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Relationship Management, Fjermestad, J. and Romano, N. (eds), Series of Advances in Management Information Systems, Zwass, V. (editor-in-chief), M.E. Sharpe publisher
CH* 5 TABLES, 2 GRAPHS
What Makes Customers Shop Online?
Na Li and Ping Zhang School of Information Studies Syracuse University
Electronic commerce Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM) has emerged to be a fundamental research area as business-to-customer (B2C) e-commerce is growing at a phenomenal rate. Among the many issues e-CRM concerns, one question is often asked, “what makes customers shop online?” Rich understanding of this issue will help an electronic store to become more competitive. A good number of studies have been conducted to answer this question. These studies seem to take diverse perspectives and investigate various aspects of the phenomena. Yet few studies have drawn coherent pictures of the collective understanding of the dynamics. The objective of this paper is to draw such a picture. To fit the advances in MIS theme, we conduct an analytical review on the IS literature on B2C online shopping behavior at individual level. A classification of research variables and a framework are developed to provide an overview of the state-of-the art of this area and to point out limitations and directions for future research. The results show that one’s online shopping intention, behavior, and satisfaction are significantly associated with one’s beliefs about/ affective reactions to e-commerce/e-stores and attitudes toward online shopping behavior. In addition, external environment, demographics, personal characteristics, and e-store characteristics have significant impacts on customers’ shopping intention, behavior, and satisfaction. These impacts are either direct or mediated by beliefs, affect, and attitudes. For future research, common theoretical framework, widely-accepted instruments, and consistency in terminology are much needed to compare results across studies and to accumulate knowledge. We also call for more research effort in customer satisfaction and affective reactions since they have not been paid enough attention despite their fundamental roles in understanding customers’ online shopping phenomena. Keywords
Electronic commerce Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM), online shopping, Internet shopping, consumer belief, affective reaction, consumer attitude, consumer intention, consumer behavior, satisfaction, empirical study
Business-to-consumer (B2C) electronic commerce has emerged as an important way of doing business in recent years. According to ePayments Resource Center (2004), the total B2C ecommerce revenues for the US increased from 75 million US dollars in1999 to 750 million USD in 2003. Similarly, Europe’s B2C revenues grew from 25 to 60 million USD, and Japan’s from 25 to 250 million USD between 1999 and 2003. However, online shopping is far from being a popular act even among people who are experienced Internet users and spend long hours online. For example, according to USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future, 75.9% of Americans were Internet users in 2003. They spent an average of 12.5 hours/week online. And 96.7% of them have more than 1 year of Internet experience (USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future 2004). However, only 43% of American adults purchased online in 2003, spending an average of $95.14 per month (USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future, 2004). While B2C ecommerce has not been widely accepted in the broad sense, there is significant room for its growth once the B2C shareholders find effective ways to attract and sustain more customers to conduct more transactions online. The question is: what factors lead customers to shop online? This is a key question to be answered in the e-commerce Customer Relationship Management (eCRM) area. Abundant studies have been conducted in recent years to investigate customers’ online shopping behaviors. Most of them have attempted to reveal factors influencing or contributing to online shopping beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. Romano and Fjermestad (2003) have identified five major perspectives that researchers may take to approach various issues surrounding e-CRM, e-CRM markets, e-CRM business models, e-CRM knowledge management, e-CRM technology, and e-CRM human factors. These areas are not maturely exclusive and may influence
one another directly or indirectly. Generally each study in customer’s online shopping behaviors takes one or more of the five perspectives. As a result, these studies investigate various factors in diverse ways and reveals different aspects of the phenomenon. For example, Case, Burns, and Dick (2001, p.873) suggested that “Internet knowledge, income, and education level are especially powerful predictors of Internet purchases among university students” according to an online survey of 425 U.S. undergraduate and MBA students. Ho and Wu (1999) discovered positive relationships between online shopping behavior and five categories of factors: e-stores’ logistical support, product characteristics, websites’ technological features, information characters, and homepage presentation. Jarvenpaa et al. (2000) empirically revealed positive associations between consumer trust in Internet stores and perceived store reputation and size. Higher consumer trust reduces perceived risks associated with Internet shopping and generates more favorable attitudes toward shopping at a particular store, which in turn increases one’s willingness to patronize that store. These studies have all made important contributions to our understanding of the dynamics of the online shopping phenomenon. However, there is a lack of coherent understanding of the impact of most, if not all, possible factors related to online shopping behaviors. This makes comparisons of different studies difficult, applications of research findings limited, and the prospect of synthesizing and integrating the empirical literature elusive. The objective of this paper is to synthesize the representative studies of consumer online shopping behavior based on an analytical literature review. To be consistent with the advances in MIS theme, we focus on the IS literature. To draw validated results, we emphasize empirical studies and in particular the ones with quantitative methods. In doing so, this study attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of the state-of-the art of this area and point out limitations and directions for future research. We approach the research question mainly from the e-CRM human factors
perspective since what is of interest is human behavior. At the same time, variables related with eCRM markets, business models, and technology are also investigated because they influence (potential) customers’ perceptions, attitudes and behaviors in various ways.
Journal and article selection
Published research articles were selected from nine journals for the period of January 1998 to December 2003. The nine journals are: Communications of the ACM (CACM), Decision Support Systems (DSS), International Journal of Electronic Commerce (IJEC), International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS), Information Systems Research (ISR), Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS), Journal of Management Information Systems (JMIS) Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ), and Information and Management (IM). Six of them (MISQ, CACM, ISR, JMIS, DSS, and IM) are commonly considered top or outstanding journals in the IS discipline (Mylonopoulos and Theoharakis, 2001; Whitman et al., 1999; Hardgrave and Walstrom, 1997). Although not ranked in many journal assessments due to its recent inception, JAIS is included in this study owing to its unique position as the flagship research journal for the Association for Information Systems (AIS), and its perceived high quality and rising status in recent journal rankings studies (Lowry et al., 2004). IJEC is included because it is the only journal specifically designated to electronic commerce (Ngai and Wat, 2002). The coverage of a six year period is considered well suited for this type of research (Vessey et al., 2002).
In this study. Zhang and Li. 1992) is used in this study for its wide acceptance in the IS community (Pervan. we first present a theoretically driven framework that in general agrees with the empirical evidence at a higher level. Alavi and Carlson’s research method framework (Alavi and Carlson. The development of a framework may take both top-down (theory-driven) and bottom-up (evidence-driven) approaches and several iterations. While studies developing/validating instruments and investigating relationships among constructs at the same time are included. 2001. Table 1 excerpts the descriptions and examples for quantitative empirical methods from Alavi and Carlson (1992). Owing to the objective of the current study. 1998. <<TABLE 1 NEAR HERE>> Research Framework A research framework can be very useful for synthesizing existing studies. 2004).We conducted an exhaustive search in the nine journals to identify research articles that satisfy the following criteria: (1) examines the relationship of at least one of the customer factors identified in our framework (see below). and thus to make sense of the empirical evidence and demonstrate gaps and future directions. 5 . Studies purely focusing on “development of instrument” is not included in this paper because they usually do not investigate relationships among different constructs. only quantitative empirical strategies are adapted. Then an in-depth examination of the selected empirical papers is conducted to enhance and refine the framework to a detailed level that can guide our understanding and future research directions. and (2) employs quantitative empirical method. Romano and Fjermestad.
or signing contracts to accept and use services via the Internet. Lu and Lin. p. food. and an abstract-level examination of the collected studies... Bhattacherjee. While banking/financial service. 1975). Liang and Lai.g. and many studies on technology acceptance and individual reactions and behavior toward technology. 1991). and electronic newspapers are typical examples of B2C e-commerce service (Bhattacherjee. 2003. Intention is considered to be the immediate antecedent of behavior (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975).. It is developed based on theoretical work in individual psychology. and so on (Liang and Lai. Gefen et al. Broadly speaking. Bellman et al. Liao and Cheung. placing orders to buy products. Products are anything tangible such as software. USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future. clothing. 29) to the consumption context as “the summary psychological 6 . 2002). online shopping behavior refers to consumers’ actions of visiting/revisiting e-stores. insurance. 2004).. hardware. The framework resembles the key components and relationships in the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen. 2001b. 1999. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen. 2001a. 2002). Intention is the cognitive representation of a person's readiness to conduct a specified behavior (Fishbein and Ajzen. it refers to the strength of one’s willingness to perform consuming behavior online. Later the definition was extended by Oliver (1981. 2002. brokerage. online shopping behavior.Figure 1 shows the research framework for this study. This makes sense because consumer online behavior is human behavior in a particular context. IS. Satisfaction was originally defined by Locke (1976. books. In the B2C commerce context. 1975). The box on the far right includes three outcome variables: intention to shop online. 1300) as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job” in the job performance context. 2002. 2002. and customer satisfaction. Abundant studies on both technology acceptance and consumer online shopping have employed behavioral intention instead of actual behavior as (one of) the final dependent variable(s) (e. Kim et al. p.
