) 250 200 150 100 50 0 2 2.

5 2 1.5 4 3. can be determinate. This process is very easy with the aid of graphics (see Figure 7.6 200x65x1.5 5 125x55x1.6 180x65x1.7.6 150x65x1.6 150x65x1. the imposed load that the section can resist. If the spacing is fixed.5 3 3.6 200x65x1.5 Span (m) 4 4.5 3 2.5 4 3.6 87 . Imposed Load-Span Spacing = 1500 mm Unpropped .6 180x65x1.2).6 165x65x1. varying the span of the beam.5 3 3.5 1 2 2.5 Span (m) 4 4.5 3 2.S280 5 Imposed load (kN/m2) 4. Load-span design tables Other possibility is to know in which imposed load conditions a specific section would respond positively.6 Imposed Load-Span Spacing 1500 mm Unpropped .5 5 125x55x1.5 1 2 2.S350 5 Imposed load (kN/m2) 4.6 165x65x1.5 2 1.

5 3 3.5 4 4.6 165x65x1.5 5 5.S280 5 4.6 150x65x1.6 Imposed Load-Span Spacing 1500 mm Propped .6 200x65x1.6 200x65x1.5 125x55x1.5 2 1.5 Imposed Load (kN/m2) 4 3 2 1 2 2. Load-span design tables Imposed Load-Span Spacing 1500 mm Propped .6 Figure 7. Design tables show all the combinations that are possible warranting a good behaviour.5 1 2 2.5 3 3.6 180x65x1.5 6 125x55x1. 88 . and using them it is easier to determine which combination is the right one.5 Imposed load (kN/m2) 4 3.6 150x65x1.5 2.5 1.5 5 5.S350 5 4.6 180x65x1.6 165x65x1.2 Relation between span-imposed load with spacing equal to 1500 mm for different sections.5 4 Span (m) 4.5 3 2.5 Span (m) 3.7.

has been necessary to design innovative shear connectors and to carry out several tests with the purpose of improve their performance and determine their design resistance. When the beam is propped during construction. secondary beams of a composite slab have been designed to study the performance of these thin sections working compositely with in situ concrete. It is therefore important to understand the design principles and also the practical considerations of the structural use of these sections. As light steel sections have so thin steel elements.0 mm thickness as composite beams. Using light cold formed sections of 1. with propped construction greater spans can be designed. Differences in design of composite beams with light cold formed sections compared to hot rolled steel sections exist. which are very useful in the design stage. grade S350. Design tables. all the loads have to be resisted by the composite section and this impedes to get greater spans. The Eurocode restrictions for total deflections of composite beams 89 . If imposed loads increase there is almost not difference between the span that can be achieved with propped construction compared to the unpropped one. It is appreciated that the design of these sections may appear to be more complicated than that of hot rolled sections. • If the steel of the sections has higher yield strength. means an economic benefit due to the reduction of material involved. the beam span is limited by total deflections.2 to 3. Composite construction is widespread in building practice and the development of light steel composite structures has a great demand because the clear benefits that they incorporate. The reason is that in unpropped construction beams fail because of the moment resistance in construction stage is exceeded. in both cases total deflections and moment resistance with partial shear connection limit the beam span. CONCLUSIONS A wide range of possibilities of cold formed sections and light steel framing has been developed in recent years. specially because the beams spacing has been fixed to compare how the span vary with the dimension of the section. Conclusions 8. have been computed. Knowing light steel sections special properties. However working composite with in-situ concrete has being demonstrated that local buckling of light steel sections is not a common design criterion. However some general conclusions can be observed through design tables: • When the steel grade of the sections is S280 and the imposed loads are quite low. in propped and unpropped construction and with different imposed loads.8. The design tables shown cover a limited range of light steel double Generic C sections possibilities. Other point which has great importance is the type of shear connectors used. Light steel sections are slender and the possibility of local buckling has to be checked.

8. 90 . the engineer has to select the beams spacing and span. total deflection < LE/200 Propped construction. depth and thickness. Comparing the design tables of light steel sections and heavy cold formed sections (HCFS). Conclusions depend on whether props have been used during the constructions : ~ ~ Unpropped construction. total deflection < LE/250 Although in propped construction lower total deflections are achieved.2 to 3. HCFS use steel of 3 to 6 mm thickness so the cost that can be saved by the reduction in weight of material is lower than using light steel sections. but they can support imposed loads about 4. With these decisions taken. Hence using light steel sections when the construction requirements allow it. Once the imposed load is fixed and knowing the total dimension of the composite slab. Light steel sections of 1. these regulation limits allow greater spans in unpropped construction than in propped one under high imposed loads. it is possible to observe that greater spans can be achieved using these last ones.5 kN/m2 with spans of more than 8 m. But often the spans that light steel sections can offer satisfy the construction demand. of the section that will resist these conditions.0 mm thickness look weak because their slenderness. This effect is not presented with lower loads due to the bigger spans that with props can be achieved. design tables give the dimensions. increase economic and environmental benefits.

