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Main article: Slavery in antiquity Slavery in the ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer, and found in every such civilization, including Ancient Egypt, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient Greece, Rome and parts of its empire, and the Islamic Caliphate. Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves. In the Roman Empire, probably over 25% of the population was enslaved. Scholars believe that 30 to 40% of the total population of Italy was enslaved. An important exception occurred under the reign of King Cyrus who founded the Achaemenid Empire and liberated slaves in conquered territories. Indeed much of the architectural feats of this period came from invention of coin currency which precipitated wage labor. Slavery was an important element in the development of the ancient Greek city-states. Records of slavery in Ancient Greece go as far back as Mycenaean Greece. The treatment of Greek slaves could be said to be harsh, but not extremely brutal. The Spartans had earlier reduced an entire population to a pseudo-slavery called helots. In Ancient Greece about 30% of the population consisted of slaves.
Ancient Greek art, showing a slave giving a mother her child. As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply. The people subjected to Roman slavery came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Such oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War led by Spartacus was the most famous and severe. Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (or Celts), Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labor, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). If a slave ran
away, he was liable to be crucified. By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome. Slavery was so common, and citizenship restricted so firmly (only to native-born adult males), that the slaves in Rome far outnumbered the citizens. Due to Biblical descriptions, the definitions of slavery in the Ancient Egyptian context is hotly debated. Archaeological discoveries by Mark Lehner and Zahi Hawass lead some to claim that the workers who built the pyramids were not enslaved.  As practiced in ancient Egypt, slavery was likely more akin to slavery in the medieval world rather than trans-Atlantic slavery: Persons generally became enslaved in ancient Egypt by virtue of being captives (or prisoners) of war, committing criminal or other indecent acts, or indebtedness. Slaves in ancient Egypt could be sold, inherited or offered as gifts, but they could sometimes achieve social rank and take other contracts. Abusers of slaves were known to be brought to court.
 The Vikings and Scandinavia
Main articles: Thrall and Volga trade route In the Viking era starting c. 793, the Norse raiders often captured and enslaved weaker peoples they encountered. In the Nordic countries the slaves were called thralls (Old Norse: Þræll). The thralls were mostly from Western Europe, among them many Franks, Anglo-Saxons, and Celts. There is evidence of German, Baltic, Slavic and south European slaves as well. The slave trade was one of the pillars of Norse commerce during the 6th through 11th centuries. The Persian traveller Ibn Rustah described how Swedish Vikings, the Varangians or Rus, terrorized and enslaved the Slavs. The slave raids came to an end when Catholicism became widespread throughout Scandinavia. As in the rest of Catholic Europe, the Scandinavian representatives for the church held that a Christian could not morally own another Christian. However, the moral aspect was not considered binding by church representatives in regards to enslavement of Africans. When slavery resurfaced in the post-Viking era in overseas colonies held by the Scandinavian countries, representatives of the church defended it, arguing, among other things, that Africans lacked "humanity" and therefore were better off as slaves, especially if they were converted. The thrall system was finally abolished in the mid-14th century in Scandinavia. Serfdom was never instituted in Norway, Iceland and Sweden. An ordinance of 20 June 1788 abolished villenage in Denmark and completely transformed the much-abused hoveri system. Serfdom remained the practice in Swedish Pomerania until July 4, 1806. Although the thrall system had been abolished, slavery resurfaced again during the 17th century when Denmark-Norway and Sweden established trade posts in Africa, including the minor Swedish and Danish overseas colonies called Swedish Gold Coast and Danish Gold Coast. In the late 18th century, Denmark-Norway set up slave colonies on the Caribbean islands of Saint Croix, Saint Thomas and Saint John and the Swedish King Gustav III established a Swedish slave trade colony on the Caribbean island Saint Barthelemy. In 1803, DenmarkNorway banned export trade in slaves,, the first nation to do so, and in 1813 Sweden followed suit. Slavery in the colonies was finally abolished by Sweden (then in union with Norway) in 1847, and by Denmark in 1848.
 Middle Ages
Main article: Slavery in medieval Europe Chaos and invasion made the taking of slaves habitual throughout Europe in the early Middle Ages. St. Patrick, himself captured and sold as a slave, protested an attack that enslaved newly baptized Christians in his Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus. In Carolingian Europe approximately 20% of the entire population consisted of slaves. Slavery in early medieval Europe was so common that the Roman Catholic Church repeatedly prohibited it—or at least the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands was prohibited at, for example, the Council of Koblenz in 922, the Council of London in 1102, and the Council of Armagh in 1171. William the Conqueror, too, banned export of English slaves. The early medieval slave trade was mainly to the East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek and primarily Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages. So many Slavs (called Saqaliba in the medieval Arab world ) were enslaved for so many centuries that the very name 'slave' derived from their name, not only in English, but in other European languages. The Mongol invasions and conquests in the 13th century made the situation worse. The Mongols enslaved skilled individuals, women and children and marched them to Karakorum or Sarai, whence they were sold throughout Eurasia. Many of these slaves were shipped to slave market in Novgorod. Slave commerce during the Late Middle Ages was mainly in the hands of Venetian and Genoese merchants and cartels, who were involved in the slave trade with the Golden Horde. In 1382 the Golden Horde under Khan Tokhtamysh sacked Moscow, burning the city and carrying off thousands of inhabitants as slaves. Between 1414 and 1423, some 10,000 eastern European slaves were sold in Venice. Genoese merchants organized the slave trade from the Crimea to Mamluk Egypt. For years the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan routinely made raids on Russian principalities for slaves and to plunder towns. Russian chronicles record about 40 raids of Kazan Khans on the Russian territories in the first half of the 16th century. In 1521, the combined forces of Crimean Khan Mehmed Giray and his Kazan allies attacked Moscow and captured thousands of slaves. In 1441, Haci I Giray declared independance from the Golden Horde and established the Crimean Khanate. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. In a process called the "harvesting of the steppe", they enslaved many Slavic peasants. About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558-1596. In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin and taking thousands of captives as slaves. In Crimea, about 75% of the population consisted of slaves.
Medieval Spain and Portugal were the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon, Portugal in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, Portugal in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves. The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world too. After the battle of Lepanto approximately 12,000 Christian galley slaves were freed from the Ottoman Turks. Christians were also selling Muslim slaves captured in war. The Knights of Malta attacked pirates and Muslim shipping, and their base became a centre for slave trading, selling captured North Africans and Turks. Malta remained a slave market until well into the late 18th century. It required a thousand slaves to equip merely the galleys (ships) of the Order. Slavery in Poland was forbidden in the 15th century; in Lithuania, slavery was formally abolished in 1588; they were replaced by the second enserfment. Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until the 1723, when the Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679.
 Portuguese and Spanish explorations
See also: Portuguese Empire, Spanish Empire, Economic history of Portugal, Spanish colonization of the Americas, and Black ladino The 15th century Portuguese exploration of the African coast is commonly regarded as the harbinger of European colonialism. In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting Afonso V of Portugal the right to reduce any "Saracens, pagans and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery which legitimated slave trade under catholic beliefs of that time. This approval of slavery was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to serve as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism. Although for a short period as in 1462, Pius II declared slavery to be "a great crime". The followers of the church of England and Protestants did not use the papal bull as a justification. The position of the church was to condemn the slavery of christians, but slavery was regarded as an old established and necessary institution which supplied Europe with the necessary wokforce. In the XVI century African slaves had substituted almost all other ethnicities and religious enslaved groups in Europe. Among many other European slave markets, Genoa, Venice and Verdun-sur-Meuse were some well known markets, their importance and demand growing after the great plague of the XIII century which decimated much of the European work force. The maritime town of Lagos, Portugal, was the first slave market created in Portugal for the sale of imported African slaves the Mercado de Escravos, opened in 1444. In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania. The well-known Prince Henry the Navigator, major sponsor of the Portuguese African expeditions, as of any other merchandise, charged one fifth of the selling price of the slaves imported to Portugal. In the second half of the 16th century, the
As many as 100. a collection of nobles. 10% of England's population was enslaved. the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution. Over half of all white immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries consisted of indentured servants.Crown gave up the monopoly on slave trade and the focus of European trade in African slaves shifted from import to Europe to slave transports directly to tropical colonies in the Americas . Britain would also play a prominent role in both the Atlantic slave trade massification (slavery was a legal institution in all of the 13 American colonies. smallpox) due to lack of biological immunity. slavery was used as punishment by conquering English Parliament armies against native Catholics in Ireland. However. The legal force of the event is actually open to question. and no act of law was valid unless signed by the monarch.in the case of Portugal.  Great Britain and Ireland Main articles: Slavery in Britain and Ireland and Slavery in the colonial United States During and after Roman times. The Council of Westminster. Spain had to fight against relatively powerful civilizations of the New World. where the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population (Laws of Burgos.000 Africans who were aboard. The trade in serfs and slaves in England was abolished in 1102. Between 1808 and 1860. the practice of slavery was common in England. women and children were forcibly taken to the colonies in the British West Indies and British North America as slaves after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the Spaniards who sought auxiliaries for their conquest expeditions and laborers on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola. especially Brazil. (like the Europeans that had lack of biological immunity to African deseases) Natives were used as forced labor (the Spanish employed the pre-Columbian draft system called the mita).000 Irish men. the West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1. sometimes in league with Norse traders. the Council had no legislative powers. Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the . and the last form of enforced servitude (villeinage) had disappeared in Britain by the beginning of the 17th century. Chattel slavery of English Christians was discontinued when William of Normandy conquered England in 1066.600 slave ships and freed 150. issued a decree: "Let no one hereafter presume to engage in that nefarious trade in which hitherto in England men were usually sold like brute animals. In the 17th century. Slavery resurfaced in that century as a form of punishment against Catholics.) and the abolition of slavery. 1512-1513).g." However. the Spanish conquest of the indigenous peoples in the Americas was also facilitated by the spread of diseases (e. Anglo-Saxons continued and expanded their slave system. According to the Domesday Book census in 1086. The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501. but the diseases caused a labor shortage and so the Spanish colonists were gradually involved in the Atlantic slave trade.