. p. disgust. Empirical studies provide evidence for the influence of affective reactions toward stimuli on intention/behavior (e. Vellido et al. Beliefs are expected to impact a (potential) customer’s shopping intention. Han and Noh. or pleasure. p. 1998. Bhattacherjee. and attitudes toward online shopping phenomena. Griffith et al. 2003. It is therefore reasonable to include customers’ affective reactions as an antecedent 7 . It links a given object to an attribute (Fishbein and Ajzen. Lee et al. affective reactions.. Liang and Huang. Russell (2003) described an emotional episode to illustrate how PAQ changes one’s affect and in turn impacts his or her perceptual-cognitive appraisal of an object that results in certain actions. A belief refers to a person’s subjective evaluation of an object. Within the middle box are the customers’ evaluative reactions (also referred to as beliefs). or depression. 2001b. displeasure. we define it as (potential) customers’ subjective evaluation of a relevant object such as the Internet as a shopping channel. 1975).211). Russell (2003) proposed a construct called perception of affective quality (PAQ). Theories (such as TRA and TPB) and empirical evidence show that these reactions and attitudes are strong predictors of the outcome variables (e. 1999-2000. 1980. 2000. Triandis (1980) proposed a model where affect impacts intention. 148). Affect refers to “the feelings of joy.. 2003). 1998.g.state resulting when the emotion surrounding disconfirmed expectations is coupled with the consumer’s prior feelings about the consumption experience. and satisfaction (Devaraj et al. 2003). Koufaris. 2001. Henderson and Divett. which refers to a person’s “perception of the pleasant-unpleasant and activating-deactivating qualities of stimuli” (p. elation. 2002).. a specific e-store or online shopping experience. 2003. or hate associated by an individual with a particular act” (Triandis.g. Lee et al. Koufaris. 2002.” Both definitions emphasize a “psychological or affective state related to and resulting from a cognitive appraisal of the expectation performance discrepancy” (Bhattacherjee 2001b.. In the B2C context. behavior.. Liang and Huang..353).
TPB states that only specific attitudes toward the behavior in question can be expected to predict that behavior.g.g. Khalifa and Limayem. This is supported by a number of empirical studies (e. 1999-2000.28).. 2003). Empirical studies in IS and online consumer behavior support this assertion (e. including using the EC channel generally and using a specific e-store (e. 8 ... Affective reactions can be toward the Internet shopping channel. attitudes are assumed to be influenced by cognition as well as affect (Ajzen.g. In the B2C e-commerce context. 2003. 2001. According to its definitions. Khalifa and Limayem. In one definition. Attitude has also shown mixed impact on behavior and intention. Based on this view. 2000). p. Han and Noh. Therefore we include attitude toward online shopping behavior in the middle box and expect it to predict the outcome variables.. satisfaction could be influenced by beliefs and affective reactions since satisfaction results from a cognitive appraisal of the difference between expectation (in terms of beliefs and affective reactions) and performance (reflected by beliefs and affective reactions). attitudes consist of affective. 2001). pleasant-unpleasant. and behavioral components (Breckler and Berman.. Lee et al. On the other hand.of online shopping outcome. beliefs and affective reactions could impact attitudes. Tan and Teo. 2003). 1991).. cognitive. Attitude has been defined and measured very differently in various studies. 2002. or online shopping experience. attitude refers to an individual’s positive or negative feelings about performing online shopping behavior. 1999. Chen et al. This indicates that within the middle box. attitude “represents a summary evaluation of a psychological object captured in such attribute dimensions as good-bad. According to the classic tripartite model of attitude structure. harmful-beneficial. and likable-dislikable” (Ajzen. a specific e-store.g. satisfaction may help to form or change a person’s beliefs or intentions (e.. Karahanna et al.
. External environment refers to those contextual factors that may impact online consumers’ behavior but are not under the control of either the consumers or the e-store vendors. 1999. and estores’ websites.. 2002. 2000.. <<FIGURE 1 NEAR HERE>> Classification of Variables Variables in each selected paper were classified according to a classification scheme developed by the authors. services supporting transactions. Khalifa and Limayem.. etc. 2002. The box on the left contains “external variables” (Ajzen and Fishbein.. Liang and Lai. Devaraj et al. Bhattacherjee. 2001. 1980) that influence the outcome variables directly or indirectly through beliefs. 2003). Li et al. 2000. Such a scheme is a refinement of the constructs in the research framework in Figure 1. etc (Liao et al. For example. Cho et al. 2003.. The scheme was pre-tested with a small set of papers and evolved and refined during the rest of the 9 . Lee et al. 2000. propensity. 2001b. Electronic store characteristics refer to the objective features of e-stores. including the characters of electronic vendors. Kimery and McCord. and attitudes. Bellman et al. 2002. Koufaris et al. Theoretical and empirical evidence has been found to support the impacts of these external variables on those in the middle and right boxes (e. This is represented by the arrow from the right box to the middle box. Individual characteristics include demographics and personality/trait. affective reactions. offline competitors’ performance. 1999... Bhatnagar et al.g. Other examples would be network speed. Pavlou. 2002. 2001. 2000-2001). 2001. the existing legal framework is an external environment factor that protects consumers from financial loss in online transactions. life style.. 2001). Kim et al..Bhattacherjee. government support for e-commerce. Kim et al... 2001a. product/service on sale. Ramaswami et al. Borchers..
Intentions to shop online. Other times. Consumer demographics. beliefs about the Internet as a general shopping channel (5. offerings (products and services). Attitudes toward online shopping behavior. website/technology.coding process. For example. External environment. For example. Most categories consist of subcategories. Table 2 shows descriptions and examples for each category and subcategory.2) is further classified into six types. Beliefs about online shopping (ID: 5) includes two types. one construct was labeled by several different terms. <<TABLE 2 NEAR HERE>> Noteworthy is the inconsistency of terminologies in the existing studies. Beliefs about online shopping phenomena. supporting service. a variable was assigned to a category according to its nature instead of the name used in the original study. beliefs about e-store vendor.2).1 “Beliefs about EC channel”. Personal characteristics. However. This indicates that “site value” is consistent with beliefs about the Internet as a shopping channel. and valuable” and measured it in a corresponding way. they defined it as the “extent to which users perceive a web site as useful. and online shopping experience. E-store Characteristics. e-store as a whole. important. 10 . Luo and Seyedian (2003-2004) treated “site value” as users’ attitude toward Internet storefront sites. Affective reactions. Therefore we assigned it into 5. The final coding scheme includes ten categories.1) and beliefs about a specific e-store or a specific online shopping experience (5. The latter subcategory (5. Sometimes one term was used to refer to several constructs by different researchers. Shopping behavior. During our coding process. and Satisfaction.