edited by R.M.Connections between Steel and Concrete. Lawson. Building Design Using Cold Formed Steel Sections-Section Properties and Load Tables.M. Eligehausen. (1998). Two. Opportunities for Heavy Cold Formed Steel Sections.. Design of composite steel and concrete structures. R.9.O. BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES Galjaard. R. European Committee for Standardisation (CEN).. Two. 6.M. (2001). Beck.. R. European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) . ENV 1994-1-1 (1994) Eurocode 4. Lawson. Chung.. Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. M. 7. H. S. Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. 2. Germany. (2002).. S.F. Design of steel structures. S. 4. The Steel Construction Institute. ENV 1993-1-1 (1993) Eurocode 3. 5. Walraven. The Steel Construction Institute. Static tests on various types of shear connectors for composite structures. (2001). University of Stuttgart. Vol. Popo-Ola. Popo-Ola. Bärtschi. Push-out tests with strip connector fastened with HILTI X-EDNK22 pins into cold formed steel sections. Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Lawson. European Committee for Standardisation (CEN). Popo-Ola. 1. K. R. edited by R. H. Part 2: Composite bridges. Germany. Fontana.O.O.. ENV 1994-2 (1997) Eurocode 4. C. 8. Eligehausen. Vol. 91 . The Steel Construction Institute. (2002). University of Stuttgart. 3. C. Bibliographic references 9. J. Experimental investigation on the behaviour of strip shear connectors with powder actuated fasteners-Connections between Steel and Concrete..

D. Steel Construction Institute. • • • • SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY “Cold-Formed Steel Design”. L. Rackham. Edited by G. 1994. Edited by S. The Metal Cladding & Roofing Manufacturers Association. Couchman. Lawson. M. Wiley Publications. F. Steel Construction Institute. 92 . Yu. Chung. M. “Composite Beam Design to Eurocode 4”. Supplementary bibliography 10. “Design of Composite Beams Using Precast Concrete Slabs”. New York. 2000. 1991. Lawson and K. “Composite Slabs and Beams using Steel Decking: best practice for design and construction”. 2003. Second Edition.10. W. Hicks and R. H. J. Edited by R. Mullett and J. Edited by Wei-Wen.

ANNEX 1 GENERIC C SECTIONS PROPERTIES 93 .

28 2.3762 Cw (cm6) 255 401 513 1127 1244 1387 1532 1681 1856 2023 2125 2348 2560 3174 3664 4903 7444 8780 x x D es (mm) -26.33 2.52 22.87 11.5 282.6 28.14 39.43 53.32 2.6 -28.32 36.0394 0.19 2.0133 0.19 4.93 4.8 1249.6 1.06 31.06 24.34 5.07 2.4 -23.2 311.11 Ix x (cm4) 44.34 2.59 32.3 27.87 45.3 73.6 -25.06 2.02 2.63 5.0 2.1 -25.63 4.3 -27.14 2.0120 0.28 5.88 Weight (kg/m) 2.0319 0.8 2.1 34.10 5.98 4.5 -25.8 -27.0862 0.08 3.8 2.08 3.28 2.67 2.28 4.51 6.34 5.12 8.40 8.1 30.1 33.29 2.31 102.9 97.31 4.2 94 .77 5.72 6.09 Wy y (cm3) 3.22 3.34 10.83 15.0 -20.25 4.50 7.4 184.09 2.5 12.4 2.00 27.93 28.2 323.6 1.05 2.4 26.27 5.2 Iy y (cm4) 11.39 12.47 7.00 5.49 4.53 10.9 802.66 6.0627 0.23 8.30 8.0413 0.4 rx x (cm) 4.90 ry y (cm) 2.6 1.2 361.02 7.4 1531.50 9.22 2.41 6.14 8.0 40.97 10.1928 0.28 5.97 5.23 83.0376 0.8 1.0912 0.4 252.2 1.0 35.1 -26.7 499.7 206.21 10.07 5.7 -21.00 4.0439 0.4 16.4 2.0 165.59 6.0 28.0 2.0 1.96 3.0812 0.08 7.14 J (cm4) 0.72 6.73 7.8 -22.4 3.02 Wx x (cm3) 8.71 7.77 6.46 5.8 1.63 25.96 6.83 6.32 3.07 6.2 -24.7 -25.86 5.26 2.4 29.04 7.6 -26.6 1.67 7.2 230.31 2.01 7.2 1.25 2.0536 0.70 8.0 Area (cm2) 2.6 590.73 64.37 8.1 Section properties of Generic C single sections D (mm) 100 125 125 150 150 165 165 180 180 180 200 200 200 220 220 250 300 300 B (mm) 55 55 55 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 T (mm) 1.1 25.00 4.0 31.36 34.15 10.7 42.1 44.6 1.40 7.B t GENERIC C SECTIONS GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES Single section Table A1.4 -26.1709 0.34 9.0563 0.82 4.3 398.1 -27.1 -24.1 52.98 5.35 2.0591 0.73 7.1578 0.