 Slavery in the French Republic was abolished on February 4. the first white person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave. In that time second serfdom took place in Eastern Europe during this period (particularly in Austria. Deutsche Bank. Allianz. Prussia. as some have claimed. deposed in 1851. so even though some sentences prescribed a restricted number of years. In 1811. Siemens. Several well-known historical figures served time as galley slaves after being captured by the enemy -. even if they survived shipwreck and slaughter or torture at the hands of enemies or of pirates. Hungary.  Pre-industrial Europe It became the custom among the Mediterranean powers to sentence condemned criminals to row in the war-galleys of the state (initially only in time of war). including Daimler-Benz. Russia and Poland). the Nazi regime created many Arbeitslager (labor camps) in Germany and Eastern Europe. Naval forces often turned 'infidel' prisoners-of-war into galley-slaves. Bayer. Dresdner Bank. the Arthur William Hodge was the first slave owner executed for the murder of a slave in the British West Indies. Volkswagen. Millions died as a direct result of forced labor under the Nazis.  Modern times Main articles: Forced labor in Germany during World War II and Slavery in modern Africa Between 1933 and 1945. He though was not. Serfdom remained the practice on the most part of territory of Russia until February 19. BMW and Degussa. Krupp.trade. Some of the Roma people were enslaved over five centuries in Romania until abolition in 1864 (see Slavery in Romania). Prisoners in Nazi labor camps were worked to death on short rations and in bad conditions. BASF. The French Huguenots filled the galleys after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and Camisard rebellion. Hoechst. or killed if they became unable to work.the Ottoman corsair and admiral Turgut Reis and the Knights Hospitaller Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette among them. for example against "the usurping King of Lagos". most rowers would eventually die. most of whom were Eastern Europeans. 1794. More than 2000 German companies profited from slave labor during the Nazi era. were employed in the German war economy inside the Nazi Germany. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers. Galleyslaves lived in unsavoury conditions. 1861. Only in 1768 was a law passed in Poland that discontinued the nobility's control of the right to life or death of serfs. Main articles: Gulag and Population transfer in the Soviet Union . See for instance Eugen Kogon's publication The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them About 12 million forced laborers.
Between 1930 and 1960. only 6.Camps of Terror. Under Stalin. has this to say about the state of contemporary dialogue on Soviet slavery: Nikolai Getman Moving out. The fatality rate was as high as 80% during the first months in many camps. more than 18 million people passed through the Gulag. entitled 'Books of the Times. Many of these prisoners. the Soviet regime created many Lageria (labor camps) in Siberia. Michael McFaul. brutality. It should now be known to all serious scholars that the camps began under Lenin and not Stalin. In all. Yet. the social history of the gulag somehow has escaped notice. academic historians have gravitated away from event-focused history and toward social history. In later years the camps also held victims of Stalin’s purges as well as World War II prisoners. .000 Germans captured alive after the Battle of Stalingrad. Out of the 91. Immediately after the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. the NKVD massacred about 100. even thousands of individual camps. It is possible that approximately 10% of prisoners died each year. the literature on the gulag is thin. Yet.000 survived the Gulag and returned home.2003. Probably the worst of the camp complexes were the three built north of the Arctic circle at Kolyma. It is estimated that there may have been 5-7 million people in these camps at any one time. contested. Some may be surprised to learn about the economic function that the camps were designed to perform. had died of illness contracted during the siege of Stalingrad and in the forced march into captivity. each one comprising hundreds. Prisoners in Soviet labor camps were worked to death on extreme production quotas. but because of who they were. Norilsk and Vorkuta. For decades.000 prisoners who awaited deportation either to NKVD prisons in Moscow or to the Gulag. Applebaum's book are still so poorly known and even. hunger and harsh elements. What is remarkable is that the facts about this monstrous system so well documented in Ms. the camps were simply a crueler but equally inefficient way to exploit labor in the cause of building socialism than the one practiced outside the camps in the Soviet Union. It should be recognized by all that people were sent to the camps not because of what they did. Often Overlooked' . by some. in his New York Times article of June 11. with a further millions being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. even this economic role of the camps has been exposed before. There were at least 476 separate camp complexes. however. Compared with the volumes and volumes written about the Holocaust.
 It is estimated that 2/3 of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe. Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery. Russia is a major source of women trafficked globally for the purpose of sexual exploitation. It is estimated that half million Ukrainian women were trafficked abroad since 1991 (80% of all unemployed in Ukraine are women). Spain. Romania. Israel.000 women have been sold into prostitution abroad — perhaps up to 10% of the female population. Belarus and Ukraine have been identified as major trafficking source countries for women and children.000 and 400. Asia. see Islam and slavery. experts estimate that since the collapse of the Soviet Union between 200. three-quarters have never worked as prostitutes before. An estimated 500. 13th century slave market in Yemen . Greece). Italy. the impoverished former Eastern bloc countries such as Albania. UK. In poverty-stricken Moldova. the Middle East (Turkey. Netherlands. Moldova. Bulgaria.  Slavery in Muslim World Main article: Arab slave trade For Muslim views on slavery. Russian women are in prostitution in over 50 countries. Russia. where the unemployment rate for women ranges as high as 68% and one-third of the workforce live and work abroad.000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are working in prostitution in the EU alone. the United Arab Emirates). The major destinations are Western Europe (Germany.(The article draws attention to Anne Applebaum's Pulitzer Prize winning text GULAG : A History ) Main articles: Human trafficking and Sexual slavery Since the fall of the Iron Curtain. Russia and the United States.
Male slaves were employed as servants. the goal of which was to loot. he steals. or Oriental traders. the Tunisian Ibn Khaldun could write: . Indian Ocean. while female slaves were traded to Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab. submissive to slavery." In 1400 Timur the Lame invaded Armenia and Georgia.. The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade is thought to have originated with trans-Saharan slavery." In the same period. raided coastal areas of the Mediterranean. soldiers. and became known as the Barbary pirates. The Moors. or laborers. were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. as a rule.000 people from the Caucasus were captured as slaves. The borderland area to the south-east was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century. Russian conquest of the Crimea led to the abolition of slavery by the 1780s. pillage and capture slaves into jasyr. Arab. . Indian. some as domestic servants. starting in the 8th century. and Oriental traders were involved in the capture and transport of slaves northward across the Sahara desert and the Indian Ocean region into Arabia and the Middle East. the Egyptian Al-Abshibi (1388-1446) wrote. others as sex slaves.. Persia. The slave trade from East Africa to Arabia was dominated by Arab and African traders in the coastal cities of Zanzibar. From 1569 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth suffered a series of Tatar invasions. Russians..the Negro nations are.Historians say the Arab slave trade began in the 7th century and lasted more than millennium. because (Negroes) have little that is (essentially) human and possess attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals. Indian. Racist opinions occurred in the works of some Persian and Arab-Muslim historians and geographers: so in the 14th century CE. and many districts of Armenia were depopulated.:". he fornicates. predominantly Ukrainians but also Circassians. Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa. Some historians estimate that between 11 and 17 million slaves crossed the Red Sea. when he is hungry. "It is said that when the [black] slave is sated. More than 60. and Sahara Desert from 650 to 1900 AD. and the Indian subcontinent.. Belarusians and Poles. Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people.
converted to Islam and enlisted into special soldier classes of the Ottoman army.Capt. William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey of Algiers. Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual revenues in 1800. and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar. by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the Pashtuns. Gradually in the 18th century slave raids became less frequent. The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th century Baghdad. of the Barbary pirates. The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Bloodthirsty" (1672-1727) raised a corps of 150. From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin. in Oruzgan. "thousands of Hazara men. The captive slaves were converted to Islam and trained in the sultan's personal service. Nautical traders from the United States became targets. In Istanbul. and frequent victims.  Modern times . were recruited in this way. Mousavi. the Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman declared a "Jihad" against the Shiites. By 1609 the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100. the most famous branch of the Kapıkulu. Until the 20th century.000. such as Pargalı Đbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet Paşa. but the Barbary pirates continued to enslave captured crews. Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society. called his Black Guard. In the middle of the 14th century. for example. about 1/5 of the population consisted of slaves. imperial administrators and de facto rulers of the Ottoman Empire. The Janissaries eventually became a decisive factor in the Ottoman invasions of Europe. Over time they became a powerful military caste. the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years. As late as 1908 women slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire. In response to the Hazara uprising of 1892. According to S. while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir". Murad I built his own personal slave army called the Kapıkulu. young Christian boys from the Balkans were taken away from their homes and families. who coerced the country into submission. A. These soldier classes were named Janissaries. which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. although Amanullah Khan banned slavery in Afghanistan during his reign. Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces. women. White slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corp of troops eventually revolting in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. Mamluks were mainly responsible for the expulsion of the Crusaders from Palestine and preventing the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt.000 black slaves. as soon as that nation began trading with Europe and refused to pay the required tribute to the North African states. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center. and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves. Mamluks were a slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. The new force was based on the sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty. ruling Egypt in the from 1250-1517. In the devşirme (translated "blood tax" or "child collection").
Slave owning and slave-like working conditions have been documented up to and including the present. Qatar. or 20% of the population. Turkey. As recently as the 1950s.000 children and women have been taken into slavery in Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War. The clients come from wealthier countries in the Middle East . are forced into prostitution. Written travelogues and other historical works are replete with references to slaves owned by wealthy traders.Child Slavery: Trafficked children as young as 2 years old are forced to work up to 18 hours a day as camel jockeys across the Arab countries of the Middle East The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade continued into the early 1900s.000 Iraqi refugee girls and women.many are Saudi men. are currently enslaved. 20% of the population. a leading Saudi government cleric and author of the country's religious curriculum has called for the outright re-legalization of slavery. and Iran. many of them used as bonded labor. High prices are offered for virgins. many of them widows. Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007. Although strict laws have been introduced recently in Qatar and UAE. The Arab trade in slaves continued into the 20th century. nobility and heads of state in the Arabian Peninsula well into the 1920s. to countries like Syria. others are trafficked abroad. in countries of the Middle East. the use of children still continues in outlying areas and during secret night-time races. Many of the Iraqi women fleeing the Iraq War are turning to prostitution.  Africa . Saudi Arabia had an estimated 450.000 slaves. and by some accounts continues to this day. In Syria alone. Jordan. women and children. an estimated 50. It is estimated that as many as 200. In Mauritania it is estimated that up to 600. Children as young as two years old are used for slavery as child camel jockeys across the Arab countries of the Middle East.000 men. Though the subject is considered taboo in the affected regions. Cheap Iraqi prostitutes have helped to make Syria a popular destination for sex tourists. thanks to better awareness of the issue and lobbying by human rights organisations such as the Ansar Burney Trust. the United Arab Emirates.