Two such papers were published in 1998. A few papers were published in issues comprising 2 years. attitudes. These four factors fall 11 . paper and pencil surveys. a paper from Han and Noh (1999-2000) was considered published in 1999. mail surveys. 2 in 1999. and satisfaction issues published over the period of 1998 to 2003 in the nine selected IS journals. web-based surveys. behaviors. Surveys were conducted through telephone interviews. About 68% of the selected studies (30 studies) employed survey methods. demographics. the increasing publication trend over the recent years indicates an increasing interest in this research area. personal characteristics. Results of topical coverage Variables belonging to external environment. A brief description of each paper is shown in the Appendix. etc. these variables are proposed as predictors of or variables significantly correlated with constructs capturing consumers’ cognitive and affective reactions and behavior in B2C e-commerce context. 7 in 2001. That is. One study (Shim et al. Nine studies (20%) utilized experimental methods (including lab controlled experiments and field experiments). they were treated as if they had been published in the earlier year. Though the collection basket size is fairly small. Four were field studies. and 11 in 2003. 2002) combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. 8 in 2000. while quantitative methods including logistic regression were employed to explore the findings from existential phenomenology.Results There are a total of 44 quantitative empirical papers focusing on online consumers’ evaluative and affective reactions. 14 in 2002. and e-store characteristics were examined as independent variables in most studies. For example.
As Table 3 indicates. For example. affective reactions. affective reactions and attitudes toward online shopping behavior are less represented. respectively. Beliefs. thus it is both an IV and a DV. Among the three factors in the middle box in Figure 1. These three factors appear in the right box in Figure 1. In contrast. The other factors. external environment. Note that the number of papers examining a certain type of variables may be less than the sum of its subcategories because one paper may investigate multiple subcategories of one type of variables. three out of the four factors in the left box in Figure 1. behaviors. This type of variable has been studied in 38 papers. Often such a variable is considered as a mediator in SEM or PLS models. are treated as either dependent or independent variables in the 44 studies. has been examined by 7 studies. and 13 studies. They serve as the outcomes in most online customer behavior models.into the left box in Figure 1. behaviors. Occasionally. 12 . consumer beliefs have received extraordinary attention. have been investigated in 15. and attitudes. and satisfaction are treated as dependent variables in most studies. Consumers’ affective reactions to e-stores’ vendors or supporting service haven’t been touched upon yet by the collection of studies. which in turn affected an individual’s intention to buy books at this site. Table 3 summarizes the distribution of the variables investigated in the article collection. the influences of intentions on behaviors and impacts of satisfaction on intentions. and e-store characteristics. Intentions. They have only been explored in 10 and 5 studies respectively. and attitudes fall into the middle box in Figure 1. affective reactions. Gefen and Straub (2000) hypothesized and confirmed that perceived ease of use of an e-store’s website affected its perceived usefulness. personal characteristics. 12. online shopping beliefs. demographics. Beliefs about both the Internet as a shopping channel in general and a particular e-store or specific online shopping experience have been widely investigated. while another IV factor. and beliefs are examined in such models.
intention to shop online has been studied by 26 papers. 2003).g. 13 . We are particularly interested in those findings that attempted to reveal factors that predict or significantly correlate with those variables in the right and middle boxes in Figure 1. Suh and Han. Customer satisfaction has drawn the attention of 12 studies. Khalifa and Limayem. we do not present moderators or moderating relationships in this section. Instead. As expected. 2003. 2003. Since our main focus is to emphasize the direct and primary factors. Pavlou.Among the three factors in the right-box of Figure 1. There are 14 studies that managed to measure consumers’ actual shopping behaviors.. intention has been found to be a good predictor of online shopping behavior (e. <<TABLE 3 NEAR HERE>> <<TABLE 4 NEAR HERE>> Results of significant relationships This section summarizes the significant relationships among the ten types of variables empirically supported by the 44 studies. In most studies intentions were treated as the ultimate outcome in consumer online shopping models. A detailed presentation of variables examined in each article is shown in Table 4. it is discussed in the discussion section. Intention to shop online Twenty-six out of the 44 empirical studies confirmed significant relationships between an individual’s intention to shop online and other constructs.
transaction cost. asset specificity. security/risks associated with transaction. relative life content. 2002). information content..g. The intention could be damaged by perceived risks related to e-store performance. 1998. safety) are significantly associated with shopping intention (Devaraj et al. 2000) Similarly... Perceived estore/website design quality (e. Objective e-store features such as product price and website design factors (e. a prospective customer’s willingness to patronize a specific Internet store is significantly associated with one’s beliefs about this store in terms of its vendor. uncertainty. social image. 2001a. A number of studies found that a prospective consumer’s subjective beliefs about the Internet as a shopping channel in general significantly impact one’s intention to shop online (Devaraj et al. This has been verified by a good number of studies (e. 2003. etc. Perceived usefulness of product/service for sale is an important motivator of shopping intention (Bhattacherjee. supporting service. security. website. etc. 2003. download time. Gefen. Bhattacherjee. Liang and Huang. PU. 2003. finance. social influences from family. Chen et al.g. 2002. Khalifa and Limayem. 2000). time. 2002). Bhattacherjee.g. In addition.. price. and one’s overall shopping experience in the store. psychology. These beliefs pertain to many aspects of the EC channel such as efficiency. external environment (e. transaction accuracy. Attitude toward online shopping behavior has been confirmed to be another antecedent of Internet shopping intention (Khalifa and Limayem.) is 14 .. 2003.g. etc. media. 2003. 2001a. 2003. Khalifa and Limayem. Tan and Teo.. and privacy (Featherman et al. 2001). tangibles.Many studies in the collection attempted to identify antecedents of behavioral intentions. Liao and Cheung.). offering. 2001). Liao and Cheung. Bhattacherjee.Customer trust toward the vendor or store may enhance shopping intention directly or indirectly by reducing perceived risk (Gefen. Liao and Cheung. comparative shopping. PEOU. Tan and Teo. time saving.. personal needs as well as Internet experience would enhance one’s intention to adopt online shopping (Devaraj et al. 2001b). 2001b. 2002. customer service.. 2003).
which was measured through four items pertaining to one’s intentions to shop online and recommendation of EC shopping channel to others.. researchers discovered that customer attitude toward patronizing a certain e-store is a strong antecedent of shopping intention (Lu and Lin.. e-store features. Further. Kim et al. 2002. Koufaris. 2002. 2002). 2001a. EC channel preference is considered as online shopping intention. 2002. Devaraj et al. Both general and specific online shopping intention might be enhanced due to higher customer satisfaction (e. 2001-2002). Besides beliefs and affective reactions. Bhatnagar et al. 2001b. 2002. 2002). Devaraj et al. Bhattacherjee. According to its nature. and perceived control may increase shopping intentions (Huang. whether one buys products or service online is influenced by external environment. 2000). Gefen. Liang and Lai. Gefen and Straub. 2002). personal characteristics. beliefs about online shopping. emotions experienced in a virtual shopping environment. 2002. Chen et al.g. Affective reactions toward an e-store also predict a customer’s shopping intention.. demographics. People who have a wired lifestyle and those who have more experience with the Internet and online shopping are more open to purchasing on the Internet (Bellman et al.. 1999. people who like being first to use new technologies and who agree that the Internet improves productivity are more likely to shop 15 .. (2002) found that consumer satisfaction with EC channel had a positive impact on one’s EC channel preference. 2002. Generally... For example.another fundamental factor users consider when deciding which e-store to shop (Chen et al. 2003. Online shopping behavior Fourteen empirical studies have identified antecedents of or variables significantly correlated with customers’ online shopping behavior. Positive shopping enjoyment. and behavioral intention. Koufaris et al. Bhattacherjee. Liao and Cheung.. 2000.
