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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Introduction ……………………………………………………………..2 Definitions of substitution…………………………………………….. 3 Types of substitution…………………………………………………… 4 Nominal substitution.………………………………………………….. 5 Verbal substitution……….…………………………………………….. 7 Verbal substitution.…………………………………………………….. 9 Functions of substitution…………………………………………….. 12 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………... 14

Bibliography …………………………………………………………… 15

INTRODUCTION
In written and spoken English, absence of similar construction in language (include different word usage and different norms of combinability), unconformity in usage of corresponding forms & constructions and the absence of the part of speech with corresponding meaning often cause repetition and boredom. One of the ways to avoid these is using substitution. Substitutions participate in an intricate network of systems and serve a grammatical device for avoiding repetition and achieving textual cohesion. This essay is written to help you to understand more about kinds of substitution as well as their functions. The essay aims to identify those English substitutions which are words or word sequences and to describe their workings in some of the major substitution subsystems of the language.

DEFINITION OF SUBSTITUTION
According to http://www.yourdictionary.com/substitute, substitution (or substitute) is any word or word group, as a pronoun, the verb to do, etc., used in place of another word or words (Ex.: did for shouted in “she shouted and he did, too”) On http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/substitute.html , substitute is defined as a word that can take the place of another grammatically. e.g. "did" for "yelled" in the sentence "I yelled and he did, too" - So, substitutes are function words which lack reference but which indicate the category membership of the antecedent.

TYPES OF SUBSTITUTION
Substitution is the replacement of one item by another. It serves as a place-holding device, showing where something has been omitted what its grammatical function would be. Substitution contrary to the reference is a relation in syntax rather than meaning. In another word it is mostly a grammatical relation. There are three different substitutes in English: Form Type of antecedent Noun (Head of NP) Verb Nominal that-clause (positive/negative) as do

Nominal substitution
One/ones

Verbal substitution
Do

Clausal Substitution
so/not

Three types of substitution, nominal, verbal, and clausal are defined grammatically rather than semantically.

TYPE 1: NOMINAL SUBSTITUTION

Nominal substitution is the replacement of a noun or noun phrase with the substitutes such as one, ones. The substitute one/ones always function as Head of a nominal group, and can be substitute only for an item which is itself Head of a nominal group. The substitute (or 'prop word') one can replace the head in a noun phrase. There will typically be a modifier present in the Noun Phrase: No, not that book, I meant the new one . No, not that book, I meant the one you bought yesterday. Note that this one can co-occur with the indefinite article: John has a blue car and Mary a red one. One can only replace with countable nouns;

uncountable must be ellipted instead: John prefers red wine to white. As a replacement for countable nouns, one has the plural form ones: - If your new shoes are too tight, you'll have to use your old ones. Let’s have a look at another example:

Last come the Twins, who cannot be described because we should be sure to be describing the wrong one one substitutes for twins Similarly in these examples: • If you want a typewriter, they will provide you with one.

• •

Have you any knife? I need a sharp one. There are good films as well as bad ones. I wish I’d bought a few jars of honey. Did you notice the ones they were selling? I prefer red roses to white ones, but my wife likes both. (* both ones) If there’s any difficulty about cars, we can bring our own. (* our own ones) You have four children. I have only two. (* two ones)

Functionally as a noun, nominal substitution can take the place of a nominal group. Example: My ax is too blunt. I must get a sharper one. (‘A sharper one' has substituted the phrase 'a sharper ax'.)

TYPE 2: VERBAL SUBSTITUTION
Verbal substitution is the replacement of a verb or verb phrase with the substitute do or did. The substitute (or 'pro-verb') do is used (if no other auxiliary is available) to carry the tense marker when the rest of the Verb is ellipted. This is the case in the answer to a wh-question with a wh-word with personal reference as subject. (Cf. also the use of do in clauses introduced by so/neither as described in the text box below). Note that it is the subject of the substitute do that carries stress: Q: Who drew this picture? A: John did. Q: Which of you broke this vase? A: He did. Here is another example: If you knew Time as well as I do, said the Hatter, you would not talk about wasting it. It is him. do substitutes for know
• • •

A: Have they moved the furniture? B: They have done the desks, but that’s all so far. I didn’t touch the television set, but Peter might have (done). Martin drives a car, and his sister does, too.