the Sudan and Zanzibar. French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. domestic and household slaves. 435). as their bondage was relative.. even as traders" (Braudel 1984 p. The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent. slaves working on the land. as couriers and intermediaries. but this was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole. blurring the anticipated roles. There were large plantations worked by slaves in Egypt. . Vassals of the Songhay Muslim Empire were used primarily in agriculture. These people were more an occupational caste. which held vast colonial territories on the African continent (including southern Africa). the United Kingdom. in industry. The end of the slave trade and the decline of slavery was imposed upon Africa by its European conquerors. they paid tribute to their masters in crop and service but they were slightly restricted in custom and convenience. made the practice of slavery illegal throughout its empire. In most African slave societies. slaves incorporated into princely armies. with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas.Main articles: African slave trade and Slavery in modern Africa Two slightly differing Okpoho manillas as used to purchase slaves In most African societies. "Slavery came in different disguises in different societies: there were court slaves. Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic. there was very little difference between the free peasants and the feudal vassal peasants. During the 16th century. slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family. Later. vassals were three classes beneath the nobles. In the Kanem Bornu Empire. Marriage between captor and captive was far from rare. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa.
the Kongo. Segou (1712–1861). In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. between 1300 and 1900.000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia. and Songhai (1275-1591). The population of the Kanem was about a third-slave.to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. Between 1750 and 1900 from one." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea. including Ghana (750-1076). when was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces. 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery. Elikia M’bokolo. out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million. The Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2.simplified map of the main states. In early Islamic states of the western Sudan. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon. about a third of the population were slaves. Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935. Across the Sahara. In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia officially abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independance in 1942. kingdoms and empires In Senegambia. April 1998. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth). Quote:"The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean. It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved. Le Monde diplomatique. through the Red Sea. and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean"  North Africa . Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves.000. perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route. close to one-third of the population was enslaved.13th century Africa . the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger. Mali (1235–1645). The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in the northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1396–1893). On August 26. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved.
slaughtered the inhabitants and carried off 3. In Portugal for instance. resulting in many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches being erected. between 5. Khair ad Din captured Ischia. Even the United States was not immune. after 1600 Barbary pirates occasionally entered the Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland. destroyed it. painting by Jean-Leon Gerome According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1. Portugal. In 1563 Turgut Reis landed at the shores of the province of Granada. In 1544. and gained recognition from.000 and 6. 1884). and captured the coastal settlements in the area like Almuñécar. The city of Lisbon built the Torre de Belém to defend the capital against these pirates. sending them to Libya.000 inhabitants of Lipari. In 1558 Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella. the coastal city of Nazaré was raided several times during until the 16th century when the local fortress was built (according to Pedro Penteado and his book based in the historical eclesiastic diaries of Nazaré). When pirates sacked Vieste in southern Italy in 1554 they took an 7. The threat was so severe that island of Formentera became uninhabited.000 survivors to Istanbul as slaves.000 prisoners. Spain and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by them and long stretches of the Italian.000 prisoners in the process. and in 1784 the first American ship was seized by pirates from Morocco. Payments in ransom and tribute to the . Barbary pirates frequently attacked the Balearic islands. In 1783 the United States made peace with. Slave-taking persisted into the 19th century when Barbary pirates would capture ships and enslave the crew. along with 4. In 1555. The coastal villages and towns of Italy. taking 4. the British monarchy. taking 6000 prisoners. Barbary pirates See also: Arab slave trade The Slave Market (c. Portuguese and Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants.000. and deported to slavery some 9.000 slaves. Turgut Reis sailed to Corsica and ransacked Bastia. almost the entire population. Spain. Turgut Reis (known as Dragut in the West) enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo. Between 1609 and 1616 England alone had a staggering 466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates. In 1551.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.
.. . Leghorn and Malta. Genoa. David Livingstone wrote of the slave trade: "To overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility. and it attacks free men who have been captured and made slaves. Toulon. because she was unable to walk any longer.Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual revenues in 1800.. In Africa. Marseille. Pisa. and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50.S.. Algiers and Tunis.000 Africans died each year before ever reaching the slave markets of Zanzibar.  Sub-Saharan Africa Main article: African slave trade Slaves being transported in Africa. The strangest disease I have seen in this country seems really to be broken heartedness.... 19th century engraving. We came upon a man dead from starvation. Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port. We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path.the most important were the ports of Morrocos." Livingstone estimated that 80.. We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead. although some European nations continued annual payments until the 1830s.. Tripoli.000 slaves were passing through the city each year. It was not until 1815 that naval victories in the Barbary Wars ended tribute payments by the U.. Among the most important slave markets where Pirates operated in the Mediterranean Europe were the ports of Majorca. [Onlookers] said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her.
iron bars more valued than gold. sometimes penetrating deep into the continent. Nantes. Tropical shipworms were eliminated in the cold Atlantic waters. The log weighed 32 pounds. The slave trade represented the major source of revenue for the state of Bornu as late as 1898. Arab slave traders differed from European ones in that they would often conduct raiding expeditions themselves. The increased presence of European rivals along the East coast led Arab traders to concentrate on the overland slave caravan routes across the Sahara from the Sahel to North Africa. 'An Arab master's punishment for a slight offence. copper utensils and bangles. During the 1870s.' Unknown photographer. French and British. when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. The Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century. pewter plates and pots. and make for Liverpool. Mahdi’s victory created an Islamic state. 1890. The eastern regions of the Central African Republic have never recovered demographically from the impact of nineteenth-century raids from the Sudan and still have a population density of less than 1 person/km. and later coffee. hats. Dutch. The Middle Passage. These expeditions were typically carried out by African kingdoms. Kingdom of Benin. gunpowder and firearms and alcohol. They also differed in that their market greatly preferred the purchase of female slaves over male ones. Ships leaving European ports for West Africa would carry printed cotton textiles. Kingdom of Koya. some originally from India. the crossing of the Atlantic to the Americas. c. one that quickly reinstituted slavery. European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan. indigo. precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Ships having landed slaves in Caribbean ports would take on sugar. The German explorer Gustav Nachtigal reported seeing slave caravans departing from Kukawa in Bornu bound for Tripoli and Egypt in 1870.Slavery in Zanzibar. Lisbon or Amsterdam. Kingdom of Fouta Tooro. was only one element of the well-known triangular trade engaged in by Portuguese. Prior to the 16th century. Kong Empire. such as the Oyo empire (Yoruba). Kingdom of . Kingdom of Fouta Djallon. the bulk of slaves exported from Africa were shipped from East Africa to the Arabian peninsula. Zanzibar became a leading port on this trade. and the boy could only move by carrying it on his head. raw cotton. and at each unloading. endured by slaves laid out in rows in the holds of ships. trinkets. a profit was made.
 Others believe that slavers had a vested interest in capturing rather than killing. Kingdom of Kaabu. leading to wars for the sole purpose of taking more captives. and carried to the Americas in Dutch and Portuguese ships. The people captured on these expeditions were shipped by European traders to the colonies of the New World. That is the verdict of our oracle and the priests. those who died on the arduous march to coastal slave marts and those killed in slave raids. who otherwise would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. Aro Confederacy and the kingdom of Dahomey. Despite its establishment within his kingdom. It is the source and the glory of their wealth…the mother lulls the child to sleep with notes of triumph over an enemy reduced to slavery…" In 1807. As a result of the War of Spanish Succession. Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa. many during the arduous journey through the Middle Passage. of whom some 15 percent died during the terrible voyage. but some also went to Europe and the south of Africa.Khasso. The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast". Benin grew increasingly rich during the 16th and 17th centuries on the slave trade with Europe. Ashanti Confederacy. The King of Bonny (now in Nigeria) was horrified at the conclusion of the practice: "We think this trade must go on. slavery had already existed in Kingdom of Kongo. far exceeded the 65–75 million inhabitants remaining in Sub-Saharan Africa at the trade's end. and in keeping their captives alive. Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples. The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery. Like the Bambara Empire to the east. A family's status was indicated by the number of slaves it owned. he wrote letters to the King João III of Portugal in 1526 imploring him to put a stop to the practice. Before the arrival of the Portuguese. They say that your country. It is estimated that over the centuries. however great. Afonso I of Kongo believed that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law. Fante Confederacy. can never stop a trade ordained by God himself. the United Kingdom obtained the monopoly (asiento de negros) of transporting captive Africans to Spanish America." Some historians conclude that the total loss in persons removed. The great majority were shipped to the Americas. As one of West Africa's principal slave states. the UK Parliament passed the Bill that abolished the trading of slaves. In the 1840s. due to fear of disease and moreover fierce African resistance. particularly the French. King Gezo of Dahomey said: "The slave trade is the ruling principle of my people. slaves from enemy states of the interior were sold. and that this coupled with the disproportionate removal of males and the introduction of new . twelve to twenty million people were shipped as slaves from Africa by European traders. the Khasso kingdoms depended heavily on the slave trade for their economy. The slaves were brought to coastal outposts where they were traded for goods. When he suspected the Portuguese of receiving illegally enslaved persons to sell. This trade led the Khasso into increasing contact with the European settlements of Africa's west coast.
 Descent-based slavery. and several human rights organizations report that the practice continues there. shrine slavery persists. People unable to pay back a debt could be sentenced to work as a slave to the person owed until the debt was worked off.000 people were sacrificed at a temple inauguration in 1487. The trading of children has been reported in modern Nigeria and Benin. children of slaves were born free. and Benin. Slavery was not usually hereditary. Most victims of human sacrifice were prisoners of war or slaves. slavery is also a current phenomenon. the woman does not gain the title or status of "wife". Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in West Africa. During the period from late 19th and early 20th centuries. demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery. sometimes called trokosi (in Ghana) or voodoosi in Togo and Benin. but it has never been criminalised. In this instance. 1961. as well as slaves for the construction of temples. maize) would have limited general population decline to particular regions of western Africa around 1760–1810. and in Mozambique and neighbouring areas half a century later. Slavery in Sudan continues as part of an ongoing civil war. young virgin girls are given as slaves to traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests in addition to providing free labor for the shrine. Warfare was important to the Maya society.  The Americas  Among indigenous peoples Main articles: Aztec slavery. There has also been speculation that within Africa. Togo. In this system of ritual servitude. In parts of Ghana. In parts of Ghana. is traditionally practised by at least four of Niger’s eight ethnic groups. Repartimiento. who roam near the borders with Mali and Algeria. almost 8% of the population.000 people are still slaves. see the chocolate and slavery article. . as many as 84. because raids on surrounding areas provided the victims required for human sacrifice. with their male protectors being a "bycatch" who would have been killed if there had not been an export market for them. despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998. where generations of the same family are born into bondage. and 1981.crops from the Americas (cassava. females were most often captured as brides. a study has found that more than 800. It is especially rife among the warlike Tuareg. In Niger.  Modern times Main article: Slavery in modern Africa Slavery in Mauritania was legally abolished by laws passed in 1905. The personal monarchy of Belgian King Leopold II in the Congo Free State saw mass killings and slavery to extract rubber. a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family. Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies. in the wild deserts of north and west Niger. and Slavery in Canada In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica the most common forms of slavery were those of prisoners-ofwar and debtors. According to Aztec writings.