Beliefs about the Internet as a shopping channel in terms of security. plays an important role in predicting consumers’ online shopping behaviors. (2000-2001) confirmed that less satisfaction with the performance of an off-line financial service agent would lead to greater disagreement between consumer and the agent.. 2003). Similarly. 2003)... In addition. user guide to help users to use the product) attracts customers. 1999-2000. Liang and Lai (2002) proposed and validated that better e-store features such as lower product price. Ramaswami et al. PU. and customer service have been confirmed to be strong predictors of shopping behaviors (Han and Noh. That is. risk.. control. Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee. ease of use). Customers still have many decisions to make even if they have decided to buy a certain product or service online. Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee (1998) found that network externality (i. providing manual. 2003. which in turn encourages the customer to buy financial products online. which specific store to shop? How much to spend? How often to shop? As expected. competitors’ performance. Of course intention to shop online is another predictor (Khalifa and Limayem. and better store reputation motivate customer shopping behavior at a specific store. Chen and Hitt (2002) revealed that product variety is significantly correlated with reduced switching and attrition behaviors in the online brokerage industry. Better facilitating conditions such as transaction efficiency would attract more customers to patronize estores (Khalifa and Limayem. For example. Moreover. behavioral intention is a good predictor of shopping behavior at a specific e-store (Suh and Han. Despite that. Pavlou. website features (e.. 2003) of shopping behavior. better website design.e. tutorial..g.online (Bellman et al. 1998). 2000). which is an external environment factor. usefulness and compatibility) have significant impact on one’s shopping behavior (Henderson and Divett.g. Vellido et al. 1999).g. trust. PEOU) and product attributes (e. Personal characters such as special needs and external/interpersonal influence 16 . empirical studies confirmed that customer beliefs about store website (e. convenience. 2003.
2001a.. Lee et al.. influence from mass media. Most studies treated satisfaction as a dependent variable and tried to identify its antecedents. Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee 1998). while those who turn to other similar service providers later adopt the service earlier and use it more extensively than those who stop using this type of service completely.) would motivate one to buy products or service at an e-store (Liang and Lai 2002. Customer satisfaction with shopping experience at a specific e-store has been found to be significantly associated with product price (Cao et al.(e. Bhattacherjee. transaction cost.g. ad. They found that discontinuers of the service use the service less extensively during their initial adoption period than continuing adopters. etc. friends. affective reaction toward the EC channel (Lee et al. 2002. 2001b).) (Devaraj et al.. 2003-2004).. 2002). For instance. and perception of the importance of customer-orientation strategy (Luo and Seyedian. Customer satisfaction The results of 12 out of the 44 empirical studies illustrate significant relationships between online customer satisfaction and other constructs. 1999-2000.g. Han and Noh. time saved. Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee (1998) conducted a study to understand consumers’ post-adoption behavior in the context of online communication service. one’s beliefs about this e-store or shopping experience obtained at this site (Bhattacherjee. 2003).. etc.. It has been verified that customers’ satisfaction with general B2C e-commerce channel is influenced by one’s general beliefs about the Internet as a shopping channel (e. website/technology features or other e-store characteristics (Shim et al. colleagues. 2003). perceived ease of use. 2003-2004). affective reactions to 17 .. and personal disposition such as perceived importance of contextual marketing. Sometimes certain shopping behavior could be predicted by other types of shopping behavior.
2002. 2003-2004). 2002). social disturbance factor).g. 2001b. product characteristics (e. Beliefs about online shopping phenomenon Several studies observed that beliefs about both the Internet as a shopping channel and a specific estore or shopping experience are associated with external environment (e..g.. personal characteristics (e. Furthermore.. Bhattacherjee (2001b) verified that customer satisfaction with one’s overall experience of an online banking division (OBD) was positively associated with the perceived usefulness of this OBD and the extent of confirmation of one’s expectation. technological complexity. customer satisfaction with past transactions could even impact one’s beliefs about an e-store. 1999-2000. purpose of Internet use).. Pavlou. 2003). Beliefs about an e-store/shopping experience include evaluative perceptions about the product. Bhattacherjee. and desire disconfirmation (Khalifa and Liu.g. 1999-2000. On the other hand. 2000. and satisfaction with shopping experience (Han and Noh. 2002). demographics (e......the e-store website/technology (Kim et al. etc. 2003). e-commerce experience). 2003-2004. Different aspects of beliefs about general online shopping phenomena are significantly related. 2002. Liang and 18 .. 2002. such as trust in the retailer (Pavlou. expenditure level. expectation disconfirmation. 2000. 2002-2003). 2001a. Bhatnagar et al.. Four studies found this type of connection (Devaraj et al. Bhattacherjee. and satisfaction with price and ordering process (Cao et al.. Kim et al. ego-related level.g. O’Keefe et al. website. satisfaction has been found to have significant influences on customers’ shopping intention as discussed in the preceding section (e. Chau et al..). Han and Noh. For instance. Devaraj et al. Luo and Seyedian.g.
2000). In this collection of studies. Mehrabian and Russell. 1998). 2002. 2003)... respectively (Gefen. Customer trust toward an e-store vendor is significantly associated with perceived risk of conducting transactions with this vendor and perceived reputation of the vendor. Koufaris.. Similarly. 2001b. 2002. negatively and positively. 2000). 2001-2002. It has been called perceived entertainment value (Chau et al. 1998. For instance. physical asset specificity. ten studies support the strong relationship between different aspects of beliefs about a specific e-store or shopping experience (e.Huang. 2002-2003).. yet few studies cover all three at the same time except Huang (2003). Pavlou. Bhattacherjee. and temporal specificity) (Liang and Huang. 2003). 2003).. and dominance (Russell and Pratt. 1999-2000). 2002. Huang. human asset specificity. Chen et al. affective reaction consists of three dimensions: arousal. Perceived inconvenience of online shopping reduces the expectation of e-commerce usefulness (Han and Noh. 2002).. O’Keefe et al. Salam et al. Empirical studies confirmed that it is associated with personal characteristics (e.g. Customer’s desires before adopting an electronic service and one’s perceived performance of the service at adoption together predict his/her desire disconfirmation (Khalifa and Liu. pleasure. Affective reactions to online shopping phenomenon Traditionally. perceived usefulness is positively predicted by perceived ease of use of an e-store or its website (Gefen and Straub. all three are studied to some extent. Gefen and Straub.g. brand name specificity. 1974. 1980. 2000) and shopping enjoyment (Koufaris et al. purpose of Internet use and product involvement) and beliefs about e-stores 19 .. Pleasure received more attention than the other two dimensions. perceived online transaction cost is significantly associated with perceived uncertainty (including product uncertainty and process uncertainty) and asset specificity (including site specificity. For example.
. (2002) observed that perceived usefulness and ease of use of an e-store and compatibility of using it with existing values.. 2002. and infrastructure (i. 2003). 2003). 2002.. 2002.g. perceived information load and positive challenges of the website) (Chau et al. excited-calm. 2000. frenzied-sluggish) experienced in a virtual shopping environment is associated with an individual’s arousal seeking tendency (i. liking arousal from change or arousal from new stimuli).. 2002. beliefs. Lu and Lin. Chen et al.(e.. autonomous-guided) is significantly related to perceived information load of an e-store’s website.. efficiency of a collection of assets) of an electronic newspaper site positively impact one’s attitude toward using this site. context (i. All these antecedents fall into the sub-category of beliefs about an e-store / online shopping experience. dominant-submissive.e. Suh and Han (2003) validated that a customer’s trust in an e-store would predict positive attitude toward using this store. Lu and Lin (2002) found that a user’s beliefs about the content (refers to the product/service offered by an e-store). 2001-2002. Suh and Han. effectiveness of the website’s interface).. Koufaris. He also demonstrated that dominance (controlling-controlled. A Refined Model 20 .e. and needs positively influence a potential customer’s attitude toward using this store. Huang (2003) observed that arousal (measured as stimulated-relaxed. Huang. O’Keefe et al. Attitudes toward online shopping behavior Three studies discovered antecedents of customer’s attitudes towards using or purchasing at a specific e-store (Chen et al.. Koufaris et al.e.
and satisfaction while not touching those variables in the left box (e. external environment. Due to the nature of B2C e-commerce research. A refined model is shown in Figure 2. Khalifa and Liu. outcome variables in the right box such as satisfaction could have fundamental impacts on a customer’s beliefs about online shopping. management. and attitudes on intention..The findings of this study support the research framework depicted in Figure 1.g. <<FIGURE 2 NEAR HERE>> Discussion Before we start discussing the implications of this study and future directions of this research area. and e-store characteristics have been examined as independent variables in most studies. However. demographics. In addition. intention to shop online is a good predictor of shopping at a specific e-store. The above examination of the existing studies provides more details for the research model. Some studies explore only the impacts of beliefs. marketing. 21 . In the other direction. affective reactions. relevant studies are published across various journals in multiple disciplines such as information systems. and satisfaction are confirmed by these studies. The first limitation is the source of the selected papers. As discussed in the preceding section. behavior. this does not deny the external factors’ input roles. Significant impacts of these factors on individuals’ online shopping intentions. 2002-2003). These influences are either direct or mediated by (potential) customer’s beliefs. behaviors. it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the current study. For example. which may introduce bias into the study results. affective reactions. personal characteristics. significant associations exist between variables within the same box. and attitudes.
