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Mind maps. Indice.

Mind map.............................................................................2
Origins........................................................................... ..................2 Uses of mind maps........................................................................ ....3 Mind map guidelines........................................................ .................4 Scholarly research on mind maps in learning.......................... ............5 Tools......................................................................... .......................5 Mind mapping in contrast with concept mapping................................5 Trademarks.................................................... ..................................5 See also............................................................. ..............................6 Referentes.................................................. .....................................6 Footnotes...........................................................................................................6 External links............................................ .......................................6

Mind map
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A hand-drawn mind map

A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. It is used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing. It is an image-centered diagram that represents semantic or other connections between portions of information. By presenting these connections in a radial, nonlinear graphical manner, it encourages a brainstorming approach to any given organizational task, eliminating the hurdle of initially establishing an intrinsically appropriate or relevant conceptual framework to work within. A mind map is similar to a semantic network or cognitive map but there are no formal restrictions on the kinds of links used. The elements are arranged intuitively according to the importance of the concepts and they are organized into groupings, branches, or areas. The uniform graphic formulation of the semantic structure of information on the method of gathering knowledge, may aid recall of existing memories. Origins Mind maps (or similar concepts) have been used for centuries, for learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking, and problem solving by educators, engineers, psychologists and people in general. Some of the earliest examples of mind maps were developed by Porphyry of Tyros, a noted thinker of the 3rd century as he graphically visualised the concept categories of Aristotle. Ramon Llull also used these structures of the mind map form.

The semantic network was developed as a theory to understand human learning, and developed into mind maps by Dr. Allan Collins, and M. Ross Quillian during the early 1960s. Due to his commitment and published research, and his work with learning, creativity, and graphical thinking, Dr. Allan Collins can be considered the father of the modern mind map.[citation needed] People have been using image-centered radial graphic organization techniques referred to variably as mental or generic mind maps or spidergrams for centuries in areas such as engineering, psychology, and education, although the claim to the origin of the mind map has been made by a British popular psychology author, Tony Buzan. He claimed the idea was inspired by Alfred Korzybski's general semantics as popularized in science fiction novels, such as those of Robert A. Heinlein and A. E. van Vogt. He argues that 'traditional' outlines rely on the reader to scan left to right and top to bottom, whilst what actually happens is that the brain will scan the entire page in a non-linear fashion. He also uses popular assumptions about the cerebral hemispheres in order to promote the exclusive use of mind mapping over other forms of note making. The mind map continues to be used in various forms, and for various applications including learning and education (where it is often taught as 'Webs', 'Mind webs', or 'Webbing'), planning and in engineering diagramming. When compared with the earlier original concept map (which was developed by learning experts in the 1960s) the structure of a mind map is a similar, but simplified, radial by having one central key word. Uses of mind maps

Rough mindmap notes taken during a course session

Mind maps have many applications in personal, family, educational, and business situations, including notetaking, brainstorming (wherein ideas are inserted into the map radially around the center node, without the implicit prioritization that comes from hierarchy or sequential arrangements, and wherein grouping and organizing is reserved for later stages), summarizing, revising and general clarifying of thoughts. For example, one could listen to a lecture and take down notes using mind maps for the most important points or keywords. One can also use mind maps as a mnemonic technique or to sort out a complicated idea. Mind maps are also promoted as a way to collaborate in colour pen creativity sessions.

Software and technique research have concluded that managers and students find the techniques of mind mapping to be useful, being better able to retain information and ideas than by using traditional 'linear' note taking methods.[citation needed] Mindmaps can be drawn by hand, either as 'rough notes', for example, during a lecture or meeting, or can be more sophisticated in quality. Examples of both are illustrated. There are also a number of software packages available for producing mind maps (see below). The best-selling fiction paperback (August 2007) in the UK, "The Naming of the Dead" by Ian Rankin, features a detective, Inspector Rebus who uses mind maps to solve crimes.
Mind map guidelines

Mind map of mind map guidelines

Tony Buzan suggests using the following foundation structures for Mind Mapping: 1. Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors. 2. Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your Mind Map. 3. Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters. 4. Each word/image must be alone and sitting on its own line. 5. The lines must be connected, starting from the central image. The central lines are thicker, organic and flowing, becoming thinner as they radiate out from the centre. 6. Make the lines the same length as the word/image. 7. Use colors – your own code – throughout the Mind Map. 8. Develop your own personal style of Mind Mapping. 9. Use emphasis and show associations in your Mind Map. 10.Keep the Mind Map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or outlines to embrace your branches.[1] An idea map is similar to a mind map but does not adhere to the above guidelines. Rules are constantly broken based on the purpose and application of the Map.