Jean Baptiste Debret. the Comanche of Texas. would decide which family member to send to do the work. the Portuguese began to trade African slaves to work the sugar plantations. raiding as far as California. once the native Tupi people deteriorated. the Pawnee and Klamath. the Caribs of Dominica. that lived along the coast from what is now Alaska to California. the fishing societies. A Guaraní family captured by Indian slave hunters. who live along the Pacific Northwest coast (now Alaska and British Columbia) were traditionally known as fierce warriors and slavetraders. and more than 3 million slaves were sent to this one country. such as the Yurok. the Tupinambá of Brazil.In the Inca Empire. the slaves being prisoners of war. Starting around 1550. particularly for their silver mines in Bolivia. By Jean Baptiste Debret Slavery was a mainstay of the Brazilian colonial economy. Although Portuguese Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal abolished slavery in mainland Portugal on the February 12th.  Brazil Main articles: History of slavery in Brazil and Bandeirantes Slavery in Brazil. Among some Pacific Northwest tribes about a quarter of the population were slaves. the Tehuelche of Patagonia. Brazil obtained 37% of all African slaves traded. The Haida and Tlingit. for example. . Slavery was hereditary. The Spanish adopted this system. especially in mining and sugar cane production. or extended family. Other slave-owning societies and tribes of the New World were. It is unclear if this labor draft or corvee counts as slavery. Each ayllu. workers were subject to a mita in lieu of taxes which they paid by working for the government.
At these attacks. it was an institution in decadence at these times. adventurers mostly of mixed Portuguese and native ancestry. slaves aged over 60 years were freed. In Colonial Brazil. In fact. Slavery was practice among all classes. In 1885. and each Briton was consuming 16 pounds (7 kg) of sugar a year by the 19th century. repeated slaving raids and punitive attacks left their mark. slavery was more a social than a racial condition. a group of evangelical reformers. Along the Amazon river and its major tributaries. poverty and internal migration. From São Paulo the Bandeirantes. foreign slave trade was banned in 1850. Slavery was legally ended nationwide on May 13 by the Lei Aurea ("Golden Law") of 1888. This combination led to intensive pressure from the British government for Brazil to end this practice. in 1871. steal livestock and tools. His paintings on the subject (two appear on this page) helped bring attention to the subject in both Europe and Brazil itself. inspiring numerous emancipation societies. First. some of the greatest figures of the time. the sons of the slaves were freed. Then.  Resistance and abolition Escaped slaves formed Maroon communities which played an important role in the histories of Brazil and other countries such as Suriname. and Jamaica. Maroons survived by growing vegetables and hunting. the maroons would burn crops. One French traveler in the 1740s described hundreds of miles of river banks with no sign of human life and oncethriving villages that were devastated and empty. and even by other slaves. and invite other slaves to join their communities. since slaves enlisted in exchange for freedom. In some areas of the Amazon Basin. Jean-Baptiste Debret. by the poor. As wealthy plantation holders rushed to sell their slaves south. Besides moral qualms. They succeeded in banning slavery altogether in the province of Ceará by 1884. The Clapham Sect. the low cost of slave-produced Brazilian sugar meant that British colonies in the West Indies were unable to match the market prices of Brazilian sugar. the Jesuits had organized their Jesuit Reductions along military lines to fight the slavers. kill slavemasters. and particularly among the Guarani of southern Brazil and Paraguay. penetrated steadily westward in their search for Indian slaves. Brazil's 1877-78 Grande Seca (Great Drought) in the cotton-growing northeast led to major turmoil. slavery continued in her overseas colonies. a French painter who was active in Brazil in the first decades of the 19th Century. In the mid to late 19th century. like the writer Machado de Assis and the engineer André Rebouças had black ancestry. which it did by steps over several decades. popular resistance and resentment grew. In fact. Puerto Rico. as since the 1880s the country had begun to . In Brazil the Maroon villages were called palenques or quilombos. They also raided plantations.1761. campaigned during much of the 19th century for the United Kingdom to use its influence and power to stop the traffic of slaves to Brazil. Cuba. many Amerindians were enslaved to work on rubber plantations. The Paraguayan War contributed to end slavery. starvation. started out with painting portraits of members of the Brazilian Imperial family. but soon became concerned with the slavery of both blacks and indigenous inhabitants. Slaves were owned by upper and middle classes.
escaped slaves forming Maroon communities and fighting guerrilla wars against the plantation owners.700 were white. By the middle of the 18th century. rubber tappers participated in the enslavement of the indigenous Guatuso-Maleku people for domestic service.000 Brazilians work under conditions "analogous to slavery. as their economies converted from sugar production. the descendants of English. Scottish and Irish indentured servants. Colombia. History of slavery in the United States. Martinique and Guadeloupe. History of slavery in Missouri . Slavery in Canada. demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery in Latin America and elsewhere.  Modern times However. Peru. The Lesser Antilles islands of Barbados. began the widespread use of African slaves by the end of the 17th century. which were the first important slave societies of the Caribbean. and Brazil.000 slave laborers were freed from a sugar cane plantation in 2007 by the Brazilian government.  British and French Caribbean Main article: Slavery in the British and French Caribbean Slavery was commonly used in the parts of the Caribbean controlled by France and the British Empire.000 slaves in Barbados. in 2004 the government acknowledged to the United Nations that at least 25. making it the largest anti-slavery raid in modern times in Brazil. British Jamaica and French Saint-Domingue had become the largest slave societies of the region. More than 1. and prisoners imported to the island. The Calendar of State Papers.  North America Main Articles: Slavery in Colonial America.000. Antigua. the death rates for Caribbean slaves were greater than birth rates. Due to overwork and tropical diseases. of which 21. Slavery among the Cherokee. Brazil was the last nation in the Western Hemisphere to abolish slavery. The conditions led to increasing numbers of slave revolts. In Central America. St. Colonial Series of 1701 records 25. Campaigns against slavery began during the period of the Enlightenment and grew to large proportions in Europe and United States during the 19th century (see Abolitionism). Indian slavery.  Other South American countries During the period from late 19th and early 20th centuries. History of slavery in Kentucky. Among white Caribbeans there exists an underclass known as Redlegs. Indigenous people were enslaved as part of the rubber boom in Ecuador. Atlantic slave trade. rivaling Brazil as a destination for enslaved Africans." The top anti-slavery official puts the number of modern slaves at 50.use European immigrant labor instead. Kitts.
The vast majority of slaves shipped across the Atlantic were sent to the Caribbean sugar colonies. Virginia as indentured servants. 1650: Connecticut legalizes slavery.  Slavery in American Colonial Law • • • • • • 1642: Massachusetts becomes the first colony to legalize slavery. until after the end of the American Civil War with the ratification of the 13th Amendment in December 1865. and the tobacco industry was increasingly dominated by large planters. These newly freed servants were rarely able to support themselves comfortably. The attempt was a failure. Eventually. 1662: A Virginia statute declares that children born would have the same status as their mother.  Development of slavery The shift from indentured servants to African slaves was prompted by a dwindling class of former servants who had worked through the terms of their indentures and thus became competitors to their former masters. Only a fraction of the enslaved Africans brought to the New World ended up in British North America-. . Brazil. This caused domestic unrest culminating in Bacon's Rebellion. It is possible that Africans were brought to Virginia prior to this. 1663: Maryland legalizes slavery. the slaves revolted and fled into the wilderness to live among the Cofitachiqui people. lasting only one year. Early events The first slaves used by Europeans in what later became United States territory were among Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón's colonization attempt of North Carolina in 1526. The first historically significant slave in what would become the United States was Estevanico. It was not until 1661 that a reference to slavery entered into Virginia law. directed at Caucasian servants who ran away with a black servant. This status would last for another 160 years. It was not until the Slave Codes of 1705 that the status of African Americans as slaves would be sealed.The transformation from indentured servitude to racial slavery happened gradually. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown. or Spanish America. 1664: Slavery is legalized in New York and New Jersey. chattel slavery became the norm in regions dominated by plantations. a Moroccan slave and member of the Narváez expedition in 1528 and acted as a guide on Fray Marcos de Niza's expedition to find the Seven Cities of Gold in 1539. 1661: Virginia officially recognizes slavery by statute. both because neither John Rolfe our source on the 1619 shipment nor any contemporary of his ever says that this was the first contingent of Africans to come to Virginia and because the 1625 Virginia census lists one black as coming on a ship that appears to only have landed people in Virginia prior to 1619.perhaps 5%.
north of the Ohio River and the old Mason-Dixon line. who supported popular sovereignty. cultural and economic struggle. While traditionally. though. nor involvement in the international slave trade externally. The British courts had made a series of contradictory rulings on the legality of slavery which encouraged several thousand slaves to flee the newly-independent United States as refugees along with the retreating British in 1783. slavery was not abolished until later. slavery was prohibited in the territories north of the Ohio River. It also asserted that African Americans could not be citizens. See Black Loyalists. Anti-slavery legislators took office under the banner of the Republican Party. armed conflict broke out in Kansas Territory. where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave state or a free state had been left to the inhabitants. the plantation aristocracy's attempt to control the North. The British courts having ruled in 1772 that such slaves could not be forcibly returned to North America (see James Somersett and Somersett's Case for a review of the Somerset Decision). as many Northern states granted blacks citizenship. Refugees from slavery fled the South across the Ohio River to the North via the Underground Railroad. Pro-slavery elements in Kansas had arrived first from Missouri and quickly organized a territorial government that excluded abolitionists. This infuriated Northern Democrats. 1808.which it would surely fail. The importation of slaves into the United States was banned on January 1. After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. . Through the machinery of the territory and violence.  Early United States law Through the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (also known as the Freedom Ordinance) under the Continental Congress." The true turning point in public opinion is better fixed at the LeCompton Constitution fraud. the British government resettled them as free men in Sierra Leone. The radical abolitionist John Brown was active in the mayhem and killing in "Bleeding Kansas. even if one's property was chattel and one crossed into a free territory. this has been viewed as turning Northern public opinion against the South. but not the internal slave trade. Aggregation of northern free states gave rise to one contiguous geographic area. it should be noted that pro-slavery forces made gains in the 1858 elections and it was the anti-slavery Republicans who were on the defensive on the issue. The Dred Scott decision of 1857 asserted that one could take one's property anywhere. In the East. and their presence agitated Northerners.Many slaves in British North America were owned by plantation owners who lived in Britain. Midwestern state governments asserted States Rights arguments to refuse federal jurisdiction over fugitives. Some juries exercised their right of jury nullification and refused to convict those indicted under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. and was exacerbated by the Buchanon administration reneging on a promise to submit the constitution to a referendum . Several slave rebellions took place during the 17th and 18th centuries. who (in some states) could even vote. the pro-slavery faction attempted to force an unpopular pro-slavery constitution through the state. This separation of a free North and an enslaved South launched a massive political. This was an example of Slave Power.