2001). yielding a total of 44 quantitative empirical papers. the findings presented in this paper do offer interesting insight into the state-of-the-art of this research stream and have several important implications that may guide future research in this area.advertising. Luo and Seyedian. etc. Lee and Turban (2001) revealed that one’s trust propensity positively 22 . (2001-2002) discovered that customer tenure moderates the positive impact of perceived control one has experienced in an e-store on his/her intention to return to this e-store. Shopping experience. Koufaris et al. Koufaris et al. 2001-2002. Despite the limitations. Moderating effects A few studies in the collection explored moderating effects. new vs. The second limitation of the current study is the omission of moderating variables and relationships in the analysis. All significant moderators belong to “external factors” that fall into the left box in Figures 1 and 2 (Liang and Huang.e. we believe that as one of the few studies synthesizing the existing work on consumer online shopping behavior. we tried to focus on the main factors and their relationships.. online customer tenure (i. Lee and Turban. Moderators are important and give the picture richness that warrants future investigation. we used a journal basket approach and did an exhaustive search of nine primary IS journals for publications in most recent years. 2003-2004. 1998. To focus on the Information Systems perspective and still have a good set of representative studies. repeat). and trust propensity are good examples of such moderators. Selection of this basket of papers might introduce bias into analysis due to its limited coverage and disciplinary perspectives. Including all studies in this area is close to infeasible. As a first attempt to draw an overview of the research area and to control the scope of the study. For example..
behavior. O’Keefe et al. Terminology Terminology usage in the existing studies is inconsistent. 2003). Koufaris. 2000). the same term. At other times. and shopping enjoyment (Koufaris et al. Sometimes a single term is used to refer to several different constructs by different researchers. Therefore we call for future examination in this direction. Theoretical models The collected studies took different perspectives and utilized different theoretical models. satisfaction. 2001-2002. we hope to have taken a step toward promoting this type of integration and synthesis of relevant literature.. For example. There is little consensus on consistent theoretical models to describe and predict online shopping intention. 2002) all refer to the valence dimension of affective reaction toward an e-store. compatibility. one construct could be named by several terminologies. 2002. pleasure experienced in a virtual shopping environment (Huang.. and other relevant constructs. has been used to 23 .moderates the relationship between one’s perceived integrity of Internet merchants and his/her trust in online shopping. perceived entertainment value (Chau et al. This lack of a common theoretical framework suggests the need to develop an integrative model of the phenomenon in order to promote systematic investigation of its components and the online shopping process. moderators serve an important role in understanding the dynamics of online customer behaviors. In contrast. By identifying common elements and developing our model based on IS literature. Though not included in analysis of the current study..
for convenience. experience. Lee and Turban. In Chen et al. employed university students as subjects (e. University students belong to a specific population that typically has more Internet/computer experience. This phenomenon indicates that research in online customer behavior is still fairly new and developing. Student subjects A good number of studies have. (2000) it represents control and convenience of shopping experience. Gefen.stand for different constructs.g. 2002. However. while in Vellido et al. Instruments The ten factors and the diverse instruments to measure these variables used by different studies indicate that online shopping is a multidimensional and multidisciplinary phenomenon. the use of student subjects might introduce bias into the studies. ideas. beliefs.. These papers do provide important and interesting evidence to understand online shopping behaviors. This methodological issue needs to be addressed in future research so that widelyaccepted and validated instruments can be employed for measuring consumer online shopping behavior and other relevant constructs. and higher education levels than 24 . Unification of terminologies is needed. 2001). better Internet/computer skills. Addressing this issue will make comparing and synthesizing results across studies more feasible and easier. Our examination shows that various studies have different ways of operationalizing seemingly identical constructs. it refers to the degree to which using a virtual store/service is consistent with the customer’s existing values. and needs. (2002) and Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee (1998).
Koufaris. his or her emotional systems. Many psychologists argue that it is impossible for a person to have a thought or perform an action without engaging. mood and emotion are fundamental aspects of human beings. demographic variables such as Internet experience. as argued by the psychologists that neglecting affect in behavior studies means not looking at the normal behavior people have. Koufaris. affective reactions have been paid less attention (10 studies). attitudes. at least unconsciously.. Therefore we call for more research effort in investigating the role affectrelated constructs play in customers’ online shopping behaviors.. Further. web skills. and behaviors in B2C e-commerce (Devaraj et al. education. Cao et al. quite some researchers employed “normal” customers as subjects (e. Affective constructs Affect. Therefore it might be questionable to generalize the results from a study using student sample in e-commerce context.. intentions. and household income are significantly associated with a (potential) customer’s reactions. Impacts and antecedents of customer satisfaction 25 . 2003. 2003-2004. We call for more of such studies. 2002). neglecting the role of affective constructs may leave the picture incomplete or ignore “normal” online shopping behavior. 2001). or have the same purchasing power with those with full time jobs.“normal” people. 2002. Especially in the marketing and consumer behavior area. Liao and Cheung. Realizing this problem. Compared with cognitive beliefs (38 empirical studies examined belief variables in the collection).g. yet they may not be financially established.
and satisfaction are revealed in this paper. personal characteristics. this study proposes a framework describing and predicting customers’ online shopping behaviors. beliefs about online shopping phenomena. Bhattacherjee. behavior. Further. attitudes toward online shopping behavior. 2001b. It has significant implications for both practitioners and academic researchers. Important “external” factors and psychological constructs that may directly or indirectly impact customers’ intention.. external environment. intentions to shop online. more studies are needed to further explore the impacts and antecedents of this construct.. 2003). 2001a. Conclusion In an effort to provide a comprehensive and coherent understanding of customers’ online shopping behavior. Pavlou. Devaraj et al. 2001a. This study develops a classification scheme of variables and assigns the variables investigated in 44 empirical studies to corresponding categories. These 26 .g.Satisfaction could significantly improve customers’ trust in and loyalty to an e-store and thus bring more transactions and profit into this store (Bhattacherjee. attitudes. and satisfaction. which is a key issue of e-CRM. Bhattacherjee. 2002.. Bhattacherjee. this paper identifies ten types of variables in this area. this study has investigated and synthesized representative quantitative empirical studies in the IS literature over the period of 1998 to 2003. and satisfaction based on the significant relationships amongst the ten types of variables verified in the empirical studies. 2001b). e-store characteristics. shopping behavior. Kim et al. This research framework provides a foundation for understanding customers’ online shopping behavior in a big picture. While a number of papers attempt to reveal antecedents of online customer satisfaction (e. 2002. affective reactions. consumer demographics. reactions. Through an analytical literature review.