44 12.4 87.49 9.86 56.72 69.17 13.27 8.6 1.79 10.0265 0.8 1.18 Wy y (cm3) 7.0239 0.46 14.00 8.38 19.6 1.9 55.91 16.0878 0.73 2.3857 0.82 2.6 1.57 11.9 369.0751 0.91 16.0 564.98 2.34 5.77 25.34 14.97 5.3 622.7 505.41 Wx x (cm3) 17.6 147.38 16.02 7.15 13.0 2.27 79.0789 0.0 2.6 1.19 23.8 2.1072 0.97 10.70 8.0 96.15 7.00 4.65 72.9 87.98 9.9 87.4 3.5 124.1623 0.8 150.46 128.9 87.31 20.96 6.0 330.91 2.3 Iy y (cm4) 42.09 J (cm4) 0.1181 0.2 1.0 Area (cm2) 5.7 124.98 5.85 107.01 7.7523 Cw (cm6) 1135 1733 2198 4869 5353 5859 6443 6940 7634 8285 8524 9379 10183 12277 14042 18067 25902 30070 y es (mm) - NOTE: Gross sections properties are independent on the design yield strength.22 Ix x (cm4) 88.1127 0.19 19.9 106.95 8.45 2.B y B t x x D Double section Table A1.71 7.66 31.37 8.41 20.83 2.6 1.3418 0.18 13.90 13.18 19.05 44.75 90.4 2.27 50.71 2.92 2.0637 0.73 7.54 10.1724 0.19 11. 95 .79 7.1 96.68 10.34 9.85 9.05 2.69 2.76 Weight (kg/m) 4.13 62.2 Section properties of double Generic C sections D (mm) 100 125 125 150 150 165 165 180 180 180 200 200 200 220 220 250 300 300 B (mm) 55 55 55 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 T (mm) 1.37 13.84 2.9 1605.50 7.63 8.1 rx x (cm) 4.99 2.0 96.2 1.4 646.5 2498.90 13.67 3.8 42.73 10.9 106.19 4.73 23.07 3.90 ry y (cm) 2.45 16.9 3062.8 194.13 49.39 14.51 6.39 14.3 999.91 10.0 1.26 10.57 8.60 2.07 5.90 2.92 7.6 797.00 18.04 7.4 722.34 10.8 1.4 2.39 14.17 64.7 124.82 12.81 2.1254 0.0827 0.2 1181.0 96.4 412.01 55.8 2.17 7.64 6.25 17. so these properties tables can be used for steel grade S280 and S350 N/mm2.4 106.39 14.39 9.3155 0.1824 0.46 166.5 460.61 204.

ANNEX 2 SECTIONS CLASS CLASIFICATION 96 .

00 class4 class4 - class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 97 .92 22.6 1.67 104.06 16.06 20.13 91.25 13.5 32.6 1.0 2.92 17.8 2.5 32. flange and web.83 83.5 27.5 32.0 2.00 125.00 91.5 32.17 125.4 2.11 100.50 100.33 104.0 c (mm) c/tf Flange class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 - d/tw Web under Bending Web under Compres sion CLASS class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 27.25 16.00 110.5 32.8 2.Annex 2.13 93. ε = 0.6 1.00 111.5 32.31 18.5 32.4 2.6 1.31 18.5 32.54 10. have been class classification according to the Eurocode limits.31 18.5 32.92 ) D (mm) 100 125 125 150 150 165 165 180 180 180 200 200 200 220 220 250 300 300 B (mm) 55 55 55 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 t (mm) 1.75 83. Sections class classification A2.33 103.0 1.06 16.8 1.2 1.54 13.19 20.31 18.5 32.06 20.5 32.1 Single Generic C section class classification (fy= 280 N/mm2.25 20.00 100.17 78.5 32.8 1.67 112.2 1.6 1.5 32.54 13.1 SINGLE GENERIC C SECTION CLASS CLASSIFICATION: The elements of the single Generic C sections.5 27.5 22.4 3. Table A2.5 32.5 32.00 90.

ε = 0.13 91.5 27.06 16.54 10.5 32.4 3.5 32.33 103.31 18.00 125.83 83.2 1.0 1. is smaller than the concrete depth above the steel decking.06 20. yp.2 1.17 78. With the compressive resistance of the concrete slab (Rc) and the tensile resistance of the steel section (Rs) is possible to calculate the depth of the plastic neutral axis yp.5 32.0 2.31 18.8 2.8 1.06 16.92 22.00 90.00 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 - class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 A2.00 110.11 100. Sections class classification Table A2.54 13.00 91.00 100.5 32.5 32.5 32.5 32.17 125.13 93.5 27. 98 .8 2.25 20.5 32.5 32.5 32.54 13.31 18.33 104.67 112.6 1. 80 mm.06 20.5 32.67 104.8 1.25 13.00 111.0 c (mm) c/tf Flange class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 - d/tw Web under Bending Web under Compres sion CLASS class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 class4 27.50 100.5 32.82 ) D (mm) 100 125 125 150 150 165 165 180 180 180 200 200 200 220 220 250 300 300 B (mm) 55 55 55 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 t (mm) 1.6 1.0 2.2 COMPOSITE BEAMS CROSS SECTIONS CLASS CLASSIFICATION If the plastic neutral axis depth since the upper surface of the slab.5 32.5 32.92 17.4 2.5 32.5 22.6 1.Annex 2.6 1. the composite cross section is classified as Class 1.75 83.19 20.25 16.4 2.31 18.6 1.2 Single Generic C section class classification (fy= 350 N/mm2.

