Vaughn Roy L.




is a serious infection or inflammation of one or both lungs.

Description: is caused by the inhalation of infected microorganisms (tiny, single-celled living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa) spread through contact with an infected person. The microorganisms enter the body through the mouth, nose and eyes. If the body's resistance is down, the natural process of fighting off diseases is weakened and the microorganisms are free to spread into the lungs and the lungs' air sacs. The air sacs become filled with fluid and pus from the infectious agent, making it more difficult for the body to get the oxygen it needs, and the person may become sick. Potential complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion (fluid around the lung), empyema (pus in the pleural cavity), hyponatremia (low blood sodium) and rarely, an abscess in the lung.

Causes of Pneumonia: Bacterial pneumonia: Pneumonia-causing bacteria is present in many throats, but when the body's defenses are weakened (for example, by illness, old age, malnutrition or impaired immunity) the bacteria can multiply, working its way into the lungs, inflaming the air sacs and filling the lungs with liquid and pus. The bacteria that cause bacterial pneumonia are streptococcus pneumonia (resulting in lobar pneumonia), hemophilus influenza (resulting in bronchopneumonia), legionella pneumophilia (resulting in Legionnaires' disease) and staphylococcus aureus. Viral pneumonia: Half of all pneumonias are believed to be caused by viruses, such as influenza (flu), adenovirus, coxsackievirus, chickenpox, measles, cytomegalovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. These viruses invade the lungs and multiply. Mycoplasmal pneumonia (also called "walking pneumonia"): Similar to bacterial pneumonia, the mycoplasmas multiply and spread, causing infection. Some of the other pneumonia-related disorders are aspiration pneumonia, chlamydial pneumonia, Loffler's syndrome, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pediatric pneumonia and necrotizing pneumonia.

Symptoms of Pneumonia: Symptoms vary, depending on the type of pneumonia and the individual.

the person may experience: Shaking. breathlessness. the doctor may perform a procedure called a bronchoscopy. cough that produces rustcolored or greenish mucus. rapid breathing. The breathing passages can then be directly examined by the doctor and specimens from the infected part of the lung can be obtained. mental confusion. where fluid and pus has accumulated in the lung's air sacs. fatigue. The sputum grain stain and the blood test may determine the cause and severity of the condition. nasal flaring. headache. sweating. muscle pain and weakness. anxiety. chills. feeling ill. a sputum gram stain and a blood test. fever. vomiting. the person may experience: violent coughing attacks. - Regardless of the type of pneumonia. muscle aches. rash. By placing a stethoscope on the chest. the person may also experience the following symptoms: a loss in appetite. These flu-like symptoms may be followed within one or two days by: increasing breathlessness. abdominal pain Diagnosis of Pneumonia: To diagnose pneumonia. wheezing and/or the breathing may be faint in a particular area of the chest. the doctor may order a chest x-ray. a flexible. stress and tension. nausea. bluish color to the lips - With mycoplasma pneumonia. chattering teeth. rapid pulse rate - With viral pneumonia. dry cough. slow heartbeat. diarrhea.Vaughn Roy L. The chest x-ray may show a blotchywhite area. Chua With bacterial pneumonia. chills. Additionally. dry cough becomes worse and produces a small amount of mucus. coarse breathing. very high fever. severe chest pain. If these tests are inconclusive. higher fever. - . In this procedure. bluish color to lips and nailbeds. the person may experience: Fever. clammy skin. the doctor may be able to hear crackling sounds. the doctor begins with a medical history and physical examination. thin and lit viewing tube is inserted into the nose or mouth after a local anesthetic is administered. joint and muscle stiffness.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is often treated with antibiotics. Mucus production is increased. The patient breathes faster and faster. If the lungs become infected with a secondary bacterial infection. ampicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin) and erythromycin. The patient becomes relatively oxygen deprived. A majority of sufferers recover completely within a few weeks. in an effort to bring in more oxygen and blow off more carbon dioxide. tetracycline or azithromycin (Zithromax). This type of pneumonia usually resolves over time. and trimethoprim-sulfanethoxazole (Bactrim and Septra). in part. cough suppressants. pain relievers and fever reducers. ofloxacin (Floxin). the general health of the person and how promptly medical attention was obtained. Recovery time depends upon the organism involved. therapeutic coughing. - - - - Pathophysiology of Pneumonia: The invading organism causes symptoms. oxygen therapy and artificial ventilation may be required. Viral pneumonia does not respond to antibiotic treatment. and protein-rich fluid seeps into the alveoli. breathing exercises. and the leaky capillaries may tinge the mucus with blood. Mucus plugs actually further decrease the efficiency of gas exchange .Vaughn Roy L. This results in a less functional area for oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange. ampicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin). In severe cases. Bacterial pneumonia (caused by legionella pneumophilia and staphylococcus aureus bacteria) are treated with antibiotics. such as cefuroxime (Ceftin). Chua Treatment of Pneumonia: Treatment depends on the severity of symptoms and the type of organism causing the infection. such as erythromycin. Bacterial pneumonia (caused by the hemophilus influenza bacteria) is treated with antibiotics. clarithromycin (Biaxin). with residual coughing persisting between six and eight weeks after the infection has gone. The small blood vessels in the lungs (capillaries) become leaky. Bacterial pneumonia (caused by the streptococcus pneumonia bacteria) is often treated with penicillin. such as erythromycin. while retaining potentially damaging carbon dioxide. In addition to the pharmaceutical intervention. such as aspirin (not for children) or acetaminophen. the doctor will also recommend bedrest. plenty of fluids. by provoking an overly exuberant immune response in the lungs. the doctor will prescribe an appropriate antibiotic to eliminate the bacterial infection. proper diet. The course of pneumonia varies.

Vaughn Roy L. which are normally hollow air spaces within the lung. Chua in the lung. due to quantities of fluid and debris. These types of pneumonia primarily infect the walls of the alveoli and the parenchyma of the lung. a feature of bacterial pneumonias. occurs when the alveoli. do not result in consolidation. instead become solid. Consolidation. . Viral pneumonias. The alveoli fill further with fluid and debris from the large number of white blood cells being produced to fight the infection. and mycoplasma pneumonias.