27 . Nature and operation of attitudes. 52 (2001). I. and Fishbein. NJ: Prentice-Hall. This study also identifies where there might be gaps in the research stream and potential opportunities in future research. Ajzen. Common theoretical framework. and consistency in terminology are much needed to compare results across studies and to accumulate knowledge in this sub-field. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process. 179-211 Ajzen.findings would help the electronic store owners. In addition. and to design better e-commerce websites. we discover that customer satisfaction and affective reactions toward EC channel or specific e-stores have not been paid enough attention though they play fundamental roles in understanding customers’ online shopping behavior. The theory of planned behavior. In summary. widely-accepted instruments. I. e-commerce website designers. M. Thus they could attract more online transactions and establish more successful e-CRM. and other EC shareholders to target more appropriate consumer groups. 1980. By analyzing the variables under investigation in the empirical studies.. 27-58. we believe that the current study provides beneficial implications for both academic research and industry practice based on an insightful review of the existing work on consumer online shopping phenomena. we recognize important methodological issues in this research area. References Ajzen. to improve product and service quality. Annual Review of Psychology. 50 (1991). I. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs.
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who were business owners. Survey using questionnaire. Online survey. physical medium interface: n = 103. (2003) Gefen and Straub (2000) Gefen (2002) Gefen et al. Media vivid content presentation vs. (2001) IJEC Experiment Han and Noh (1999-2000) IJEC Survey 37 . employees. an online market research firm. 214 and 181 subjects respectively 202 MBA students at a US university Online book purchase. regular mail. (2000) Bhattacherjee (2001a) Bhattacherjee (2001b) Cao et al. students. 3 treatment conditions: 1. to determine the attributes of the sites studied. homemakers.180 respondents Using 1997's GVU data. f2f interview. people's opinions about general EC CACM ISR Experiment Field study Chen et al. (2002) Devaraj et al. (20032004) Chau et al. (2002) Devaraj et al.Appendix: Forty-four Papers examined in this study Authors (Year) Bellman et al. 2. subjects purchased similar products through conventional as well as EC channels and reported their experiences in a survey after each transaction 134 respondents Two computer lab usability tests utilizing vendors shopping trial demonstration software. Webbased physical-medium interface: n = 112. 10. 160 students subjects 213 responses. (2003) IM ISR CACM IJHCS Survey Experiment Experiment Experiment JAIS JAIS MISQ Experiment Survey Field study Griffith et al. 325 subjects. also use additional data from Gomez Advisors. (2002) Chen and Hitt (2002) Journal CACM CACM DSS MISQ IJEC Type Survey Survey Survey Survey Survey Description of study Using 1997's WVTM data. 645 respondents Online brokerage OLB user. using "clickstream" data on over 2000 individuals that utilize the 11 largest online broker sites provided by Media Metrix. Online replication content presentation vs.com (weekly average ratings of customer satisfaction ) and a databases of market-basket prices 2 identical experiments in US (119 subjects) and HK (150 subjects) Using web site traffic data to measure switching costs for online service providers. e-mail. simple random sampling from a finite population in Korea. 3. (2003) Featherman et al. 253 responses 134 subjects. 122 usable responses 122 online banking users Using data about 9 book e-tailers from BizRate. experienced online shoppers who were undergraduate and graduate business students at a leading business school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States Between-subjects research design. and others. Print content presentation vs. (1999) Bhatnagar et al. Web-based physical-medium interface: n = 121.
131 respondents of the first survey a week after their membership registration Longitudinal study consisting of 2 online surveys: 1410 and 705 responses. post-adoption. UK (44 subjects) 443 responses coming from randomly selected subscribers of a mailing list 2 studies: 1. financial service 214 online shoppers in Illinois Using 2 separate data sets of the 1997 GVU Center's Web Survey data. 172 and 67 subjects for each respectively In Korea. and faculty from a large university Online service . HK (150 subjects). 280 responses who were all new customers of the bookstore An e-commerce company. 312 responses 323 responses. 356 new members of an online knowledge community for electronic business practitioners. staffs. (2000) Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee (1998) Pavlou (2003) ISR IJEC IJEC JAIS DSS IM IM IM IM IJEC IJHCS ISR IJEC Survey Survey Survey Survey Survey Experiment Survey Survey Survey Survey Experiment Survey Survey Description of study 247 participants completed the survey. e-publishing web site North eastern of the United States. 2. recorded for the month the participants completed the questionnaire and 6 further months. respectively Ramaswami et al. (2000-2001) Ranganathan and Ganapathy (2002) Salam et al. search portal (3462 subjects). 2. 103 students subjects. (2003) Liang and Huang (1998) Liang and Lai (2002) Liao and Cheung (2001) Liao and Cheung (2002) Lu and Lin (2002) Luo and Seyedian (2003-2004) O’Keefe et al. 3987 and 5048 respondents. 4 domains: virtual mall (4644 subjects). undergraduate students in Hong Kong 5 products. three experiential exploratory surveys. 107 responses 2 rounds: 1. online survey using online consumers as population. respectively 2 consecutive experiments. 131 responses.Authors (Year) Henderson and Divett (2003) Journal IJHCS Type Field study Huang (2003) Khalifa and Liu (2003) Khalifa and Liu (2002-2003) Khalifa and Limayem (2003) Kim et al. 180 useful responses 3 experiments in 3 countries: US (122 subjects). Electronically recorded indicators of use in the form of deliveries. (2000) Kim et al. Singapore. 85 subjects familiar with the Internet 3 e-bookstores in Taiwan. (2003) IJEC IM CACM Survey Survey Survey 38 . (2002) IM JAIS IJEC Field study Survey Survey CACM IJHCS ISR Survey Experiment Survey Koufaris (2002) Koufaris et al. Two stages: at adoption. compare subjects' reactions in different shopping sites with different link structure. 30 trained subjects to assess objective features of architectural quality An online bookstore. 115 web users including students.online knowledge community. 30 student subjects Internet users in Singapore. 3 experts. 155 responses 154 respondents. online game (1991 subjects). purchase value and number of log-ons to the system. stock brokerage (6582 subjects). e-retail banking 145 undergraduate students in Taipei. 332 customers 405 subjects who were undergraduate students in Hong Kong 65 responses. (2001-2002) Lee and Turban (2001) Lee et al.
2. 502 responses Internet banking adoption. (2000) CACM IJEC JAIS IJEC Survey Survey Survey Survey Description of study 2 phases: 1. (2002) Suh and Han (2003) Tan and Teo (2000) Vellido et al.Authors (Year) Shim et al. 2001. 511 subjects ranging in age from 17 to 48 years old Internet banking adoption in Korea. Logistic regression (89 individual firms). 454 responses Using data from the 9th GVU's WWW user survey. "Internet Shopping (Part 1) Questionnaire". Singapore. Findings from Phase 1 were explored with quantitative methods in Phase 2. online questionnaire survey. 2180 subjects 39 . (2002) Journal JAIS Type Mixed Slyke et al. existential phenomenology (23 respondents).
the research uses an experimental design but no controls. (2002) Devaraj et al. is carried out in the natural settings of the phenomenon of interest.Table 1. involves experimental design but no experimental controls. controls for intervening variables. Survey: Involves large numbers of observations. (2003) Huang (2003) Bhattacherjee (2001) Lee et al. (2003) 2 3 40 . manipulates independent variable. conducted in controlled settings or in a natural setting of the phenomenon under study Field study: No manipulation of independent variables. Examples Chau et al. Quantitative Empirical Research Method ID 1 Method Name and Description Experiment: including lab and field experiments. (2002) Gefen et al.