6 3.4 15.1 338.9 5.9 15.6 18.4 15.2 300x65x3.6 1564 288.6 Rc (kN) 748 918 1020 1190 1224 1292 1326 1360 1394 1462 1428 1496 1530 1632 1700 1870 2074 2244 Rs (kN) 142.6 16.6 17.0 21.2 17.5 1870 453.0 2.0 17.3 157.5 2550 686.5 3.0 1700 359.6 16.4 816 142.9 277.0 18.8 5.1 16.2 18.1 6.6 7.0 16.5 16.0 125x55x1.9 18.9 5.7 3.8 952 157.0 165x65x1.9 1326 277.1 180x65x1.4 1496 305.1 1054 209.4 246.3 4.0 16.8 4.0 259.9 15.4 220x65x2.5 19.6 21.9 7.1 17.9 359.7 4.1 16.7 1938 453.8 4.4 5.1 17.0 553.4 1836 379.9 359.7 3.4 180x65x2.0 3.1 17.3 6.5 6.9 15.8 209.2 2.3 4.7 150x65x1.3 3.6 17.7 3.0 1360 259.6 3.1 16.3 180x65x1.8 4.9 4.0 3.6 4.9 16.8 5.3 21.4 15.7 18.5 LE (m) 2.4 16.2 3.9 4.6 1564 288.1 15.0 5.9 453.4 24.4 816 142.9 686.7 7.8 13.0 379.4 7.2 19.8 16.2 1428 291.0 553.4 4.9 1326 277.3 2142 491.9 3.1 220x65x2.0 5.1 17.8 15.9 165x65x1.9 15.2 4.4 15.6 1564 338.2 1428 271.3 3.1 16.8 209.8 1632 323.7 19.3 4.4 7.5 2.fy = 280 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.8 125x55x1.0 13.4 291.4 3.3 Composite cross section class checking: unpropped .7 300x65x2.8 305.9 1666 359.4 4.9 4.1 271.7 3.9 17.9 4.1 2414 553.5 4.1 271.3 16.7 4.0 2.8 3.2 491.5 14.6 17.8 18.8 2652 686.1 15.9 4.1 288.4 16.1 2074 491.0 4.8 4.5 99 .1 4.9 16.2 4.1 288.0 4.4 100x55x1.3 2482 553.6 150x65x1.9 20.0 259.5 323.0 18.2 1088 209.1 1394 291.4 6.3 14.5 Rc (kN) 816 952 1020 1224 1258 1326 1360 1394 1462 1496 1530 1564 1632 1734 1836 2006 2278 2448 Rs (kN) 142.7 5.9 277.8 952 157.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE Rc Rs yp Rc Rs yp DESIGNATION (kN) (kN) (mm) (kN) (kN) (mm) (m) (m) (m) 2.0 16.6 3.9 250x65x2.3 1802 379.6 15.5 18.2 2.3 2.8 14.8 1632 323.0 379.9 yp (mm) 14.0 1360 259.4 6.9 yp (mm) 15.8 1292 246.6 200x65x1.2 13.3 14.5 14.0 5.0 17.2 4.8 4.3 18.0 4.9 453.Table A2.3 1462 271.3 2.9 21.8 200x65x2.6 5.8 305.5 200x65x1.1 338.3 4.8 13.3 157.4 291.6 4.4 246.2 491.1 16.7 1258 246.5 323.3 4.9 686.5 22.5 1530 338.5 1530 305.1 16.6 4.6 19.

2 1088 261.4 22.7 1598 404.1 1394 363.8 5.3 6.6 22.6 3.3 7.9 250x65x2.6 346.6 4.9 3.5 2.7 28.6 4.9 566.8 1292 346.0 125x55x1.4 Composite cross section class checking: unpropped .9 23.8 4.8 692.0 2.9 20.8 339.2 23.5 1870 566.0 5.8 4.3 2142 613.1 180x65x1.2 18.4 19.4 4.9 1666 404.2 21.2 180x65x1.8 22.1 4.4 23.2 1428 363.9 1666 448.7 1938 566.6 20.8 19.9 197.8 19.8 125x55x1.7 200x65x2.5 LE (m) 2.4 422.9 1326 324.4 180x65x2.6 200x65x1.6 4.7 5.2 21.3 2.3 3.7 2.2 4.4 3.8 18.5 21.2 363.7 150x65x1.2 261.2 261.0 4.8 339.7 21.6 360.6 1564 422.3 300x65x3.2 2.7 474.9 16.6 613.5 21.5 4.6 yp (mm) 18.9 6.4 20.9 19.6 3.6 19.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE Rc Rs yp Rc Rs yp DESIGN.4 7.9 3.5 24.5 1530 381.2 1428 339.2 363.6 25.6 23.6 150x65x1.6 3.6 346.6 24.2 16.0 21.6 25.7 24.6 3.0 1700 448.9 1326 346.8 952 197.8 2652 858.9 197.7 2.9 4.7 5.5 2550 858.2 324.6 7.3 20.6 19.0 20.2 19.9 4.4 7.4 6.4 816 177.4 200x65x1.8 308.1 4.0 27.4 858.4 4.1 220x65x2.6 360.8 20.7 21.9 5.8 25.3 24.6 1564 360.1 1054 261.4 1836 474.2 3.Table A2.1 Rc (kN) 782 918 986 1190 1224 1258 1326 1360 1394 1428 1462 1530 1564 1666 1768 1938 2244 2414 Rs (kN) 177.1 1394 324.9 7.9 20.9 3.5 Rc (kN) 782 952 1020 1224 1258 1292 1360 1394 1428 1496 1496 1564 1598 1734 1836 2006 2312 2482 Rs (kN) 177.4 22.4 422.9 566.0 5.4 5.4 220x65x2.9 7.9 986 197.6 613.1 21.2 1768 474.9 17.7 6.9 448.6 2.7 4.7 1258 308.1 4.8 19.8 300x65x2.5 100 .6 21.7 22.5 4.8 1292 308.3 4.9 20.1 3.3 1462 381.6 26.6 21.2 16.7 3.8 381.8 381.1 4.6 yp (mm) 18.7 21.9 24.5 3.0 22.5 850 177.0 4.3 1462 339.6 18. (kN) (kN) (mm) (kN) (kN) (mm) (m) (m) (m) 2.8 308.8 20.6 18.7 19.2 20.6 19.2 17.0 2380 692.8 4.6 404.0 165x65x1.2 5.3 4.7 22.2 20.4 2.6 20.2 22.8 23.3 2482 692.9 4.6 3.2 324.3 100x55x1.4 858.4 19.6 3.6 404.0 3.7 474.5 20.9 448.8 165x65x1.0 4.1 2074 613.5 1530 422.5 5.4 4.6 4.8 692.7 1598 360.6 4.6 4.fy = 350 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.9 4.2 5.9 21.2 16.

