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Migration to Germany

Introduction

Over the years, migration has become an ongoing and disputable issue throughout the world. Migration is defined by Lee (as cited in Paul 2002: 148) as the physical movement of people within and between social systems, which may be short or long- distance, voluntary or involuntary, permanent or temporary. This study deals with the economic and social effects of international migration on Germany, which required a labour force in the 1960s and opened its doors to Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. In particular, the impact of Turkish population in Germany, which is the second largest ethnic group after Germans, will be discussed.

Turkey is a developing and fast growing country and an associate member of EEC (European Economic Community) that a common market allow employees from a country to another member country to work. This essay deals with the issue of labour migration. According to news of Ntvmsnbc (Acknowledging your Sources, n.d.), Germany requires skilled labourer these days, and German employment institution and Turkish employment institution will congregate and discuss about worker number and their qualification at 14th of October 2011. As a consequence of this news, the issue of migration to Germany has reawakened and discussed between two countries, although, the positive effects on immigration overweigh the detrimental effects. In the light of this information, in order to ground the discussion, the concept of international migration and the historical process of the recruitment of workers in Germany will be examined in general in the first part. Secondly, it will analyze the economic and social impacts of international migration on Germany by

especially giving Turkish emigrants example. Finally, it will be compared that the former immigration effects on Germany and argued the possible effects on this country.

Concept of International Migration and Recruitment of Labour in Germany

Throughout the world international migration has become an important issue between states that the UN data demonstrated (2005) almost 190 million people are living as a migrant outside their countries. Because of being an international issue the migrants right has been protected by Global commission of international migration (GCIM) that is responsible for setting out migration policies and regulating migration into countries (Martin & Martin, 2006).

After the World War II, Germany has become an attractive destination for immigrants as the other industrialized countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. It is probably not only because of being a developed country but also destruction of Germany after the war. Moreover, it could be the requirement of young population and cheap labour. In 1950s, the migration to Germany has started. The first bilateral agreement was signed between Italy and Germany in 1955, following Greece in 1960. Subsequently, organised Turkish labour emigration started with the agreement 1961 between two states (Martin, 1991).

As a consequence of these agreements the population of immigrants in this country has increased from the middle of 20th century to today. According to statistics, more than 16 million immigrants including first and second generation are living in Germany. One fourth of immigrants are comprised by Turkish immigrants. The German Embassy (2010)

demonstrated that there are approximately 3.5 million Turkish people living in Germany, although other estimations propose that more than 4 million Turkish people are living there and they are known as German Turks.

Economic and social consequences of migration on Germany

Over the decades, the emigrants seem to be well adapted both economically and socially to Germany. They support the growth of German economy by working entire sectors and public services with low salaries. It is true that they are willing to work for low wages in the heavy works. Thus, the German companies gain more profit by paying low wages. It leads to companies to invest these profits on another working area that decreases the unemployment rate in this country and bring prosperity. Furthermore, the immigrants have been living for years in Germany and lose their connection with families in the origin countries. It is likely to be guaranteed that the German economy does not lose substantially money because of remittances. On the contrary, they attempt to invest on German economy by means of creating new job areas or establishing new companies. Take for example, a dairy product company, called Gazi, are run by Turkish and German shareholders. This company not only offers an employment opportunity to Germans but also contribute to sports club by being sponsor for VfB Stuttgart football club.

Although anti- immigration lobbies claim that the immigration destruct the social life and culture, principally that is not what it looks like. People of different national origins who have different way of life, languages, and religions have got unique contact with each other. It is possible to create cosmopolitan urban centres which are dynamic and innovative. They contribute to diversify of culture with their various food culture, music and sports. There are

number of restaurants from world cuisine in Germany thanks to immigrants. The significant example from football is that many foreign born players who are the descendants of migrants are playing for German National Team such as Mario Gomes originally from Spain, Mesut Ozil and Serdar Tasci originally from Turkey. It shows that they are well adapted to social life of this country and sweating over for Germany`s achievement and reputation.

Conclusion In conclusion, ever so migration is a controversial issue in Germany; it appears that emigrants have brought many advantages socially and economically to this country that the German government require skilled workers for many areas from Turkey. It is possible that these skilled workers may not be ordinary workers; they will probably become entrepreneur for Germany. It will lead to contribute to Germany financially and may be socially in the future.

Bibliography

Lee, A. (2011). [Lecture notes]. Centre for Lifelong Learning. 10 September 2011, Lecture to Celt, University of York.

Martin, P.L. (1991). The unfinished story: Turkish labour migration to Western Europe [online]. Geneva: International Labour Office. Available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=1ax8pkk6CcwC&printsec=frontcover&hl=tr&source=gbs _ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Martin, P. & Martin, S. (2006). GCIM: A New Global Migration Facility. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ntvmsnbc (n.d.). Acknowledging your sources. Available at: http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/id/25251329 [Accessed 17 September 2011].