Lincoln however. that proclaimed freedom for slaves within the Confederacy. the proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal and it was implemented as the Union captured territory from the Confederacy. According to the 1860 U.8% of the popular vote) and legislators into Congress. in August of 1862 Lincoln replied to editor Horace Greeley stating his objective was to save the Union and not to either save or destroy slavery. 1. . The scars are a result of a whipping by his overseer. Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war. Slaves in many parts of the south were freed by Union armies or when they simply left their former owners. Consequently. although not those in strategically important border states or the rest of the Union. who was subsequently discharged. the Southern states seceded from the U. fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.S. It took two months to recover from the beating.e.4% of White Americans in the country. He went on to say that if he could save the Union without freeing a single slave (or by freeing all the slaves) he would do it. (the Union) to form the Confederate States of America.S. did not appear on the ballots in most southern states and his election split the nation along sectional lines. This led to the outbreak of the Civil War. Civil War Peter. In the election of 1860. and many more fled to Northern cities. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 was a reluctant gesture. which spelled the end for chattel slavery in America. Louisiana. Many joined the Union Army as workers or troops. However. as unacceptable. However. or 4. comprising one third of the population there as opposed to 1% of the population of the North. census.000 individuals (i. with control over the Mississippi River and the West. the Republicans swept Abraham Lincoln into the Presidency (with only 39. about 385. a slave from Baton Rouge. Northern leaders like Lincoln viewed the prospect of a new Southern nation.8% of southern whites) owned one or more slaves. After decades of controlling the Federal Government. 95% of blacks lived in the South. 1863.
in different forms. In some states.000 youths. the United States Department of Labor occasionally prosecutes cases against people for false imprisonment and involuntary servitude. Other cases have involved domestic workers. the armies of the Umayyad commander Muhammad bin Qasim. "in the midst of the land of Hindustan". following his twelfth expedition into India in 1018-19. The most common forms have been kinds of bonded labor.  In the early eleventh-century Tarikh al-Yamini. that all Indians are free. slaves within the United States remained enslaved until the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on December 6. much less is any Indian a slave. but the Indians have no slaves at all. for example. and it was common for money lenders to make slaves of peasants and others who failed to repay debts. In this the Indians agree with the Lacedaemonians. including both soldiers and civilians. who perform the duties of slaves. the Arab historian Al-Utbi recorded that in 1001 the armies of Mahmud of Ghazna conquered Peshawar and Waihand. Only in the Border state of Kentucky did a significant slave population remain by that time.Illegally. debt bondage reached its peak. are reported to have enslaved tens of thousands of Indian prisoners. These cases often involve illegal immigrants who are forced to work as slaves in factories to pay off a debt claimed by the people who transported them into the United States. During the epoch of the Mughals. freed slaves in the United States were treated as second class citizens. Later. along with interest. Under these practices. After the failure of Reconstruction. and no Indian at all is a slave. many former slaves living in the South sharecropped and had a low standard of living. Yet the Lacedaemonians have Helots for slaves. unfree labor has existed for centuries in the Medieval ages. a son could be sold into bonded labor for life to pay off the debt. eight months after the cessation of hostilities.  Modern times Although slavery has been illegal in the United States for nearly a century and a half. more than one generation could be forced into unfree labor. 1865 (with final recognition of the amendment on December 18)." Though any formalised slave trade has not existed in South Asia. and captured some 100. Mahmud is reported to have returned to with such a large number of slaves that their value was reduced to only two to . For decades after their emancipation. The early Arab invaders of Sind in the 700's.  Asia  Indian subcontinent Main articles: History of slavery in India and Muslim Slave System in Medieval India The Greek historian Arrian writes in his book Indica: "This also is remarkable in India. it was only after the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s that blacks obtained legal protection from racial discrimination (see segregation).
during the Delhi Sultanate period (1206-1555). "merchants [come] from distant cities to purchase them. many under 14. slavery. who work as slaves to pay off debts. Elliot and Dowson refers to "five hundred thousand slaves. and the fair and the dark. his descendants ruled presiding over the introduction of Tankas and building of Qutub Minar. Slavery in China was finally abolished in 1910. or a combination of both. there are currently more than 40 million bonded laborers in India. references to the abundant availability of low-priced Indian slaves abound.000 slaves in India in 1841. Levi attributes this primarily to the vast human resources of India. so that the countries of Central Asia. beautiful men and women. There are also an estimated 5 million bonded workers in Pakistan. a majority of them are Dalits. Much of the northern and central parts of the subcontinent was ruled by the so-called Slave Dynasty of Turkic origin from 1206-1290: Qutb-ud-din Aybak.   Later. In Malabar. mingled in one common slavery".ten dirhams each.. about 15% of the population were slaves. For almost a century. have been sold into the sex slavery in India. Thus. The Siddi people are of mainly East African descent. Arab slave traders also brought slaves as early as the first century AD from Africa. Iraq and Khurasan were swelled with them.". compared to its neighbours to the north and west (Mughal Indian population being approximately 12 to 20 times that of Turan and Iran at the end of 16th century) . the rich and the poor. Approximately 5% of China's population was enslaved in ancient Han China (206 BC–220 AD) and slavery continued in China until the early 20th century. of 1843. are favored in India because of their fair skin and young looks. the economy would naturally rely on a system of serfdom.  Japan Main article: Slavery in Japan . Due to the enormous population of the region throughout most of its history.  China Slavery in China has repeatedly come in and out of favor. As many as 200. according to Al-Utbi. China has relatively had an almost unlimited workforce of cheap labor. there were an estimated 8.000. especially virgins.000 Nepali girls.000 or 9.000.  Modern times According to Human Rights Watch. According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on the Viceroy's Council). Slavery was abolished in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. This unusually low price made. a slave of Muhammad Ghori rose to power following his master's death. Most of the African slaves were brought however in the 17th century and were taken into Western India. Nepalese women and girls. Provisions of the Indian Penal Code of 1861 effectively abolished slavery in India by making the enslavement of human beings a criminal offense.
According to a joint study by historians including Zhifen Ju. The export of a slave from Japan is recorded in 3rd century Chinese document. However. With the arrival of the leading Jesuit Francis Xavier in 1549.000 Japanese. About 670. Only 52. (For further details. However. in a meeting with Catholic priests. These slaves were called seiko (生口?). archaic institutions including slavery were abolished in those countries.000. they became known as the Sakhalin Koreans. during the Pacific War of 1937-45. were forced to work by the Japanese military. see Japanese war crimes. from the late 19th century onwards. Library of Congress estimates that in Java. This was continued by his successors.000 and 810. where about 60. In the 8th century. for most of its history. stripped of their nationality and denied repatriation by Japan. the proportion is believed to have been even higher in western Japan. out of a population of 190. In 1588. Korean slaves were shipped to Japan during the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 16th century.S. Catholicism developed as a major religious force in Japan.Slavery in Japan was. a slave was called nuhi (奴婢?) and series of laws on slavery was issued. Many of those taken to Karafuto Prefecture (modern-day Sakhalin) were trapped there at the end of the war. lit. POWs died at a rate of 37%).) Approximately 5. "living mouth". between 4 and 10 million romusha (Japanese: "manual laborer").000 civilians and POWs died in the construction of the Burma-Siam Railway.000. By the time of the Sengoku period (1467-1615).400.000 of these Javanese laborers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia.000 were repatriated to Java. involving around 500. the first recorded encounter between a Japanese and an African. The total deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and Manchuria for those years is estimated to be between 270.000 Koreans were conscripted into forced labor from 1939 to 1945. Toyotomi Hideyoshi ordered all slave trading to be abolished. since the export and import of slaves was restricted by Japan being a group of islands.000 were slaves. The tolerance towards Western "padres" was initially linked to trade concerned and part of that trade was slaves. more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the Kōa-in (Japanese Asia Development Board) for forced labor. Mitsuyoshi Himeta. . Oda Nobunaga was presented with a black slave. although the system involved is unclear. More than 100. According to the Japanese military's own record. on projects such as the Burma Railway. nearly 25% of 140. mainly in a trade for gunpowder  which affected Hideyoshi's reaction to Christianity. In an area of present-day Ibaraki Prefecture. About 270. the Japanese military used millions of civilians and prisoners of war as forced labor. notably. The U.000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps where they were forced to work (U.000 of them were taken to Japan.000 died between 1939 and 1945 due mostly to exhaustion or poor working conditions. the attitude that slavery was anachronistic had become widespread. There arose concern about the slavery of mainly Japanese women between the Christian Dyamo and the Portuguese Maranos. meaning that there was a death rate of 80%. Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie.  Modern times As the Empire of Japan annexed Asian countries. indigenous.S. around 2.