1 7.4 180x65x1.2 2.9 16.4 4.0 4.0 5.0 379.6 4.5 2890 686.7 3.6 2244 491.9 17. (kN) (kN) (mm) (kN) (kN) (mm) (m) (m) (m) 3.3 1122 142.5 18.2 4.3 125x55x1.3 1802 305.9 1326 209.0 15.1 288.9 2006 453.0 19.2 125x55x1.5 15.3 1802 359.9 1666 259.4 14.0 259.4 5.3 18.1 4.0 1020 142.5 323.9 1666 291.6 1224 157.9 150x65x1.5 101 .5 4.4 7.3 3.4 4.0 14.1 17.9 277.4 5.0 6.2 13.8 5.9 359.4 4.2 17.9 277.1 3.2 165x65x1.9 14.6 180x65x2.9 16.6 Rc (kN) 748 952 1054 1224 1258 1292 1326 1360 1394 1462 1428 1496 1530 1632 1700 1870 2074 2244 Rs (kN) 142.1 14.6 16.6 21.8 3.4 246.0 17.3 220x65x2.9 359.3 4.9 2686 686.7 300x65x2.2 1428 277.5 2550 553.5 16.1 2414 491.3 165x65x1.8 5.9 yp (mm) 12.4 12.3 157.8 209.9 16.3 157.1 5.6 4.1 271.9 19.2 2.1 3.1 288.9 14.3 3.3 15.0 6.1 2754 553.2 2108 379.5 2.1 17.1 13.0 21.9 11.6 4.0 379.9 453.0 150x65x1.8 305.8 5.0 1360 157.0 5.5 6.3 14.0 17.8 1972 359.8 12.9 yp (mm) 15.9 453.2 491.9 20.5 13.2 4.9 5.5 6.6 4.0 4.2 4.4 291.8 13.8 10.5 4.7 1938 323.2 16.9 16.5 22.9 12.3 4.7 5.1 338.1 15.1 4.6 3.3 1802 338.0 15.1 15.8 3.4 2176 453.3 21.3 4.3 14.0 250x65x2.9 686.0 259.0 200x65x2.1 14.9 13.2 18.9 14.9 686.2 1768 271.9 14.5 4.8 5.0 16.3 10.5 4.5 1530 259.9 15.5 12.5 1530 246.9 1666 305.Table A2.7 5.0 4.3 6.4 246.6 5.1 271.0 553.6 220x65x2.3 11.4 8.8 209.6 14.4 6.2 1768 288.6 5.5 180x65x1.6 5.1 16.4 12.9 1666 338.5 7.5 16.5 1530 291.1 5.0 553.9 19.5 Rc (kN) 884 1088 1122 1326 1360 1428 1462 1496 1530 1564 1598 1632 1700 1802 1904 2040 2278 2448 Rs (kN) 142.8 4.9 4.6 16.5 1190 209.6 1904 288.4 8.fy = 280 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.5 Composite cross section class checking: propped .5 LE (m) 2.8 305.1 6.8 3.2 3.8 1632 271.9 16.4 15.8 9.8 18.2 300x65x3.1 3.4 13.2 4.1 338.0 14.0 3.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE Rc Rs yp Rc Rs yp DESIGN.6 3.2 1428 246.7 200x65x1.3 1802 323.6 100x55x1.8 200x65x1.0 7.4 24.7 4.5 323.7 1938 379.2 491.4 291.2 4.0 17.6 1564 277.3 19.9 4.9 13.