Personality/trait. Objective features of e -stores. such as loyalty incentives’ availability. 2001-2002).2 Vendor characteristics Offering (product. including characteristics about the vendors. including during-sale and after-sale service such as network externality. 4.. reputation. Features of an e-store as a whole.. e.. Features of the service e-stores offer to support the B2C transaction process. product involvement (Koufaris et al. etc. efficiency. 2003) 4.1 4. need specificity. navigation/searching mechanisms. Features of the websites/technologies of e-stores. 2001) See below. including website structure. etc.g. experience. the existing legal framework. 2003) 4.. occupation (Chen and Hitt. offline competitors’ performance. specific retention strategy controlled by e-stores (Chen and Hitt. lifestyle.. accessibility. decision making aids. etc.. products/service for sale. household size. etc. product involvement. Examples Network speed (Liao et al. purpose of Internet use.1 Beliefs about EC channel An individual’s subjective evaluation of objects in B2C e-commerce context. An individual’s subjective evaluation of the Internet as a shopping channel in Content presentation (Griffith et al. network features. including age. Product price and quality (Devaraj et al. region. 2002) Minimum deposit required to open an account. household income. nationality. propensities. gender.ID 1 Category External environment 2 Consumer demographics 3 Personal characteristics Table 2. environmental 41 . technological complexity. government support for e-commerce. 2002). etc. quality). information presentation. product variety. income. return process. ego -related level. cost. security.5 E-store characteristics 5 Beliefs about online shopping 5. facilitating conditions (transaction efficiency). Classification Scheme for Variables Description Contextual factors that may impact online consumers’ behavior but are not under the control of either the consumers or the e-store vendors. expenditure level. Demographic information about customers. education..g.. Features of the products or services sold by e-stores.. It could be subjective evaluation of the Internet as a shopping channel or of a specific e -store or a specific online shopping experience. service on sale) characteristics None.4 Website/Technology characteristics 4. supporting services. Trust propensity (Lee and Turban. gender. e. Perceived risk (behavioral uncertainty. and websites/technologies. 2002) 4 E-store characteristics Need specificity. Store reputation (Devaraj et al. 2001). etc.3 Supporting service characteristics Return process (quick/simple) (Devaraj et al. knowledge. 2001) Age. value (price. etc. Ease of access of product information (measured by number of clicks to get certain information) (Shim et al. 2003) See below. Features of an e-store’s vendor.
g. the Internet as a shopping channel. Product quality (Lee et al. firmness. ease of use. 2003) See below. 42 .. perceived usefulness. perceived performance of the service.1 Affective reactions to EC channel Affective reactions to an estore / online shopping experience 6. 2003) See below. An individual’s overall subjective evaluation of an e-store that mixes beliefs about vendor..2. Perceived convenience of Internet shopping. convenience in purchasing (Lee et al. e. etc. An individual’s subjective evaluation of an e-store's website or relevant technologies.. 2002) Motivator of consumer purchases in terms of electronic store design quality (Liang and Lai. challenges. Perceived risk with vendor. An individual’s subjective evaluation of an electronic vendor. arousal. Examples uncertainty) (Pavlou. a specific e -store or online shopping experience. responsiveness. and website/technology associated with this store. etc. etc. product. website design quality.3 Beliefs about supporting service 5. risk. perceived risk with vendor. perceived ease of use.2 An individual’s subjective evaluation of a specific e -store or an online shopping experience.2. e. supporting service.. tangibility. including during-sale and after-sale service. empathy. perception of cost to switch vendors.4 Beliefs about website/technology 5. time saving. An individual’s subjective evaluation of the service an e-store offers to support the B2C transaction process. 2003). reliability. Includes customer’s trust toward vendor.2. assurance.2 Beliefs about offering (product. It refers to an individual’s primitive emotional reactions towards the Internet as a shopping channel. etc. perceived usefulness of products.2.2. 2003). and dominance. 5. Shopping enjoyment as a type of sociopsychological value (Lee et al. technical features. familiarity with vendor. It contains three dimensions.g. 2003) Perceived firmness (including internal stability and external security) (Kim et al. empathy (customer perceptions that the service provider is giving them individualized attention and has their best interests at heart) (Gefen. service on sale) 5. transaction cost.. convenience.6 6.2 Beliefs about an e-store / online shopping experience 5. An individual’s subjective evaluation of the products or services for sale in an estore. uncertainty.1 Beliefs about vendor 5.ID Category Table 2. 2000) See below.g. 2002) Perceived performance of online knowledge community at adoption (Khalifa and Liu. An individual’s primitive emotional reactions towards a specific e -store or a specific online shopping experience.2. pleasure. security. An individual’s overall subjective evaluation of a specific online shopping experience at a specific e -store An individual’s primitive emotional reactions towards objects in B2C ecommerce context. 2003) Time to receive product (Lee et al.. etc.. perceived financial risk of Internet shopping (providing credit card information through the web) (Bhatnagar et al. Classification Scheme for Variables Description terms of its usefulness.. trust. 2002) Cost reduction.5 Beliefs about an estore as a whole 6 Beliefs about specific online shopping experience Affective reactions 5. convenience.. e.
placing orders to buy products. including using the EC channel generally and using a specific e-store. neat. 8.4 6. 9 Shopping behavior Consumers’ actions of visiting/revisiting e-stores. 2002) See below.1 6. appealing.6 Affective reactions to specific online shopping experience An individual’s primitive emotional reactions towards a specific shopping experience at a specific e -store An individual’s positive or negative feelings about performing online shopping behavior. service on for sale in an e-store. Customer loyalty (Lu and Lin. 2002) See below. interesting) (Griffith et al.1 Attitudes to using EC channel generally Attitudes to using a specific estore 7. An individual’s primitive emotional reactions towards an e-store as a whole. An individual’s primitive emotional reactions towards an e-store's website or relevant technologies.2.2.3 6. 2002). An individual’s positive or negative feelings about using the Internet as a shopping channel An individual’s positive or negative feelings about performing online shopping behavior at a specific e-store. Affective reactions An individual’s primitive emotional to offering (e. 7 Attitudes to online shopping behavior Entertainment (perceived entertainment value of the site) (O’Keefe et al. fun. 7.2. or signing contracts to accept and use 43 .2 Table 2. 2000) Customer attitude toward the e-publishing site (operationalized as students' positive feelings towards repetitive use of the site) (Lu and Lin.2 Intention to shop at a specific e-store Consumers’ willingness to re/visit or re/purchases at a specific e-store.g. 2001) None.1 Intention to shop online generally Consumers’ willingness to shop online in general or at a specific e -store. 2002) See below. reactions towards the products or services product. Classification Scheme for Variables Description Affective reactions An individual’s primitive emotional to vendor reactions towards an electronic vendor.2 8 Intention to shop online 8. sale) Affective reactions to supporting service An individual’s primitive emotional reactions towards the service an e-store offers to support the B2C transaction process. 2000) Emotions experienced in a virtual shopping environment (including 3 dimensions: arousal. Examples None. 6. not limited to a specific e-store. etc.5 Affective reactions to website / technology Affective reactions to an e-store as a whole 6. including during-sale and aftersale service. Attitude toward using online banking generally (Tan and Teo.ID Category 6.. 1998) Willingness to purchase / visit again / purchase again at a specific store (Liang and Lai. pleasure. fun) (Koufaris.2.2. Consumer involvement with retailers’ offerings (exciting. and dominance) (Huang. 2003) Shopping enjoyment (reflects the customer experience at the video store: interesting.2. Acceptance of electronic channel (intention to purchase a particular product electronically) (Liang and Huang. Consumers’ willingness to use the Internet as a shopping channel in general..