Slaves could be taken during wars. Between the 17th and the early 20th centuries one-quarter to one-third of the population of some areas of Thailand and Burma were slaves. Slaves could buy their freedom. (See Comfort women)  Korea Indigenous slaves existed in Korea. Burma. Yi people in Yunnan practiced a complicated form of slavery. There was a slave class with both government and privately owned slaves. the war captives became the property of the king. and slave trading was common.  Modern times .000 slaves were freed. People were split into the Black Yi (nobles. Slavery was abolished in 1909 by the Dutch East Indies government. carving their houses. During poor harvests and famine. In Siam. During the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) about 30% to 50% of the Korean population were slaves. and Australia were forced into sexual slavery during the World War II. as well as a form of legal punishment. and the government occasionally gave slaves to citizens of higher rank.  Southeast Asia There was a large slave class in Khmer Empire who built the enduring monuments in Angkor Wat and did most of the heavy work. During the reign of Rama III (18241851). Netherlands. 7% of the population).000 war slaves. mostly from Korea and China. many peasants would voluntarily become slaves in order to survive. Ajia (33% of the Yi population) and the Xiaxi (10%). The White Yi were not slaves but had no freedom of movement. People unable to pay back a debt to the upper ruling class could be sentenced to work as a slave too. pledging to work as payment. Slavery was hereditary. Slaves were prohibited from wearing bronze or gold. there were an estimated 46. After the 1959 some 700. Slaves had been taken captive from the mountain tribes.As many as 200. Torajan slaves were sold and shipped out to Java and Siam. the Dutch East Indies. Slavery was officially abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894 but remained extant in reality until 1930. eating from the same dishes as their owners. and the Cambodians" (Colquhoun 1885:53). Slaves in Toraja society in Indonesia were family property. Sometimes Torajans decided to become slaves when they incurred a debt. In the case of private slaves they could buy their freedom. or having sex with free women—a crime punishable by death. but their children still inherited slave status. the Anamites. and some other countries such as the Philippines. White Yi (commoners). Slaves from independent hill populations were "hunted incessantly and carried off as slaves by the Siamese. Ajia and Xiaxi were slave castes. Taiwan.000 women. Privately owned slaves could be inherited as personal property. The Black Yi were famous for their slave-raids on Han Chinese communities.
300 Persian slaves. Slavery was outlawed when the British annexed New Zealand in 1840.)  Aotearoa / New Zealand In traditional Māori society of Aotearoa. captured by Turkoman raiders. Samarkand. The kauwa worked for the chiefs and were often used as human sacrifices at the luakini heiau.000 people are subject to forced labor in Myanmar. With some exceptions. small-scale slave raids took place across Polynesia to supply labor and sex workers for the whaling and sealing trades. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwa was strictly forbidden. In November of 2006. They are believed to have been war captives.  Hawaii Ancient Hawaii was a caste society. Kauwa were the outcast or slave class. the child of a slave remained a slave. ransomed or tortured.  Oceania In the first half of the nineteenth century. as a result of increased numbers of prisoners being taken by Māori military leaders such as Hongi Hika and Te Rauparaha in the Musket Wars. the need for labor to supply whalers and traders with food. the International Labor Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labor of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice. with examples from both the westerly and easterly extremes of the Polynesian triangle. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO).000 women and children involved in the sex trade throughout Southeast Asia. or the descendents of war captives. As far as it is possible to tell. an estimated 800. and Khiva by the 1870s. unless released. A notorious slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centred in the Khanate of Khiva from the 17th to the 19th century. flax and timber in return for western goods. immediately prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. By the 1860s this had grown to a larger scale operation with Peruvian slave raids in the South Sea Islands to collect labor for the guano industry. law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims. slavery seems to have increased in the early nineteenth century. (They were not the only sacrifices. When the Russian troops took Khiva in 1873 there were 29.  Central Asia and Caucasus Russian conquest of the Caucasus led to the abolition of slavery by the 1860s and the conquest of the Central Asian Islamic khanates of Bukhara. prisoners of war became taurekareka. People were born into specific social classes. and the missionary condemnation of cannibalism. although it did not end completely until .There are currently an estimated 300. slaves. It is common that Thai women are lured to Japan and sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price.
with reports in the 1820s and 1830s that all visitors were receiving a hostile reception. but brought with them smallpox.400 and 2. the 1st November 1794 . which further devastated the island.     Their pacifism left the Moriori unable to defend themselves when the islands were invaded by mainland Māori in the 1830s. In December 1862 Peruvian slave raiders took between 1.300 survivors were enslaved. culminating in a near genocidal experience in the 1860s.government was effectively extended over the whole of the country with the defeat of the Kingi movement in the Wars of the mid 1860s.  Abolitionist movements Main article: Abolitionism Proclamation of the abolition of slavery by Victor Hughes in the Guadeloupe.200 to 1.. It was originally speculated that they settled the Chathams direct from Polynesia. the last 15 survivors were returned to the island. After intervention by the French ambassador in Lima.  Chatham Islands One group of Polynesians who migrated to the Chatham Islands became the Moriori who developed a largely pacifist culture. Some 300 Moriori men. who suffered a series of slave raids from 1805 or earlier. this was about a third of the island's population and included much of the island's leadership.  Rapa Nui / Easter Island The isolated island of Rapa Nui/Easter Island was inhabited by the Rapanui.000 islanders back to Peru to work in the guano industry. The 1805 raid was by American sealers and was one of a series that changed the attitude of the islanders to outside visitors. women and children were massacred and the remaining 1. but it is now widely believed they were disaffected Māori who imigrated from the South Island of New Zealand. the last ariki-mau and possibly the last who could read Rongorongo.
A similar case. The intention was to outlaw entirely the Atlantic slave trade within the whole British Empire. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. And as long as I am the monarch. Moses led Israelite slaves from ancient Egypt according to the Biblical Book of Exodus . Britain abolished slavery in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. Domestic slavery practised by the educated African coastal elites (as well as interior traditional rulers) in Sierra Leone was abolished in 1928. in one form or another. but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in 1838. now kept in the British Museum: ".Slavery has existed. that of Joseph Knight. ex parte Somersett) of the English Court of King's Bench ruled that slavery was unlawful in England (although not elsewhere in the British Empire). Cylinder of Cyrus the Great containing the Decree on the conquered non-combattant population. took place in Scotland five years later and ruled slavery to be contrary to the law of Scotland. coming into effect the following year. However. or to restrict one practice. have movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation. too. ."  Britain In 1772. outlawed slavery itself in the British colonies. Following the work of campaigners in the United Kingdom. were emancipated. abolitionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves. As long as I am alive. The act imposed a fine of £100 for every slave found aboard a British ship. No one may be penalized for his or her relatives' faults. On August 1. the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was passed by Parliament on March 25. passed on August 23. through the whole of human history. 1807. such as the slave trade. forced labor.. 1833. of 1843.. A study found practices of domestic slavery still widespread in rural areas in the 1970s. Such a tradition should be exterminated the world over..possibly the first detailed account of a movement to free slaves. The Slavery Abolition Act..  France . So. v. I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion.  Persian Empire The Persian Empire was the first civilization to prohibit the systematic enslavement of conquered non-combattant population. Today. 1834 all slaves in the British West Indies. I shall prevent unpaid. Knowles. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other's rights. the Somersett Case (R.
most African-Americans were now native to the United States and did not want to leave. which was developed from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. explicitly banned slavery. slavery was vitally important in France's Caribbean possessions. Most freed people stayed in the United States by choice. trade unions feared competition in supplying an affordable labor force against former slaves. especially SaintDomingue. but the ex-slaves of Saint-Domingue defeated the French army and declared independance. such as William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown. on January 1. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery was convened to outlaw and ban slavery worldwide. The colony became Haiti. In 1793. 1804. Some abolitionists. Abbé Grégoire and the Convention ratified this action by officially abolishing slavery in all French territories. but the institution was never fully authorized there. By the time of Emancipation. The British designated Sierra Leone in Africa as a destination country for former slaves of the British Empire. The more famous of the African American abolitionists include former slaves Harriet Tubman. In December 1966. was a turning point in banning global slavery. While abolitionists agreed on the evils of slavery. unable to repress the massive slave revolt of August 1791 that had become the Haitian Revolution. on February 4. worried about the difficulties of integrating numerous uneducated people into a hostile environment.There were slaves in mainland France. Slavery was legally abolished in 1865 by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Many more people who opposed slavery and worked for abolition were northern whites.  Twentieth century worldwide The 1926 Slavery Convention. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. including child slavery. an initiative of the League of Nations. In Paris. However. Napoleon sent troops to the Caribbean in 1802 to try to re-establish slavery. the first black republic. Article 8 of this international treaty bans slavery. 104 nations had ratified the treaty. the UN General Assembly adopted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. They succeeded in Guadeloupe.  United States Slaves in the United States who escaped ownership would often make their way north up through Canada via the "Underground Railroad". Slavery is defined as a crime against humanity by a French law of 2001. As of November 2003. They believed that their labor had made the land theirs as well as that of the whites. The treaty came into force in March 1976 after it had been ratified by 35 nations. . Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass. there were differing opinions on what should happen after African Americans were freed. 1794. and some Americans hoped to send freed American slaves to Liberia in a similar kind of "repatriation". hoped to send freed people to Africa. adopted in 1948 by the UN General Assembly. the French Revolutionary commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel declared general emancipation.