9 200x65x2.8 692.9 15.4 16.7 1598 363.3 6.5 4.0 5.4 4.8 17.7 2618 858.5 1190 197.7 1598 381.5 21.6 26.6 1564 324.4 1496 363.9 1666 339.6 yp (mm) 17.9 Rc (kN) 816 952 1020 1190 1224 1292 1326 1394 1428 1462 1496 1530 1564 1700 1768 1938 2244 2346 Rs (kN) 177.5 3.4 2176 613.6 5.3 1802 360.4 422.6 5.3 4.5 3.2 7.8 381.7 200x65x1.8 2312 613.6 4.7 474.2 18.6 yp (mm) 16.5 1870 474.6 5.7 4.6 3.0 1020 177.2 3.8 5.6 16.1 4.3 7.6 23.9 4.7 6.6 613.7 29.8 308.3 5.6 360.5 Rc (kN) 850 1020 1088 1258 1292 1360 1394 1462 1496 1530 1564 1598 1666 1768 1836 2040 2346 2482 Rs (kN) 177.2 2108 566.9 566.8 3.6 21.2 363.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE LE Rc Rs yp Rc Rs yp DESIGN.9 448.3 19.7 22.0 250x65x2.9 1666 360.6 6.6 7.Table A2.6 1904 448.4 858.6 20.0 22.4 6.5 100x55x1.2 6.1 4.8 4.6 360.8 16.3 4.4 23.8 18.0 3.9 566.8 1972 566.9 2686 692.9 19.3 4.4 2.4 19.6 19.3 25.9 5.3 4.9 17.8 150x65x1.1 18.7 15.6 17.6 24.1 20.1 21.2 14.5 2.6 25.5 4.7 150x65x1.5 20.4 20.3 300x65x3. (kN) (kN) (mm) (kN) (kN) (mm) (m) (m) (m) 3.8 3.0 5.4 22.1 1734 422.2 19.6 18.8 339.4 1496 346.3 4.0 2040 474.2 1088 197.8 5.4 4.4 1156 261.6 404.0 6.9 300x65x2.9 197.5 24.2 13.0 1360 308.5 21.8 339.8 21.4 858.8 19.7 20.5 5.2 125x55x1.3 1462 324.1 165x65x1.7 18.6 20.0 3.1 3.0 1700 404.1 3.9 19.4 19.4 22.8 18.6 21.8 692.4 220x65x2.1 1394 346.1 19.6 346.0 165x65x1.9 448.0 6.4 7.2 4.2 17.2 3.6 4.2 5.5 LE (m) 2.5 2.6 27.8 4.6 200x65x1.7 4.9 20.3 2482 692.3 21.4 180x65x1.7 474.0 125x55x1.3 102 .6 Composite cross section class checking: propped .5 180x65x2.8 308.2 1768 381.9 18.4 1836 404.3 180x65x1.4 8.7 24.1 23.3 24.6 4.4 17.2 4.9 4.0 2.2 261.6 20.8 1632 422.2 363.3 21.6 20.0 5.6 613.2 23.8 381.9 14.2 1768 448.2 261.5 19.0 4.9 18.9 197.6 5.2 16.6 404.7 918 177.8 22.7 4.6 5.1 4.6 4.6 1224 261.5 4.2 3.fy = 350 N/mm2 IMPOSED 1.6 346.3 1462 308.4 422.8 17.6 6.6 16.5 4.6 1564 339.9 3.2 324.2 220x65x2.2 324.4 20.3 2822 858.3 3.

ANNEX 3 HEAVY COLD FORMED SECTIONS 103 .

Heavy cold formed sections A3. Using these properties. In previous projects H-CFS properties have been provided by Popo-Ola and Lawson (2002). the performance of H-CFS as composite beams has been studied considering H-CFS as secondary beams of a composite slab. located in Newport. fixed by Hilti XHVB shear connectors and a beams spacing equal to 2. South Wales. for similar second moment of inertia. The market assessment shows that there is potential for the use of these heavier cold formed steel sections for applications which lie between the existing light steel cold formed sections and hot rolled sections.4 m. Hence cost can be saved by the reduction in weight of material and the H-CFS can be used for longer span applications than the existing cold rolled sections.1 HEAVY COLD FORMED SECTIONS Construction and Engineering Products (CEP) is a specialist roll-forming division within the Corus Special Strip Business Unit. The comparison made between proposed H-CFS and existing hot rolled sections demonstrates that. Figure A3.Annex 3. They are studying the opportunity for use Heavy Cold Formed Sections (H-CFS) in the building construction industry. the corresponding weight of HCFS is less than those of hot rolled sections. H-CFS use steel of 3 to 6 mm thickness.1 Composite beam: H-CFS lipped double C section and Hilti X-HVB shear connectors 104 .

3 and A3. Heavy cold formed sections Tables A3. Tables A3.1 and A3. heavy cold formed sections properties used for this study.8). it is appreciable that bigger spans with greater beams spacing can be achieved using H-CFS. However light steel sections means more economic benefits than H-CFS.2 show the values of the double lipped C and double extended C.4 show the results of the span-load calculations carried out.Annex 3. If these results are compared with the results of light steel analysis (see tables 7. 105 .5 to 7.