delivery process... 1999-2000) See below.. Not limited to a specific e store. 20032004) Customer satisfaction with a specific Internet business (estore) (Kim et al. 10 Satisfaction 10. 2001b) 10.3 Satisfaction with vendor Satisfaction with offering (product.2. Examples Frequency of e-commerce experience (Han and Noh. placing orders to buy products or signing contracts to accept and use services at a specific e -store.2 Shopping at a specific e -store Consumers’ visiting/revisiting e-stores. return process. Customer satisfaction with the products or services for sale in an e-store Customer satisfaction with the service supporting the transactions offered by an e-store. etc. Frequency of purchasing financial products online (not limited to a financial agent specifically) (Ramaswami et al. 2002) See below. 1981) Summary of psychological state resulting from disconfirmation /confirmation of a customer's expectations about the Internet as a shopping channel by his/her evaluation of online shopping experience. 20032004) Satisfaction with ordering process (Cao et al. 1999-2000). 2002) Satisfaction with overall experience of using an online banking division of one of the largest national banks in the US (Bhattacherjee. Shopping online generally Consumers’ actions of visiting/revisiting e-stores. placing orders to buy products or signing contract to accept services via the Internet.4 Satisfaction with website/technology Satisfaction with an e-store as a whole Satisfaction with a specific online shopping experience 10.5 10.. Customer satisfaction with an e-store's owner. 9. 2003-2004) Satisfaction with fulfillment process (Cao et al. e.2 10. None. Summary of psychological state resulting from the extent to which a consumers’ evaluation of an overall online shopping experience/e-store confirms his/her expectations. service on sale) Satisfaction with supporting service Summary of the psychological state resulting when the emotion surrounding disconfirmed expectations is coupled with the consumer’s prior feelings about the consumption experience (Oliver. 2002). Classification Scheme for Variables Description services. Switching (a change of the major brokerage firm by a customer) (Chen and Hitt. not with a specific aspect such as product or website Customer satisfaction with overall experience of patronizing an e-store Satisfaction with general EC experience (Han and Noh.2.ID Category 9.2. Price satisfaction (Cao et al. Customer satisfaction with the characters of an e-store's website or other features related to technology Customer satisfaction with an e-store as a whole.1 Table 2.2 Satisfaction with an e-store /online shopping experience 10..6 44 ..2.2.1 10.g.1 Satisfaction with EC channel 10.2. 20002001) Frequency of using a virtual store (Chen et al..
1 Shopping online generally 9.5 Affective reactions to an e-store as a whole 6.5 Beliefs about an e-store as a whole 5.2.3 Supporting service characteristics 4.2 Offering (product.2 Shopping at a specific e-store Satisfaction 10.2 Affective reactions to offering (product.1 Beliefs about vendor 5.1 Affective reactions to EC channel 6.2.6 Affective reactions to a specific online shopping experience Attitudes to online shopping behavior 7.2.4 Beliefs about website/technology 18.104.22.168.2 Beliefs about an e-store / online shopping experience 5.2 Satisfaction with an e-store / online shopping experience 10.2.Table 3.5 E-store characteristics Beliefs about online shopping 5. Variables Investigated in the Collection ID 1 2 3 4 Category External environment Demographics Personal characteristics E-store characteristics 4. service on sale) 5. service on sale) 6.1 Satisfaction with EC channel 10.2 Beliefs about offering (product. service on sale) characteristics 4.3 Beliefs about supporting service 5.1 Affective reactions to vendor 6.1 Intention to shop online generally 8.1 Vendor characteristics 4.3 Affective reactions to supporting service 6.4 Affective reactions to website/technology 22.214.171.124 Beliefs about an online shopping experience Affective reactions 6.1 Beliefs about EC channel 5.2.2 Attitudes to using a specific e-store Intention to shop online 8.1 Attitudes to using EC channel generally 7.4 Website/Technology characteristics 4.2.2 Intention to shop at a specific e-store Shopping behavior 9.1 Satisfaction with vendor Variable type IV IV IV IV # of papers examining this variable 7 15 12 13 0 6 2 7 6 38 13 30 8 8 0 15 8 5 5 IV/DV 6 IV/DV 10 1 9 0 1 0 3 2 3 7 IV/DV 8 DV/IV 9 DV 10 DV/IV 5 2 3 26 7 19 14 9 7 12 4 9 0 45 .2 Affective reactions to an e-store / online shopping experience 6.2.2.
service on sale) 10.3 Satisfaction with supporting service 10.2. DV – Dependent variable. Total # of papers in the collection: 44. IV – Independent variable.6 Satisfaction with a specific online shopping experience Variable type # of papers examining this variable 1 0 1 1 8 Note: 1.2 Satisfaction with offering (e.2.5 Satisfaction with an e-store as a whole 10. 46 .2.4 Satisfaction with website/technology 10. Variables Investigated in the Collection ID Category 10.Table 3.g. product.2.2. 2.
Variables Investigated in Each Study 47 X X X X X X X X . (2002) Devaraj et al. (2003) Gefen and Straub (2000) Gefen (2002) Gefen et al.2 Shopping at a specific e-store X X 10.1 Affective reactions to EC channel X X X X X 6.2 satisfaction with an estore/shopping experience Table 4. (2000) Bhattacherjee (2001) Bhattacherjee (2001) Cao et al. (2003-2004) Chau et al.2 Beliefs about an estore/shopping experience X X X 6.Authors (Year) Bellman et al. (1999) Bhatnagar et al.5 E-store characteristics X X X 5.2 Offering characteristics 4. (2002) Devaraj et al.2 Intention to shop at a specific e-store X X X X X 9. (2003) Griffith et al. (2001) Han and Noh (1999-2000) Henderson and Divett (2003) Huang (2003) Khalifa and Liu (2003) Khalifa and Liu (2002-2003) Khalifa and Limayem (2003) Kim et al.3 Supporting service characteristics 4.2 Attitude to using a specific estore X X X 8.1 Vendor characteristics 4.4 Website/Technology characteristics 4.1 Beliefs about EC channel X X X X X X X 5. (2003) Featherman et al. (2002) Chen and Hitt (2002) Chen et al.1 Purchasing online generally X X X 9.2 Affective reactions to an estore/ shopping experience 7. (2000) Kim et al.1 Attitude to using EC channel generally X X 7. (2002) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1 External environment 2 Demographics 3 Personal characteristics/ disposition 4.1 Intention to shop online generally X X X X X X X X X X 8.1 Satisfaction with EC channel X X X X X X X 10.
5 E-store characteristics X X X X 5.2 Affective reactions to an estore/ shopping experience X 7.1 Beliefs about EC channel X X X X X X X X X X X 5.1 Attitude to using EC channel generally X X 7.1 Affective reactions to EC channel X X X X 6.2 Offering characteristics 4. (2001-2002) Lee and Turban (2001) Lee et al.2 Intention to shop at a specific e-store X X X X 9. (2003) Liang and Huang (1998) Liang and Lai (2002) Liao and Cheung (2001) Liao and Cheung (2002) Lu and Lin (2002) Luo and Seyedian (2003-2004) O’Keefe et al.2 Beliefs about an estore/shopping experience X X 6.Slyke et al. (2003) Shim et al.2 satisfaction with an estore/shopping experience X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Koufaris (2002) Koufaris et al.1 Vendor characteristics X X 4.3 Supporting service characteristics 4. (2000) Authors (Year) X X X X 1 External environment X X X 2 Demographics 3 Personal characteristics/ disposition X X X 4.2 Shopping at a specific e-store X X 10.1 Satisfaction with EC channel X X 10.1 Purchasing online generally X X X X 9. (2002) Suh and Han (2003) Tan and Teo (2000) Vellido et al. (2002) Table 4. (2000-2001) Ranganathan and Ganapathy (2002) Salam et al.1 Intention to shop online generally X X X X X X X X X 8. Variables Investigated in Each Study 48 X X X X X X .4 Website/Technology characteristics X 4.2 Attitude to using a specific estore X X X X 8. (2000) Parthasarathy and Bhattacherjee (1998) Pavlou (2003) Ramaswami et al.
Supporting service .to an e-store / online shopping experience Shopping behavior .about an e-store / online shopping experience Intention . A Refined Model 49 .Website/technology .Vendor .with EC channel .E-store as a whole Affective reactions .about EC channel .Offering .with an e-store / online shopping experience Figure 2.to shop online generally .at a specific e-store Attitudes . Research Framework of Online Customer Behavior External Environment Beliefs .online general .External Environment Beliefs Intention to shop online Individual characteristics Affective reactions Online shopping behavior E-store characteristics Attitudes toward online shopping behavior Customer satisfaction Figure 1.to EC channel .to shop at a specific e-store Demographics Personal characteristics E-store characteristics .to shopping at a specific e-store satisfaction .to using EC channel generally .
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