Scholarly research on mind maps in learning Buzan[2] claims that the mind map is a vastly superior note taking method because it does not lead to the alleged "semi-hypnotic trance" state induced by the other note forms. He also claims that the mind map utilizes the full range of left and right human cortical skills, balances the brain, taps into the alleged 99% of your unused mental potential, as well as intuition (which he calls "superlogic"). However, scholarly research suggests that such claims may actually be marketing hype based on misconceptions about the brain and the cerebral hemispheres. Hemispheric specialization theory has been identified as pseudoscientific when applied to mind mapping.[3] There are benefits to be gained by applying a wide range of graphic organizers, and it follows that the mind map, specifically, is not equally suited to all learning tasks. Scholarly research by Farrand, Hussain, and Hennessy (2002) found that the mind map technique had a limited but significant impact on recall only, in undergraduate students (a 10% increase over baseline for a 600-word text only) as compared to preferred study methods (a −6% increase over baseline). This improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group, and there was a significant decrease in motivation compared to the subjects' preferred methods of note taking. They suggested that learners preferred to use other methods because using a mind map was an unfamiliar technique, and its status as a "memory enhancing" technique engendered reluctance to apply it.[4] Pressley, VanEtten, Yokoi, Freebern, and VanMeter (1998) found that learners tended to learn far better by focusing on the content of learning material rather than worrying over any one particular form of note taking.[5] Tools Mind mapping software can be used effectively to organize large amounts of information, combining spatial organization, dynamic hierarchical structuring and node folding. Mind mapping in contrast with concept mapping The mind map can be contrasted with the similar idea of concept mapping. The former is based on radial hierarchies and tree structures, whereas concept maps are based on connections between concepts. Trademarks The use of the term "Mind Maps" is trademarked by The Buzan Organization, Ltd. in the UK[6] and the USA.[7] The trade-mark does not appear in the records of the Canadian Intellectual Property Office.[8]

See also  Argument map  Cognitive map  Concept mapping  List of Mind Mapping software Referentes
    Novak, J. D. (1993), "How do we learn our lesson?: Taking students through the process". The Science Teacher, 60(3), 50-55 (ISSN 0036-8555) Hermann W., Bovo V. (2005) Mapas Mentais: Enriquecendo Inteligências- Manual de Aprendizagem e Desenvolvimento de Inteligências"; (p XI 27, 331). Ed IDPH Nast, J. (2006). Idea Mapping: how to access your hidden brain power, learn faster, remember more, and achieve success in business. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0471788621 Jean-Luc Deladrière, Frédéric Le Bihan, Pierre Mongin, Denis Rebaud, Organisez vos idées avec le Mind Mapping. Dunod, December 2006. ISBN 2-1005-0627-7

Footnotes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
^ Buzan, T. (1991). The Mind Map Book. New York: Penguin. Chapter "Mind Mapping Guidelines" ^ Buzan, Tony. (2000). The Mind Map Book, Penguin Books, 1996. ISBN 978-0452273221 ^ Williams (2000) Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Facts on file. ISBN 978-0816033515 ^ Farrand, P.; Hussain, F.; Hennessy, E. (2002). "The efficacy of the mind map study technique". Medical Education 36 (5): 426-431. Retrieved on 2005-05-05. ^ Pressley, M., VanEtten, S., Yokoi, L., Freebern, G., & VanMeter, P. (1998). "The metacognition of college studentship: A grounded theory approach". In: D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in Theory and Practice (pp. 347-367). Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum ISBN 9780805824810 ^ Trade Mark 1424476, UK Intellectual Property Office, filed Nov. 1990 ^ US Trademark, USPTO Trademark Application and Registration Retrieval system ^ Canadian Intellectual Property Office

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External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mind map "How to make a mind map in 8 steps" Directory of Mindmaps - A directory of hundreds of mindmaps from around the web, categorized by map type (true mindmap, concept map, spidergram, etc.) and tagged by subject. Shows thumbnails, supports filtering mindmaps displayed by chosen criteria, and provides links to original maps. FreeMind and MindManager Mind Map Library - Web Library for FreeMind, MindManager and plain-text mind maps. Open Mind Map Library - Free Library for any software- and hand-drawn mind maps. Basic introduction to mind mapping

What can you do with mind mapping ? - A few real-life use-cases.