5 279.96 2.0 4.0 221.6 3323.2 483.7 315.81 2.4 rx x (cm) 7.00 38.0 4.05 2.61 1.11 11.50 Ix x (cm4) 1263.00 28.1 6730.50 25.2 222.67 27.5 9031.40 Wx x 3 (cm ) 126.0 4.4 8722.7 303.91 0.50 21.6 J (cm4) 0.3 243.56 24.43 2.85 2.45 9.25 3.4 578.94 35.31 14.0 4.00 10.47 3.0 4.1 40.5 29.5 29.47 30.02 27.18 3.00 23.3 302.98 31.57 23.8 222.6 11729.4 29.44 2.19 14.51 Cw 6 (cm ) 20209 23827 25109 31455 37218 39299 45183 53590 56664 61394 72946 77206 80089 95288 100930 101270 120617 127836 es (mm) - 106 .5 3.63 2.1 40.0 4.4 401.0 4.6 395.5 Area 2 (cm ) 21.7 2753.8 1778.6 4735.51 2.0 2143.54 2.55 14.9 9666.39 39.83 24.31 48.47 30.03 0.0 4.12 37.89 34.49 29.9 222.88 15.69 ry y (cm) 3.0 6257.1 4840.70 1.6 357.7 37.64 2.66 2.6 285.8 171.79 1.21 1.2 40.Table A3.2 40.8 3037.4 Wy y 3 (cm ) 29.5 3.2 278.50 21.72 12.8 6926.1 Section properties of heavy cold formed double lipped C sections D (mm) 200 200 200 250 250 250 300 300 300 350 350 350 400 400 400 450 450 450 B (mm) 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 t (mm) 3.5 222.6 37.0 4.95 12.13 15.04 2.00 18.78 31.15 27.03 26.7 1615.5 29.4 161.77 2.0 4.3 304.35 43.87 Weight (kg/m) 16.5 4284.63 9.1 222.43 35.2 40.60 2.4 278.1 278.32 0.7 276.6 37.5 220.6 37.49 2.98 2.62 0.11 41.86 43.6 37.90 39.31 11.67 7.41 35.8 336.4 29.7 37.15 3.75 15.0 Iy y 4 (cm ) 222.80 34.5 3.87 2.94 2.95 32.3 278.36 9.87 2.61 12.6 436.73 2.4 521.26 3.5 303.6 177.1 304.5 3.27 52.0 4.9 303.75 7.82 47.0 4.06 2.4 13012.2 40.5 3.5 279.

82 37.9120 3.0 43.1 Iy y 4 (cm ) 375.17 11.1 471.92 33.8 43.5 Wy y 3 (cm ) 43.5439 7.0 65.80 7.0 4.0 53.33 14.70 9.27 44.9 4564.0 Area 2 (cm ) 28.8371 Cw 6 (cm ) 29133 34727 39661 46297 55358 63436 67503 80885 92900 122117 146726 169022 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 107 .39 14.66 3.0 570.8 273.62 3.24 25.91 2.0 6.0 4.7050 3.57 42.1 J (cm4) 1.4257 2.19 Weight (kg/m) 22.9 64.24 2.22 3.41 3.93 43.2 Section properties of heavy cold formed double extended C sections D (mm) 200 200 200 250 250 250 300 300 300 400 400 400 Btop (mm) 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 Bbot (mm) t (mm) 4.51 9.3236 5.0 5.62 40.3 376.0 54.53 48.75 7.8 322.2 4275.21 3.9 645.7 376.7 288.4980 2.9169 5.92 28.0 5.58 45.2 441.0 5.41 11.71 35.3 544.3 222.7304 6.3 235.0 6.64 3.3260 4.27 ry y (cm) 3.9 355.71 42.8 420.12 11.0 5.41 66.8 568.0 6.43 3.1 65.7 9213.Table A3.40 3.5 2513.50 51.0 53.9 471.9 5622.8 473.6 2951.0 11379.46 9.59 54.61 31.0 6.1 6641.92 2.1 rx x (cm) 7.2 13482.1 54.7200 1.66 35.93 Wx x 3 (cm ) 163.0 376.96 Ix x (cm4) 1745.5 200.60 34.0143 1.50 55.2 568.9 64.3 3627.0 4.9 43.31 36.35 32.3 472.4 567.50 27.06 14.1 2138.