Paula looks very happy. She seems happier now than she did. (BE) Paula looks very happy. She seems happier now than she seemed last time we met. (AE) He smokes like a chimmey. Does his brother do so? They planned to reach the top of the mountain, but nobody knows if they did (so). You can take the train back to Madrid, but I shouldn’t (do so) until tomorrow morning As no one else has succeeded in solving the mystery, I’ll attempt to (do so) myself. Verbal substitution operates as head of a verbal group

• •

in the place that is occupied by the lexical verb. Ex: You think John already knows. I think everybody does. ('does' substitutes 'knows')

CLAUSAL SUBSTITUTION
Clausal substitution is the substitution in which the presupposed is a clause. Forms such as so, and not act as substitutes for clauses. The substitute (or 'pro-form') so can replace a nominal that-clause as direct object after verbs of saying and verbs of opinion: Q: Will John help us? A: He said so/I think so. After verbs of opinion, a negated that-clause can be replaced by not: Q: Will John help us? A: I think not. “Have you brains?” asked the Scarecrow. “I suppose so. I’ve never looked to see,” replied the Lion. so substitutes for I have brains

Betty’s work is not yet consistent in style and quality, but will no doubt become so. If he’s a cirminal, it’s his parents who have made him so.

They say he will come tonight. If so, the meeting will be held tomorrow. If not, there won’t be any meeting tomorrow. A: Do you think he’ll come tomorrow? B: Yes, I think so. / No, I think not. A: Will Oxford win the next boat race? B: I hope so/not.

• • • •

• A: Is your brother going with you? • B: Perhaps not/Possibly not/Surely not.
• • • • • •

A: I didn’t stop him. B: Why not? A: I like playing football. B: So do I. /So does my brother. / So did my father. A: The students all work hard. B: So they do.

In this type of substitution what is presupposed is not an element within the clause. E: I think he lies. I think so. ('so' substitutes 'he lies')

so/neither A different so has the negative counterpart neither (or nor). This so is placed initially in the

clause; it is not a substitute form at all, but an additive adverb (corresponding in meaning to also and too). John said he could manage on his own, and so he DID. John said he would not disturb us, and neither he DID. If the subject in the clause with so/neither is different from the subject of the preceding clause, then the clause with so/neither must undergo subject-operator inversion: John likes whisky, and so does MARY. John has not tried Cajun food, and neither has MARY.

FUNCTIONS OF SUBSTITUTION
Substitution occurs when one linguistic item replaces another and adds some information which contrasts with the original ‘antecedent’ idea. E.g. My bicycle is old. I want a new one. a new one replaces bicycle and also contrasts with old. Substitution also establishes a cohesive bond by supplying an item of the same grammatical class as the item necessary for interpretation, therefore it is seen as a more pure grammatical relationship. Substitution occurs on nominal, verbal and clausal levels. The substitute serves as a place- holding device, showing where something has been omitted and what its grammatical function would be. Substitution, just like ellipsis, sets up a relationship at a lexicogrammatical level. With substitution, the implication is: Go back and retrieve the missing words. To clarify the definition, consider the following example. - Where is your hat? - I can not find it. - Take this one. In the answer I can not find it will only make sense when one goes back to the preceding text and retrieves the

missing word

hat. If the sentence just started with, the

listener/reader will be confused because there is no point of reference. Now that hat was mentioned at the beginning of the sentence, for the answer I can not find it to make sense, one has to go back and retrieve the missing word which in this instance will be hat. The example illustrates that substitution is confined to the immediately preceding clause, unlike reference, which may extend over a long passage. The following example also shows that the proximity within which substitution occurs, is very close. . I have lost my voice. - Get a new one. In the above example, the response get a new one follows immediately after the speaker has mentioned that he has lost his voice. Therefore the answer a new one is very close to the statement in space and in time and that is what proximity means. This example also shows that substitution occurs mostly in dialogues. In ellipses-substitution the typical meaning is not one of co-reference. There is always some significant difference between the second instance and the first (between presupposing item and presupposed).

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, substitution serves as a place- holding device, showing where something has been omitted and what its grammatical function would be. In other word, substitution implies the replacement of a linguistic item. We have considered three kinds of Substitutions including nominal, verbal and clausal substitution. The differences between them can easily be seen through the words used to substitute and their position in the sentence. For instance nominal substitution (one, ones) can be substitute only for an item which is itself head of a nominal group. Verbal substitution (do or do so) carry the tense marker when the rest of the Verb is elapsed. Clausal substitution (so) can replace a nominal that-clause as direct object after verbs of saying. All of them serve the same function as an effective way to help the speaker avoid repeating the word they had used and this will make a faster and shorter response. When using substitute, we should notice the way to use them to avoid confusion among three kinds of them.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.babylon.com/definition/substitution/English simple.wiktionary.org/wiki/substitution en.wiktionary.org/wiki/substitution http://www.yourdictionary.com/substitute http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/substitute.html Cry Me S, R. (1968), Some systems of substitution correlations in modern American English, The Hague Randolph Quirk, Sidney, A University Grammar of English, 1976 Allen, R. L. (1966) The verb system of the present day American English, The Hague