. The slave-route project. V. 17. ^ The 'slave route' project. Nordic Africa Institute. p. Our only colonies were three islands in the West Indies". ".” 2. [Once converted. The Norwegian UNESCO Commission: "The Danish-Norwegian kingdom was not a great colonial power.Resisting Slavery in Ancient Rome 4. Code of Laws #7. ^ a b Danish-Norwegian Slave Trade. the slaves] . ISBN 9171065059.) 10. ^ http://www. ^ Slavery and Thralldom: The Unfree in Viking Scandinavia 8. 86. Harris: The Journal of Roman Studies. The Norwegian UNESCO Commission. in conditions of slavery. 39. Retrieved 5 February 2008. The Nordic Countries and Africa: Old and New Relations. Network Europe. ^ Roman Slavery 5. since even among the absolutely wildest and coarsest Negro slaves. ^ BBC . The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History. ^ Rawley. ^ Christian Ditlev Frederik. ^ Serfdom -.html A Historical Note] 12.History . 18. 30 March 2007. Danish-Norwegian Slave Trade. ^ McAlinden.uib. 14. ed. neither lie. ^ Ancient Greece 6. 2001. p. ^ Slavery in Ancient Rome 7. by W. steal. nor do anything evil. Tom (2007). there are an estimated 27 million people throughout the world. ISBN 9171064788.. 15." See also: List of notable opponents of slavery  References 1. UNESCO.. ^ Origin of Vikings: Algeidjuborg trafficking of "valkyries" to Islam 9. "the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves".Encyclopaedia Britannica 11. Prologue. James A. there are to be found many examples of such honest and lasting conversion. Lennart (2002).no/neolatin/HistNote. and Stephen D. who wrote that. but become their master's most capable and best workers. "If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man". U of Nebraska Press. “e. Retrieved 5 February 2008. who seem to have lost all humanity in their own land.. Durham University Library. A Timeline. ^ Monuments and Sites on St. Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves. Retrieved 1 February 2008. ^ One of the influential representatives of the church expressing this view was the Danish bishop Erik Pontoppidan in 1760." (Quoted by Selena Axelrod Winsnes in Encounter Images in the Meetings Between Africa and Europe. mainly children. ISBN 0803239610. Sweden’s slave trade. 19. ^ The Atlantic Slave Trade. "Although there is no longer any state which recognizes any claim by a person to a right of property over another. Nordic Africa Institute Scandinavia. Count Reventlow 13. .According to the British Anti-Slavery Society. 16. rebel. Croix. ^ Mesopotamia: The Code of Hammurabi. Retrieved 1 February 2008. Mai Palmberg. ^ Demography. ^ Wohlgemuth. 1999 3.g. Behrendt (2005).
45. ^ Moscow . ^ Slavery. BBC See also "To Hell Or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing Of Ireland". Joan E. 362-370. ^ Bales. ^ Famous Battles in History The Turks and Christians at Lepanto 41. ^ a b c d de Oliveira Marques. ^ HEALTH IN SLAVERY 52. History of Portugal. ^ Slavery Encyclopedia of Ukraine 26.slave-trade 25. vol. ^ How To Reboot Reality — Chapter 2. Paul (1912). serfdom. ^ William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols 30. (In Swedish).Historical background 37.000 Mile Voyage of Vasco Da Gama. (1972). ^ Domesday Book Slave 53. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Mikaya Press. John of Jerusalem 42. Herbert. ^ Supply of Slaves 36. ^ Ottoman Dhimmitude 40. 49. "Slavery and Christianity". Labor 33.20. ^ David A. ^ Life in 13th Century Novgorod -. 48. Retrieved on 2006-02-04. John of Jerusalem 43. and indenture through the Middle Ages 23. ^ Klein. 46. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ^ The curse of Cromwell.Women and Class Structure 31. ^ Indentured Servitude in Colonial America 56. ^ The Full Collection of the Russian Annals. ^ Goodman. ISBN 0231031599. By Jo Loosemore BBC 58. Retrieved 1 February 2008.Britannica Concise Encyclopedia 24. ^ The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia 32. Catholic Enycyclopedia XIV. ^ U. Koplow Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge 50. ^ a b Historical survey > Slave societies 38. ^ The slave trade: myths and preconceptions 22. 4 August 2007.S. (2001). ^ The Tatar Khanate of Crimea . 1904 34. Columbia University Press. ^ Slave trade -.Kevin. 158-160. ^ JewishEncyclopedia. ^ Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery 44. ^ Sailing against slavery. by Sean O'Callaghan. ^ Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier 39. ^ The West African Squadron and slave trade . ^ Brief History of the Knights of St. ^ White Servitude 55.13.Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader 47. A Long and Uncertain Journey: The 27.All Empires 35. ^ Was slavery the engine of economic growth? 57. ^ A medical service for slaves in Malta during the rule of the Order of St. p. 21. ^ Historical survey The international slave trade 27. ^ definition of slaved 28. ^ Historiska Fakta. 54. Library of Congress 51. SPb. António Henrique R. ^ The Destruction of Kiev 29. ^ Allard. ISBN 096504937X. The Colony Project.com .
and on April 21. 80. ^ Final Compensation Pending for Former Nazi Forced Laborers 69. ^ Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps. Charles Quin and David White. 83. 1997. Stalingrad 77. p101. On November 23. ^ The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them 68. page 48 61. ^ Forced Labor at Ford Werke AG during the Second World War 70. University of Mary Washington Department of Historic Preservation archives 62. ^ German Companies Adopt Fund For Slave Laborers Under Nazis 72. the Virginia Gazette reported that a white man William Pitman had been hanged for the murder of his own black slave.Inside the Gulag 74. by Anne Applebaum 78. the Fredericksburg newspaper. ^ Anne Applebaum -. Virginia Gazette. in Williamsburg. McFarland & Company. ^ Comprehensive List Of German Companies That Used Slave Or Forced Labor During World War II Released 71. The Hanging of Arthur Hodge.World War II 76. April 21 1775. 1739. were hanged for the murder of another white man's black slave. ^ The Other Killing Machine 81. ^ Eastern Europe . The assertion is probably correct. two white men. ^ [Antony Beevor]. ^ The Russian Mafia in Asia 89. 2000. ^ French galley slaves of the ancien régime 65. ^ Moldova: Lower prices behind sex slavery boom and child prostitution 88. ISBN 0-7388-1930-1. and. 1775. a Rude Awakening . ^ Crime gangs 'expand sex slavery into shires' 85. ISBN 100934139059. The Gulag Collection: Paintings of Nikolai Getman. ^ Roma Celebrate 150 years of Freedom 2005 Romania 67. ^ The Great Siege of 1565 66. ^ Gulag 79. Xlibris. ^ Huguenots and the Galleys 64. ^ Paintings of the Soviet Penal System by Former Prisoner Nilolau Getman. ^ The National Archives Learning Curve 75. ^ The Last Galleys 63. it seems improbable that another execution could have occurred without attracting attention. given the excitement which the Hodge trial excited.Coalition Against Trafficking of Women 86. 60. A Concise History of the British Virgin Islands.59. ^ German POWs in Allied Hands . Nikolai Getman. ^ Gulag: Understanding the Magnitude of What Happened 73. there appear to be no other records of any British slave owners being executed for holding slaves. ^ Vernon Pickering. ^ The Jamestown Foundation. Slavery itself as an institution in the British West Indies only continued for another 23 years after Hodge's death. ^ John Andrew. Virginia. ^ A modern slave's brutal odyssey 87. ^ For East Europe’s Women. ^ Stalin's forgotten victims stuck in the gulag 82. ^ Records indicate at least two earlier incidents.Blacks in Colonial America. Oscar Reiss. ^ Eastern Europe Exports Flesh to the EU 84.
^ Battuta's Trip: Anatolia (Turkey) 1330 . October 15 2001 125. ^ In the Service of the State and Military Class 122.com) 101. ^ West Asian views on black Africans during the medieval era ^ Lewis. Sadat 128. kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah 127. 119. Bernard (2002). Race and Slavery in the Middle East. and Jewish sources 116.The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women 91. ^ Battuta's Trip: Journey to West Africa (1351 . ^ "Know about Islamic Slavery in Africa" 99. ^ Richard Leiby. Oxford University 111. Women Fall Victim To Trafficking 93. crime and migration are acute issues as Eastern European cities continue to grow 92. ^ Poverty. ^ Soldier Khan 114. "Owen 'Alik Shahadah". ^ Oren. Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates.1353) 100. (2005-11-03). 124. 93. ^ Police bring home 3 sex slaves from China 95. 102. ^ Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery ^ Janissary 118. ^ a b c "Slavery in Arabia". ^ The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world. The Muqaddimah.90. Retrieved on 2007-02-18. "Preventing Victimization in Moldova" Global Issues. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. 112. 1776 to 1815. Rosenthal 110.and it's not over 109. ^ Slaves And Slave Trading In Shi'i Iran. Muslim. ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East 120. ^ British Slaves on the Barbary Coast By Professor Rees Davies.1331 ^ Chaman Andam. Press. ^ Islam and Slavery 98. 117. Michael B. that is -. ^ . ^ Slavery in the Sahara ^ A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight (washingtonpost. ^ Jana Costachi. ^ The "Natasha" Trade . ^ Court acquits brothers in assault and detention case 94. ^ The Turks: History and Culture 121. June 2003 97. ^ Islam and Slavery 105. The Middle East and the Making of the United States. 107. 123. ^ Afghan Constitution: 1923 ^ Afghan History: kite flying. Translated by F. ^ World History: 700 to 1516 129. AD 1500-1900 104. The Washington Post. ^ Russia: With No Jobs At Home. Oxford Univ Press 1994. slavery in early 20th century Iran 106. ^ Sold as a sex slave in Europe 96. 103. ^ Slavery in Islam . ^ The Turco-Mongol Invasions 113. ^ The Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty (Timeline) ^ Lewis. ^ Focus on the slave trade 108. ISBN 0195053265. 115. BBC 126. ^ The living legacy of jihad slavery ^ Slave trade in the early modern Crimea from the perspective of Christian.
Abstract . ^ Fulani slave-raids ^ Central African Republic: History 147. ^ War and Genocide in Sudan ^ The Lost Children of Sudan 132. 163. ^ Ethiopia 151. ^ Saudi sheik: 'Slavery is a part of Islam' 136. ^ Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery in Saudi Arabia ^ Iraqi sex slaves recount ordeals 137. 153. ^ The Crypt: Slaves in the Islamic world 154. Stefan. ^ CJO . Retrieved on 2007-02-18. ^ Swahili Coast 170. ^ £400 for a Slave 131. ^ Twentieth Century Solutions of the Abolition of Slavery 149. City Journal 161. October 15 2001 164. London . ^ Chronology of slavery ^ The impact of the slave trade on Africa 152. ^ 18th and Early 19th Centuries. Spring 2007 162. ^ History of Menorca ^ When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more 157. ^ The blood of a nation of Slaves in Stone Town ^ BBC Remembering East African slave raids 167. The Middle East and the Making of the United States.000 Iraqi refugees' forced into prostitution 139.Trading in slaves in Ethiopia.130. ^ Digital History Slavery Fact Sheets 144. ^ Watch-towers and fortified towns 159. 138.History . 168. ^ Iraqi refugees forced into prostitution 140. ^ Oren. 143. Muslim masters. 155. ^ Tanzania . Africa's Legacies of Urbanization: Unfolding Saga of a Continent 165. 1776 to 1815. ^ The mysteries and majesties of the Aeolian Islands 156. 148. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History ^ Slow Death for Slavery . ^ David Livingstone. The Washington Post. ^ [Goodwin. ^ Richard Leiby. (2005-11-03). ^ Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law 135. ^ Zanzibar 169. ^ '50. common than previously believed 158. ^ Islamic Expansion and Decline: Chapter 8: The Slave Society 160. ^ The Abolition season on BBC World Service 134.Cambridge University Press 142. ^ White slaves.Stone Town of Zanzibar 145. The Encyclopedia of World History 146. 1897–1938 150. Christian History Institute 166. ^ National Maritime Museum. 133. Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates. ^ BBC .British Slaves on the Barbary Coast ^ Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates by Christopher Hitchens. ^ Desperate Iraqi Refugees Turn to Sex Trade in Syria 141. Michael B.