4 18.1 7.2 6.9 20.2 24.6 8.8 7.7 5.7 13.0 9.3 Design table for composite beam with double lipped C.3 8.2 8.4 8.6 29.5 300x75x3.3 10. IMPOSED 1.3 23.9 4.8 34.3 4.6 5.2 6.7 6.0 5.5 5.3 5.6 26.8 15.8 9.9 4.7 8.0 6.9 6.9 24.6 21.5 250x75x3.8 7.5 25.7 6.0 300x75x4.0 12.9 8.4 6.5 30.8 5.5 400x75x3.2 18.2 16.9 7.4 7.3 40.2 9.4 6.0 450x75x4.1 35.0 250x75x4.1 15.0 200x75x4.9 36.9 SLAB DATA • Slab depth 130 mm • Concrete strength C30/37 3.0 12.5 350x75x3.5 9.6 7.5 450x75x3.1 11.6 9.4 28.6 g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g g 3.3 6.8 19.8 23.4 6.7 LE (m) 4.0 8.5 14.6 13.7 7.2 5.0 9. H-CFS.6 7.4 5.6 16.4 29.2 33.5 19.9 14.0 9.2 8.0 5.5 10.2 6.7 6.2 9.9 9.3 8.7 N 14 15 16 16 18 18 18 20 21 20 22 23 22 25 26 24 27 28 108 .9 5.0 200x75x4.4 17.8 7.3 6.2 9.0 350x75x4.7 10.3 11.1 7.5 7.3 8.7 33.0 11.6 22.7 23.5 5.8 11.0 7.8 25.1 7.4 12.5 5.2 5.6 16.5 7.6 7.9 12.2 g g g g g g g g g g g g d g g d g g 5.6 9.6 7.5 N 15 17 17 18 20 21 21 23 24 24 27 27 27 29 30 29 33 34 4.6 11.2 9.6 27.4 7.6 6.2 11.7 36.9 10.3 9.1 13.2 16.6 7.1 9.8 32.2 22.0 18.0 9.9 13.5 2.1 9.6 6.8 31.5 11.7 4.9 10.1 21.5 8.8 13.0 15.2 18.8 8.5 16.9 9.9 25.4 8.HEAVY COLD FORMED DOUBLE LIPPED C SECTIONS BEAM DATA • Internal beam • Uniform load • Beam spacing 2.2 11.1 8.2 6.7 21.5 N 15 16 17 17 19 20 20 22 23 22 24 26 24 27 28 26 29 31 LE (m) 4.5 6.3 5.3 13.0 250x75x4.3 8.6 16.1 9.2 33.5 7.3 8.7 7.9 9.6 28.0 300x75x4.5 20.0 12.9 10.7 8.5 19.5 10.2 8.6 8.5 16 17 18 19 21 21 22 24 25 25 27 28 28 31 32 31 34 35 4.2 6.3 10.8 22.4 10.8 12.4 g g g d d g d d d d d d d d d d d d δE δS (mm) (mm) 7.9 9.0 8.1 21.1 17.0 350x75x4.0 450x75x4.4 6.3 4.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE δE δE δS δS N DESIGNATION (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) 200x75x3.5 4.5 10.7 17.7 11.6 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d δE δS (mm) (mm) 6.8 19.5 9.9 28.9 7.0 6.4 8.1 6.4 8.7 15.3 21.1 11.3 14.0 24.5 5.5 39.8 5.7 8.0 400x75x4.8 28.0 400x75x4.4 7.9 13.2 7.8 12.4 m • Steel strength S350 • Pin resistance 18 kN Beam is unpropped during construction Table A3.5 10.3 11.

5 15.3 17.0 8.4 6.6 8.8 20.0 5.9 21.5 17.5 8.8 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 26 28 31 33 35 5.4 7.4 7.2 9.1 7.3 6.0 400x75x100x4.0 200x75x100x5.5 6.3 29.0 200x75x100x6.2 5.5 8.1 8.5 4.0 6.7 g g g g g g g g g g g g 4.7 LE (m) 4.5 2.6 9.1 14.0 7.5 LOAD kN/m2 LE LE δE δE δS δS N N DESIGNATION (m) (mm) (mm) (m) (mm) (mm) 200x75x100x4.8 12.7 13.4 12.1 13.4 21.4 21.0 6.3 9.8 14.6 19.0 250x75x100x5.7 40.1 10.6 17.8 7.4 m • Steel strength S350 • Pin resistance 18 kN Beam is unpropped during construction SLAB DATA • Slab depth 130 mm • Concrete strength C30/37 Table A3.6 25.8 5.3 7.6 13.5 27.4 24.7 12.4 Design table for composite beam with double extended C.4 10.0 6.9 6.5 LE (m) 5.9 12.5 9.8 12.0 400x75x100x5.7 15.7 9.3 10.5 8.0 28.0 300x75x100x5.1 9.5 5.3 9.8 21.1 13.6 36.5 N 17 18 19 19 21 22 22 24 26 27 30 32 δE δS (mm) (mm) 8.4 9.7 6.0 32.8 9.6 11.5 18.5 27.5 9.9 N 15 17 18 18 19 21 20 22 24 25 27 29 109 .8 g g g d g g d d g d d d 4.1 9.7 22.5 10.0 400x75x100x6.5 7.2 34.3 5.7 16.5 6. IMPOSED 1.2 24.2 6.1 31.2 9.1 9.2 6.4 18.0 31.2 10.9 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 27 30 32 34 3.0 20.0 10.3 11.1 17.3 33.9 11.0 7.7 14.0 11.1 25.9 22.5 5.3 7.8 15.0 250x75x100x4.2 5.9 6. H-CFS.0 18.1 8.8 8.4 38.1 8.5 7.3 9.1 5.8 6.HEAVY COLD FORMED DOUBLE EXTENDED C SECTIONS BEAM DATA • Internal beam • Uniform load • Beam spacing 2.4 6.0 d d d d d d d d d d d d δE δS (mm) (mm) 7.5 6.8 10.1 26.1 23.3 g g g g g g g g g g g g 6.1 7.7 7.5 7.9 20.0 6.0 300x75x100x6.3 10.7 16.8 24.4 13.3 9.9 5.0 250x75x100x6.9 8.8 7.0 300x75x100x4.6 15.6 28.1 10.4 10.9 24.5 5.

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