^ "The last law. ^ Involuntary Immigrants 205. Alden T. Bleeding Trees: Violence. still plainly exists. and the Destruction of the Guatusos-Malekus. 204. ^ Maya Society 189. 3. 178. ^ Caribbean History 208. Nationalism. 40: 356-390. Slavery. p. "A Central American Genocide: Rubber. "Blacks in Virginia: A Note on the First Decade" in William and Mary Quarterly 29 (1972) no. banned it but failed to criminalise it. ^ (Mike Davis. ^ The Great Slave Empires Of Africa 175.Ethnic Groups 192. The Economist 186. 1798-l838. 191. 2007-07-03. ^ Digital History African American Voices 194. ^ African Political Ethics and the Slave Trade ^ Museum Theme: The Kingdom of Dahomey 177.Encyclopedia Britannica 198. Newspapers. 196. ^ The Transatlantic Slave Trade 176. ^ Slavery in the New World 193. an ancient system of bondage. 201. ^ "'Slave' laborers freed in Brazil". ^ Central African Republic :: Early history 172. ^ The Shackles of Slavery in Niger 187. what the Scots already know ^ The Irish in the Caribbean 1641-1837: An Overview 206. ^ The Story of Africa 182. ^ Vaughn. 203. ^ Haida Warfare ^ Rebellions in Bahia. in 1981. ^ Bandeira . ^ Michael Edward Stanfield . "Slavery exists out of sight in Brazil". years 1877-80. ^ Adam Hochschild. 2004-09-05. King Leopold's Ghost 185. ^ bandeira 197. ^ Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion? ^ Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the 173. However much it is denied. ^ African Slave Owners 184. BBC News.. 202. 174. and Empire in Northwest Amazonia. Late Victorian Holocausts." Comparative Studies in Society and History (1998). Slavery. Culture of slavery 195. ^ Born to be a slave in Niger 188. ^ White Slavery. ^ Le Mali précolonial 181. ^ Bolivia .171. Knight Ridder 200. 88-90) ^ Hall. ^ human sacrifice -. ^ a b West is master of slave trade guilt 183.". with slaves passed on from generation to generation.Britannica Concise Encyclopedia ^ Evidence May Back Human Sacrifice Claims |LiveScience 190. 207. Africa) 179. ^ Benin seeks forgiveness for role in slave trade 180. ^ Dahomey (historical kingdom. 1850-1933 ^ Mark Edelman. Kevin G. 474 . ^ Bandeirantes 199. Red Rubber.
Indian brothels 233.209. The Kitab-i-Yamini (London. 228." New York Times. Early 217. 223. ^ Muhammad Qasim Firishta. Bainbridgebooks/Trans-Atlantic Publications. Timeline of Slavery in America-African American History. December 30. 11th-13th Centuries (Leiden. ^ Andre Wink. Drawn with the Sword. 237. ^ Millions Suffer in Sex Slavery ^ Fair skin and young looks: Nepalese victims of human trafficking languish in 232. Daily Press. "Forgotten step towards freedom. Reynolds. . About. Eric. 224..1990) 218. 154. II 222. Tarikh al-Yamini (Delhi. ^ Foner. 1. Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. 24 June. page 15 216. 1858).com. 163. by James 220. Warner. tr. Soho (1998). ^ Slavery in China -. Bainbridgebooks/Trans-Atlantic Publications. ^ James McPherson. ^ Slavery :: Britannica Concise Encyclopedia 225. vol. ^ Henry M. Al-Hind. Indian Merchants. ^ Hideyoshi and Korea 236. Hideaki (2006). ISBN 4-88086-200-2. Jessica. “Japan would exchange a barrel of gunpowder for fifty slaves.” ^ Tokutomi. ^ The Untouchables 230. 2. Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam. Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. 225. 212. 219. ^ Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. The Chachnamah. 1864). ^ (National Archives Link) 210. ^ Korea through western cartographic eyes. ^ McElrath. ^ Onizuka. Seventh to Eleventh Centuries (Leiden. 215. URL last accessed 2006-12-06. ISBN 1-8916-960-5X. 1847). if Japan can be occupied/possessed I am sure the price can be increased. History of Modern Japanese People: The Toyotomi 238. ^ Dale. 1900. 2007. ^ Gary A. Tarikh-i-Firishta (Lucknow. 2005 213. tr. pp. (In this case it would be specified as white-skinned (light skinned) good –looking (pleasing to the eyes) young Japanese women/maidens) In the name of God. II. ^ Andre Wink. 1867-77). Era. 221. 211. ^ Commemoration of the Abolition of Slavery Project 235. vol. This thirteenth-century source claims to be a Persian translation of an (apparently lost) eighthcentury Arabic manuscript detailing the Islamic conquests of Sind. ^ India’s “hidden apartheid” 229. ^ Life as a modern slave in Pakistan 231. ^ Historical survey > Slave-owning societies 226. an Ancient History of Sind. Journey to freedom. 8 vols (London. The Rosary of the Showa Emperor. reprint (Delhi. 337-387.Encyclopaedia Britannica 234. 1997) ^ Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Utbi. ^ Wink. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest. 1979). History of India as told by its own Historians. ^ Islamic Law and the Colonial Encounter in British India ^ Hindus Beyond the Hindu Kush: Indians in the Central Asian Slave Trade 227. ^ Black Slaveowners ^ Southern History 214. Elliot and John Dowson.
^ links for research. Peace.fas. ^ "Horrible Traffic in Circassian Women—Infanticide in Turkey. 1992. ^ Rummel. ^ Edward Willett Wagner . 2007. ^ The Yi Nationality 262. and War. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica . "Japan's Atrocities of Conscripting and Abusing North China Draftees after the Outbreak of the Pacific War". say Australia's 'comfort women' 250. ^ Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand 261. Ambassador to Japan 248. Joint study of the Sino-Japanese war. http://www. 1856 272. Democracy. ^ General Profile of the Yi ^ The Yi ethnic minority 263. ^ "ILO seeks to charge Myanmar junta with atrocities"." New York Daily Times. Allied POWs under the Japanese 243. January 23. 244. Retrieved on 2006-03-01. ^ Korea. One Million Korean Slaves 245.edu/~asiactr/sino-japanese/minutes_2002. ^ Slavery 260. And Sources. ^ Abe ignores evidence. 2006-01-05. 1942-45" Access date: February 9.Statistics Of Japanese Democide Estimates. 247. ^ ILO cracks the whip at Yangon 270.Encyclopaedia Britannica ^ The Choson Era: Late Traditional Korea 253. ^ Zhifen Ju. ^ Nobi: Rescuing the Nation from Slavery 256. Andrei.htm 240. ^ Korean Nobi 255. 2006-11-16. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. history pre-1945:slavery -. Power. 271. ^ Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines 242.239. (1999). J. Retrieved on 2006-11-17. (XVIII cen. 2006 268. ^ Congress backs off of wartime Japan rebuke ^ Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.Angkor Wat 258. ^ Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement 265. ^ Sex-slave trade flourishes in Thailand 267. "Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independance. Since 1990.harvard. "Stateless in Sakhalin". ^ How Japanese companies built fortunes on American POWs 241. ^ "Woman's Dying Wish: to punish traffickers who ruined her life" The Nation.The Harvard University Gazette 252. R. 1942-50. ISBN 3-8258-4010-7.) . ^ A modern form of slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand 269. ^ Georgia in the Beginning of Feudal Decomposition. ^ Lankov. The Japanese Occupation. Freedom. 2002. 259. ^ Cambodia Angkor Wat 257. August 6.Slavery 251. Lit Verlag. Democide. Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder 246.S. Calculations. ^ Toraja History and Cultural Relations 266. 249. Available online: Statistics of Democide: Chapter 3 . ^ Library of Congress. Reuters. 264. ^ Christopher Reed: Japan's Dirty Secret. 254. The Korea Times. ^ Windows on Asia ^ Khmer Society .
282. ^ King.TIME ^ Report of Josef Wolff 1843-1845 275. The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Te Ara . French National Assembly (May 21. Michael (2000 (Original edition 1989)). Moriori. ^ (French) Loi n° 2001-434 du 21 mai 2001 tendant à la reconnaissance de la traite et de l'esclavage en tant que crime contre l'humanité. ^ UN Chronicle |Slavery in the Twenty-First Century ^ BBC Millions 'forced into slavery' 293. Encyclopedia of New Zealand.Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand 284. ^ Maori Prisoners and Slaves in the Nineteenth Century 279.TIME . ^ Solomon. 294. (1772) Lofft 1 287. 291. 276. ^ Moriori . ^ Clark. ^ Slave of the Caucasus 277. Bukhara. ^ The Skin Trade . 286. Viking. Ideas of Māori origins. Denise Davis (updated 2006-06-09). Moriori: A People Rediscovered. ^ (1772) 20 State Tr 1. Douglas G. ^ Slavery: Modern Slavery: Debt Bondage & Slave Exploitation 295.International Development .The impact of new arrivals . ^ Indian Legislation 289. ^ Adventure in the East . 281. Moriori and Maori: The Linguistic Evidence. Te Ara . ^ New Zealand A to Z |Chatham Islands ^ History of Iran: Cyrus Charter of Human Rights 285.) (1994). Retrieved on 2006-04-26. Khokand 274. 283. ^ Khiva. 292. Auckland: Auckland University Press. Ross (1994). ^ Kapu System and Caste System of Ancient Hawai'i 278. Māui. ^ House of Commons . Kerry (updated 9-Jun-2006). (Ed. In Sutton. ISBN ISBN 0-14-010391-0.the 280.the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. pp123-135. ^ This Day at Law: Slavery abolished in the British Empire 288.273. ^ Howe.Memoranda ^ Response The 1833 Abolition of Slavery Act didn't end the vile trade 290. 2001).
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